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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342257/trajectories-of-alcohol-consumption-prior-to-the-diagnosis-of-type-2-diabetes-a-longitudinal-case-cohort-study
#1
Craig S Knott, Annie Britton, Steven Bell
Background: Non-linear associations have been reported between baseline measures of alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, given that drinking varies over the adult life course, we investigated whether differences existed in the longitudinal trajectory of alcohol consumption according to T2DM status. Methods: For a case-cohort (916 incident cases; 7376 controls) of British civil servants nested within the Whitehall II cohort, the self-reported weekly volume of alcohol consumption was traced backwards from the date of diagnosis or censoring to the beginning of the study, covering a period of up to 28 years...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330661/adipose-tissue-fatty-acids-present-in-dairy-fat-and-risk-of-stroke-the-danish-diet-cancer-and-health-cohort
#2
Anne Sofie Dam Laursen, Christina Catherine Dahm, Søren Paaske Johnsen, Erik Berg Schmidt, Kim Overvad, Marianne Uhre Jakobsen
PURPOSE: The role of dairy fat for the risk of stroke is not yet clear. Adipose tissue reflects long-term fatty acid intake and metabolism. We, therefore, investigated associations for percentages of adipose tissue fatty acids, for which dairy products are a major source (12:0, 14:0, 14:1 cis-9, 15:0, 17:0, 18:1 trans-11 and 18:2 cis-9, trans-11), with incident total stroke and stroke subtypes. METHODS: We conducted a case-cohort study within the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, including all incident stroke cases (n = 2108) and a random sample of the total cohort (n = 3186)...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317005/a-quantitative-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-effectiveness-of-oral-cholera-vaccine-as-a-reactive-measure-in-cholera-outbreaks
#3
Patricia Schwerdtle, Coretta-Kings Onekon, Katrina Recoche
Introduction The efficacy of oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) in laboratory conditions has been established, and the World Health Organization (WHO; Geneva, Switzerland) has recommended their preventative use in high-risk settings. The WHO recommendation has not been fully operationalized, nor has it been extended to apply to the reactive use of OCVs in real field epidemic conditions due to concerns about potential resource diversion, feasibility, cost, and acceptability. The purpose of this study is to assess and synthesize existing evidence of OCV effectiveness when used reactively in real field conditions...
January 10, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306452/plasma-lipidome-patterns-associated-with-cardiovascular-risk-in-the-predimed-trial-a-case-cohort-study
#4
Cristina Razquin, Liming Liang, Estefanía Toledo, Clary B Clish, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Yan Zheng, Dong D Wang, Dolores Corella, Olga Castaner, Emilio Ros, Fernando Aros, Enrique Gomez-Gracia, Miquel Fiol, José Manuel Santos-Lozano, Marta Guasch-Ferre, Lluis Serra-Majem, Aleix Sala-Vila, Pilar Buil-Cosiales, Monica Bullo, Montserrat Fito, Olga Portoles, Ramon Estruch, Jordi Salas-Salvado, Frank B Hu, Miguel A Martinez-Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: The study of the plasma lipidome may help to better characterize molecular mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease. The identification of new lipid biomarkers could provide future targets for prevention and innovative therapeutic approaches. In the frame of the PREDIMED trial, our aim was to examine the associations of baseline lipidome patterns or their changes with the risk of clinical CVD events. METHODS: We included 983 participants in our case-cohort study...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286533/regression-analysis-for-secondary-response-variable-in-a-case-cohort-study
#5
Yinghao Pan, Jianwen Cai, Sangmi Kim, Haibo Zhou
Case-cohort study design has been widely used for its cost-effectiveness. In any real study, there are always other important outcomes of interest beside the failure time that the original case-cohort study is based on. How to utilize the available case-cohort data to study the relationship of a secondary outcome with the primary exposure obtained through the case-cohort study is not well studied. In this article, we propose a non-parametric estimated likelihood approach for analyzing a secondary outcome in a case-cohort study...
December 29, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279154/validation-of-an-imaging-based-cardiovascular-risk-score-in-a-scottish-population
#6
Remko Kockelkoren, Pushpa M Jairam, John T Murchison, Thomas P A Debray, Saeed Mirsadraee, Yolanda van der Graaf, Pim A de Jong, Edwin J R van Beek
OBJECTIVES: A radiological risk score that determines 5-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk using routine care CT and patient information readily available to radiologists was previously developed. External validation in a Scottish population was performed to assess the applicability and validity of the risk score in other populations. METHODS: 2915 subjects aged ≥40 years who underwent routine clinical chest CT scanning for non-cardiovascular diagnostic indications were followed up until first diagnosis of, or death from, CVD...
