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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918395/non-invasive-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation-in-preterm-infants-a-randomised-controlled-cross-over-trial
#1
Daniel Klotz, Hendryk Schneider, Stefan Schumann, Benjamin Mayer, Hans Fuchs
OBJECTIVE: Non-invasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (nHFOV) has recently been described as a novel mode of respiratory support for premature infants. This study was designed to determine whether nHFOV decreases CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) in premature infants more effectively than non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). DESIGN: Non-blinded prospective randomised controlled cross-over study. SETTING: University Medical Center tertiary neonatal intensive care unit...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916934/cohort-research-in-omics-and-preventive-medicine
#2
Yi Shen, Sheng Zhang, Jie Zhou, Jiajia Chen
Cohort studies are observational studies in which the investigator determines the exposure status of subjects and then follows them for subsequent outcomes. The incidence of outcomes is observed in the exposed group and compared with that in a nonexposed group. Recently, new epidemiologic strategies have encouraged cohort research information exchange and cooperation to improve the cognition of disease etiology, such as case-cohort design and nested case-control study, which is available for "omics" data. Meanwhile, large-scale cohort studies using a prospective multiple design and long follow-ups have explored some of the challenges in preventive medicine...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916566/perspective-essential-study-quality-descriptors-for-data-from-nutritional-epidemiologic-research
#3
Chen Yang, Mariona Pinart, Patrick Kolsteren, John Van Camp, Nathalie De Cock, Katharina Nimptsch, Tobias Pischon, Eamon Laird, Giuditta Perozzi, Raffaella Canali, Axelle Hoge, Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Lars Ove Dragsted, Stéphanie Maria Palombi, Irina Dobre, Jildau Bouwman, Peter Clarys, Fabio Minervini, Maria De Angelis, Marco Gobbetti, Jean Tafforeau, Oscar Coltell, Dolores Corella, Hendrik De Ruyck, Janette Walton, Laura Kehoe, Christophe Matthys, Bernard De Baets, Guy De Tré, Antoon Bronselaer, Angela Rivellese, Rosalba Giacco, Rosario Lombardo, Sofian De Clercq, Niels Hulstaert, Carl Lachat
Pooled analysis of secondary data increases the power of research and enables scientific discovery in nutritional epidemiology. Information on study characteristics that determine data quality is needed to enable correct reuse and interpretation of data. This study aims to define essential quality characteristics for data from observational studies in nutrition. First, a literature review was performed to get an insight on existing instruments that assess the quality of cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies and dietary measurement...
September 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912719/population-based-case-control-study-assessing-the-association-between-statins-use-and-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-taiwan
#4
Kuan-Fu Liao, Cheng-Li Lin, Shih-Wei Lai
Background and Objectives: Little evidence is available about the relationship between statins use and pulmonary tuberculosis in Taiwan. The aim of the study was to explore this issue. Methods: Using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, we conducted a population-based case-control study to identify 8,236 subjects aged 20 years and older with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis from 2000 to 2013 as the cases. We randomly selected 8,236 sex-matched and age-matched subjects without pulmonary tuberculosis as the controls...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906530/the-effect-of-lifestyle-interventions-on-maternal-body-composition-during-pregnancy-in-developing-countries-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Estelle D Watson, Shelley Macaulay, Kim Lamont, Philippe J-L Gradidge, Sandra Pretorius, Nigel J Crowther, Elena Libhaber
Optimal maternal body composition during pregnancy is a public health priority due to its implications on maternal health and infant development. We therefore aimed to conduct a systematic review of randomised, controlled trials, and case-control and cohort studies using lifestyle interventions to improve body composition in developing countries. Of the 1 708 articles that were searched, seven studies, representing three countries (Brazil, Iran and Argentina), were included in the review. Two articles suggested that intervention with physical activity during pregnancy may significantly reduce maternal weight gain, and five studies were scored as being of poor quality...
