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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148962/design-and-implementation-of-observational-studies-to-measure-disease-burden-with-a-focus-on-stroke
#1
George Howard, Virginia J Howard
Observational epidemiological studies have the dual goals of measuring disease burden and assessing the association between exposures and outcomes. This report focuses on the first of these goals and provides an overview of design considerations of commonly used approaches, specifically community surveillance studies, cross-sectional studies, and longitudinal cohort studies. Each of these designs has strengths and weaknesses, with no study design being superior in all cases. Rather, these designs are complementary to achieve a better understanding of the burden of stroke...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146097/descriptive-study-of-current-therapeutic-practices-clinical-reproductive-findings-and-incidence-of-pregnancy-loss-in-intensively-managed-thoroughbred-mares
#2
B V Rose, M Firth, B Morris, J M Roach, D C Wathes, K L P Verheyen, A M de Mestre
Therapeutic practices in equine reproductive medicine have dramatically evolved over the last 20 years but current usage is not described. The aims of this study were to provide a description of medication use and clinical findings of reproductive examinations alongside measures of reproductive efficiency in thoroughbreds. A prospective cohort study was conducted in the 2013 and 2014 breeding seasons. Mare and stallion details, information on veterinary interventions and findings of reproductive ultrasound scans were collected using questionnaires and entered into a custom-designed Microsoft Access database...
November 10, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145441/distinct-t-and-nk-cell-populations-may-serve-as-immune-correlates-of-protection-against-symptomatic-pandemic-influenza-a-h1n1-virus-infection-during-pregnancy
#3
Miloje Savic, Jennifer L Dembinski, Ida Laake, Olav Hungnes, Rebecca Cox, Fredrik Oftung, Lill Trogstad, Siri Mjaaland
Maternal influenza infection during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. However, the link between the anti-influenza immune responses and health-related risks during infection is not well understood. We have analyzed memory T and NK cell mediated immunity (CMI) responses in pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pdm09) virus infected non-vaccinated pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Influenza Pregnancy Cohort (NorFlu). The cohort includes information on immunization, self-reported health and disease status, and biological samples (plasma and PBMC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140481/excessive-burden-of-lysosomal-storage-disorder-gene-variants-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Laurie A Robak, Iris E Jansen, Jeroen van Rooij, André G Uitterlinden, Robert Kraaij, Joseph Jankovic, Peter Heutink, Joshua M Shulman
Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA), which cause Gaucher disease, are also potent risk factors for Parkinson's disease. We examined whether a genetic burden of variants in other lysosomal storage disorder genes is more broadly associated with Parkinson's disease susceptibility. The sequence kernel association test was used to interrogate variant burden among 54 lysosomal storage disorder genes, leveraging whole exome sequencing data from 1156 Parkinson's disease cases and 1679 control subjects. We discovered a significant burden of rare, likely damaging lysosomal storage disorder gene variants in association with Parkinson's disease risk...
November 13, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135103/impact-of-oncotype-dx-on-chemotherapy-assignment-a-retrospective-single-center-study-on-female-breast-cancer-patients
#5
Dimitris Panousis, Panagiota Ntasiou, Dimitris Grosomanidis, Konstantinos Chatzopoulos, Georgia Paraskevakou, Panagiota Kontogianni, Efstratia Charitidou, Grigoris Xepapadakis
PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine the Recurrence Score (RS) distribution and its associated risk assessments based on traditional clinicopathologic characteristics in a single-center breast cancer (BC) deriving cohort in Greece, and to evaluate the impact of the RS results on adjuvant treatment decisions applied in this cohort. METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-center study regarding Greek female patients with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC)...
