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NAG acidosis

Sherifa Ahmed Hamed
Long-term use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is associated with number of somatic conditions. Data from experimental, cross-sectional and prospective studies have evidence for the deleterious effect of some AEDs on the kidney. Areas covered: This review summarized the current knowledge of the effect of AEDs on the kidney including evidence and mechanisms. Fanconi syndrome was reported with valproate (VPA) therapy in severely disabled children with epilepsy. Renal tubular acidosis and urolithiasis were reported with acetazolamide, topirmate and zonisamide, drugs with carbonic anhydrase inhibition properties...
September 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Claudio Bazzi, Elena Tagliabue, Sara Raimondi, Virginia Rizza, Daniela Casellato, Masaomi Nangaku
Metabolic acidosis correction in advanced renal failure slows renal function decline attributed to tubulointerstitial damage (TID) reduction. No study evaluated if spontaneous baseline high urinary pH (UpH) is renoprotective in patients with normal renal function and without metabolic acidosis. The study tested this hypothesis in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). Eighty-five patients (follow-up 81 ± 54 months) measured UpH, serum creatinine, eGFR, protein/creatinine ratio, fractional excretion of albumin, IgG, α1-microglobulin, and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (β-NAG)/creatinine ratio...
2015: International Journal of Nephrology
Keiichi Torimoto, Yosuke Okada, Tadashi Arao, Hiroko Mori, Yoshiya Tanaka
A 54-year-old female underwent mastectomy in 1992 for breast cancer, but later developed liver metastasis in 2004, which was treated with docetaxel for a short period, and then discontinued due to nausea. Bone metastasis diagnosed in 2005 was treated with the combination of trastuzumab and zoledronate (4 mg/month) as well as radiotherapy. Progressive hypokalemia and renal dysfunction were observed since 2006 and the patient was admitted to our department in 2009 for further management of hypokalemia (serum potassium 2...
2012: Endocrine Journal
Chanchai Boonla, Phantip Youngjermchan, Somkiat Pumpaisanchai, Kriang Tungsanga, Piyaratana Tosukhowong
We investigated contents and classes of urinary and stone matrix lipids, and evaluated their clinical relevance in nephrolithiasis patients. Lithogenic role of major lipid classes was explored. Urine (24 h) and stone samples were collected from 47 patients with nephrolithiasis. Control urines were obtained from 29 healthy subjects. Urinary 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), malondialdehyde (MDA), N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity and total proteins were measured. Total lipids were extracted from centrifuged urines (10,000 rpm, 30 min) and stones by chloroform/methanol method...
February 2011: Urological Research
M Zahmatkesh, M Kadkhodaee, B Seifi, S Shams
BACKGROUND: Cyclosporine (CsA) is known to cause metabolic and distal tubular acidosis. There is some evidence that CsA reduces net HCO(3)(-) absorption. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether bicarbonate administration prevented CsA-induced functional or structural nephrotoxicity. METHODS: Seven days after uninephrectomy, 20 rats were divided into 4 groups. NaHCO(3) (0.28 mol/L) was added in drinking water for 7 days, whereas control rats received regular tap water...
September 2009: Transplantation Proceedings
S Olgar, F Oktem, A Dindar, A Kilbas, U D Turkoglu, H Cetin, I Altuntas, R Yilmaz, E Uz, T Ertugrul, R Omeroglu, U Aydogan
Substance misuse among street children is a significant problem in developing countries. Volatile substances are the most abused agents. According to case reports, chronic renal diseases are common among substance-abusing street children. In this study, we examined the renal findings of 42 volatile substance-abusing street children and compared them with results from 49 healthy children (control). The street children's weight, height, and blood pressure were lower than the controls' (P < 0.05). However, their blood alkaline phosphatase and creatinine phosphokinase levels were higher (P < 0...
June 2008: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Ashraf O Rashid, Hamad M Azam, Vincent A DeBari, Adel I Blamoun, Mahmoud Q Moammar, M Anees Khan
Metabolic acidosis secondary to lactic acidosis may occur in acute, severe asthma and its presence suggests that respiratory muscle fatigue and tissue hypoxia play a major part in the pathogenesis. Non-anion gap metabolic acidosis (NAG acidosis) has also been reported in acute asthma but its impact on the clinical outcome has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of NAG acidosis, characterize the laboratory findings, and determine its impact on clinical outcomes. Acid-base and electrolyte status and clinical outcomes were examined over a 1-yr (2005 calendar yr) period in 109 adult patients (38 males, 71 females; age range 21 to 91 yr) hospitalized for asthma exacerbation...
