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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093651/infections-in-intensive-care-unit-adult-patients-harboring-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-implications-for-prevention-and-therapy
#1
B Borgatta, L Lagunes, A T Imbiscuso, M N Larrosa, M Lujàn, J Rello
The purpose of this paper was to report the burden and characteristics of infection by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA) in clinical samples from intensive care unit (ICU) adults, and to identify predictors. This was a retrospective observational study at four medical-surgical ICUs. The case cohort comprised adults with documented isolation of an MDR-PA strain from a clinical specimen during ICU stay. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors for MDR-PA infection. During the study period, 5667 patients were admitted to the ICU and P...
January 16, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092308/increasing-incidence-of-crohn-s-disease-with-familial-clustering-in-the-kingdom-of-bahrain-a-25-year-population-based-study
#2
Najah R Zayyani, Hoda M Malaty, David Y Graham
BACKGROUND: The incidence of Crohn's disease has been increasing in developed countries; whether this trend has extended to countries in Middle East, especially in the Arab world, remains unclear. Our aim was to study the epidemiology, incidence, time trends and clustering of Crohn's disease within the population of the Kingdom of Bahrain. METHODS: A retrospective case-cohort study was conducted on patients diagnosed with Crohn's disease at Bahrain Specialist Hospital between 1990 and 2015...
January 12, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080187/early-life-risk-factors-for-testicular-cancer-a-case-cohort-study-based-on-the-copenhagen-school-health-records-register
#3
Johanne Spanggaard Piltoft, Signe Benzon Larsen, Susanne Oksbjerg Dalton, Christoffer Johansen, Jennifer L Baker, Luise Cederkvist, Ingelise Andersen
PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. METHODS: The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification number linkage of the entire CSHRR with the Danish Cancer Registry and a random subsample of 4819 males from the CSHRR...
January 12, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076672/prenatal-psychostimulant-and-antidepressant-exposure-and-risk-of-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy
#4
D Jeffrey Newport, Amy L Hostetter, Sarah H Juul, Sunny M Porterfield, Bettina T Knight, Zachary N Stowe
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association, if any, of prenatal mental illness and psychotropic exposure with the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). METHODS: A case-cohort analysis was conducted of 686 pregnant women participating in prospective, longitudinal observational studies in a tertiary referral center between January 1998 and May 2012. Risk estimates were produced using multivariate logistic regression modeling. Medication- and diagnosis-specific data were utilized to conduct post hoc confirmatory analyses of the risk estimates...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048593/tu-fg-209-10-phantom-simulation-method-to-evaluate-the-clinical-utility-of-the-high-resolution-micro-angiographic-fluoroscope-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor-maf-cmos-detector
#5
S Setlur Nagesh, M Russ, C Ionita, D Bednarek, S Rudin
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to develop a method to evaluate the clinical utility of a high resolution 75µ pixel MAF-CMOS image receptor compared to a 200µ flat-panel detector (FPD). METHODS: A simulated procedure evaluation method was developed using an aneurysm phantom since every clinical device-deployment procedure is different and to faithfully compare the performance of two detectors in a clinical setting would require the device deployment to be stopped at different stages so that images could be acquired with both detectors...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042676/vitamin-d-insufficiency-in-the-first-6-months-of-infancy-and-challenge-proven-ige-mediated-food-allergy-at-1-year-of-age-a-case-cohort-study
#6
John Molloy, Jennifer J Koplin, Katrina J Allen, Mimi L K Tang, Fiona Collier, John B Carlin, Richard Saffery, David Burgner, Sarath Ranganathan, Terence Dwyer, Alister C Ward, Margarita Moreno-Betancur, Michael Clarke, Anne Louise Ponsonby, Peter Vuillermin
BACKGROUND: Ecological evidence suggests vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) due to lower ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure may be a risk factor for IgE-mediated food allergy. However there are no studies relating directly measured VDI during early infancy to subsequent challenge-proven food allergy. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the association between VDI during infancy and challenge-proven food allergy at 1 year. METHODS: In a birth cohort (n=1074), we used a case-cohort design to compare 25-hydroxy-vitamin-D3 (25(OH)D3 ) levels among infants with food allergy versus a random subcohort (n=274)...
January 2, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028367/use-of-a-saline-coupled-bipolar-sealer-open-liver-resection-for-hepatic-malignancy-medical-resource-use-and-costs
#7
Christine I Nichols, Joshua G Vose
AIM: To evaluate outcomes associated with use of a saline coupled bipolar sealer during open partial liver resection. METHODS: This retrospective analysis utilized the United States Premier™ insurance claims database (2010-2014). Patients were selected with codes for liver malignancy and partial hepatectomy or lobectomy. Cases were defined by use the saline-coupled bipolar sealer; controls had no use. A Propensity Score algorithm was used to match one case to five controls...