January 2018: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248762/serum-persistent-organic-pollutants-levels-and-stroke-risk
#7
Jung-Eun Lim, Sunju Lee, Sunmi Lee, Sun Ha Jee
Knowledge of environmental risk factors for stroke and their role are limited. We performed a case-cohort study to evaluate the association between serum persistent organic pollutants (POPs) level and stroke risk. 526 subcohort members and 111 stroke incidence cases were identified from the Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II. Serum levels of POPs were measured using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. The hazard ratios (HRs) for stroke (ischemic, hemorrhagic, and all stroke types) were estimated using the weighted Cox regression model...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244251/effect-of-combination-folic-acid-vitamin-b6-and-vitamin-b12-supplementation-on-fracture-risk-in-women-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Katie L Stone, Li-Yung Lui, William G Christen, Aron M Troen, Douglas C Bauer, Deborah Kado, Christopher Schambach, Steven R Cummings, JoAnn E Manson
Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association of elevated plasma homocysteine levels with greater bone resorption and fracture risk. Vitamins B12 , B6 , and folic acid are cofactors in homocysteine metabolism, and supplementation with B vitamins is effective in lowering homocysteine levels in humans. However, randomized trials of supplemental B vitamins for reduction of fracture risk have been limited. Therefore, we performed an ancillary study to the Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study (WAFACS), a large randomized trial of women with preexisting cardiovascular disease or three or more coronary risk factors, to test whether a daily B vitamin intervention including folic acid (2...
December 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232439/body-mass-index-and-breast-cancer-survival-a-mendelian-randomization-analysis
#9
Qi Guo, Stephen Burgess, Constance Turman, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Michael Lush, Jean Abraham, Kristiina Aittomäki, Irene L Andrulis, Carmel Apicella, Volker Arndt, Myrto Barrdahl, Javier Benitez, Christine D Berg, Carl Blomqvist, Stig E Bojesen, Bernardo Bonanni, Judith S Brand, Hermann Brenner, Annegien Broeks, Barbara Burwinkel, Carlos Caldas, Daniele Campa, Federico Canzian, Jenny Chang-Claude, Stephen J Chanock, Suet-Feung Chin, Fergus J Couch, Angela Cox, Simon S Cross, Cezary Cybulski, Kamila Czene, Hatef Darabi, Peter Devilee, W Ryan Diver, Alison M Dunning, Helena M Earl, Diana M Eccles, Arif B Ekici, Mikael Eriksson, D Gareth Evans, Peter A Fasching, Jonine Figueroa, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Henrik Flyger, Susan M Gapstur, Mia M Gaudet, Graham G Giles, Gord Glendon, Mervi Grip, Jacek Gronwald, Lothar Haeberle, Christopher A Haiman, Per Hall, Ute Hamann, Susan Hankinson, Jaana M Hartikainen, Alexander Hein, Louise Hiller, Frans B Hogervorst, Bernd Holleczek, Maartje J Hooning, Robert N Hoover, Keith Humphreys, David J Hunter, Anika Hüsing, Anna Jakubowska, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Rudolf Kaaks, Maria Kabisch, Vesa Kataja, Julia A Knight, Linetta B Koppert, Veli-Matti Kosma, Vessela N Kristensen, Diether Lambrechts, Loic Le Marchand, Jingmei Li, Annika Lindblom, Sara Lindström, Jolanta Lissowska, Jan Lubinski, Mitchell J Machiela, Arto Mannermaa, Siranoush Manoukian, Sara Margolin, Federik Marme, John W M Martens, Catriona McLean, Primitiva Menéndez, Roger L Milne, Anna Marie Mulligan, Taru A Muranen, Heli Nevanlinna, Patrick Neven, Sune F Nielsen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Janet E Olson, Jose I A Perez, Paolo Peterlongo, Kelly-Anne Phillips, Christopher J Poole, Katri Pylkäs, Paolo Radice, Nazneen Rahman, Thomas Rüdiger, Anja Rudolph, Elinor J Sawyer, Fredrick Schumacher, Petra Seibold, Caroline Seynaeve, Mitul Shah, Ann Smeets, Melissa C Southey, Rob A E M Tollenaar, Ian Tomlinson, Helen Tsimiklis, Hans-Ulrich Ulmer, Celine Vachon, Ans M W van den Ouweland, Laura J Van't Veer, Hans Wildiers, Walter Willett, Robert Winqvist, M Pilar Zamora, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Thilo Dörk, Douglas F Easton, Montserrat García-Closas, Peter Kraft, John L Hopper, Wei Zheng, Marjanka K Schmidt, Paul D P Pharoah
Background: There is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival from breast cancer. Methods: We used individual-level data from six large breast cancer case-cohorts including a total of 36 210 individuals (2475 events) of European ancestry...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212736/arsenic-exposure-in-relation-to-ischemic-stroke-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-study
#10
Cari L Tsinovoi, Pengcheng Xun, Leslie A McClure, Vivian M O Carioni, John D Brockman, Jianwen Cai, Eliseo Guallar, Mary Cushman, Frederick W Unverzagt, Virginia J Howard, Ka He
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this case-cohort study was to examine urinary arsenic levels in relation to incident ischemic stroke in the United States. METHODS: We performed a case-cohort study nested within the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) cohort. A subcohort (n=2486) of controls was randomly sampled within region-race-sex strata while all incident ischemic stroke cases from the full REGARDS cohort (n=671) were included...
