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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914860/-new-opportunities-for-inhaled-therapy-for-inflammatory-diseases-of-the-respiratory-system
#1
G L Ignatova, V N Antonov
The paper considers current approaches to mucoregulatory therapy for various inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system. It gives the advantages and disadvantages of common drugs used in their treatment. Emphasis is laid on the use of inhaled hypertonic saline of NaCl in combination with hyaluronic acid (Hyaneb). Clinical examples of its use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute and chronic bronchitis, and severe asthma are considered.
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911045/azole-resistant-aspergillosis-epidemiology-molecular-mechanisms-and-treatment
#2
Anuradha Chowdhary, Cheshta Sharma, Jacques F Meis
Aspergillus fumigatus remains the most common species in all pulmonary syndromes, followed by Aspergillus flavus which is a common cause of allergic rhinosinusitis, postoperative aspergillosis and fungal keratitis. The manifestations of Aspergillus infections include invasive aspergillosis, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and bronchitis. Allergic manifestations of inhaled Aspergillus include allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitization. Triazoles are the mainstay of therapy against Aspergillus infections for treatment and prophylaxis...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901223/the-lymphatic-system-the-achilles-heel-of-the-fontan-kreutzer-circulation
#3
Christian Kreutzer, Guillermo Kreutzer
In spite of excellent long term survival the Fontan Kreutzer procedure commonly presents late failure due to end-organ damage. Several advances have been described to refine single ventricle management and surgical techniques. However, very little research has been dedicated to the lymphatic circulation in the precarious Fontan hemodynamic state. The lymphatic circulation is clearly affected since there is increased lymph production, which requires to be drained at a similar or higher pressure than it is produced, commonly resulting in chronic lymphedema...
September 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887201/reactive-oxygen-therapy-a-novel-antimicrobial
#4
REVIEW
Matthew Dryden
The main solution to the global antibiotic resistance crisis is reducing the volume of antibiotic use in medicine, agriculture and the environment. However there is also a pressing need for novel antimicrobials. Despite much rhetoric, there are few entirely novel agents in development. One such therapy to reach clinical use is an agent using Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), oxygen radicals, as an antimicrobial mechanism. ROS can be delivered to the site of infection in various formats. ROS is highly antimicrobial against Gram positive and negative bacteria, viruses and fungi...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884423/electronic-cigarette-use-in-us-adults-at-risk-for-or-with-copd-analysis-from-two-observational-cohorts
#5
Russell P Bowler, Nadia N Hansel, Sean Jacobson, R Graham Barr, Barry J Make, MeiLan K Han, Wanda K O'Neal, Elizabeth C Oelsner, Richard Casaburi, Igor Barjaktarevic, Chris Cooper, Marilyn Foreman, Robert A Wise, Dawn L DeMeo, Edwin K Silverman, William Bailey, Kathleen F Harrington, Prescott G Woodruff, M Bradley Drummond
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-operated nicotine-delivery devices used by some smokers as a cessation tool as well as by never smokers. OBJECTIVE: To determine the usage of e-cigarettes in older adults at risk for or with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DESIGN: Prospective cohorts. PARTICIPANTS: COPDGene (N = 3536) and SPIROMICS (N = 1060) subjects who were current or former smokers aged 45-80...
September 7, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877023/airway-mucin-concentration-as-a-marker-of-chronic-bronchitis
#6
Mehmet Kesimer, Amina A Ford, Agathe Ceppe, Giorgia Radicioni, Rui Cao, C William Davis, Claire M Doerschuk, Neil E Alexis, Wayne H Anderson, Ashley G Henderson, R Graham Barr, Eugene R Bleecker, Stephanie A Christenson, Christopher B Cooper, MeiLan K Han, Nadia N Hansel, Annette T Hastie, Eric A Hoffman, Richard E Kanner, Fernando Martinez, Robert Paine, Prescott G Woodruff, Wanda K O'Neal, Richard C Boucher
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic bronchitic and emphysematous components. In one biophysical model, the concentration of mucin on the airway surfaces is hypothesized to be a key variable that controls mucus transport in healthy persons versus cessation of transport in persons with muco-obstructive lung diseases. Under this model, it is postulated that a high mucin concentration produces the sputum and disease progression that are characteristic of chronic bronchitis...