August 24, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904463/relationship-between-factor-v-leiden-gene-variant-and-risk-of-ischemic-stroke-a-case-control-study
#6
Amit Kumar, Shubham Misra, Ram Sagar, Pradeep Kumar, Arun K Yadav, Pumanshi Talwar, Ritesh Raj, Kameshwar Prasad
BACKGROUND: Factor V Leiden is the most common genetic variation among the blood coagulation pathway which leads to prothrombotic state, therefore, is considered an important gene for understating the stroke mechanism. AIM: The aim of the present study is to determine the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism at G1691A position of Factor V gene and risk of ischemic stroke (IS) in North Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective case-control study, 250 patients with IS and 250 age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled in the period of October 2012 to September 2014 from in- and out-patient department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903935/glaucoma-and-intraocular-pressure-in-epic-norfolk-eye-study-cross-sectional-study
#7
Michelle P Y Chan, David C Broadway, Anthony P Khawaja, Jennifer L Y Yip, David F Garway-Heath, Jennifer M Burr, Robert Luben, Shabina Hayat, Nichola Dalzell, Kay-Tee Khaw, Paul J Foster
Objectives To report the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) by age and sex and the prevalence of glaucoma.Design Community based cross sectional observational study.Setting EPIC-Norfolk cohort in Norwich and the surrounding rural and urban areas.Participants 8623 participants aged 48-92 recruited from the community who underwent ocular examination to identify glaucoma.Main outcome measures Prevalence and characteristics of glaucoma, distribution of IOP, and the sensitivity and specificity of IOP for case finding for glaucoma...
September 13, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902742/effectiveness-of-surgical-treatment-for-tarlov-cysts-a-systematic-review-of-published-literature
#8
Laura E Dowsett, Fiona Clement, Stephanie Coward, Diane L Lorenzetti, Tom Noseworthy, Laura Sevick, Eldon Spackman
OF BACKGROUND DATA: In the general population, it has been estimated that 1.5% of people have ≥1 Tarlov cysts, with about 13% of those being symptomatic. Despite a range of options for treatment, there is debate about when, and how to optimally treat individuals with Tarlov cysts among clinicians, and among policy decision makers. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the current evidence on surgical treatment of Tarlov cysts. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review was completed...
September 11, 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899348/cesarean-section-to-prevent-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-china-a-meta-analysis
#9
Mei Yang, Qin Qin, Qiong Fang, Lixin Jiang, Shaofa Nie
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is predominantly transmitted through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). To date, it remains unclear whether the method of parturition affects MTCT of HBV. In order to clarify whether cesarean section, when compared with vaginal delivery, could reduce the risk of MTCT of HBV in China, we conducted this meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed of the PubMed (Medline), Embase, ISI Web of Science, China Biological Medicine Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals databases for articles written in English or Chinese through July 2015...
September 12, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898512/knowledge-attitudes-and-opinions-towards-measles-and-the-mmr-vaccine-across-two-nsw-cohorts
#10
Daniel Brieger, Matthew Edwards, Poonam Mudgil, John Whitehall
OBJECTIVE: Although the number of national measles cases has greatly decreased since 1980s, there has been resurgence in disease incidence in recent years. While parental knowledge and attitudes toward both disease and vaccinations are known to influence vaccine uptake, the contribution of these factors toward vaccination rates in NSW populations has not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and opinions on measles and MMR vaccine in NSW Central and North Coast regions...
