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vision disparity

Jason Seto, James Davis, Deborah Ann Taira
Socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity are known to be associated with health disparities. This study used data (2010-2014) from the American Community Survey. Respondents over age 30 from Hawaii were included (n = 44,921). Outcome variables were self-reported disability in vision, hearing, ambulatory function, self-care, independent living, or cognitive function. Four measures of socioeconomic status were personal income, average income for the area, income inequality for area, and education. This study used multivariable logistic regression to predict disability by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, controlling for age and gender...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Carlos Ruiz, Jamie Theobald
Praying mantises, like humans, calculate distance by triangulating angular disparities of corresponding image regions between their eyes. New work shows they can do this using just dynamic luminance changes, and thus judge distance in scenes that we see as flat.
February 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Enas Abdulhay, Mazin Abed Mohammed, Dheyaa Ahmed Ibrahim, N Arunkumar, V Venkatraman
Blood leucocytes segmentation in medical images is viewed as difficult process due to the variability of blood cells concerning their shape and size and the difficulty towards determining location of Blood Leucocytes. Physical analysis of blood tests to recognize leukocytes is tedious, time-consuming and liable to error because of the various morphological components of the cells. Segmentation of medical imagery has been considered as a difficult task because of complexity of images, and also due to the non-availability of leucocytes models which entirely captures the probable shapes in each structures and also incorporate cell overlapping, the expansive variety of the blood cells concerning their shape and size, various elements influencing the outer appearance of the blood leucocytes, and low Static Microscope Image disparity from extra issues outcoming about because of noise...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Eric Andrew Lauer, Andrew J Houtenville
OBJECTIVE: A national priority for disability research in the USA is the standardised identification of people with disabilities in surveillance efforts. Mandated by federal statute, six dichotomous difficulty-focused questions were implemented in national surveys to identify people with disabilities. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, demographic characteristics and social factors among people with disabilities based on these six questions using multiple national surveys in the USA...
February 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Yigong Zhang, Yingna Su, Jian Yang, Jean Ponce, Hui Kong
In this paper, we propose a vanishing-point constrained Dijkstra road model for road detection in a stereo-vision paradigm. First, the stereo-camera is used to generate the u- and v-disparity maps of road image, from which the horizon can be extracted. With the horizon and ground region constraints, we can robustly locate the vanishing point of road region. Second, a weighted graph is constructed using all pixels of the image, and the detected vanishing point is treated as the source node of the graph. By computing a vanishing-point constrained Dijkstra minimum-cost map, where both disparity and gradient of gray image are used to calculate cost between two neighbor pixels, the problem of detecting road borders in image is transformed into that of finding two shortest paths that originate from the vanishing point to two pixels in the last row of image...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Jae-Sang Hyun, George T-C Chiu, Song Zhang
This paper presents a method to achieve high-speed and high-accuracy 3D surface measurement using a custom-designed mechanical projector and two high-speed cameras. We developed a computational framework that can achieve absolute shape measurement in sub-pixel accuracy through: 1) capturing precisely phase-shifted fringe patterns by synchronizing the cameras with the projector; 2) generating a rough disparity map between two cameras by employing a standard stereo-vision method using texture images with encoded statistical patterns; and 3) utilizing the wrapped phase as a constraint to refine the disparity map...
January 22, 2018: Optics Express
Anna R O'Connor, Laurence P Tidbury
The assessment of stereoacuity is an integral part of the ophthalmic assessment, with the responses used to inform clinical management decisions. Stereoacuity impacts on many aspects of life, but there are discrepancies reported where people without measurable stereoacuity report appreciating 3-D vision. This could be due, in part, to the presentation of the stimuli. A literature review was undertaken to evaluate current assessment techniques, how they relate to patient outcomes, identify the limitations of current tests and discuss how they could be improved...
January 27, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Alexandre Reynaud, Robert F Hess
Stereoscopic vision uses the disparity between the images received by the two eyes to derive three-dimensional estimates. Here, we were interested in providing a measure of the strength of binocular vision alternate to disparity processing. In particular, we wanted to assess the spatial dependence of sensitivity to detect interocular correlation (IOC). Thus we designed dichoptic stimuli composed of bandpass textures whose IOC is sinusoidally modulated at different correlation frequencies and compared sensitivity to these stimuli to that of analogous stimuli modulated in disparity...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
David W Hunter, Paul B Hibbard
Human visual performance degrades substantially as the angular distance from the fovea increases. This decrease in performance is found for both binocular and monocular vision. Although analysis of the statistics of natural images has provided significant insights into human visual processing, little research has focused on the statistical content of binocular images at eccentric angles. We applied Independent Component Analysis to rectangular image patches cut from locations within binocular images corresponding to different degrees of eccentricity...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yanna Ren, Yanling Ren, Weiping Yang, Xiaoyu Tang, Fengxia Wu, Qiong Wu, Satoshi Takahashi, Yoshimichi Ejima, Jinglong Wu
Recent research has shown that the magnitudes of responses to multisensory information are highly dependent on the stimulus structure. The temporal proximity of multiple signal inputs is a critical determinant for cross-modal integration. Here, we investigated the influence that temporal asynchrony has on audiovisual integration in both younger and older adults using event-related potentials (ERP). Our results showed that in the simultaneous audiovisual condition, except for the earliest integration (80-110ms), which occurred in the occipital region for older adults was absent for younger adults, early integration was similar for the younger and older groups...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Wesley E Marshall
Despite similarities to the US in terms of transportation, land use, and culture, Australia kills 5.3 people per 100,000 population on the roads each year, as compared to the US rate of 12.4. Similar trends hold when accounting for distance driven and the number of registered cars. This paper seeks to understand what is behind the road safety disparities between these two countries. The results suggest that a number of inter-related factors seem to play a role in the better road safety outcomes of Australia as compared to the US...
