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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770360/biomarkers-associated-with-death-after-initiating-treatment-for-tuberculosis-and-hiv-in-patients-with-very-low-cd-4-cells
#1
Fred R Sattler, Daniel Chelliah, Xingye Wu, Alejandro Sanchez, Michelle A Kendall, Evelyn Hogg, David Lagat, Umesh Lalloo, Valdilea Veloso, Diane V Havlir, Alan Landay
Background: The risk of short-term death for treatment naive patients dually infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV may be reduced by early anti-retroviral therapy. Of those dying, mechanisms responsible for fatal outcomes are unclear. We hypothesized that greater malnutrition and/or inflammation when initiating treatment are associated with an increased risk for death. Methods: We utilized a retrospective case-cohort design among participants of the ACTG A5221 study who had baseline CD4 < 50 cells/mm3 ...
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764762/analysis-of-plasma-albumin-vitamin-d-and-apolipoproteins-a-and-b-as-predictive-coronary-risk-biomarkers-in-the-regicor-study
#2
Gabriel Vázquez-Oliva, Alberto Zamora, Rafel Ramos, Isaac Subirana, María Grau, Irene R Dégano, Daniel Muñoz, Montserrat Fitó, Roberto Elosua, Jaume Marrugat
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: New biomarkers could improve the predictive capacity of classic risk functions. The aims of this study were to determine the association between circulating levels of apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), apolipoprotein B (apoB), albumin, and 25-OH-vitamin D and coronary events and to analyze whether these biomarkers improve the predictive capacity of the Framingham-REGICOR risk function. METHODS: A case-cohort study was designed. From an initial cohort of 5404 individuals aged 35 to 74 years with a 5-year follow-up, all the participants who had a coronary event (n = 117) and a random group of the cohort (subcohort; n = 667) were selected...
May 12, 2018: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761374/the-prognostic-role-of-hbv-infection-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#3
Jin-Hua Liang, Rui Gao, Jun-Cheng Dai, Robert Peter Gale, Wang Li, Lei Fan, Zhi-Bin Hu, Wei Xu, Jian-Yong Li
PURPOSE: We attempt to assess the impact of hepatis-B virus (HBV) status on the prognosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) using a Chinese case cohort. METHODS: Five hundred and one consecutive newly diagnosed subjects with CLL were enrolled in this case cohort. HBV infection was defined as hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive or hepatitis-B core antibody (HBcAb) positive. Univariate and stepwise multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to screen the prognostic risk factors associated with the end point of time-to-treatment (TTT) or overall survival (OS)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738916/serum-mercury-concentration-and-the-risk-of-ischemic-stroke-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-trace-element-study
#4
Cheng Chen, Pengcheng Xun, Leslie A McClure, John Brockman, Leslie MacDonald, Mary Cushman, Jianwen Cai, Lisa Kamendulis, Jason Mackey, Ka He
BACKGROUND: Although biologically plausible, epidemiological evidence linking exposure to methylmercury with increased risk of ischemic stroke is limited. The effects of methylmercury may be modified by selenium, which is an anti-oxidant that often co-exists with mercury in fish. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between serum mercury levels with the incidence of ischemic stroke and to explore the possible effect modifications by serum selenium levels and demographic and geographic factors...
May 4, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728717/circulating-amino-acids-and-the-risk-of-macrovascular-microvascular-and-mortality-outcomes-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-results-from-the-advance-trial
#5
Paul Welsh, Naomi Rankin, Qiang Li, Patrick B Mark, Peter Würtz, Mika Ala-Korpela, Michel Marre, Neil Poulter, Pavel Hamet, John Chalmers, Mark Woodward, Naveed Sattar
AIMS/HYPOTHESES: We aimed to quantify the association of individual circulating amino acids with macrovascular disease, microvascular disease and all-cause mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We performed a case-cohort study (N = 3587), including 655 macrovascular events, 342 microvascular events (new or worsening nephropathy or retinopathy) and 632 all-cause mortality events during follow-up, in a secondary analysis of the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) study...
