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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209733/dual-function-of-tgf%C3%AE-in-lens-epithelial-cell-fate-implications-for-secondary-cataract
#1
Bruce A Boswell, Anna Korol, Judith A West-Mays, Linda S Musil
The most common vision-disrupting complication of cataract surgery is posterior capsule opacification (PCO; secondary cataract). PCO is caused by residual lens cells undergoing one of two very different cell fates: either transdifferentiating into myofibroblasts, or maturing into lens fiber cells. Although TGFβ has been strongly implicated in lens cell fibrosis, the factors responsible for the latter process have not been identified. We show here for the first time that TGFβ can induce purified primary lens epithelial cells within the same culture to undergo differentiation into either lens fiber cells or myofibroblasts...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158114/separation-of-foreground-and-background-from-light-field-using-gradient-information
#2
Jae Young Lee, Rae-Hong Park
Studies of computer vision or machine vision applications using a light field camera have been increasing in recent years. However, the abilities that the light field camera has are not fully used in these applications. In this paper, we propose a method for direct separation of foreground and background that uses the gradient information and can be used in various applications such as pre-processing. From an optical phenomenon whereby the bundles of rays from the background are flipped, we derive that the disparity sign of the background in the captured three-dimensional scene has the opposite disparity sign of the foreground...
February 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135308/individual-objective-and-subjective-fixation-disparity-in-near-vision
#3
Wolfgang Jaschinski
Binocular vision refers to the integration of images in the two eyes for improved visual performance and depth perception. One aspect of binocular vision is the fixation disparity, which is a suboptimal condition in individuals with respect to binocular eye movement control and subsequent neural processing. The objective fixation disparity refers to the vergence angle between the visual axes, which is measured with eye trackers. Subjective fixation disparity is tested with two monocular nonius lines which indicate the physical nonius separation required for perceived alignment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125399/prevalence-of-cancer-screening-among-adults-with-disabilities-united-states-2013
#4
C Brooke Steele, Julie S Townsend, Elizabeth A Courtney-Long, Monique Young
INTRODUCTION: Many studies on cancer screening among adults with disabilities examined disability status only, which masks subgroup differences. We examined prevalence of receipt of cancer screening tests by disability status and type. METHODS: We used 2013 National Health Interview Survey data to assess prevalence of 1) guideline-concordant mammography, Papanicolaou (Pap) tests, and endoscopy and stool tests; 2) physicians' recommendations for these tests; and 3) barriers to health-care access among adults with and without disabilities (defined as difficulty with cognition, hearing, vision, or mobility)...
January 26, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044013/contributions-of-low-and-high-level-properties-to-neural-processing-of-visual-scenes-in-the-human-brain
#5
REVIEW
Iris I A Groen, Edward H Silson, Chris I Baker
Visual scene analysis in humans has been characterized by the presence of regions in extrastriate cortex that are selectively responsive to scenes compared with objects or faces. While these regions have often been interpreted as representing high-level properties of scenes (e.g. category), they also exhibit substantial sensitivity to low-level (e.g. spatial frequency) and mid-level (e.g. spatial layout) properties, and it is unclear how these disparate findings can be united in a single framework. In this opinion piece, we suggest that this problem can be resolved by questioning the utility of the classical low- to high-level framework of visual perception for scene processing, and discuss why low- and mid-level properties may be particularly diagnostic for the behavioural goals specific to scene perception as compared to object recognition...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009479/how-phylogeny-and-foraging-ecology-drive-the-level-of-chemosensory-exploration-in-lizards-and-snakes
#6
Simon Baeckens, Raoul Van Damme, William E Cooper
The chemical senses are crucial for squamates (lizards and snakes). The extent to which squamates utilize their chemosensory system, however, varies greatly among taxa and species' foraging strategies, and played an influential role in squamate evolution. In lizards, Scleroglossa evolved a state where species use chemical cues to search for food (active-foragers), while Iguania retained the use of vision to hunt prey (ambush-foragers). However, such strict dichotomy is flawed since shifts in foraging modes have occurred in all clades...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888559/ten-year-all-cause-mortality-and-its-association-with-vision-among-indigenous-australians-within-central-australia-the-central-australian-ocular-health-study
#7
Ebony Liu, Soo K Ng, Shyalle Kahawita, Nicholas H Andrew, Tim Henderson, Jamie E Craig, John Landers
BACKGROUND: No studies to date have explored the association of vision with mortality in Indigenous Australians. We aimed to determine the 10-year all-cause mortality and its associations among Indigenous Australians living in central Australia. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study PARTICIPANTS: 1257 (93.0%) out of 1347 patients from The Central Australian Ocular Health Study, over the age of 40 years, were available for follow up during a 10-year period...
