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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453704/genomic-characterization-of-her2-positive-breast-cancer-and-response-to-neoadjuvant-trastuzumab-and-chemotherapy-results-from-the-acosog-z1041-alliance-trial
#1
R Lesurf, O L Griffith, M Griffith, J Hundal, L Trani, M A Watson, R Aft, M J Ellis, D Ota, V J Suman, F Meric-Bernstam, A M Leitch, J C Boughey, G Unzeitig, A U Buzdar, K K Hunt, E R Mardis
Background: HER2 (ERBB2) gene amplification and its corresponding overexpression are present in 15-30% of invasive breast cancers. While HER2-targeted agents are effective treatments, resistance remains a major cause of death. The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1041 trial (NCT00513292) was designed to compare the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate of distinct regimens of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and trastuzumab, but ultimately identified no difference. Patients and methods: In supplement to tissues from 37 Z1041 cases, 11 similarly treated cases were obtained from a single institution study (NCT00353483)...
May 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447363/tobacco-packaging-design-for-reducing-tobacco-use
#2
REVIEW
Ann McNeill, Shannon Gravely, Sara C Hitchman, Linda Bauld, David Hammond, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging...
April 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446513/frequent-hypomorphic-alleles-account-for-a-significant-fraction-of-abca4-disease-and-distinguish-it-from-age-related-macular-degeneration
#3
Jana Zernant, Winston Lee, Frederick T Collison, Gerald A Fishman, Yuri V Sergeev, Kaspar Schuerch, Janet R Sparrow, Stephen H Tsang, Rando Allikmets
BACKGROUND: Variation in the ABCA4 gene is causal for, or associated with, a wide range of phenotypes from early onset Mendelian retinal dystrophies to late-onset complex disorders such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Despite substantial progress in determining the causal genetic variation, even complete sequencing of the entire open reading frame and splice sites of ABCA4 identifies biallelic mutations in only 60%-70% of cases; 20%-25% remain with one mutation and no mutations are found in 10%-15% of cases with clinically confirmed ABCA4 disease...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446508/enrichment-of-pik3-akt-mtor-pathway-activation-in-hepatic-metastases-from-breast-cancer
#4
Mariaelena Pierobon, Corrine Ramos, Shukmei Wong, K Alex Hodge, Jessica Aldrich, Sara A Byron, Stephen P Anthony, Nicholas J Robert, Donald W Northfelt, Mohammad Jahanzeb, Linda Vocila, Julia D Wulfkuhle, Guido Gambara, Rosa Isela Gallagher, Bryant Dunetz, Nicholas Hoke, Ting Dong, David W Craig, Massimo Cristofanilli, Brian Leyland Jones, Lance Liotta, Joyce A O'Shaughnessy, John D Carpten, Emanuel F Petricoin
Purpose: Little is known about the molecular signatures associated with specific metastatic sites in breast cancer. Using comprehensive multi-omic molecular profiling, we assessed whether alterations or activation of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway is associated with specific sites of breast cancer metastasis. <p>Experimental Design: NGS-based whole exome sequencing was coupled with Reverse Phase Protein Microarray (RPPA) functional signaling network analysis to explore the PI3K-AKT-mTOR axis in 32 pretreated breast cancer metastases...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446506/analytic-pre-analytic-and-clinical-validation-of-p53-immunohistochemistry-for-detection-of-tp53-missense-mutation-in-prostate-cancer
#5
Liana Guedes, Fawaz Almutairi, Michael C Haffner, Gaurav Rajoria, Zach Liu, Szczepan Klimek, Roberto Zoino, Kasra Yousefi, Rajni Sharma, Angelo M De Marzo, George Netto, William B Isaacs, Ashley E Ross, Edward M Schaeffer, Tamara L Lotan
PURPOSE:TP53 missense mutations may help to identify prostate cancer (PCa) with lethal potential. Here, we pre-analytically, analytically and clinically validated a robust immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay to detect subclonal and focal TP53 missense mutations in PCa. <p>EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The p53 IHC assay was performed in a CLIA-accredited laboratory on the Ventana Benchmark immunostaining system. p53 protein nuclear accumulation was defined as any p53 nuclear labeling in >10% of tumor cells. 54 formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) cell lines from the NCI-60 panel and 103 FFPE PCa tissues (88 primary adenocarcinomas, 15 metastases) with known TP53 mutation status were studied...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442854/biceps-rerouting-after-forearm-osteotomy-an-effective-treatment-strategy-for-severe-supination-deformity-in-obstetric-plexus-palsy
#6
W P Metsaars, M Biegstraaten, R G H H Nelissen
Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Objective Supination deformity in obstetric brachial plexus injury can have debilitating consequences for the functionality of the hand. Surgical treatment by a forearm osteotomy has a recurrence rate of 20 to 42%. As a complement to forearm osteotomy, a biceps rerouting may improve outcome. Methods Children with residual brachial plexus injury, who had a forearm osteotomy for a supination contracture and had a postoperative decrease of pronation to 50 degrees or less, were indicated for a biceps rerouting...