May 4, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708980/springboard-to-an-academic-career-a-national-medical-student-research-program
#6
Geir W Jacobsen, Helge Ræder, Marianne H Stien, Ludvig A Munthe, Vegard Skogen
Over the last decades there has been a decline in the recruitment of medical students into academia in all medical fields. Concurrently, medical research has increasingly included other disciplines in multidisciplinary convergence, introducing an unmet recruitment gap and requirement for medical researchers. To counteract the trend and recruit students to academic medicine, a national intercalated Medical Student Research Program (MSRP) was established in Norway in 2002. A preliminary evaluation in 2009 suggested that the MSRP had resulted in recruitment, but could not conclude on a lasting effect beyond graduation in a study that did not include any controls...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703682/case-cohort-studies-design-and-applicability-to-hand-surgery
#7
REVIEW
Miliana Vojvodic, Mark Shafarenko, Steven J McCabe
Observational studies are common research strategies in hand surgery. The case-cohort design offers an efficient and resource-friendly method for risk assessment and outcomes analysis. Case-cohorts remain underrepresented in upper extremity research despite several practical and economic advantages over case-control studies. This report outlines the purpose, utility, and structure of the case-cohort design and offers a sample research question to demonstrate its value to risk estimation for adverse surgical outcomes...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698955/serum-uromodulin-a-biomarker-of-long-term-kidney-allograft-failure
#8
Andrew Bostom, Dominik Steubl, Pranav S Garimella, Nora Franceschini, Mary B Roberts, Andreas Pasch, Joachim H Ix, Katherine R Tuttle, Anastasia Ivanova, Theresa Shireman, S Joseph Kim, Reginald Gohh, Daniel E Weiner, Andrew S Levey, Chi-Yuan Hsu, John W Kusek, Charles B Eaton
BACKGROUND: Uromodulin is a kidney-derived glycoprotein and putative tubular function index. Lower serum uromodulin was recently associated with increased risk for kidney allograft failure in a preliminary, longitudinal single-center -European study involving 91 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). METHODS: The Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation (FAVORIT) trial is a completed, large, multiethnic controlled clinical trial cohort, which studied chronic, stable KTRs...
April 26, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697282/the-role-of-genetic-variants-in-the-association-between-dietary-acrylamide-and-advanced-prostate-cancer-in-the-netherlands-cohort-study-on-diet-and-cancer
#9
Andy Perloy, Leo J Schouten, Piet A van den Brandt, Roger Godschalk, Frederik-Jan van Schooten, Janneke G F Hogervorst
To investigate the association between dietary acrylanide and advanced prostate cancer, we examined acrylamide-gene interactions for advanced prostate cancer risk by using data from the Netherlands Cohort Study. Participants (n = 58,279 men) completed a baseline food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which daily acrylamide intake was calculated. At baseline, 2,411 men were randomly selected from the full cohort for case-cohort analysis. Fifty eight selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two gene deletions in genes in acrylamide metabolism, DNA repair, sex steroid systems, and oxidative stress were analyzed...
April 26, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688833/diabetes-after-hormone-therapy-in-breast-cancer-survivors-a-case-cohort-study
#10
Rola Hamood, Hatem Hamood, Ilya Merhasin, Lital Keinan-Boker
Purpose Breast cancer treatments have been associated with an increased risk of multiple health-related adverse outcomes, but the relationship with diabetes remains unclear. This study investigated the association between hormone therapy and diabetes risk in breast cancer survivors. Patients and Methods We performed a case-cohort study of 2,246 female survivors recruited from the Leumit health care fund who were diagnosed with primary nonmetastatic invasive breast cancer in 2002 through 2012. A 20% random subcohort was sampled at baseline, and all diabetes cases were identified...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681208/maternal-serum-laeverin-aminopeptidase-q-measured-in-the-first-trimester-of-pregnancy-does-not-predict-preeclampsia
#11
Kasper Pihl, Steen Sørensen, Mona Nystad, Ganesh Acharya, Finn S Jørgensen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the laeverin level in maternal serum from first trimester (11-14 weeks) of pregnancy between normal pregnancies and pregnancies that later developed preeclampsia (PE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a case-cohort study. The laeverin concentration was measured in cases with preterm PE (n = 55), term PE (n = 95), and a reference group of randomly selected women with normal pregnancy outcome (n = 200) in stored serum samples collected from the double-test as part of the combined first trimester trisomy 21 screening program...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667103/a-healthy-lifestyle-index-and-its-association-with-risk-of-breast-endometrial-and-ovarian-cancer-among-canadian-women
#12
Rhonda Arthur, Victoria A Kirsh, Nancy Kreiger, Thomas Rohan
PURPOSE: Several modifiable risk factors have been associated with risk of female cancers, but there is limited data regarding their combined effect on risk among Canadian women. Therefore, we assessed the joint association of modifiable risk factors, using a healthy lifestyle index (HLI) score, with risk of specific reproductive cancers. METHOD: This study included a subcohort of 3,185 of the 39,618 women, who participated in the Canadian Study of Diet, Lifestyle, and Health, and in whom 410, 177, and 100 postmenopausal breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers, respectively, were ascertained...
April 17, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665068/osteoporosis-and-hip-fracture-risk-from-routine-computed-tomography-scans-the-fracture-osteoporosis-and-ct-utilization-study-focus
#13
Annette L Adams, Heidi Fischer, David L Kopperdahl, David C Lee, Dennis M Black, Mary L Bouxsein, Shireen Fatemi, Sundeep Khosla, Eric S Orwoll, Ethel S Siris, Tony M Keaveny
Methods now exist for analyzing previously taken clinical computed tomography (CT) scans to measure a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-equivalent bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip and a finite element analysis-derived femoral strength. We assessed the efficacy of this "biomechanical CT" (BCT) approach for identifying patients at high risk of incident hip fracture in a large clinical setting. Using a case-cohort design sampled from 111,694 women and men aged 65 or older who had a prior hip CT scan, a DXA within 3 years of the CT, and no prior hip fracture, we compared those with subsequent hip fracture (n = 1959) with randomly selected sex-stratified controls (n = 1979) and analyzed their CT scans blinded to all other data...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664551/socio-demographic-and-psychological-determinants-of-exclusive-breastfeeding-after-six-months-postpartum-a-polish-case-cohort-study
#14
Karolina Maria Maliszewska, Mariola Bidzan, Małgorzata Świątkowska-Freund, Krzysztof Preis
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore the socio-demographic and psychological factors connected with exclusive breastfeeding after 6 months postpartum. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 251 women filled in questionnaires in the first week postpartum, then again after 3 and 6 months. The questionnaires included socio-demographic and medical questions, as well as psychological tools: the NEO-FFI Personality Inventory, the Berlin Social Support Scales (BSSS), and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)...
