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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428050/socioeconomic-disparity-in-global-burden-of-cataract-an-analysis-for-2013-with-time-trends-since-1990
#1
Lixia Lou, Jingyi Wang, Peifang Xu, Xin Ye, Juan Ye
PURPOSE: To assess socioeconomic disparity in global burden of cataract, by using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). DESIGN: International, comparative burden-of-disease study. METHODS: Published data on national age-standardized DALY rates caused by cataract and human development index (HDI) between 1990 and 2013 were obtained. The association between age-standardized DALY rates and HDI in 2013 was analyzed. The health-related Gini coefficients and the concentration indexes were calculated to explore the trends in between-country inequality in cataract burden from 1990 to 2013...
April 17, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350382/a-dataset-of-stereoscopic-images-and-ground-truth-disparity-mimicking-human-fixations-in-peripersonal-space
#2
Andrea Canessa, Agostino Gibaldi, Manuela Chessa, Marco Fato, Fabio Solari, Silvio P Sabatini
Binocular stereopsis is the ability of a visual system, belonging to a live being or a machine, to interpret the different visual information deriving from two eyes/cameras for depth perception. From this perspective, the ground-truth information about three-dimensional visual space, which is hardly available, is an ideal tool both for evaluating human performance and for benchmarking machine vision algorithms. In the present work, we implemented a rendering methodology in which the camera pose mimics realistic eye pose for a fixating observer, thus including convergent eye geometry and cyclotorsion...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317909/the-active-side-of-stereopsis-fixation-strategy-and-adaptation-to-natural-environments
#3
Agostino Gibaldi, Andrea Canessa, Silvio P Sabatini
Depth perception in near viewing strongly relies on the interpretation of binocular retinal disparity to obtain stereopsis. Statistical regularities of retinal disparities have been claimed to greatly impact on the neural mechanisms that underlie binocular vision, both to facilitate perceptual decisions and to reduce computational load. In this paper, we designed a novel and unconventional approach in order to assess the role of fixation strategy in conditioning the statistics of retinal disparity. We integrated accurate realistic three-dimensional models of natural scenes with binocular eye movement recording, to obtain accurate ground-truth statistics of retinal disparity experienced by a subject in near viewing...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293777/engaging-parents-in-preventive-interventions-for-young-children-working-with-cultural-diversity-within-low-income-urban-neighborhoods
#4
Spring Dawson-McClure, Esther J Calzada, Laurie M Brotman
A robust literature documents the impact of poverty on child development and lifelong health, well-being and productivity. Racial and ethnic minority children continue to bear the burden of poverty disproportionately. Evidence-based parenting interventions in early childhood have the potential to attenuate risk attributable to poverty and stress. To reduce racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in the USA, parenting interventions must be accessible, engaging, and effective for low-income families of color living in large urban centers...
March 14, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272810/deep-learning-for-computational-chemistry
#5
REVIEW
Garrett B Goh, Nathan O Hodas, Abhinav Vishnu
The rise and fall of artificial neural networks is well documented in the scientific literature of both computer science and computational chemistry. Yet almost two decades later, we are now seeing a resurgence of interest in deep learning, a machine learning algorithm based on multilayer neural networks. Within the last few years, we have seen the transformative impact of deep learning in many domains, particularly in speech recognition and computer vision, to the extent that the majority of expert practitioners in those field are now regularly eschewing prior established models in favor of deep learning models...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269809/occupational-safety-and-health-professionals-work-ability-concept-perception-and-comprehension-of-regulations
#6
Abdulqadir Mohamad Suleiman
BACKGROUND: Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) professionals are key players in workplace regulation compliance and promotion of health. OBJECTIVES: To assess OSH professionals' perceptions of the concept of work ability in an attempt to explain the varied, and in some cases failure of, implementation of regulations and policies. METHOD: An electronic questionnaire sent to approved Occupational Health Services (OHS) in Norway asked several questions, including one on the concept of work ability...
February 28, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258716/functional-interactions-between-the-macaque-dorsal-and-ventral-visual-pathways-during-three-dimensional-object-vision
#7
REVIEW
Peter Janssen, Bram-Ernst Verhoef, Elsie Premereur
The division of labor between the dorsal and the ventral visual stream in the primate brain has inspired numerous studies on the visual system in humans and in nonhuman primates. However, how and under which circumstances the two visual streams interact is still poorly understood. Here we review evidence from anatomy, modelling, electrophysiology, electrical microstimulation (EM), reversible inactivation and functional imaging in the macaque monkey aimed at clarifying at which levels in the hierarchy of visual areas the two streams interact, and what type of information might be exchanged between the two streams during three-dimensional (3D) object viewing...