April 2017: Journal of Hand and Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440953/immunotherapy-with-single-agent-nivolumab-for-advanced-leiomyosarcoma-of-the-uterus-results-of-a-phase-2-study
#7
Eytan Ben-Ami, Constance M Barysauskas, Sarah Solomon, Kadija Tahlil, Rita Malley, Melissa Hohos, Kathleen Polson, Margaret Loucks, Mariano Severgnini, Tara Patel, Amy Cunningham, Scott J Rodig, F Stephen Hodi, Jeffrey A Morgan, Priscilla Merriam, Andrew J Wagner, Geoffrey Shapiro, Suzanne George
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has changed the therapeutic landscape in oncology. Advanced uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) remains an incurable disease in most cases, and despite new drug approvals, improvements in overall survival have been modest at best. The goal of this study was to evaluate programmed-death 1 (PD-1) inhibition with nivolumab in this patient population. METHODS: This single-center phase 2 trial completed enrollment between May and October 2015. Patients received 3 mg/kg of intravenous nivolumab on day 1 of each 2-week cycle until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity...
April 25, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440303/hcv-genotype-6-increased-the-risk-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-among-asian-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#8
Mei-Hsuan Lee, Tiffany I Hsiao, Shreenidhi R Subramaniam, An K Le, Vinh D Vu, Huy N Trinh, Jian Zhang, Mingjuan Jin, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong, Grace Lai-Hung Wong, Mindie H Nguyen
OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a well-documented risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Seven HCV genotypes have been classified, and the genotypes show a great variety of geographic distribution. HCV genotype 6 is prevalent in Southeast Asia and has been less studied than the other genotypes. METHODS: This follow-up study was designed to evaluate the natural history of HCV genotype 6. The cohort enrolled 851 Asian patients consisting of 222 with HCV genotype 6 and 629 with other genotypes...
April 25, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440083/systems-metabolomics-for-prediction-of-metabolic-syndrome
#9
Estelle Pujos-Guillot, Marion Brandolini, Mélanie Pétéra, Dhouha Grissa, Charlotte Joly, Bernard Lyan, Eléonore Herquelot, Sébastien Czernichow, Marie Zins, Marcel Goldberg, Blandine Comte
The evolution of human health is a continuum of transitions, involving multifaceted processes at multiple levels and there is an urgent need for integrative biomarkers that can characterize and predict progression towards disease development. The objective of this work was to perform a systems metabolomics approach to predict metabolic syndrome (MetS) development. A case-control design was used within the French occupational GAZEL cohort (n=112 males: discovery study; n=94: replication/validation study). Our integrative strategy was to combine untargeted metabolomics with clinical, sociodemographic and food habit parameters to describe early phenotypes and build multidimensional predictive models...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439166/end-stage-renal-disease-not-a-contraindication-for-minor-oral-surgery-protocol-for-the-management-of-oral-surgery-patients-with-esrd-on-hemodialysis
#10
Sneha Pendem, G Lakshmi Narayana, Poornima Ravi
OBJECTIVE: To describe a safe and effective protocol for the management of patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing minor oral surgery. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted on all patients with ESRD who were referred for dental consultation. A definite protocol was designed in consultation with the nephrologist to minimize the risk of bleeding and wound healing complications during and after the minor surgical procedures...
June 2017: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438210/specific-and-quantitative-detection-of-human-polyomaviruses-bkpyv-and-jcpyv-in-the-healthy-pakistani-population
#11
Iqra Hussain, Fareeda Tasneem, Muhammed Umer, Ayesha Pervaiz, Muslim Raza, Muhammad Imran Arshad, Naveed Shahzad
BACKGROUND: The BK Polyomavirus (BKPyV) and JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) infections are widespread in human population and have been associated with severe kidney and brain disorders, respectively. The viruses remain latent primarily in reno-urinary tract, reactivating only in case of a compromised immune system. The seroepidemiology and molecular prevalence of BKPyV and JCPyV have been widely studied both in healthy and immunocompromised patients worldwide. However, data regarding the prevalence of these viruses in the immunocompetent or apparently healthy Pakistani population is lacking...
April 24, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436737/bicycle-helmet-effectiveness-is-not-overstated
#12
Jake Olivier, Igor Radun
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the challenges in estimating bicycle helmet effectiveness from case-control studies of injured cyclists and to estimate helmet effectiveness from cases and available exposure data. METHODS: Data were extracted from studies of cyclists in Seattle, USA, Victoria and New South Wales (NSW), Australia and the Netherlands. Estimates of helmet use were used as exposure to compute relative risks for Seattle and Victorian data. Cycling distance data are routinely collected in the Netherlands; however, this data cannot be disaggregated by helmet use which makes it unsuitable for estimating helmet effectiveness...
March 1, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430644/red-and-processed-meat-consumption-and-gastric-cancer-risk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Zhanwei Zhao, Zifang Yin, Qingchuan Zhao
The associations between red and processed meat consumption and gastric cancer risk have remained inconclusive. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze these associations. We searched PubMed and EMBASE to identify studies published from inception through October 2016. Subtype analyses of gastric cancer (gastric cardia adenocarcinoma and gastric non-cardiac adenocarcinoma) and dose-response analyses were performed. We finally selected 42 eligible studies. The summary relative risks of highest versus lowest consumption were positive for case-control studies with 1...