September 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134169/age-and-tumor-volume-predict-growth-of-carotid-and-vagal-body-paragangliomas
#6
Berdine L Heesterman, Lisa M H de Pont, Berit M Verbist, Andel G L van der Mey, Eleonora P M Corssmit, Frederik J Hes, Peter Paul G van Benthem, Jeroen C Jansen
Objective  Treatment for head and neck paragangliomas (HNGPL) can be more harmful than the disease. After diagnosis, an initial period of surveillance is often indicated, and surgery or radiotherapy is reserved for progressive disease. With the aim to optimize this "wait and scan" strategy, we studied growth and possible predictors. Design  A retrospective cohort study was conducted. Setting  This study was conducted at a tertiary referral center for patients with HNGPL. Methods  Tumor volume was estimated for 184 SDHD -related carotid and vagal body paragangliomas using sequential magnetic resonance imaging...
December 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133776/tacrolimus-levels-are-not-associated-with-risk-of-malignancy-in-lung-transplant-recipients
#7
Benjamin Daniel Fox, Fadi Ashquar, Yael Raviv, Dror Rozengarten, Osnat Straichman, Shimon Izhakian, Mordechai Reuven Kramer
BACKGROUND Lung transplant (LTx) recipients suffer from high rates of malignancy. Exposure to immunosuppressive medication such as tacrolimus has been proposed as a risk factor for tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that chronically high levels of tacrolimus would be associated with risk of malignancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was performed in a transplant center in Israel, with a nested case-control design. Cases were LTx recipients who were diagnosed with any solid or hematological malignancy except non-melanoma skin cancer...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132984/penile-sparing-surgery-for-penile-cancer-a-multicenter-international-retrospective-cohort
#8
Adam Baumgarten, Juan Chipollini, Sylvia Yan, Sarah R Ottenhof, Dominic H Tang, Désirée Draeger, Chris Protzel, Yao Zhu, Ding-Wei Ye, Oliver W Hakenberg, Simon Horenblas, Nicholas A Watkin, Philippe E Spiess
PURPOSE: To evaluate recurrence outcomes of penile sparing surgery (PSS) in the largest multicenter cohort of patients to date. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients treated with PSS from May 1990 to July 2016 at five tertiary referral institutions. Treatments consisted of circumcision, wide local excision, laser therapy with or without local excision, partial or total glansectomy, and glans resurfacing. Primary endpoint was local recurrence free survival (LRFS) and defined from initial treatment to time of local recurrence and estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132797/cloaca-reconstruction-a-new-algorithm-which-considers-the-role-of-urethral-length-in-determining-surgical-planning
#9
Richard J Wood, Carlos A Reck-Burneo, Daniel Dajusta, Christina Ching, Rama Jayanthi, D Gregory Bates, Molly E Fuchs, Katherine McCracken, Geri Hewitt, Marc A Levitt
BACKGROUND: Cloacal malformations represent a uniquely complex challenge for surgeons. The surgical approach to date has been based on the common channel (CC) length with two patient groups considered: less than or greater than 3cm, which we believe is an oversimplification. We reviewed 19 patients, referred after surgery done elsewhere. Eight had postoperative urinary complications, 3 had constant urinary leakage and had been left after surgery with a urethra <1cm, .5 with an original 3 to 5cm common channel, who had undergone total urogenital mobilization (TUM), experienced peri-operative urethral loss needing a vesicostomy, and later, a Mitrofanoff...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129618/rotating-hinge-implants-for-complex-primary-and-revision-total-knee-arthroplasty
#10
Sean M Kearns, Brian M Culp, Daniel D Bohl, Scott M Sporer, Craig J Della Valle, Brett R Levine
BACKGROUND: Contemporary rotating hinge knee (RHK) prosthesis has shown improved survival rates over earlier generations. However, reports of high complication and mechanical failure rates highlight the need for more clinical outcome data in the complex primary and revision setting. The purpose of this study is to report our results of using a contemporary rotating hinge for complex primary and revision total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: Using a prospectively maintained surgical database, 79 knees in 76 patients who underwent an RHK of a single design for either a complex primary (14 knees) or revision total knee arthroplasty (65 knees) were identified...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128620/patients-with-schizophrenia-have-a-higher-risk-of-psoriasis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Patompong Ungprasert, Karn Wijarnpreecha, Wisit Cheungpasitporn
Recent studies have suggested an increased risk of psoriasis among patients with schizophrenia although the results are still inconclusive. This systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies that compared the risk psoriasis among patients with schizophrenia versus subjects without schizophrenia was conducted to better characterize the risk. Pooled relative risks and 95% confidence intervals from the included studies were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird...
