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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323133/the-effect-of-image-position-on-the-independent-components-of-natural-binocular-images
#1
David W Hunter, Paul B Hibbard
Human visual performance degrades substantially as the angular distance from the fovea increases. This decrease in performance is found for both binocular and monocular vision. Although analysis of the statistics of natural images has provided significant insights into human visual processing, little research has focused on the statistical content of binocular images at eccentric angles. We applied Independent Component Analysis to rectangular image patches cut from locations within binocular images corresponding to different degrees of eccentricity...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248668/comparison-for-younger-and-older-adults-stimulus-temporal-asynchrony-modulates-audiovisual-integration
#2
Yanna Ren, Yanling Ren, Weiping Yang, Xiaoyu Tang, Fengxia Wu, Qiong Wu, Satoshi Takahashi, Yoshimichi Ejima, Jinglong Wu
Recent research has shown that the magnitudes of responses to multisensory information are highly dependent on the stimulus structure. The temporal proximity of multiple signal inputs is a critical determinant for cross-modal integration. Here, we investigated the influence that temporal asynchrony has on audiovisual integration in both younger and older adults using event-related potentials (ERP). Our results showed that in the simultaneous audiovisual condition, except for the earliest integration (80-110ms), which occurred in the occipital region for older adults was absent for younger adults, early integration was similar for the younger and older groups...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248618/understanding-international-road-safety-disparities-why-is-australia-so-much-safer-than-the-united-states
#3
Wesley E Marshall
Despite similarities to the US in terms of transportation, land use, and culture, Australia kills 5.3 people per 100,000 population on the roads each year, as compared to the US rate of 12.4. Similar trends hold when accounting for distance driven and the number of registered cars. This paper seeks to understand what is behind the road safety disparities between these two countries. The results suggest that a number of inter-related factors seem to play a role in the better road safety outcomes of Australia as compared to the US...
December 14, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232345/factors-associated-with-lack-of-vision-improvement-in-children-with-cortical-visual-impairment
#4
Swati Handa, Seyed E Saffari, Mark Borchert
BACKGROUND: Improvement in vision has been noted in children with cortical visual impairment (CVI), resulting from disparate types of brain injury. The purpose of our study was to determine the risk factors associated with poor recovery of vision in this group of patients. METHODS: Case records of children who were born before 2010 with at least 4 follow-up visits for CVI were reviewed for underlying etiologies of CVI, visual acuity (VA), and associated neurological and ophthalmological disorders...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202651/why-equity-in-health-and-in-access-to-health-care-are-elusive-insights-from-canada-and-south-africa
#5
Solomon Benatar, Terrence Sullivan, Adalsteinn Brown
Health and access to health care vary strikingly across the globe, and debates about this have been pervasive and controversial. Some comparative data in Canada and South Africa illustrate the complexity of achieving greater equity anywhere, even in a wealthy country like Canada. Potential bi-directional lessons relevant both to local and global public health are identified. Both countries should consider the implications of lost opportunity costs associated with lack of explicit resource allocation policies...
December 4, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195760/disparities-in-knowledge-about-the-health-effects-of-smoking-among-adolescents-following-the-release-of-new-pictorial-health-warning-labels
#6
Tara Elton-Marshall, Rochelle Wijesingha, Ryan David Kennedy, David Hammond
This paper examined knowledge about the health effects of smoking among health equity groups following the 2012 introduction of refreshed pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) in Canada. Data are from the 2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey a representative school-based survey of 47,203 adolescents in Grades 6-12 in nine provinces. Regression models examined overall knowledge about eight health effects of smoking included in the HWLs. Less than one-third of adolescents (32.2%) knew that smoking causes vision loss/blindness and 33...
November 28, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185989/blind-stereoscopic-video-quality-assessment-from-depth-perception-to-overall-experience
#7
Zhibo Chen, Wei Zhou, Weiping Li
Stereoscopic video quality assessment (SVQA) is a challenging problem. It has not been well investigated on how to measure depth perception quality independently under different distortion categories and degrees, especially exploit the depth perception to assist the overall quality assessment of 3D videos. In this paper, we propose a new depth perception quality metric (DPQM) and verify that it outperforms existing metrics on our published 3D video extension of High Efficiency Video Coding (3D-HEVC) video database...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180437/solving-visual-correspondence-between-the-two-eyes-via-domain-based-population-encoding-in-nonhuman-primates
#8
Gang Chen, Haidong D Lu, Hisashi Tanigawa, Anna W Roe
Stereoscopic vision depends on correct matching of corresponding features between the two eyes. It is unclear where the brain solves this binocular correspondence problem. Although our visual system is able to make correct global matches, there are many possible false matches between any two images. Here, we use optical imaging data of binocular disparity response in the visual cortex of awake and anesthetized monkeys to demonstrate that the second visual cortical area (V2) is the first cortical stage that correctly discards false matches and robustly encodes correct matches...