February 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428104/tumor-budding-in-intestinal-type-gastric-adenocarcinoma-is-associated-with-nodal-metastasis-and-recurrence
#14
Stephen Olsen, Jin Linda, Ryan C Fields, Yan Yan, ILKe Nalbantoglu
Gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) is a common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. GAC can be classified as intestinal or diffuse. Intestinal type cancers are common and reported to have a better prognosis compared to diffuse cancers. Studies have shown the presence and amount of tumor budding in intestinal carcinomas of the colon and esophagus to predict nodal metastasis and recurrence. Our aim is to determine if tumor budding in intestinal type GAC correlates with prognostic features. One hundred four patients treated with primary surgical excision between 1999-2013 were identified...
April 17, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427805/confounding-causality-and-confusion-the-role-of-intermediate-variables-in-interpreting-observational-studies-in-obstetrics
#15
Cande V Ananth, Enrique F Schisterman
Both prospective and retrospective cohort, and case-control studies are some of the most important study designs in epidemiology because, under certain assumptions, they can mimic a randomized trial when done well. These assumptions include but not limited to properly accounting for two important sources of bias: confounding and selection bias. While not adjusting the causal association for an intermediate variable will yield an unbiased estimate of the exposure-outcome's total causal effect, it is often that obstetricians will want to adjust for an intermediate variable to assess if the intermediate is the underlying driver of the association...
April 17, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427253/meta-analysis-of-the-correlation-between-the-rs17401966-polymorphism-in-kinesin-family-member-1b-and-susceptibility-to-hepatitis-b-virus-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Mingkuan Su, Jianfeng Guo, Jiancheng Huang
Background/Aims: The association between the kinesin family member 1B (KIF1B) gene polymorphism and the risk of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been investigated in many peer-reviewed studies. However, scholars have failed to replicate these results in validation tests. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether the KIF1B rs17401966 polymorphism was associated with susceptibility to HCC. Methods: The results of case-controlled studies on the correlation between the KIF1B rs17401966 polymorphism and HCC susceptibility were collected using Google Scholar and the EMBASE, PubMed and CNKI databases...
April 21, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427188/consumption-of-fruits-and-vegetables-and-risk-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#17
Shaojing Zhang, Zhankui Jia, Zechen Yan, Jinjian Yang
BACKGROUND: There have been inconsistent results about the association between consumption of fruits and vegetables and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk. We conducted a meta-analysis of the published observational studies to explore this association. RESULTS: Nineteen observational studies (4 cohort, 1 pooled and 14 case-control studies), involving 10,215 subjects with RCC were part of this meta-analysis. The SRR for the highest vs. the lowest intake of vegetables was 0...
March 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426829/joint-genetic-analysis-using-variant-sets-reveals-polygenic-gene-context-interactions
#18
Francesco Paolo Casale, Danilo Horta, Barbara Rakitsch, Oliver Stegle
Joint genetic models for multiple traits have helped to enhance association analyses. Most existing multi-trait models have been designed to increase power for detecting associations, whereas the analysis of interactions has received considerably less attention. Here, we propose iSet, a method based on linear mixed models to test for interactions between sets of variants and environmental states or other contexts. Our model generalizes previous interaction tests and in particular provides a test for local differences in the genetic architecture between contexts...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424259/maternal-vitamin-d-insufficiency-early-in-pregnancy-is-associated-with-increased-risk-of-preterm-birth-in-ethnic-minority-women-in-canada
#19
Negar Tabatabaei, Nathalie Auger, Catherine M Herba, Shuqin Wei, Catherine Allard, Guy D Fink, William D Fraser
Background: Maternal vitamin D insufficiency (plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <75 nmol/L) may play a role in ethnic disparities in rates of preterm and spontaneous preterm births.Objective: We explored the relation between maternal plasma 25(OH)D concentration in the first trimester (8-14 wk of gestation) and the risk of preterm and spontaneous preterm births (<37 wk of gestation) by ethnicity.Methods: We designed a case-control study that included 120 cases of preterm birth (<37 wk of gestation) and 360 term controls (≥37 wk of gestation) of singleton pregnancies from the 3D cohort, a multicenter study in 2456 pregnant women in Quebec, Canada...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424055/how-participation-in-surgical-mortality-audit-impacts-surgical-practice
#20
Chi-Wai Lui, Frances M Boyle, Arkadiusz Peter Wysocki, Peter Baker, Alisha D'Souza, Sonya Faint, Therese Rey-Conde, John B North
BACKGROUND: Surgical mortality audit is an important tool for quality assurance and professional development but little is known about the impact of such activity on professional practice at the individual surgeon level. This paper reports the findings of a survey conducted with a self-selected cohort of surgeons in Queensland, Australia, on their experience of participating in the audit and its impact on their professional practice, as well as implications for hospital systems. METHODS: The study used a descriptive cross-sectional survey design...
April 19, 2017: BMC Surgery
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