December 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027219/cancer-risk-after-fat-transfer-a-multicenter-case-cohort-study
#8
Terence M Myckatyn, I Janelle Wagner, Babak J Mehrara, Melissa A Crosby, Julie E Park, Bahjat F Qaqish, Dominic T Moore, Evan L Busch, Amanda K Silva, Surinder Kaur, David W Ollila, Clara N Lee
BACKGROUND: Fat transfer is an increasingly popular method for refining postmastectomy breast reconstructions. However, concern persists that fat transfer may promote disease recurrence. Adipocytes are derived from adipose-derived stem cells and express adipocytokines that can facilitate active breast cancer cells in laboratory models. The authors sought to evaluate the association between fat transfer to the reconstructed breast and cancer recurrence in patients diagnosed with local or regional invasive breast cancers...
January 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024930/urine-fibrosis-markers-and-risk-of-allograft-failure-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-case-cohort-ancillary-study-of-the-favorit-trial
#9
Joachim H Ix, Ronit Katz, Nisha Bansal, Meredith Foster, Daniel E Weiner, Russell Tracy, Vasantha Jotwani, Jan Hughes-Austin, Dianne McKay, Francis Gabbai, Chi-Yuan Hsu, Andrew Bostom, Andrew S Levey, Michael G Shlipak
BACKGROUND: Kidney tubulointerstitial fibrosis marks risk for allograft failure in kidney transplant recipients, but is poorly captured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR). Whether urinary markers of tubulointerstitial fibrosis can noninvasively identify risk for allograft failure above and beyond eGFR and ACR is unknown. STUDY DESIGN: Case-cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: The FAVORIT (Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation) Trial was a randomized double-blind trial testing vitamin therapy to lower homocysteine levels in stable kidney transplant recipients...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011810/cohort-profile-of-biomarcs-the-biomarker-study-to-identify-the-acute-risk-of-a-coronary-syndrome-a-prospective-multicentre-biomarker-study-conducted-in-the-netherlands
#10
Rohit M Oemrawsingh, K Martijn Akkerhuis, Victor A Umans, Bas Kietselaer, Carl Schotborgh, Eelko Ronner, Timo Lenderink, Anho Liem, David Haitsma, Pim van der Harst, Folkert W Asselbergs, Arthur Maas, Anton J Oude Ophuis, Ben Ilmer, Rene Dijkgraaf, Robbert-Jan de Winter, S Hong Kie The, Alexander J Wardeh, Walter Hermans, Etienne Cramer, Ron H van Schaik, Imo E Hoefer, Pieter A Doevendans, Maarten L Simoons, Eric Boersma
PURPOSE: Progression of stable coronary artery disease (CAD) towards acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a dynamic and heterogeneous process with many intertwined constituents, in which a plaque destabilising sequence could lead to ACS within short time frames. Current CAD risk assessment models, however, are not designed to identify increased vulnerability for the occurrence of coronary events within a precise, short time frame at the individual patient level. The BIOMarker study to identify the Acute risk of a Coronary Syndrome (BIOMArCS) was designed to evaluate whether repeated measurements of multiple biomarkers can predict such 'vulnerable periods'...
December 23, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005944/ventricular-dysfunction-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-undergoing-coronary-surgical-revascularization-prognostic-impact-on-long-term-outcomes
#11
Batric Popovic, Nelly Agrinier, Damien Voilliot, Mazen Elfarra, Jean Pierre Villemot, Pablo Maureira
BACKGROUND: Patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome complicated by left ventricular dysfunction (LVEF) are a poor prognosis group. The aim of our study was to assess the short and long term LEVF prognostic value in a cohort of NSTE-ACS patients undergoing surgical revascularization. METHODS: We performed elective and isolated CABG on a cohort of 206 consecutive patients with LVEF≤0.40 complicating acute coronary syndrome. The case cohort was compared with a cohort of controls (LVEF>0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992461/long-term-outcomes-of-systemic-lupus-erythematous-patients-after-pregnancy-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#12
Ting-Fang Chiu, Ya-Wen Chuang, Cheng-Li Lin, Tung-Min Yu, Mu-Chi Chung, Chi-Yuan Li, Chi-Jung Chung, Wen-Chao Ho
BACKGROUND: Data on long-term maternal outcomes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are lacking. The study aimed to explore the relationships among SLE, pregnancy, outcomes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and overall mortality. METHODS: We established a retrospective cohort study consisting of four cohorts: pregnant (case cohort) and nonpregnant SLE patients, as well as pregnant and nonpregnant non-SLE patients. One case cohort and three comparison cohorts were matched by age at first pregnancy and index date of pregnancy by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Dataset...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989977/a-review-of-the-literature-on-the-transciliary-supraorbital-keyhole-approach
#13
REVIEW
Daniel Walter Zumofen, Jonathan Rychen, Michel Roethlisberger, Ethan Taub, Daniel Kalbermatten, Erez Nossek, Matthew Potts, Raphael Guzman, Howard Antony Riina, Luigi Mariani
BACKGROUND: Conventional craniotomy approaches involve substantial soft tissue manipulation that can cause complications. The transciliary supraorbital keyhole approach was developed to avoid these complications. OBJECTIVE: To review the safety and effectiveness of the transciliary supraorbital keyhole approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched the PubMed/Medline database for full-text publications from 1996 onward containing data on 100 or more cases of aneurysm clipping or tumor resection by the transciliary supraorbital approach...