September 7, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874823/role-of-smad3-and-p38-signalling-in-cigarette-smoke-induced-cftr-and-bk-dysfunction-in-primary-human-bronchial-airway-epithelial-cells
#7
Juliette Sailland, Astrid Grosche, Nathalie Baumlin, John S Dennis, Andreas Schmid, Stefanie Krick, Matthias Salathe
Mucociliary clearance (MCC) is a major airway host defence system that is impaired in patients with smoking-associated chronic bronchitis. This dysfunction is partially related to a decrease of airway surface liquid (ASL) volume that is in part regulated by apically expressed cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and large-conductance, Ca(2+)-activated, and voltage dependent K(+) (BK) channels. Here, data from human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) confirm that cigarette smoke not only downregulates CFTR activity but also inhibits BK channel function, thereby causing ASL depletion...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845873/-late-complications-of-fontan-operation
#8
Alessandro Frigiola, Mauro Lo Rito
Complex univentricular heart defects are treated with the Fontan operation that consists in the diversion of the systemic venous return to the pulmonary arteries. Currently, the operation is achieved through a staged approach and with the use of prosthetic extracardiac conduits to connect the inferior vena cava to the pulmonary arteries. The improvement of early and late survival allowed these patients to reach adulthood, although long-term complications remain a relevant problem. Most of the complications are caused by chronic systemic venous hypertension due to the lack of a pumping sub-pulmonary ventricle...
September 2017: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844810/-respiratory-diseases-in-black-african-carceral-area
#9
Y Toloba, D Soumaré, K Ouattara, T Kanouté, O Boré, O Dolo, B Baya, G Berthé, S Diallo
INTRODUCTION: The measures for people in specific situations such as prisoners are part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The objective of this study was to assess respiratory pathologies in a black African carceral center. METHODS: Retrospective study about the prevalence of respiratory pathologies in the arrest central house for men in Bamako (Mali), from May 2012 to April 2013. The admission records have served as data checking support on detainee's records...
August 24, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841881/reference-values-of-fractional-excretion-of-exhaled-nitric-oxide-among-non-smokers-and-current-smokers
#10
Kjell Torén, Nicola Murgia, Linus Schiöler, Björn Bake, Anna-Carin Olin
BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is used to assess of airway inflammation; diagnose asthma and monitor adherence to advised therapy. Reliable and accurate reference values for FENO are needed for both non-smoking and current smoking adults in the clinical setting. The present study was performed to establish reference adult FENO values among never-smokers, former smokers and current smokers. METHODS: FENO was measured in 5265 subjects aged 25-75 years in a general-population study, using a chemiluminescence (Niox ™) analyser according to the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society...
August 25, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831247/validity-of-physician-diagnosed-copd-in-relation-to-spirometric-definitions-of-copd-in-a-general-population-aged-50-64-years-the-scapis-pilot-study
#11
Kjell Torén, Nicola Murgia, Anna-Carin Olin, Jan Hedner, John Brandberg, Annika Rosengren, Göran Bergström
BACKGROUND: In epidemiological studies, items about physician-diagnosed COPD are often used. There is a lack of validation and standardization of these items. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a general population-based study, 1,050 subjects completed a questionnaire and performed spirometry, including forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) after inhalation of 400 µg of salbutamol. COPD was defined as the ratio of FEV1/FVC <0.7 after bronchodilation...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830839/the-potential-for-targeted-rewriting-of-epigenetic-marks-in-copd-as-a-new-therapeutic-approach
#12
REVIEW
Dan-Dan Wu, Juan Song, Sabine Bartel, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann, Marianne G Rots, Machteld N Hylkema
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an age and smoking related progressive, pulmonary disorder presenting with poorly reversible airflow limitation as a result of chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The prevalence, disease burden for the individual, and mortality of COPD continues to increase, whereas no effective treatment strategies are available. For many years now, a combination of bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory corticosteroids has been most widely used for therapeutic management of patients with persistent COPD...
August 19, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814949/physicians-views-on-the-role-of-smoking-in-smoking-related-diseases-findings-from-cross-sectional-studies-from-1982-2014-in-estonia
#13
Kersti Pärna, Mariliis Põld, Inge Ringmets
BACKGROUND: Previous reports have shown that physicians who smoke underestimate the effects of smoking on health and this influences their practice. This study was designed to investigate the views of Estonian physicians on the role of smoking in smoking-related diseases. METHODS: Cross-sectional postal surveys were sent to all practising physicians in Estonia in 1982, 2002 and 2014 providing data from 3504, 2694, and 2865 physicians respectively. Data analysis involved calculation of the prevalence of smoking with 95% confidence intervals and calculation of the prevalence of agreement with a causal role of smoking in ischaemic heart disease (IHD), lung cancer and chronic bronchitis...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814419/chronic-cough-postacute-respiratory-illness-in-children-a-cohort-study
#14
Kerry-Ann F O'Grady, Benjamin J Drescher, Vikas Goyal, Natalie Phillips, Jason Acworth, Julie M Marchant, Anne B Chang
OBJECTIVE: Data on the aetiology of persistent cough at the transitional stage from subacute to chronic cough (>4 weeks duration) are scarce. We aimed to (1) identify the prevalence of chronic cough following acute respiratory illness (ARI) and (2) determine the diagnostic outcomes of children with chronic cough. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A paediatric emergency department (ED) in Brisbane, Australia. PATIENTS: Children aged <15 years presenting with an ARI with cough...