February 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241508/accelerators-sparking-innovation-and-transdisciplinary-team-science-in-disparities-research
#8
Carol R Horowitz, Khader Shameer, Janice Gabrilove, Ashish Atreja, Peggy Shepard, Crispin N Goytia, Geoffrey W Smith, Joel Dudley, Rachel Manning, Nina A Bickell, Maida P Galvez
Development and implementation of effective, sustainable, and scalable interventions that advance equity could be propelled by innovative and inclusive partnerships. Readied catalytic frameworks that foster communication, collaboration, a shared vision, and transformative translational research across scientific and non-scientific divides are needed to foster rapid generation of novel solutions to address and ultimately eliminate disparities. To achieve this, we transformed and expanded a community-academic board into a translational science board with members from public, academic and private sectors...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219027/do-u-s-states-socioeconomic-and-policy-contexts-shape-adult-disability
#9
Jennifer Karas Montez, Mark D Hayward, Douglas A Wolf
Growing disparities in adult mortality across U.S. states point to the importance of assessing disparities in other domains of health. Here, we estimate state-level differences in disability, and draw on the WHO socio-ecological framework to assess the role of ecological factors in explaining these differences. Our study is based on data from 5.5 million adults aged 25-94 years in the 2010-2014 waves of the American Community Survey. Disability is defined as difficulty with mobility, independent living, self-care, vision, hearing, or cognition...
April 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209733/dual-function-of-tgf%C3%AE-in-lens-epithelial-cell-fate-implications-for-secondary-cataract
#10
Bruce A Boswell, Anna Korol, Judith A West-Mays, Linda S Musil
The most common vision-disrupting complication of cataract surgery is posterior capsule opacification (PCO; secondary cataract). PCO is caused by residual lens cells undergoing one of two very different cell fates: either transdifferentiating into myofibroblasts or maturing into lens fiber cells. Although TGFβ has been strongly implicated in lens cell fibrosis, the factors responsible for the latter process have not been identified. We show here for the first time that TGFβ can induce purified primary lens epithelial cells within the same culture to undergo differentiation into either lens fiber cells or myofibroblasts...
April 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158114/separation-of-foreground-and-background-from-light-field-using-gradient-information
#11
Jae Young Lee, Rae-Hong Park
Studies of computer vision or machine vision applications using a light field camera have been increasing in recent years. However, the abilities that the light field camera has are not fully used in these applications. In this paper, we propose a method for direct separation of foreground and background that uses the gradient information and can be used in various applications such as pre-processing. From an optical phenomenon whereby the bundles of rays from the background are flipped, we derive that the disparity sign of the background in the captured three-dimensional scene has the opposite disparity sign of the foreground...
February 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135308/individual-objective-and-subjective-fixation-disparity-in-near-vision
#12
Wolfgang Jaschinski
Binocular vision refers to the integration of images in the two eyes for improved visual performance and depth perception. One aspect of binocular vision is the fixation disparity, which is a suboptimal condition in individuals with respect to binocular eye movement control and subsequent neural processing. The objective fixation disparity refers to the vergence angle between the visual axes, which is measured with eye trackers. Subjective fixation disparity is tested with two monocular nonius lines which indicate the physical nonius separation required for perceived alignment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125399/prevalence-of-cancer-screening-among-adults-with-disabilities-united-states-2013
#13
C Brooke Steele, Julie S Townsend, Elizabeth A Courtney-Long, Monique Young
INTRODUCTION: Many studies on cancer screening among adults with disabilities examined disability status only, which masks subgroup differences. We examined prevalence of receipt of cancer screening tests by disability status and type. METHODS: We used 2013 National Health Interview Survey data to assess prevalence of 1) guideline-concordant mammography, Papanicolaou (Pap) tests, and endoscopy and stool tests; 2) physicians' recommendations for these tests; and 3) barriers to health-care access among adults with and without disabilities (defined as difficulty with cognition, hearing, vision, or mobility)...
