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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794227/the-metabolic-cost-of-carrying-a-sexually-selected-trait-in-the-male-fiddler-crab-uca-pugilator
#1
Alexa Tullis, Corinne H T Straube
Models proposed to explain sexually selected structures assume that these traits are costly. However, studies investigating the impact of such structures on locomotory costs have produced inconsistent results. Male fiddler crabs possess a large sexually selected claw and are ideal for assessing the impact of a sexually selected trait on the cost of locomotion. Here, we measure the energy expenditure of clawed, declawed, and artificially loaded crabs during sustained exercise by measuring oxygen consumption and blood lactate levels...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783636/unified-blind-quality-assessment-of-compressed-natural-graphic-and-screen-content-images
#2
Xiongkuo Min, Kede Ma, Ke Gu, Guangtao Zhai, Zhou Wang, Weisi Lin
Digital images in the real-world are created by a variety of means and have diverse properties. A photographical natural scene image (NSI) may exhibit substantially different characteristics from a computer graphic image (CGI) or a screen content image (SCI). This casts major challenges to objective image quality assessment, for which existing approaches lack effective mechanisms to capture such content type variations, and thus are difficult to generalize from one type to another. To tackle this problem, we first construct a cross-content-type (CCT) database which contains 1,320 distorted NSIs, CGIs, and SCIs, compressed using the high efficiency video coding (HEVC) intra coding method and the screen content compression (SCC) extension of HEVC...
August 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766924/factors-associated-with-performing-urgent-coronary-angiography-in-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-patients
#3
David H Lam, Lauren M Glassmoyer, Jordan B Strom, Roger B Davis, James M McCabe, Donald E Cutlip, Michael W Donnino, Michael N Cocchi, Duane S Pinto
OBJECTIVES: Factors associated with performing urgent coronary angiography (UCA) in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) were identified. BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for resuscitated OHCA patients recommend UCA if there is ST-elevation on post-arrest electrocardiogram or high suspicion of acute myocardial infarction. Some have advocated for UCA in all OHCA regardless of suspected etiology. The reasons for variations in performing UCA are not well understood...
August 2, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759766/metal-toxicity-assessment-by-sentinel-species-of-mangroves-in-situ-case-study-integrating-chemical-and-biomarkers-analyses
#4
Luis Felipe de Almeida Duarte, Caroline Araújo de Souza, Camilo Dias Seabra Pereira, Marcelo Antonio Amaro Pinheiro
Globally, there is a lack of knowledge about tropical ecotoxicology dealing with the potential impact of metal contamination in mangrove ecosystem. This habitat is considered a nursery for several animal species, among them the "uçá"-crab (Ucides cordatus), known as a key species due to its biological and economical importance. This study evaluated the association involving metal contamination (Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Mn and Hg) in water, sediment, red-mangrove vegetation (Rhizophora mangle) and tissues of uçá crab, together with its geno-cytotoxic responses, based on micronucleated hemocytes frequency and the retention time of neutral red in lysosomes...