November 26, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871871/paleoparasitological-analysis-of-the-extinct-myotragus-balearicus-bate-1909-artiodactyla-caprinae-from-mallorca-balearic-islands-western-mediterranean
#8
Victor Hugo Borba Nunes, Josep Antoni Alcover, Valmir Laurentino Silva, Paula Borba Cruz, José Roberto Machado-Silva, Adauto José Gonçalves de Araújo
Myotragus balearicus (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) is an extinct caprine endemic of the Eastern Balearic Islands or Gymnesics (i.e., Mallorca, Menorca and surrounding islets, Western Mediterranean Sea). In spite of its small size, c. 50cm height at the shoulder, it was the largest mammal inhabiting these islands until the human arrival, and it had peculiar short legs and frontal vision. It disappeared between 2830 and 2210calBCE. The coprolites here studied were recovered from Cova Estreta, in Pollença, Mallorca...
April 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870721/differences-in-health-care-needs-health-care-utilization-and-health-care-outcomes-among-children-with-special-health-care-needs-in-ohio-a-comparative-analysis-between-medicaid-and-private-insurance
#9
Madhurima Sarkar, Elizabeth R Earley, Lindsey Asti, Deena J Chisolm
OBJECTIVE: This study explores comparative differentials in health care needs, health care utilization, and health status between Medicaid and private/employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) among a statewide population of children with special health care needs (CSHCN) in Ohio. METHODS: We used data from the 2012 Ohio Medicaid Assessment Survey to examine CSHCN's health care needs, utilization, status, and health outcomes by insurance type. Adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore associations between public and private health insurance, as well as the utilization and health outcome variables...
January 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863843/score2-report-2-study-design-and-baseline-characteristics
#10
Ingrid U Scott, Paul C VanVeldhuisen, Michael S Ip, Barbara A Blodi, Neal L Oden, Maria Figueroa, Pravin U Dugel
PURPOSE: To describe the design and baseline characteristics of participants in the Study of COmparative Treatments for REtinal Vein Occlusion 2 (SCORE2) and to compare with cohorts from other retinal vein occlusion trials. DESIGN: Phase III prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial designed to assess whether intravitreal bevacizumab is noninferior to intravitreal aflibercept for treatment of decreased vision attributable to macular edema associated with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) or hemiretinal vein occlusion (HRVO)...
February 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846341/avoiding-monocular-artifacts-in-clinical-stereotests-presented-on-column-interleaved-digital-stereoscopic-displays
#11
Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza, Kathleen Vancleef, Jenny C A Read
New forms of stereoscopic 3-D technology offer vision scientists new opportunities for research, but also come with distinct problems. Here we consider autostereo displays where the two eyes' images are spatially interleaved in alternating columns of pixels and no glasses or special optics are required. Column-interleaved displays produce an excellent stereoscopic effect, but subtle changes in the angle of view can increase cross talk or even interchange the left and right eyes' images. This creates several challenges to the presentation of cyclopean stereograms (containing structure which is only detectable by binocular vision)...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837258/accumulation-and-decay-of-visual-capture-and-the-ventriloquism-aftereffect-caused-by-brief-audio-visual-disparities
#12
Adam K Bosen, Justin T Fleming, Paul D Allen, William E O'Neill, Gary D Paige
Visual capture and the ventriloquism aftereffect resolve spatial disparities of incongruent auditory visual (AV) objects by shifting auditory spatial perception to align with vision. Here, we demonstrated the distinct temporal characteristics of visual capture and the ventriloquism aftereffect in response to brief AV disparities. In a set of experiments, subjects localized either the auditory component of AV targets (A within AV) or a second sound presented at varying delays (1-20 s) after AV exposure (A2 after AV)...
February 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832268/an-active-efficient-coding-model-of-optokinetic-nystagmus
#13
Chong Zhang, Jochen Triesch, Bertram E Shi
Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) is an involuntary eye movement responsible for stabilizing retinal images in the presence of relative motion between an observer and the environment. Fully understanding the development of OKN requires a neurally plausible computational model that accounts for the neural development and the behavior. To date, work in this area has been limited. We propose a neurally plausible framework for the joint development of disparity and motion tuning in the visual cortex and of optokinetic and vergence eye-movement behavior...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815630/comparison-of-congruence-judgment-and-auditory-localization-tasks-for-assessing-the-spatial-limits-of-visual-capture
#14
Adam K Bosen, Justin T Fleming, Sarah E Brown, Paul D Allen, William E O'Neill, Gary D Paige
Vision typically has better spatial accuracy and precision than audition and as a result often captures auditory spatial perception when visual and auditory cues are presented together. One determinant of visual capture is the amount of spatial disparity between auditory and visual cues: when disparity is small, visual capture is likely to occur, and when disparity is large, visual capture is unlikely. Previous experiments have used two methods to probe how visual capture varies with spatial disparity. First, congruence judgment assesses perceived unity between cues by having subjects report whether or not auditory and visual targets came from the same location...