2008: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Xiao-Hui Zhuang, Ying Mo, Xiao-Yun Jiang, Shu-Mei Chen
BACKGROUND: Since the diverse manifestations of renal impairment appear in different periods of Wilson's disease, misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis is not rare. This study was undertaken to find the clinical features of renal impairment in children with Wilson's disease or hepatolenticular degeneration (HLD). METHODS: Eighty-five children with HLD who had been treated at our department between January 1991 and June 2006 were retrospectively studied. The clinical data of 25 patients with renal impairment were analyzed...
May 2008: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
S Jones, C A B Reed, S Vijay, J H Walter, A A M Morris
Hyperammonaemia is common in neonates with branched-chain organic acidaemias, primarily due to the inhibition of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) synthetase; NAG is an activator for carbamylphosphate synthetase I, the first enzyme of the urea cycle. N-Carbamylglutamate, a NAG analogue, has been reported to correct hyperammonaemia in neonates with organic acidaemias. It is, however, uncertain how the ammonia concentrations in these neonates would have progressed without the drug. We report a neonate with propionic acidaemia, whose plasma ammonia concentration responded dramatically to N-carbamylglutamate, having previously been over 950 μmol/L for 33 h...
December 2008: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Giordano Stabellini, Ernesto Minola, Claudia Dolci, Claudia Moscheni, Carla Calastrini, Eleonora Lumare, Gianluca Tartaglia, Francesco Carinci, Maurizio Vertemati
Normal bone homeostasis involves a balance between osteoblast and osteoclast action, regulated by hormones and cytokine stimuli. Hemodialysis patients appear to have increased production of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in serum. IL-1 plays a role in the synthesis, degradation and degree of sulphatation of ECM components such as glycosaminoglycans. Also, continuous changes in the ECM involve enzymes such as beta-N-acetyl-d-glucosaminidase (beta-NAG) and beta-d-glucuronidase (beta-GLU) which act on different GAG classes and collagen fibers...
December 2007: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Trevor Green, Jacky Dow, John Foster
The chronic toxicity of trichloroethanol, a major metabolite of trichloroethylene, has been assessed in male Fischer rats (60 per group) given trichloroethanol in drinking water at concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 g/l for 52 weeks. The rats excreted large amounts of formic acid in urine reaching a maximum after 12 weeks ( approximately 65 mg/24 h at 1 g/l) and thereafter declining to reach an apparent steady state at 40 weeks (15-20 mg/24 h). Urine from treated rats was more acidic throughout the study and urinary methylmalonic acid and plasma N-methyltetrahydrofolate concentrations were increased, indicating an acidosis, vitamin B12 deficiency and impaired folate metabolism, respectively...
September 30, 2003: Toxicology
R Rustom, J S Grime, R A Sells, A Amara, M J Jackson, A Shenkin, P Maltby, L Smith, A Hammad, M Brown, J M Bone
Chronic vascular rejection (CR) is the commonest cause of renal transplant loss, with few clues to etiology, but proteinuria is a common feature. In diseased native kidneys, proteinuria and progression to failure are linked. We proposed a pathogenic role for this excess protein at a tubular level in kidney diseases of dissimilar origin. We demonstrated in both nephrotic patients with normal function and in those with failing kidneys increased renal tubular catabolism and turnover rates of a peptide marker, Aprotinin (Apr), linked to increased ammonia excretion and tubular injury...
May 2001: Renal Failure
K Aasarød, H J Haga, K J Berg, J Hammerstrøm, S Jørstad
Renal involvement was evaluated in 62 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome, classified according to criteria proposed by The European Classification Criteria Group. Urine concentration capacity was tested using intranasal 1-desamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin. For patients with urine pH>5.5 without metabolic acidosis (n=28), an acidification test with ammonium chloride was performed. Urinary citrate, albumin, NAG, ALP and beta2-microglobulin were measured and creatinine clearance was calculated. Maximum urine concentration capacity and creatinine clearance were reduced in 13 (21%)...