July 28, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754286/mitochondria-are-not-captive-bacteria
#5
Ajith Harish, Charles G Kurland
Lynn Sagan's conjecture (1967) that three of the fundamental organelles observed in eukaryote cells, specifically mitochondria, plastids and flagella were once free-living primitive (prokaryotic) cells was accepted after considerable opposition. Even though the idea was swiftly refuted for the specific case of origins of flagella in eukaryotes, the symbiosis model in general was accepted for decades as a realistic hypothesis to describe the endosymbiotic origins of eukaryotes. However, a systematic analysis of the origins of the mitochondrial proteome based on empirical genome evolution models now indicates that 97% of modern mitochondrial protein domains as well their homologues in bacteria and archaea were present in the universal common ancestor (UCA) of the modern tree of life (ToL)...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735573/chemoattractant-activity-of-tris-hydroxymethyl-aminomethane-for-brugia-pahangi-infective-third-stage-larvae
#6
Y Mitsui, K E Ureña-Tatis, Y Aoki
Urocanic acid (UCA) is known as a major chemoattractant for Strongyloides stercoralis infective third-stage larvae (L3). Since Brugia pahangi is a skin-penetrating parasitic nematode similar to S. stercoralis, UCA was expected to be a chemoattractant for B. pahangi L3. Thus, the chemoattractant activity of UCA for B. pahangi L3 was assessed. The chemotactic responses of B. pahangi L3 to UCA or acetic acid (CH3COOH) dissolved in amine solutions were assessed using an agar-plate assay. A test solution of 200 mm UCA dissolved in aqueous 270 mm tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) significantly attracted B...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725411/choosing-a-mate-in-a-high-predation-environment-female-preference-in-the-fiddler-crab-uca-terpsichores
#7
Daniela M Perez, John H Christy, Patricia R Y Backwell
The interplay between a receiver's sensory system and a sender's courtship signals is fundamental to the operation of sexual selection. Male courtship signals that match a female receiver's preexisting perceptual biases can be favored yet the message they communicate is not always clear. Do they simply beacon the male's location or also indicate his quality? We explored this question in a species of fiddler crab Uca terpsichores that courts under elevated predation risk and that mates and breeds underground in the safety of males' burrows...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699518/nano-sized-ultrasound-contrast-agents-for-cancer-therapy-and-theranostics
#8
Hao Li, Shenglong Gan, Shi-Ting Feng, Guofu Zhou, Zhi Dong, Rongqin Zheng, Zi-Ping Li
Ultrasound contrast agents (UCA) represented by gas-filled microbubble, can provide simultaneous and co-localized enhancement on image contrast to help disease diagnosis by highlighting tissue borders. Nowadays, Some UCAs (e.g. Levovist®, Optison®, Definity®, and Sonovue®) are commercially available, and have been clinically utilized for enhanced ultrasonography in the US, Canada, Europe, Asia and so on. However, their large diameters (1~10 μm) mainly hinder more precise and deeper applications in the imaging of capillary-abundant organs or tissues (e...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643665/sonographic-landmarks-to-differentiate-false-labor-and-early-true-labor-as-a-possible-new-application-of-ultrasound-in-labor-ward
#9
A Bouzid, M Kehila, H Trabelsi, H S Abouda, R Ben Hmid, M B Chanoufi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate discrimination of clinical parameters and ultrasound examination to differentiate "false labor" and "true labor". METHODS: In a prospective study during a period of 6 months, a total of 178 patients in term (37-41 weeks) consulting our obstetric unit for uterine contraction, were enrolled. Patients were examined separately by a midwife and a resident and separated into "true labor group" and "false labor group". The clinical characteristics of true versus false labor patients were compared...
April 2017: Journal of gynecology obstetrics and human reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598386/a-noise-removal-method-for-uniform-circular-arrays-in-complex-underwater-noise-environments-with-low-snr
#10
Huijun Xia, Kunde Yang, Yuanliang Ma, Yong Wang, Yaxiong Liu
Generally, many beamforming methods are derived under the assumption of white noise. In practice, the actual underwater ambient noise is complex. As a result, the noise removal capacity of the beamforming method may be deteriorated considerably. Furthermore, in underwater environment with extremely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the performances of the beamforming method may be deteriorated. To tackle these problems, a noise removal method for uniform circular array (UCA) is proposed to remove the received noise and improve the SNR in complex noise environments with low SNR...
June 9, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589835/fears-double-dose-of-debt-is-deterring-mature-students
#11
Erin Dean
With the end of bursaries for nursing students in England a matter of weeks away, academics have told Nursing Standard of the need to ensure mature students are not put off by funding changes. About 6,000 fewer mature students have applied to start nursing courses this coming autumn compared with last year. Figures from the university admissions service UCAS show a 28% drop in the number of over-25s applying in England.