November 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128525/respiratory-rehabilitation-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-narrative-review-of-rehabilitation-techniques
#12
REVIEW
J Levy, H Prigent, D Bensmail
BACKGROUND: Respiratory disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) are an important issue. They can occur early during the course of the disease, are associated with the neurological impairment, and can lead to pneumonia and respiratory failure, which are the main causes of death in advanced MS. Prevailing impaired expiratory muscles and cough abilities has been demonstrated in this population and might constitute a specific target for rehabilitation interventions. However, international guidelines lack recommendations regarding respiratory rehabilitation in MS...
November 8, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128460/misclassification-of-study-designs-in-the-dermatology-literature
#13
Jungyoon Ohn, Sang Jun Eun, Do-Yeop Kim, Hyun-Sun Park, Soyun Cho, Hyun-Sun Yoon
BACKGROUND: The appropriate classification of study designs is important for review and assessment of the relevant scientific literature as a basis for decision-making. However, little is known about whether study designs have been appropriately reported in the dermatology literature. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate the study designs in the dermatology literature and investigate discrepancies between author-reported and actual study designs. METHODS: We reviewed all issues of three major dermatology journals from January to December 2016...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126102/mirna-513a-5p-inhibits-progesterone-receptor-expression-and-constitutes-a-risk-factor-for-breast-cancer-the-ordet-prospective-study
#14
P Muti, S Donzelli, A Sacconi, A Hossain, F Ganci, T Frixa, S Sieri, V Krogh, F Berrino, F Biagioni, S Strano, J Beyene, Y Yarden, G Blandino
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) might be considered both predictors and players of cancer development. The aim of the present report was to investigate whether many years before the diagnosis of breast cancer miRNA expression is already disregulated. In order to test this hypothesis we compared miRNAs extracted from leukocytes in healthy women who later developed breast cancer and in women who remain healthy during the whole fifteen-year follow-up time. Accordantly, we used a case-control study design nested in the ORDET prospective cohort study addressing the possibility that miRNAs can serve as both early biomarkers and components of the hormonal etiological pathways leading to breast cancer development in premenopausal women...
November 4, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124053/contextual-factors-and-mastery-motivation-in-young-children-with-and-without-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#15
Hsiang-Han Huang, Tzu-Han Sun, Chia-I Lin, Yi-Ru Chen
Background: Mastery motivation is the driving force behind children's desire to explore the surrounding world and their comprehensive development. However, disease factors may lower a child's motivation and hamper development. The aim of this review is to examine mastery motivation in preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP) and the impact of contextual factors on mastery motivation. Methods: Six electronic databases were searched (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PsycINFO, Medline, and Airiti Library) using the keywords "Activity," "Cerebral Palsy," "Preschool," "Motivation," "Mastery motivation," "Gross motor," and "Toddler...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123860/diagnostic-accuracy-of-radiographs-for-detecting-supraglottitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Takashi Fujiwara, Toyohisa Miyata, Hironobu Tokumasu, Hiroko Gemba, Toshio Fukuoka
Aim: To assess the diagnostic performance of lateral radiograph of the neck for supraglottitis in adults and children. Methods: Electronic database searches (including PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform) were carried out through July 2014. Citations of included studies and recent narrative reviews were searched. Studies that compared lateral radiograph of the neck with a reference standard of direct/indirect laryngoscopy were included...