May 2000: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
E W Carney, N L Freshour, D A Dittenber, M D Dryzga
This study sought to determine the relative roles of glycolic acid (GA), a toxicologically important metabolite of ethylene glycol (EG), and metabolic acidosis in causing developmental toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. To tease apart these two interrelated factors, we developed an experimental approach in which high blood glycolate levels could be achieved, in either the presence or absence of metabolic acidosis. Initially, rats previously implanted with a carotid artery cannula were given, on gestation day (gd) 10, 40...
July 1999: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
R Rustom, J S Grime, M Costigan, P Maltby, A Hughes, W Taylor, A Shenkin, M Critchley, J M Bone
Oral sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is widely used to treat acidosis in patients with renal failure. However, no data are available in man on the effects on proximal renal tubular protein catabolism or markers of tubular injury. We have developed methods to allow such studies, and both increased tubular catabolism of 99mTc-labelled aprotinin (Apr*), as well as tubular damage were found in association with increased ammonia (NH3) excretion in patients with nephrotic range proteinuria. We now examine the effects of reducing renal ammoniogenesis, without altering proteinuria, using oral NaHCO3 in 11 patients with mild/moderate renal impairment and proteinuria...
March 1998: Renal Failure
A M Koivusalo, I Kellokumpu, S Ristkari, L Lindgren
UNLABELLED: Carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum together with an increased intraabdominal pressure (IAP) induces a hemodynamic stress response, diminishes urine output, and may compromise splanchnic perfusion. A new retractor method may be less traumatic. Accordingly, 30 ASA physical status I or II patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to a CO2 pneumoperitoneum (IAP 12-13 mm Hg) (control) or to a gasless abdominal wall lift method (retractor) group...
October 1997: Anesthesia and Analgesia
I Nissim, M Yudkoff, J T Brosnan
We have utilized both [5-15N]glutamine and [3-13C] pyruvate as metabolic tracers in order to: (i) examine the effect of pH, glucagon (GLU), or insulin on the precursor-product relationship between 15NH3, [15N]citrulline, and, thereby, [15N]urea synthesis and (ii) elucidate the mechanism(s) by which pyruvate stimulates [15N] urea synthesis. Hepatocytes isolated from rat were incubated at pH 6.8, 7.4, or 7.6 with 1 mM [5-15N]glutamine and 0.1 mM 14NH4Cl in the presence or the absence of [3-13C] pyruvate (2 mM)...
December 6, 1996: Journal of Biological Chemistry
P Eriksson, T Denneberg, L Larsson, F Lindström
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is characterized by an inflammatory process in the salivary and lacrimal glands, but the kidneys may also be involved. Renal tubular functions were studied in 27 patients with SS, all females, age 37-78. Both SS-patients with and without known distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) were included, dRTA was found in 18/27 (67%), impaired urine concentrating ability in 13/27 (48%). Hypocitraturia was identified in 20/27 (74%) and reduced tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TRP%) in 18/27 (67%)...
December 1995: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
M A Abdalla, Z A Taleb, M H Ebid
An outbreak of infectious influenza was recognized in Menofeia governorate in October 1989. Eight naturally influenza infected as well as 8 healthy control horses, mules and donkeys were selected for collection of blood and sera separation to estimate four lysosomal enzymatic activities and to describe the clinical findings, which were fever, congested nasal, conjunctival membranes and cough. Bronchopneumonia followed later with bilateral purulent nasal discharge as a complication in 2 donkeys. Thereafter laboured breathing occurred...
April 1993: DTW. Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift
H A Al-Bander, D M Mock, S B Etheredge, T T Paukert, M H Humphreys, R C Morris
During the acute renal tubular dysfunction of Fanconi syndrome and type 2 renal tubular acidosis (FS/RTA2) induced by maleic acid in the unanesthetized dog, we observed: 30 minutes after the onset of FS/RTA2, the urinary excretion of lysosomal enzymes, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG), beta-glucuronidase (beta-gluc) and beta-galactosidase (beta-galac), increased simultaneously with the anticipated increase in renal clearance of lysozyme; the severities of all these hyperenzymurias increased rapidly, progressively, and in parallel, all reaching a peak some 60 to 80 minutes after their onset; thereafter, while the FS/RTA2 continued undiminished in severity, the severity of the hyperenzymurias decreased rapidly, greatly, progressively, and in parallel; and sodium phosphate loading strikingly attenuated the FS/RTA2 and the hyperenzymurias...
December 1986: Kidney International
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