November 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118684/a-pilot-study-investigating-employee-utilization-of-corporate-telehealth-services
#9
Seena Shazowee Edgerton
In line with the vision of the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) to improve health outcomes and eliminate healthcare disparities in Mississippi, a corporate telehealth program was initiated beginning May 2014. A descriptive study was performed to discover common characteristics among enrolled employee users who took advantage of UMMC's corporate telehealth services offered in their workplace throughout the program's first year of operation. This pilot study examined the number of videoconference visits (e-visits) throughout the first year of operation, from May 2014 through April 2015...
2017: Perspectives in Health Information Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102607/prevalence-of-vision-impairment-in-older-adults-in-rural-china-in-2014-and-comparisons-with-the-2006-china-nine-province-survey
#10
Jialiang Zhao, Xiao Xu, Leon B Ellwein, Ning Cai, Huaijin Guan, Mingguang He, Ping Liu, Jianhua Lv, Xunlun Sheng, Peizeng Yang, Jinglin Yi, Mei Yang, Rui Zhang, Xiaohu Ding, Liping Du, Fengrong Li, Hong Lu, Wenqiang Shao, Junwei Wang, Yuansheng Yuan, Rui Zhou, Wenjuan Zhuang, Lei An
PURPOSE: Estimate the prevalence of vision impairment and blindness in 2014 among older adults in rural China with comparisons with the 2006 Nine-Province Survey. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. METHODS: Geographical cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting residents from a rural county or semi-rural district within nine provinces: Beijing, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Heilongjiang, Jiangxi, Hebei, Ningxia, Chongqing and Yunnan...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080712/caudal-intraparietal-sulcus-and-three-dimensional-vision-a-combined-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-single-cell-study
#11
Amir-Mohammad Alizadeh, Ilse Van Dromme, Bram-Ernst Verhoef, Peter Janssen
The cortical network processing three-dimensional (3D) object structure defined by binocular disparity spans both the ventral and dorsal visual streams. However, very little is known about the neural representation of 3D structure at intermediate levels of the visual hierarchy. Here, we investigated the neural selectivity for 3D surfaces in the macaque Posterior Intraparietal area (PIP) in the medial bank of the caudal intraparietal sulcus (IPS). We first identified a region sensitive to depth-structure information in the medial bank of the caudal IPS using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), and then recorded single-cell activity within this fMRI activation in the same animals...
November 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064869/vision-and-vestibular-system-dysfunction-predicts-prolonged-concussion-recovery-in-children
#12
Christina L Master, Stephen R Master, Douglas J Wiebe, Eileen P Storey, Julia E Lockyer, Olivia E Podolak, Matthew F Grady
OBJECTIVE: Up to one-third of children with concussion have prolonged symptoms lasting beyond 4 weeks. Vision and vestibular dysfunction is common after concussion. It is unknown whether such dysfunction predicts prolonged recovery. We sought to determine which vision or vestibular problems predict prolonged recovery in children. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort of pediatric patients with concussion. SETTING: A subspecialty pediatric concussion program...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052314/modeling-the-convergence-accommodation-of-stereo-vision-for-binocular-endoscopy
#13
Yuanqian Gao, Jinhua Li, Jianmin Li, Shuxin Wang
BACKGROUND: The stereo laparoscope is an important tool for achieving depth perception in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS). METHODS: A dynamic convergence accommodation algorithm is proposed to improve the viewing experience and achieve accurate depth perception. Based on the principle of the human vision system, a positional kinematic model of the binocular view system is established. The imaging plane pair is rectified to ensure that the two rectified virtual optical axes intersect at the fixation target to provide immersive depth perception...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036109/transparency-in-stereopsis-parallel-encoding-of-overlapping-depth-planes
#14
Adam Reeves, David Lynch
We report that after extensive training, expert adults can accurately report the number, up to six, of transparent overlapping depth planes portrayed by brief (400 ms or 200 ms) random-element stereoscopic displays, and can well discriminate six from seven planes. Naïve subjects did poorly above three planes. Displays contained seven rows of 12 randomly located ×'s or +'s; jittering the disparities and number in each row to remove spurious cues had little effect on accuracy. Removing the central 3° of the 10° display to eliminate foveal vision hardly reduced the number of reportable planes...