2018: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663011/plasma-branched-chain-aromatic-amino-acids-enriched-mediterranean-diet-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-case-cohort-study-within-the-predimed-trial
#15
Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Marta Guasch-Ferré, Estefanía Toledo, Clary B Clish, Cristina Razquin, Liming Liang, Dong D Wang, Dolores Corella, Ramón Estruch, Álvaro Hernáez, Edward Yu, Enrique Gómez-Gracia, Yan Zheng, Fernando Arós, Dora Romaguera, Courtney Dennis, Emilio Ros, José Lapetra, Lluis Serra-Majem, Christopher Papandreou, Olga Portoles, Montserrat Fitó, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Frank B Hu, Miguel A Martínez-González
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs) are associated with type 2 diabetes. However, repeated measurements of BCAA/AAA and their interactions with dietary interventions have not been evaluated. We investigated the associations between baseline and changes at 1 year in BCAA/AAA with type 2 diabetes in the context of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) trial. METHODS: We included 251 participants with incident type 2 diabetes and a random sample of 694 participants (641 participants without type 2 diabetes and 53 overlapping cases) in a case-cohort study nested within the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial...
April 16, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661151/n-terminal-pro-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-and-microsize-myocardial-infarction-risk-in-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-study
#16
Madeline R Sterling, Raegan W Durant, Joanna Bryan, Emily B Levitan, Todd M Brown, Yulia Khodneva, Stephen P Glasser, Joshua S Richman, George Howard, Mary Cushman, Monika M Safford
BACKGROUND: N-terminal pro B-type peptide (NT-proBNP) has been associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI), but less is known about the relationship between NT-proBNP and very small non ST-elevation MI, also known as microsize MI. These events are now routinely detectable with modern troponin assays and are emerging as a large proportion of all MI. Here, we sought to compare the association of NT-proBNP with risk of incident typical MI and microsize MI in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study...
April 16, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623201/altered-immunoglobulins-a-and-g-in-ghanaian-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#17
Henry Asare-Anane, Collins Paa Kwesi Botchey, Emmanuel Kwaku Ofori, Isaac Boamah, Sandra Crabbe, Kwadwo Asamoah-Kusi
Objectives: Elevated immunoglobulin levels have been strongly linked to the development and progression of inflammatory disorders such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. This study aimed to evaluate circulating immunoglobulin levels and to identify other metabolic factors that influence humoral immune response among Ghanaian subjects with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study conducted at the National Diabetes Management and Research Center, Accra...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602632/urinary-biomarkers-of-kidney-tubular-damage-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-mortality-in-elders
#18
Vasantha Jotwani, Ronit Katz, Joachim H Ix, Orlando M Gutiérrez, Michael Bennett, Chirag R Parikh, Steven R Cummings, Mark J Sarnak, Michael G Shlipak
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Novel urinary biomarkers have enabled earlier detection of kidney tubular damage, but their prognostic value for adverse cardiovascular outcomes is uncertain. We hypothesized that tubular damage, measured by urine α1 -microglobulin (A1M), amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), would be associated with higher risks for cardiovascular events and mortality among elders. STUDY DESIGN: Case-cohort study...
March 27, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594821/tree-nut-peanut-and-peanut-butter-consumption-and-the-risk-of-gastric-and-esophageal-cancer-subtypes-the-netherlands-cohort-study
#19
Lisette Nieuwenhuis, Piet A van den Brandt
BACKGROUND: Nut consumption has been associated with reduced cancer-related mortality. However, it is unclear whether nut consumption also reduces the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes. We prospectively investigated the relationship of tree nut, peanut, and peanut butter intake with risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA), and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) in the Netherlands Cohort Study...
March 28, 2018: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584590/maternal-thyroid-function-in-early-pregnancy-and-child-neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-danish-nationwide-case-cohort-study
#20
Stine Linding Andersen, Stig Andersen, Peter Vestergaard, Jørn Olsen
BACKGROUND: Maternal thyroid dysfunction may adversely affect fetal brain development, but more evidence is needed to refine this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential fetal programming by abnormal maternal thyroid function on child neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS: The design was a case-cohort study within the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003). From the eligible cohort of 71,706 women, a random 12% sub-cohort (n = 7624) was selected, and all women (n = 2276) whose child was diagnosed with seizures, specific developmental disorder (SDD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) up to December 31, 2010, were identified...
April 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
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