December 6, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211844/the-association-between-asthma-and-type-1-diabetes-a-paediatric-case-cohort-study-in-finland-years-1981-2009
#11
Johanna Metsälä, Annamari Lundqvist, Lauri J Virta, Minna Kaila, Mika Gissler, Suvi M Virtanen, Jaakko Nevalainen
Background: The association between asthma and type 1 diabetes, two chronic, immune-mediated diseases, has been of longstanding interest, but the evidence is still conflicting. We examined this association in a large, nationwide case-cohort study among Finnish children, using a novel statistical approach. Methods: Among the initial cohort of all children born between 1 January 1981 and 31 December 2008, those who were diagnosed with asthma (n = 81 473) or type 1 diabetes (n = 9541) up to age 16 years by the end of 2009 were identified from the Central Drug Register maintained by the Social Insurance Institution of Finland...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207321/a-multi-institutional-registry-of-pediatric-hospital-acquired-thrombosis-cases-the-children-s-hospital-acquired-thrombosis-chat-project
#12
Julie Jaffray, Arash Mahajerin, Guy Young, Neil Goldenberg, Lingyun Ji, Richard Sposto, Amy Stillings, Emily Krava, Brian Branchford
BACKGROUND: Pediatric hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism (HA-VTE) rates have increased dramatically. To achieve generalizable knowledge in the derivation and validation of HA-VTE risk factors and risk prediction models and inform future risk-stratified prevention strategies, multi-institutional studies are needed. OBJECTIVES: This paper presents an investigator-initiated, multicenter pediatric case-cohort study designed to identify risk factors for HA-VTE to create a HA-VTE risk prediction model...
December 1, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200010/role-of-systematic-lymphadenectomy-to-tailor-adjuvant-therapy-in-early-endometrial-cancer
#13
Vivek Nama, Amit Patel, Lisa Kirk, John Murdoch, Joanne Bailey
OBJECTIVE: The long-standing protocol at our center for apparent stage I and II endometrial cancers comprises hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy without lymphad-enectomy. Adjuvant treatment is based in line with Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Endometrial Carcinoma 1 protocol. Our aim was to quantify the number of patients who would avoid external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in our institution if we adopted a protocol of lymphadenectomy to tailor adjuvant EBRT and its impact on cost and quality of life...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194450/risk-of-infertility-following-pelvic-angiographic-embolization-in-female-patients-with-pelvic-fractures-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#14
Sheng-Der Hsu, Shih-Yu Lee, Kuen-Tze Lin, Chun-Shu Lin, Wu-Chien Chien, Cheng-Jueng Chen, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Wei-Kuo Chang
Pelvic angiographic embolization is an effective procedure to provide haemostasis in patients with pelvic fractures. However, management with repeated follow-up radiographs may result in infertility. The study aimed to evaluate the risk of infertility following pelvic fracture treated with pelvic angiographic embolization in female patients. We used data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) provided by the Bureau of National Health Insurance of the Department of Health in Taiwan from the period of 1997-2010...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186303/maternal-and-neonatal-vitamin-d-status-are-not-associated-with-risk-of-childhood-type-1-diabetes-a-scandinavian-case-cohort-study
#15
Steffen U Thorsen, Karl Mårild, Sjurdur F Olsen, Klaus K Holst, German Tapia, Charlotta Granström, Thorhallur I Halldorsson, Arieh S Cohen, Margaretha Haugen, Marika Lundqvist, Torild Skrivarhaug, Pål R Njølstad, Geir Joner, Per Magnus, Ketil Størdal, Jannet Svensson, Lars C Stene
Studies on vitamin D status during pregnancy and risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D) lack consistency, and are limited by small sample sizes or single measures of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). We investigated whether average maternal 25(OH)D plasma concentrations during pregnancy are associated with risk of childhood T1D. In a case-cohort design, we identified 459 children with T1D and a random sample (n = 1,561) from the Danish National Birth Cohort (n = 97,127) and Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 113,053)...