September 12, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892501/implementation-of-a-study-to-examine-the-persistence-of-ebola-virus-in-the-body-fluids-of-ebola-virus-disease-survivors-in-sierra-leone-methodology-and-lessons-learned
#11
Gibrilla Fadlu Deen, Suzanna L R McDonald, Jaclyn E Marrinan, Foday R Sesay, Elizabeth Ervin, Anna E Thorson, Wenbo Xu, Ute Ströher, Patricia Ongpin, Neetu Abad, Archchun Ariyarajah, Tasneem Malik, Hongtu Liu, Christine Ross, Kara N Durski, Philippe Gaillard, Oliver Morgan, Pierre Formenty, Barbara Knust, Nathalie Broutet, Foday Sahr
BACKGROUND: The 2013-2016 West African Ebola virus disease epidemic was unprecedented in terms of the number of cases and survivors. Prior to this epidemic there was limited data available on the persistence of Ebola virus in survivors' body fluids and the potential risk of transmission, including sexual transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Given the urgent need to determine the persistence of Ebola virus in survivors' body fluids, an observational cohort study was designed and implemented during the epidemic response operation in Sierra Leone...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891977/polytrauma-defined-by-the-new-berlin-definition-a-validation-test-based-on-propensity-score-matching-approach
#12
Cheng-Shyuan Rau, Shao-Chun Wu, Pao-Jen Kuo, Yi-Chun Chen, Peng-Chen Chien, Hsiao-Yun Hsieh, Ching-Hua Hsieh
Background: Polytrauma patients are expected to have a higher risk of mortality than that obtained by the summation of expected mortality owing to their individual injuries. This study was designed to investigate the outcome of patients with polytrauma, which was defined using the new Berlin definition, as cases with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) ≥ 3 for two or more different body regions and one or more additional variables from five physiologic parameters (hypotension [systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mmHg], unconsciousness [Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8], acidosis [base excess ≤ -6...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888613/intimate-partner-violence-and-breastfeeding-practices-a-systematic-review-of-observational-studies
#13
REVIEW
Raquel de Souza Mezzavilla, Marina de Figueiredo Ferreira, Cintia Chaves Curioni, Ana Cristina Lindsay, Maria Helena Hasselmann
OBJECTIVE: To review the association between intimate partner violence and breastfeeding practices in the literature. DATA SOURCES: The search was carried out in five databases, including MEDLINE, LILACS, SCOPUS, PsycoINFO, and Science Direct. The search strategy was carried out in February 2017. The authors included original studies with observational design, which investigated forms of intimate partner violence (including emotional, physical, and/or sexual) and breastfeeding practices...
September 6, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887836/a-novel-method-for-quantification-of-beam-s-eye-view-tumor-tracking-performance
#14
Yue-Houng Hu, Marios Myronakis, Joerg Rottmann, Adam Wang, Daniel Morf, Daniel Shedlock, Paul Baturin, Josh Star-Lack, Ross Berbeco
PURPOSE: In-treatment imaging using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) can be used to confirm patient and tumor positioning. Real-time tumor tracking performance using current digital megavolt (MV) imagers is hindered by poor image quality. Novel EPID designs may help to improve quantum noise response, while also preserving the high spatial resolution of the current clinical detector. Recently investigated EPID design improvements include but are not limited to multi-layer imager (MLI) architecture, thick crystalline and amorphous scintillators, and phosphor pixilation and focusing...
September 9, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886707/health-outcomes-of-non-nutritive-sweeteners-analysis-of-the-research-landscape
#15
REVIEW
Szimonetta Lohner, Ingrid Toews, Joerg J Meerpohl
BACKGROUND: Food products containing non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) instead of sugar have become increasingly popular in the last decades. Their appeal is obviously related to their calorie-free sweet taste. However, with the dramatic increase in their consumption, it is reasonable and timely to evaluate their potential health benefits and, more importantly, potential adverse effects. The main aim of this scoping review was to map the evidence about health outcomes possibly associated with regular NNS consumption by examining the extent, range, and nature of research activity in this area...