October 27, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966260/statistical-inferences-for-data-from-studies-conducted-with-an-aggregated-multivariate-outcome-dependent-sample-design
#14
Tsui-Shan Lu, Matthew P Longnecker, Haibo Zhou
Outcome-dependent sampling (ODS) scheme is a cost-effective sampling scheme where one observes the exposure with a probability that depends on the outcome. The well-known such design is the case-control design for binary response, the case-cohort design for the failure time data, and the general ODS design for a continuous response. While substantial work has been carried out for the univariate response case, statistical inference and design for the ODS with multivariate cases remain under-developed. Motivated by the need in biological studies for taking the advantage of the available responses for subjects in a cluster, we propose a multivariate outcome-dependent sampling (multivariate-ODS) design that is based on a general selection of the continuous responses within a cluster...
December 14, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939654/racial-and-ethnic-minorities-at-increased-risk-for-gastric-cancer-in-a-regional-us-population-study
#15
Elizabeth Dong, Lewei Duan, Bechien U Wu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Limited data are available on risk factors for gastric cancer in the United States (US). We aimed to characterize risk for gastric cancer based on race/ethnicity and additional established risk factors. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study from 2008 to 2014 from an integrated health care system in Southern California to assess incidence of gastric cancer by race/ethnicity. We then conducted an age- and sex-matched case-cohort study to evaluate additional risk factors: Helicobacter pylori infection, tobacco use, family history, obesity, language, and socioeconomic status (SES)...
December 8, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926676/long-term-restoration-of-anterior-shoulder-stability-a-retrospective-analysis-of-arthroscopic-bankart-repair-versus-open-latarjet-procedure
#16
Stefan M Zimmermann, Max J Scheyerer, Mazda Farshad, Sabrina Catanzaro, Stefan Rahm, Christian Gerber
BACKGROUND: Various operative techniques are used for treating recurrent anterior shoulder instability, and good mid-term results have been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare shoulder stability after treatment with the 2 commonly performed procedures, the arthroscopic Bankart soft-tissue repair and the open coracoid transfer according to Latarjet. METHODS: A comparative, retrospective case-cohort analysis of 360 patients (364 shoulders) who had primary repair for recurrent anterior shoulder instability between 1998 and 2007 was performed...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900633/two-phase-outcome-dependent-studies-for-failure-times-and-testing-for-effects-of-expensive-covariates
#17
J F Lawless
Two- or multi-phase study designs are often used in settings involving failure times. In most studies, whether or not certain covariates are measured on an individual depends on their failure time and status. For example, when failures are rare, case-cohort or case-control designs are used to increase the number of failures relative to a random sample of the same size. Another scenario is where certain covariates are expensive to measure, so they are obtained only for selected individuals in a cohort. This paper considers such situations and focuses on cases where we wish to test hypotheses of no association between failure time and expensive covariates...
November 29, 2016: Lifetime Data Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894561/apneic-oxygenation-may-not-prevent-severe-hypoxemia-during-rapid-sequence-intubation-a-retrospective-helicopter-emergency-medical-service-study
#18
Sattha Riyapan, Jeffrey Lubin
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine the effectiveness of apneic oxygenation in preventing hypoxemia during prehospital rapid sequence intubation (RSI). METHODS: We performed a case-cohort study using a pre-existing database looking at intubation management by a single helicopter emergency medical service between July 2013 and June 2015. Apneic oxygenation using high-flow nasal cannula (15 L/min) was introduced to the standard RSI protocol in July 2014. Severe hypoxemia was defined as an incidence of oxygen saturation less than 90%...
November 2016: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893808/common-polymorphisms-in-the-5-lipoxygenase-pathway-and-risk-of-incident-myocardial-infarction-a-danish-case-cohort-study
#19
Anders Gammelmark, Michael S Nielsen, Søren Lundbye-Christensen, Anne Tjønneland, Erik B Schmidt, Kim Overvad
BACKGROUND: The 5-lipoxygenase pathway (5-LOX) has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease and studies have suggested that genetic polymorphisms related to key enzymes in this pathway may confer risk of myocardial infarction (MI). This study investigated the association of pre-selected genetic polymorphisms in four candidate genes of 5-LOX (arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase and its activating protein (ALOX-5 and FLAP), leukotriene A4 hydroxylase (LTA4-H) and leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4-S)) with incident MI...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864342/systemic-levels-of-estrogens-and-pge2-synthesis-in-relation-to-postmenopausal-breast-cancer-risk
#20
Sangmi Kim, Jeff Campbell, Wonsuk Yoo, Jack A Taylor, Dale P Sandler
BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induces aromatase expression in adipose tissue leading to increased estrogen production that may promote the development and progression of breast cancer. However, few studies have simultaneously investigated systemic levels of PGE2 and estrogen in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer risk. METHODS: Here we determined urinary estrogen metabolites (EMs) using mass spectrometry in a case-cohort study (295 incident breast cancer cases and 294 subcohort members), and using linear regression estimated the effect of urinary levels of a major PGE2 metabolite (PGE-M) on EMs...
November 18, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
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