August 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031966/bink-biological-binary-keypoint-descriptor
#15
Mário Saleiro, Kasim Terzić, J M F Rodrigues, J M H du Buf
Learning robust keypoint descriptors has become an active research area in the past decade. Matching local features is not only important for computational applications, but may also play an important role in early biological vision for disparity and motion processing. Although there were already some floating-point descriptors like SIFT and SURF that can yield high matching rates, the need for better and faster descriptors for real-time applications and embedded devices with low computational power led to the development of binary descriptors, which are usually much faster to compute and to match...
October 13, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981746/when-eukaryotes-and-prokaryotes-look-alike-the-case-of-regulatory-rnas
#16
Brice Felden, Luc Paillard
The discovery that all living entities express many RNAs beyond mRNAs, tRNAs and rRNAs has been a surprise in the past two decades. In fact, regulatory RNAs (regRNAs) are plentiful, and we report stunning parallels between their mechanisms and functions in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. For instance, prokaryotic CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) defense systems are functional analogs to eukaryotic RNA interference processes that preserve the cell against foreign nucleic acid elements...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942369/slanted-support-window-based-stereo-matching-for-surface-reconstruction-of-microscopic-samples
#17
Ahmadreza Baghaie, Chi Zhang, Ali Bakhshinejad, Heather A Owen, Hongyang Chao, Roshan M D'Souza, Zeyun Yu
This work is to address the limitations of 2D Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) micrographs in providing 3D topographical information necessary for various types of analysis in biological and biomedical sciences as well as mechanical and material engineering by investigating modern stereo vision methodologies for 3D surface reconstruction of microscopic samples. To achieve this, micrograph pairs of the microscopic samples are acquired by utilizing an SEM equipped with motor controlled specimen stage capable of precise translational, rotational movements and tilting of the specimen stage...
September 8, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882501/pediatric-ophthalmology-and-childhood-reading-difficulties-overview-of-reading-development-and-assessments-for-the-pediatric-ophthalmologist
#18
REVIEW
Megan E Collins, Lucy I Mudie, Amanda J Inns, Michael X Repka
Reading difficulties are common in the pediatric population, and large socioeconomic disparities exist. In the United States 46% of white children achieved expected reading proficiency by the end of fourth grade, while only 21% of Hispanic and 18% of African American children were reading at the expected level. Reading is an involved cognitive process with many subskills; likewise, development of reading proficiency is a complex and continuous process. Failure to achieve reading proficiency or even early difficulty with reading can affect a child's academic performance for years to come...
September 4, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876308/the-need-to-promote-sexual-health-in-america-a-new-vision-for-public-health-action
#19
Jessie V Ford, Megan B Ivankovich, John M Douglas, Edward W Hook, Lynn Barclay, Joycelyn Elders, David Satcher, Eli Coleman
Sexual health is considered to be a state of wellness with physical, emotional, mental, and social dimensions. Sexual health can contribute to our overall well-being in each of these dimensions. However, despite the intrinsic importance and positive aspects of sexuality in our lives, the United States presently faces significant challenges related to the sexual health of its citizens, including human immunodeficiency virus, other sexually transmitted infections, viral hepatitis, unintended pregnancies, sexual violence, sexual dysfunction, and cancers in reproductive tracts with serious disparities among the populations affected...
October 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858046/2015-charles-f-prentice-medal-award-lecture-neural-organization-of-binocular-vision
#20
Ralph D Freeman
During a Research Career Development Award from the National Eye Institute, I spent a year at the University of Cambridge doing research with John Robson. The goal was to use a visual stimulation approach that had not been previously attempted, with the intention of exploring fundamental organization principles of the neural basis of binocular vision. The idea was to use sinusoidal gratings that drifted before both eyes such that the relative phase for one eye was fixed while that of the other was varied. This provided binocular stimuli of variable relative phase, i...
October 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
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