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vision disparity

Rumaisa Aljied, Marie-Josée Aubin, Ralf Buhrmann, Saama Sabeti, Ellen E Freeman
OBJECTIVE: To provide the frequency and potential determinants of eye care utilization over the last 12 months among Canadians between the ages of 45 and 85 years old. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based study. PARTICIPANTS: 30,097 people in the Comprehensive Cohort of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging. METHODS: Inclusion criteria included being between the ages of 45 and 85 years old, community-dwelling and living near one of the 11 data collection sites across 7 Canadian provinces...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Yoon H Lee, Andrew X Chen, Varshini Varadaraj, Gloria H Hong, Yimin Chen, David S Friedman, Joshua D Stein, Nicholas Kourgialis, Joshua R Ehrlich
Importance: Although low-income populations have more eye problems, whether they face greater difficulty obtaining eye care appointments is unknown. Objective: To compare rates of obtaining eye care appointments and appointment wait times for those with Medicaid vs those with private insurance. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this prospective, cohort study conducted from January 1, 2017, to July 1, 2017, researchers made telephone calls to a randomly selected sample of vision care professionals in Michigan and Maryland stratified by neighborhood (urban vs rural) and professional type (ophthalmologist vs optometrist) to request the first available appointment...
April 19, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Susan M Reid, Elaine M Meehan, Sarah J Arnup, Dinah S Reddihough
AIM: A population-based observational study design was used to describe the epidemiology of intellectual disability in cerebral palsy (CP) in terms of clinical and neuroimaging associations, and to report the impact of intellectual disability on utilization of health services and length of survival. METHOD: Population CP registry data were used to retrospectively assess the frequency of intellectual disability and strength of associations between intellectual disability and mobility, epilepsy, vision, hearing, communication, and neuroimaging patterns (n=1141)...
April 18, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Pawel Kasprowski, Katarzyna Harezlak
Vision plays a crucial role in children's mental development. Therefore, early diagnosis of any vision disparities and implementation of a correct therapy is very important. However, carrying out such a procedure in case of young children and especially children with brain dysfunctions poses some limitations due to cooperation problems. The vision diagnostics and treatment (VisDaT) system presented in this paper is meant to help therapists in proper diagnosis and treatment involving such children. It utilizes a computer connected to two monitors and equipped with a specialized software...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Janan Arslan, Paul N Baird
Nonresponsiveness to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) treatments has become a growing concern in ophthalmology. Disparity among publications that have assessed pharmacogenetic (PGx) connections between AMD disease genes and treatments has delayed the implementation of PGx testing in AMD. We assessed all AMD PGx publications to identify the degree of agreement for publications within similar ethnic cohorts and worldwide, and the causes for differences in study outcomes. There are no accepted genotype-phenotype correlations, either within similar ethnic cohorts or worldwide...
March 26, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Pia Martino-Fuentealba, Jaime Carcamo-Oyarzun, Andrea Cortinez-O'Ryan, Carlos Cristi-Montero, Astrid Von Oetinger, Kabir P Sadarangani
Background: Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries, have been historically under-represented due to the lack of surveillance of physical behaviours in young populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe and compare overall physical activity (PA), active transportation to and from school (i.e. walking or cycling), physical education (PE) participation, and sedentary behaviour (SB) in adolescents from 26 countries in LAC. Methods: Data were collected in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (2007-13)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Eun Ji Kim, Yiyang Yuan, Jane Liebschutz, Howard Cabral, Lewis Kazis
BACKGROUND: Disabilities affect more than 1 in 5 US adults, and those with disabilities face multiple barriers in accessing health care. A digital gap, defined as the disparity caused by differences in the ability to use advanced technologies, is assumed to be prevalent among individuals with disabilities. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the associations between disability and use of information technology (IT) in obtaining health information and between trust factors and IT use...
March 16, 2018: JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies
Jason Seto, James Davis, Deborah Ann Taira
Socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity are known to be associated with health disparities. This study used data (2010-2014) from the American Community Survey. Respondents over age 30 from Hawaii were included (n = 44,921). Outcome variables were self-reported disability in vision, hearing, ambulatory function, self-care, independent living, or cognitive function. Four measures of socioeconomic status were personal income, average income for the area, income inequality for area, and education. This study used multivariable logistic regression to predict disability by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, controlling for age and gender...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Carlos Ruiz, Jamie Theobald
Praying mantises, like humans, calculate distance by triangulating angular disparities of corresponding image regions between their eyes. New work shows they can do this using just dynamic luminance changes, and thus judge distance in scenes that we see as flat.
February 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Enas Abdulhay, Mazin Abed Mohammed, Dheyaa Ahmed Ibrahim, N Arunkumar, V Venkatraman
Blood leucocytes segmentation in medical images is viewed as difficult process due to the variability of blood cells concerning their shape and size and the difficulty towards determining location of Blood Leucocytes. Physical analysis of blood tests to recognize leukocytes is tedious, time-consuming and liable to error because of the various morphological components of the cells. Segmentation of medical imagery has been considered as a difficult task because of complexity of images, and also due to the non-availability of leucocytes models which entirely captures the probable shapes in each structures and also incorporate cell overlapping, the expansive variety of the blood cells concerning their shape and size, various elements influencing the outer appearance of the blood leucocytes, and low Static Microscope Image disparity from extra issues outcoming about because of noise...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Eric Andrew Lauer, Andrew J Houtenville
OBJECTIVE: A national priority for disability research in the USA is the standardised identification of people with disabilities in surveillance efforts. Mandated by federal statute, six dichotomous difficulty-focused questions were implemented in national surveys to identify people with disabilities. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, demographic characteristics and social factors among people with disabilities based on these six questions using multiple national surveys in the USA...