August 16, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805194/-lung-cancer-and-copd-growing-clinical-problem
#15
EDITORIAL
Michal Tyl, Joanna Domagała-Kulawik
A spread of the addiction of tobacco smoking is valued on near 1 billion of people in the world, that involves growing number of morbidity and mortality by the reason of smoke related diseases. Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the most serious and incurable diseases which are leading to a permanent disability as well as to premature death. There are factors that naturally increase the vulnerability of an individual on the coincidence of above disorders, such as pathophysiological conditions, systemic inflammation, bronchitis, emphysema, respiratory obstructive disease and precise genetic predispositions for COPD and lung cancer...
July 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804700/abridged-version-of-the-awmf-guideline-for-the-medical-clinical-diagnostics-of-indoor-mould-exposure-s2k-guideline-of-the-german-society-of-hygiene-environmental-medicine-and-preventive-medicine-ghup-in-collaboration-with-the-german-association-of-allergists
#16
Gerhard A Wiesmüller, Birger Heinzow, Ute Aurbach, Karl-Christian Bergmann, Albrecht Bufe, Walter Buzina, Oliver A Cornely, Steffen Engelhart, Guido Fischer, Thomas Gabrio, Werner Heinz, Caroline E W Herr, Jörg Kleine-Tebbe, Ludger Klimek, Martin Köberle, Herbert Lichtnecker, Thomas Lob-Corzilius, Rolf Merget, Norbert Mülleneisen, Dennis Nowak, Uta Rabe, Monika Raulf, Hans Peter Seidl, Jens-Oliver Steiß, Regine Szewszyk, Peter Thomas, Kerttu Valtanen, Julia Hurraß
This article is an abridged version of the AWMF mould guideline "Medical clinical diagnostics of indoor mould exposure" presented in April 2016 by the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventive Medicine (Gesellschaft für Hygiene, Umweltmedizin und Präventivmedizin, GHUP), in collaboration with the above-mentioned scientific medical societies, German and Austrian societies, medical associations and experts. Indoor mould growth is a potential health risk, even if a quantitative and/or causal relationship between the occurrence of individual mould species and health problems has yet to be established...
2017: Allergo Journal International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802586/nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-nthi-directly-interfere-with-the-regulation-of-e-cadherin-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#17
Inga Kaufhold, Sünja Osbahr, Kensuke Shima, Sebastian Marwitz, Kristina Rohmann, Daniel Drömann, Torsten Goldmann, Klaus Dalhoff, Jan Rupp
Loss of epithelial barriers characterized by reduction of E-cadherin is a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated the effects of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) infections, associated with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, on the regulation of E-cadherin in host cells. NTHi infection decreased E-cadherin mRNA and protein-levels in lung epithelial cells. E-cadherin reduction was mediated by activation of the fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Slug...
August 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801407/the-boundaries-of-mild-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-design-of-the-searching-clinical-copd-onset-soon-study
#18
Gonzalo Labarca, Andrea Bustamante, Gonzalo Valdivia, Rodrigo Díaz, Álvaro Huete, Paul Mac Nab, Laura Mendoza, Jaime Leppe, Carmen Lisboa, Fernando Saldías, Orlando Díaz
INTRODUCTION: Clinical onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the point at which the disease is first identifiable by physicians. It is a poorly defined stage which seems to include both mild spirometric and non-spirometric disease, and could be described as early grade COPD, for practical purposes. While dyspnoea; chronic bronchitis and CT imaging evidence of emphysema and airway disease may be present very early, the lone significance of dyspnoea, the most relevant symptom in COPD in identifying these individuals, has been scarcely assessed...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798087/epidemiology-and-impact-of-chronic-bronchitis-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#19
Lies Lahousse, Leen J M Seys, Guy F Joos, Oscar H Franco, Bruno H Stricker, Guy G Brusselle
Research on the association between chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations has led to discordant results. Furthermore, the impact of chronic bronchitis on mortality in COPD subjects is unclear.Within the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort study of subjects aged ≥45 years, chronic bronchitis was defined as having a productive cough for ≥3 months per year for two consecutive years. Linear, logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models were adjusted for age, sex and pack-years...
August 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790809/clinical-characteristics-of-chronic-bronchitic-emphysematous-and-acos-phenotypes-in-copd-patients-with-frequent-exacerbations
#20
Yusheng Cheng, Xiongwen Tu, Linlin Pan, Shuai Lu, Ming Xing, Linlin Li, Xingwu Chen
PURPOSE: Chronic bronchitis (CB), emphysematous (EM) and asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) phenotypes in COPD are well recognized. This study aimed to investigate distinguishing characteristics of these phenotypes in COPD patients with frequent exacerbations (FE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out. COPD patients with acute exacerbations were consecutively reviewed from November 2015 to October 2016...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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