September 8, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886155/coronary-heart-disease-and-risk-for-cognitive-impairment-or-dementia-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Kay Deckers, Syenna H J Schievink, Maria M F Rodriquez, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Martin P J van Boxtel, Frans R J Verhey, Sebastian Köhler
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Accumulating evidence suggests an association between coronary heart disease and risk for cognitive impairment or dementia, but no study has systematically reviewed this association. Therefore, we summarized the available evidence on the association between coronary heart disease and risk for cognitive impairment or dementia. METHODS: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and CINAHL were searched for all publications until 8th January 2016. Articles were included if they fulfilled the inclusion criteria: (1) myocardial infarction, angina pectoris or coronary heart disease (combination of both) as predictor variable; (2) cognition, cognitive impairment or dementia as outcome; (3) population-based study; (4) prospective (≥1 year follow-up), cross-sectional or case-control study design; (5) ≥100 participants; and (6) aged ≥45 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886039/infection-prevention-and-control-practice-for-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-a-multi-center-cross-sectional-survey-in-eurasia
#17
Tom E Fletcher, Abuova Gulzhan, Salih Ahmeti, Seif S Al-Abri, Zahide Asik, Aynur Atilla, Nick J Beeching, Heval Bilek, Ilkay Bozkurt, Iva Christova, Fazilet Duygu, Saban Esen, Arjun Khanna, Çiğdem Kader, Masoud Mardani, Faisal Mahmood, Nana Mamuchishvili, Natalia Pshenichnaya, Mustafa Sunbul, Tuğba Y Yalcin, Hakan Leblebicioglu
BACKGROUND: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a life threatening acute viral infection that presents significant risk of nosocomial transmission to healthcare workers. AIM: Evaluation of CCHF infection prevention and control (IP&C) practices in healthcare facilities that routinely manage CCHF cases in Eurasia. METHODS: A cross-sectional CCHF IP&C survey was designed and distributed to CCHF centers in 10 endemic Eurasian countries in 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885874/impact-of-virtual-patients-as-optional-learning-material-in-veterinary-biochemistry-education
#18
Christin Kleinsorgen, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede, Hassan Y Naim, Katja Branitzki-Heinemann, Marta Kankofer, Míra Mándoki, Martin Adler, Andrea Tipold, Jan P Ehlers
Biochemistry and physiology teachers from veterinary faculties in Hannover, Budapest, and Lublin prepared innovative, computer-based, integrative clinical case scenarios as optional learning materials for teaching and learning in basic sciences. These learning materials were designed to enhance attention and increase interest and intrinsic motivation for learning, thus strengthening autonomous, active, and self-directed learning. We investigated learning progress and success by administering a pre-test before exposure to the virtual patients (vetVIP) cases, offered vetVIP cases alongside regular biochemistry courses, and then administered a complementary post-test...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882817/dental-procedures-antibiotic-prophylaxis-and-endocarditis-among-people-with-prosthetic-heart-valves-nationwide-population-based-cohort-and-a-case-crossover-study
#19
Sarah Tubiana, Pierre-Olivier Blotière, Bruno Hoen, Philippe Lesclous, Sarah Millot, Jérémie Rudant, Alain Weill, Joel Coste, François Alla, Xavier Duval
Objective To assess the relation between invasive dental procedures and infective endocarditis associated with oral streptococci among people with prosthetic heart valves.Design Nationwide population based cohort and a case crossover study.Setting French national health insurance administrative data linked with the national hospital discharge database.Participants All adults aged more than 18 years, living in France, with medical procedure codes for positioning or replacement of prosthetic heart valves between July 2008 and July 2014...
September 7, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882575/cohort-study-comparing-the-diagnostic-yields-of-2-different-eus-fine-needle-biopsy-needles
#20
Mohamed M Abdelfatah, Ian S Grimm, Lisa M Gangarosa, Todd H Baron
INTRODUCTION: Two second-generation, flexible EUS fine-needle biopsy (FNB) needles have recently been marketed in the United States. Thus far, there have been no comparative studies of the diagnostic yield of these needles. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic yield achieved with FNB using one needle during one time period and the other needle during a second time period. METHODS: Consecutive patients with solid lesions undergoing EUS-FNB using one of two 22-gauge FNB needles (Franseen needle or fork-tip) at 2 different time intervals were included...
September 4, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
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