February 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Yigong Zhang, Yingna Su, Jian Yang, Jean Ponce, Hui Kong
In this paper, we propose a vanishing-point constrained Dijkstra road model for road detection in a stereo-vision paradigm. First, the stereo-camera is used to generate the u- and v-disparity maps of road image, from which the horizon can be extracted. With the horizon and ground region constraints, we can robustly locate the vanishing point of road region. Second, a weighted graph is constructed using all pixels of the image, and the detected vanishing point is treated as the source node of the graph. By computing a vanishing-point constrained Dijkstra minimum-cost map, where both disparity and gradient of gray image are used to calculate cost between two neighbor pixels, the problem of detecting road borders in image is transformed into that of finding two shortest paths that originate from the vanishing point to two pixels in the last row of image...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Jae-Sang Hyun, George T-C Chiu, Song Zhang
This paper presents a method to achieve high-speed and high-accuracy 3D surface measurement using a custom-designed mechanical projector and two high-speed cameras. We developed a computational framework that can achieve absolute shape measurement in sub-pixel accuracy through: 1) capturing precisely phase-shifted fringe patterns by synchronizing the cameras with the projector; 2) generating a rough disparity map between two cameras by employing a standard stereo-vision method using texture images with encoded statistical patterns; and 3) utilizing the wrapped phase as a constraint to refine the disparity map...
January 22, 2018: Optics Express
Anna R O'Connor, Laurence P Tidbury
The assessment of stereoacuity is an integral part of the ophthalmic assessment, with the responses used to inform clinical management decisions. Stereoacuity impacts on many aspects of life, but there are discrepancies reported where people without measurable stereoacuity report appreciating 3-D vision. This could be due, in part, to the presentation of the stimuli. A literature review was undertaken to evaluate current assessment techniques, how they relate to patient outcomes, identify the limitations of current tests and discuss how they could be improved...
January 27, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Alexandre Reynaud, Robert F Hess
Stereoscopic vision uses the disparity between the images received by the two eyes to derive three-dimensional estimates. Here, we were interested in providing a measure of the strength of binocular vision alternate to disparity processing. In particular, we wanted to assess the spatial dependence of sensitivity to detect interocular correlation (IOC). Thus we designed dichoptic stimuli composed of bandpass textures whose IOC is sinusoidally modulated at different correlation frequencies and compared sensitivity to these stimuli to that of analogous stimuli modulated in disparity...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
David W Hunter, Paul B Hibbard
Human visual performance degrades substantially as the angular distance from the fovea increases. This decrease in performance is found for both binocular and monocular vision. Although analysis of the statistics of natural images has provided significant insights into human visual processing, little research has focused on the statistical content of binocular images at eccentric angles. We applied Independent Component Analysis to rectangular image patches cut from locations within binocular images corresponding to different degrees of eccentricity...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yanna Ren, Yanling Ren, Weiping Yang, Xiaoyu Tang, Fengxia Wu, Qiong Wu, Satoshi Takahashi, Yoshimichi Ejima, Jinglong Wu
Recent research has shown that the magnitudes of responses to multisensory information are highly dependent on the stimulus structure. The temporal proximity of multiple signal inputs is a critical determinant for cross-modal integration. Here, we investigated the influence that temporal asynchrony has on audiovisual integration in both younger and older adults using event-related potentials (ERP). Our results showed that in the simultaneous audiovisual condition, except for the earliest integration (80-110ms), which occurred in the occipital region for older adults was absent for younger adults, early integration was similar for the younger and older groups...
February 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Wesley E Marshall
Despite similarities to the US in terms of transportation, land use, and culture, Australia kills 5.3 people per 100,000 population on the roads each year, as compared to the US rate of 12.4. Similar trends hold when accounting for distance driven and the number of registered cars. This paper seeks to understand what is behind the road safety disparities between these two countries. The results suggest that a number of inter-related factors seem to play a role in the better road safety outcomes of Australia as compared to the US...
February 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Swati Handa, Seyed E Saffari, Mark Borchert
BACKGROUND: Improvement in vision has been noted in children with cortical visual impairment (CVI), resulting from disparate types of brain injury. The purpose of our study was to determine the risk factors associated with poor recovery of vision in this group of patients. METHODS: Case records of children who were born before 2010 with at least 4 follow-up visits for CVI were reviewed for underlying etiologies of CVI, visual acuity (VA), and associated neurological and ophthalmological disorders...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Solomon Benatar, Terrence Sullivan, Adalsteinn Brown
Health and access to health care vary strikingly across the globe, and debates about this have been pervasive and controversial. Some comparative data in Canada and South Africa illustrate the complexity of achieving greater equity anywhere, even in a wealthy country like Canada. Potential bi-directional lessons relevant both to local and global public health are identified. Both countries should consider the implications of lost opportunity costs associated with lack of explicit resource allocation policies...
December 4, 2017: Global Public Health
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