December 14, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Swati Handa, Seyed E Saffari, Mark Borchert
BACKGROUND: Improvement in vision has been noted in children with cortical visual impairment (CVI), resulting from disparate types of brain injury. The purpose of our study was to determine the risk factors associated with poor recovery of vision in this group of patients. METHODS: Case records of children who were born before 2010 with at least 4 follow-up visits for CVI were reviewed for underlying etiologies of CVI, visual acuity (VA), and associated neurological and ophthalmological disorders...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Solomon Benatar, Terrence Sullivan, Adalsteinn Brown
Health and access to health care vary strikingly across the globe, and debates about this have been pervasive and controversial. Some comparative data in Canada and South Africa illustrate the complexity of achieving greater equity anywhere, even in a wealthy country like Canada. Potential bi-directional lessons relevant both to local and global public health are identified. Both countries should consider the implications of lost opportunity costs associated with lack of explicit resource allocation policies...
December 4, 2017: Global Public Health
Tara Elton-Marshall, Rochelle Wijesingha, Ryan David Kennedy, David Hammond
This paper examined knowledge about the health effects of smoking among health equity groups following the 2012 introduction of refreshed pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) in Canada. Data are from the 2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey a representative school-based survey of 47,203 adolescents in Grades 6-12 in nine provinces. Regression models examined overall knowledge about eight health effects of smoking included in the HWLs. Less than one-third of adolescents (32.2%) knew that smoking causes vision loss/blindness and 33...
December 2, 2017: Preventive Medicine
Zhibo Chen, Wei Zhou, Weiping Li
Stereoscopic video quality assessment (SVQA) is a challenging problem. It has not been well investigated on how to measure depth perception quality independently under different distortion categories and degrees, especially exploit the depth perception to assist the overall quality assessment of 3D videos. In this paper, we propose a new depth perception quality metric (DPQM) and verify that it outperforms existing metrics on our published 3D video extension of High Efficiency Video Coding (3D-HEVC) video database...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Gang Chen, Haidong D Lu, Hisashi Tanigawa, Anna W Roe
Stereoscopic vision depends on correct matching of corresponding features between the two eyes. It is unclear where the brain solves this binocular correspondence problem. Although our visual system is able to make correct global matches, there are many possible false matches between any two images. Here, we use optical imaging data of binocular disparity response in the visual cortex of awake and anesthetized monkeys to demonstrate that the second visual cortical area (V2) is the first cortical stage that correctly discards false matches and robustly encodes correct matches...
December 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Seena Shazowee Edgerton
In line with the vision of the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) to improve health outcomes and eliminate healthcare disparities in Mississippi, a corporate telehealth program was initiated beginning May 2014. A descriptive study was performed to discover common characteristics among enrolled employee users who took advantage of UMMC's corporate telehealth services offered in their workplace throughout the program's first year of operation. This pilot study examined the number of videoconference visits (e-visits) throughout the first year of operation, from May 2014 through April 2015...
2017: Perspectives in Health Information Management
Jialiang Zhao, Xiao Xu, Leon B Ellwein, Ning Cai, Huaijin Guan, Mingguang He, Ping Liu, Jianhua Lv, Xunlun Sheng, Peizeng Yang, Jinglin Yi, Mei Yang, Rui Zhang, Xiaohu Ding, Liping Du, Fengrong Li, Hong Lu, Wenqiang Shao, Junwei Wang, Yuansheng Yuan, Rui Zhou, Wenjuan Zhuang, Lei An
PURPOSE: Estimate the prevalence of vision impairment and blindness in 2014 among older adults in rural China with comparisons with the 2006 Nine-Province Survey. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. METHODS: Geographical cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting residents from a rural county or semi-rural district within nine provinces: Beijing, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Heilongjiang, Jiangxi, Hebei, Ningxia, Chongqing and Yunnan...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Amir-Mohammad Alizadeh, Ilse Van Dromme, Bram-Ernst Verhoef, Peter Janssen
The cortical network processing three-dimensional (3D) object structure defined by binocular disparity spans both the ventral and dorsal visual streams. However, very little is known about the neural representation of 3D structure at intermediate levels of the visual hierarchy. Here, we investigated the neural selectivity for 3D surfaces in the macaque Posterior Intraparietal area (PIP) in the medial bank of the caudal intraparietal sulcus (IPS). We first identified a region sensitive to depth-structure information in the medial bank of the caudal IPS using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), and then recorded single-cell activity within this fMRI activation in the same animals...
February 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Christina L Master, Stephen R Master, Douglas J Wiebe, Eileen P Storey, Julia E Lockyer, Olivia E Podolak, Matthew F Grady
OBJECTIVE: Up to one-third of children with concussion have prolonged symptoms lasting beyond 4 weeks. Vision and vestibular dysfunction is common after concussion. It is unknown whether such dysfunction predicts prolonged recovery. We sought to determine which vision or vestibular problems predict prolonged recovery in children. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort of pediatric patients with concussion. SETTING: A subspecialty pediatric concussion program...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
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