November 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184908/hypothesis-potential-utility-of-serum-and-urine-uromodulin-measurement-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#16
REVIEW
Andrew G Bostom, Dominik Steubl, Allon N Friedman
Seventy years after its discovery, studies of the myriad properties, and potential disease associations of uromodulin are now burgeoning. Although normative ranges for serum/plasma uromodulin concentrations were established over 30 years ago, their external validation occurred only in very recent, larger studies. As tubular function indices, serum and urinary uromodulin may be more sensitive indicators of kidney graft dysfunction undetected by glomerular filtration markers, or proteinuria. Moreover, 2 sizable, just published longitudinal reports revealed that lower serum uromodulin levels were associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes, total mortality, and infectious disease deaths, in patients with known or suspected coronary heart disease...
November 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181692/serum-metabolites-and-risk-of-myocardial-infarction-and-ischemic-stroke-a-targeted-metabolomic-approach-in-two-german-prospective-cohorts
#17
Anna Floegel, Tilman Kühn, Disorn Sookthai, Theron Johnson, Cornelia Prehn, Ulrike Rolle-Kampczyk, Wolfgang Otto, Cornelia Weikert, Thomas Illig, Martin von Bergen, Jerzy Adamski, Heiner Boeing, Rudolf Kaaks, Tobias Pischon
Metabolomic approaches in prospective cohorts may offer a unique snapshot into early metabolic perturbations that are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in healthy people. We investigated the association of 105 serum metabolites, including acylcarnitines, amino acids, phospholipids and hexose, with risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam (27,548 adults) and Heidelberg (25,540 adults) cohorts...
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173602/association-between-circulating-oxidized-ldl-and-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-a-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#18
REVIEW
Shen Gao, Dong Zhao, Miao Wang, Fan Zhao, Xueyu Han, Yue Qi, Jing Liu
BACKGROUND: Although basic research has suggested that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, population observational studies have yielded conflicting results about the association between circulating ox-LDL and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of currently available observational studies to verify the association between circulating ox-LDL and ASCVD. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library from their inception to March 27, 2017, for nested case-control studies, case-cohort studies, and prospective cohort studies on the relationship between ox-LDL and ASCVD...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170940/association-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
Maunoo Lee, Jayasree Krishnamurthy, Apryl Susi, Carolyn Sullivan, Gregory H Gorman, Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman, Christine R Erdie-Lalena, Cade M Nylund
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) both have multifactorial pathogenesis with an increasing number of studies demonstrating gut-brain associations. We aim to examine the association between ASD and IBD using strict classification criteria for IBD. We conducted a retrospective case-cohort study using records from the Military Health System database with IBD defined as having one encounter with an ICD-9-CM diagnostic code for IBD and at least one outpatient prescription dispensed for a medication to treat IBD...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170005/high-heterogeneity-mixed-infections-and-new-genotypes-in-human-congenital-toxoplasmosis-cases-in-the-mega-metropolis-of-central-mexico
#20
Claudia Patricia Rico-Torres, Luis Fernando Valenzuela-Moreno, Héctor Luna-Pastén, Ricardo Figueroa-Damián, Valeria Gómez-Toscano, Lorena Hernández-Delgado, Mónica Patricia Escobedo-Torres, Dolores Correa
Mexico presents high prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection, including the congenital form, but there are few data about the genetic diversity of the parasite, so we attempted parasite isolation and genotyping in nine mother/children pairs with congenital toxoplasmosis (CT), living in the Valley of Mexico, who were part of a 30 cases cohort that started 12 years ago. They were recruited through research projects which included pre- and postnatal screening of congenital infections or directly CT, and cases referred to INP for management because they had clinical abnormalities...
November 20, 2017: Acta Tropica
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