January 26, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044013/contributions-of-low-and-high-level-properties-to-neural-processing-of-visual-scenes-in-the-human-brain
#14
REVIEW
Iris I A Groen, Edward H Silson, Chris I Baker
Visual scene analysis in humans has been characterized by the presence of regions in extrastriate cortex that are selectively responsive to scenes compared with objects or faces. While these regions have often been interpreted as representing high-level properties of scenes (e.g. category), they also exhibit substantial sensitivity to low-level (e.g. spatial frequency) and mid-level (e.g. spatial layout) properties, and it is unclear how these disparate findings can be united in a single framework. In this opinion piece, we suggest that this problem can be resolved by questioning the utility of the classical low- to high-level framework of visual perception for scene processing, and discuss why low- and mid-level properties may be particularly diagnostic for the behavioural goals specific to scene perception as compared to object recognition...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009479/how-phylogeny-and-foraging-ecology-drive-the-level-of-chemosensory-exploration-in-lizards-and-snakes
#15
S Baeckens, R Van Damme, W E Cooper
The chemical senses are crucial for squamates (lizards and snakes). The extent to which squamates utilize their chemosensory system, however, varies greatly among taxa and species' foraging strategies, and played an influential role in squamate evolution. In lizards, 'Scleroglossa' evolved a state where species use chemical cues to search for food (active foragers), whereas 'Iguania' retained the use of vision to hunt prey (ambush foragers). However, such strict dichotomy is flawed as shifts in foraging modes have occurred in all clades...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888559/ten-year-all-cause-mortality-and-its-association-with-vision-among-indigenous-australians-within-central-australia-the-central-australian-ocular-health-study
#16
Ebony Liu, Soo K Ng, Shyalle Kahawita, Nicholas H Andrew, Tim Henderson, Jamie E Craig, John Landers
BACKGROUND: No studies to date have explored the association of vision with mortality in Indigenous Australians. We aimed to determine the 10-year all-cause mortality and its associations among Indigenous Australians living in central Australia. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study PARTICIPANTS: 1257 (93.0%) out of 1347 patients from The Central Australian Ocular Health Study, over the age of 40 years, were available for follow up during a 10-year period...
November 26, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871871/paleoparasitological-analysis-of-the-extinct-myotragus-balearicus-bate-1909-artiodactyla-caprinae-from-mallorca-balearic-islands-western-mediterranean
#17
Victor Hugo Borba Nunes, Josep Antoni Alcover, Valmir Laurentino Silva, Paula Borba Cruz, José Roberto Machado-Silva, Adauto José Gonçalves de Araújo
Myotragus balearicus (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) is an extinct caprine endemic of the Eastern Balearic Islands or Gymnesics (i.e., Mallorca, Menorca and surrounding islets, Western Mediterranean Sea). In spite of its small size, c. 50cm height at the shoulder, it was the largest mammal inhabiting these islands until the human arrival, and it had peculiar short legs and frontal vision. It disappeared between 2830 and 2210calBCE. The coprolites here studied were recovered from Cova Estreta, in Pollença, Mallorca...
April 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870721/differences-in-health-care-needs-health-care-utilization-and-health-care-outcomes-among-children-with-special-health-care-needs-in-ohio-a-comparative-analysis-between-medicaid-and-private-insurance
#18
Madhurima Sarkar, Elizabeth R Earley, Lindsey Asti, Deena J Chisolm
OBJECTIVE: This study explores comparative differentials in health care needs, health care utilization, and health status between Medicaid and private/employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) among a statewide population of children with special health care needs (CSHCN) in Ohio. METHODS: We used data from the 2012 Ohio Medicaid Assessment Survey to examine CSHCN's health care needs, utilization, status, and health outcomes by insurance type. Adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore associations between public and private health insurance, as well as the utilization and health outcome variables...
January 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863843/score2-report-2-study-design-and-baseline-characteristics
#19
Ingrid U Scott, Paul C VanVeldhuisen, Michael S Ip, Barbara A Blodi, Neal L Oden, Maria Figueroa, Pravin U Dugel
PURPOSE: To describe the design and baseline characteristics of participants in the Study of COmparative Treatments for REtinal Vein Occlusion 2 (SCORE2) and to compare with cohorts from other retinal vein occlusion trials. DESIGN: Phase III prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial designed to assess whether intravitreal bevacizumab is noninferior to intravitreal aflibercept for treatment of decreased vision attributable to macular edema associated with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) or hemiretinal vein occlusion (HRVO)...
February 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846341/avoiding-monocular-artifacts-in-clinical-stereotests-presented-on-column-interleaved-digital-stereoscopic-displays
#20
Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza, Kathleen Vancleef, Jenny C A Read
New forms of stereoscopic 3-D technology offer vision scientists new opportunities for research, but also come with distinct problems. Here we consider autostereo displays where the two eyes' images are spatially interleaved in alternating columns of pixels and no glasses or special optics are required. Column-interleaved displays produce an excellent stereoscopic effect, but subtle changes in the angle of view can increase cross talk or even interchange the left and right eyes' images. This creates several challenges to the presentation of cyclopean stereograms (containing structure which is only detectable by binocular vision)...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
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