April 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123641/systematically-linking-transmart-galaxy-and-ega-for-reusing-human-translational-research-data
#17
Chao Zhang, Jochem Bijlard, Christine Staiger, Serena Scollen, David van Enckevort, Youri Hoogstrate, Alexander Senf, Saskia Hiltemann, Susanna Repo, Wibo Pipping, Mariska Bierkens, Stefan Payralbe, Bas Stringer, Jaap Heringa, Andrew Stubbs, Luiz Olavo Bonino Da Silva Santos, Jeroen Belien, Ward Weistra, Rita Azevedo, Kees van Bochove, Gerrit Meijer, Jan-Willem Boiten, Jordi Rambla, Remond Fijneman, J Dylan Spalding, Sanne Abeln
The availability of high-throughput molecular profiling techniques has provided more accurate and informative data for regular clinical studies. Nevertheless, complex computational workflows are required to interpret these data. Over the past years, the data volume has been growing explosively, requiring robust human data management to organise and integrate the data efficiently. For this reason, we set up an ELIXIR implementation study, together with the Translational research IT (TraIT) programme, to design a data ecosystem that is able to link raw and interpreted data...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122799/qualitative-study-to-understand-the-barriers-to-recruiting-young-people-with-cancer-to-brightlight-a-national-cohort-study-in-england
#18
Charlotte Kenten, Ana Martins, Lorna A Fern, Faith Gibson, Sarah Lea, Nothando Ngwenya, Jeremy S Whelan, Rachel M Taylor
OBJECTIVES: BRIGHTLIGHT is a national evaluation of cancer services for teenagers and young adults in England. Following challenges with recruitment, our aim was to understand more fully healthcare professionals' perspectives of the challenges of recruiting young people to a low-risk observational study, and to provide guidance for future recruitment processes. DESIGN: Qualitative. SETTING: National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in England...
November 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121063/malignancy-risk-estimation-of-pulmonary-nodules-in-screening-cts-comparison-between-a-computer-model-and-human-observers
#19
Sarah J van Riel, Francesco Ciompi, Mathilde M Winkler Wille, Asger Dirksen, Stephen Lam, Ernst Th Scholten, Santiago E Rossi, Nicola Sverzellati, Matiullah Naqibullah, Rianne Wittenberg, Marieke C Hovinga-de Boer, Miranda Snoeren, Liesbeth Peters-Bax, Onno Mets, Monique Brink, Mathias Prokop, Cornelia Schaefer-Prokop, Bram van Ginneken
PURPOSE: To compare human observers to a mathematically derived computer model for differentiation between malignant and benign pulmonary nodules detected on baseline screening computed tomography (CT) scans. METHODS: A case-cohort study design was chosen. The study group consisted of 300 chest CT scans from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST). It included all scans with proven malignancies (n = 62) and two subsets of randomly selected baseline scans with benign nodules of all sizes (n = 120) and matched in size to the cancers, respectively (n = 118)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117329/preterm-birth-associated-with-group-b-streptococcus-maternal-colonization-worldwide-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#20
Fiorella Bianchi-Jassir, Anna C Seale, Maya Kohli-Lynch, Joy E Lawn, Carol J Baker, Linda Bartlett, Clare Cutland, Michael G Gravett, Paul T Heath, Margaret Ip, Kirsty Le Doare, Shabir A Madhi, Samir K Saha, Stephanie Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Craig E Rubens
Background: Preterm birth complications are the leading cause of deaths among children <5 years of age. Studies have suggested that group B Streptococcus (GBS) maternal rectovaginal colonization during pregnancy may be a risk factor for preterm delivery. This article is the fifth of 11 in a series. We aimed to assess the association between GBS maternal colonization and preterm birth in order to inform estimates of the burden of GBS. Methods: We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS], World Health Organization Library Information System [WHOLIS], and Scopus) and sought unpublished data from investigator groups on the association of preterm birth (<37 weeks' gestation) and maternal GBS colonization (GBS isolation from vaginal, cervical, and/or rectal swabs; with separate subanalysis on GBS bacteriuria)...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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