December 2016: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802486/the-relationship-between-fusion-suppression-and-diplopia-in-normal-and-amblyopic-vision
#15
Daniel P Spiegel, Alex S Baldwin, Robert F Hess
Purpose: Single vision occurs through a combination of fusion and suppression. When neither mechanism takes place, we experience diplopia. Under normal viewing conditions, the perceptual state depends on the spatial scale and interocular disparity. The purpose of this study was to examine the three perceptual states in human participants with normal and amblyopic vision. Methods: Participants viewed two dichoptically separated horizontal blurred edges with an opposite tilt (2...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777425/quantitative-analysis-of-the-effects-of-a-bangerter-filter-on-gross-stereopsis-in-experimental-models-of-reduced-visual-acuity
#16
Manabu Miyata, Ryuichi Nakahara, Ichiro Hamasaki, Satoshi Hasebe, Takashi Furuse, Hiroshi Ohtsuki
Although a 0.3 Bangerter filter, which reduces visual acuity, is frequently used for treating moderate amblyopia, the effects on gross stereopsis are not well known. This study quantitatively evaluated whether gross stereopsis is degraded by a Bangerter filter. Seven healthy subjects (median age: 29 years) participated in this psychophysical study. Targets with crossed disparities of 1°, 2°, 3°, 4°, and 5° were randomly presented on a three-dimensional television display. The subjects indicated the point at which the targets popped out from the television screen (matching method)...
October 2016: Acta Medica Okayama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753806/ssa-03-1-prevalence-and-management-of-hypertension-in-southeast-asia
#17
Rafael Castillo
: Similar to the trend worldwide, hypertension (HTN) is also the single most attributable cause for mortality in South-East Asia (SEA). But while in developed regions, the prevalence of HTN appears to be stabilizing or decreasing, the rates in SEA continue to rise. Around a third of the adult population in SEA have elevated blood pressure (BP) with nearly 1.5 million deaths (9.4% of total deaths) attributable to HTN annually.In several countries in SEA, awareness level of HTN is less than 50% but in the more affluent countries in the region, awareness ranges from 56% to 70%...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736837/unmet-needs-for-ancillary-services-among-hispanics-latinos-receiving-hiv-medical-care-united-states-2013-2014
#18
Lauren C Korhonen, Nicholas P DeGroote, R Luke Shouse, Linda A Valleroy, Joseph Prejean, Heather Bradley
The prevalence of diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Hispanics/Latinos in the United States is more than twice as high as the prevalence among non-Hispanic whites (1). Services that support retention in HIV medical care and assist with day-to-day living, referred to here as ancillary services, help persons living with HIV access HIV medical care, adhere to HIV treatment, and attain HIV viral suppression. The needs for these ancillary services among Hispanics/Latinos are not well described (2)...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736626/improving-maternity-services-for-indigenous-women-in-australia-moving-from-policy-to-practice
#19
Sue Kildea, Sally Tracy, Juanita Sherwood, Fleur Magick-Dennis, Lesley Barclay
The well established disparities in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include a significant and concerning higher incidence of preterm birth, low birth weight and newborn mortality. Chronic diseases (eg, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease) that are prevalent in Indigenous Australian adults have their genesis in utero and in early life. Applying interventions during pregnancy and early life that aim to improve maternal and infant health is likely to have long lasting consequences, as recognised by Australia's National Maternity Services Plan (NMSP), which set out a 5-year vision for 2010-2015 that was endorsed by all governments (federal and state and territory)...
October 17, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690160/the-perceived-depth-from-disparity-as-function-of-luminance-contrast
#20
Pei-Yin Chen, Chien-Chung Chen, Christopher W Tyler
Does human vision show the contrast invariance expected of an ideal stereoscopic system for computing depth from disparity? We used random-dot stereograms to investigate the luminance contrast effect on perceived depth from disparity. The perceived depth of disparity corrugations was measured by adjusting the length of a horizontal line to match the perceived depth of the corrugations at various luminance contrasts. At each contrast, the perceived depth increased with disparity up to a critical value, decreasing with further increases in disparity...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
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