June 7, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574467/research-and-analysis-on-the-localization-of-a-3-d-single-source-in-lossy-medium-using-uniform-circular-array
#12
Bing Xue, Xiaodong Qu, Guangyou Fang, Yicai Ji
In this paper, the methods and analysis for estimating the location of a three-dimensional (3-D) single source buried in lossy medium are presented with uniform circular array (UCA). The mathematical model of the signal in the lossy medium is proposed. Using information in the covariance matrix obtained by the sensors' outputs, equations of the source location (azimuth angle, elevation angle, and range) are obtained. Then, the phase and amplitude of the covariance matrix function are used to process the source localization in the lossy medium...
June 2, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552267/recent-advances-in-ultrasound-based-diagnosis-and-therapy-with-micro-and-nanometer-sized-formulations
#13
REVIEW
Nihan Güvener, Lia Appold, Federica de Lorenzi, Susanne K Golombek, Larissa Y Rizzo, Twan Lammers, Fabian Kiessling
Ultrasound (US) is one of the most frequently used imaging methods in the clinic. The broad spectrum of its applications can be increased by the use of gas-filled microbubbles (MB) as ultrasound contrast agents (UCA). In recent years, also nanoscale UCA like nanobubbles (NB), echogenic liposomes (ELIP) and nanodroplets have been developed, which in contrast to MB, are able to extravasate from the vessels into the tissue. New disease-specific UCA have been designed for the assessment of tissue biomarkers and advanced US to a molecular imaging modality...
May 24, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515326/semantic-closure-demonstrated-by-the-evolution-of-a-universal-constructor-architecture-in-an-artificial-chemistry
#14
Edward B Clark, Simon J Hickinbotham, Susan Stepney
We present a novel stringmol-based artificial chemistry system modelled on the universal constructor architecture (UCA) first explored by von Neumann. In a UCA, machines interact with an abstract description of themselves to replicate by copying the abstract description and constructing the machines that the abstract description encodes. DNA-based replication follows this architecture, with DNA being the abstract description, the polymerase being the copier, and the ribosome being the principal machine in expressing what is encoded on the DNA...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514880/the-uterocervical-angle-and-its-relationship-with-preterm-birth
#15
Alba Farràs Llobet, Laia Regincós Martí, Teresa Higueras, Inés Zulema Calero Fernández, Andrea Gascón Portalés, María M Goya Canino, Elena Carreras Moratonas
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to determine whether the uterocervical angle (UCA) correlates with the risk of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) < 34 weeks and assess its interobserver variability. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study of 275 women including 34 who started labor spontaneously and gave birth before 34 weeks of gestation (preterm group) and 241 who gave birth at term (control group). Images used to report cervical length were re-measured for UCA...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495870/early-life-experience-drives-short-term-acclimation-of-metabolic-and-osmoregulatory-traits-in-the-leaf-eared-mouse
#16
G Cavieres, M Nuñez-Villegas, F Bozinovic, P Sabat
We studied the putative effect of early experience on the physiological flexibility of metabolic and osmoregulatory traits in the leaf-eared mouse Phyllotis darwini, an altricial rodent inhabiting seasonal mediterranean environments. Adult individuals were collected in central Chile and maintained in breeding pairs. Pups were isolated after weaning and acclimated to different temperature (cold or warm) and water availability (unrestricted and restricted) until adulthood. Subsequently, individuals were re-acclimated to the opposite treatment...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492475/ambiguity-resolution-for-phase-based-3-d-source-localization-under-fixed-uniform-circular-array
#17
Xin Chen, Zhen Liu, Xizhang Wei
Under fixed uniform circular array (UCA), 3-D parameter estimation of a source whose half-wavelength is smaller than the array aperture would suffer from a serious phase ambiguity problem, which also appears in a recently proposed phase-based algorithm. In this paper, by using the centro-symmetry of UCA with an even number of sensors, the source's angles and range can be decoupled and a novel algorithm named subarray grouping and ambiguity searching (SGAS) is addressed to resolve angle ambiguity. In the SGAS algorithm, each subarray formed by two couples of centro-symmetry sensors can obtain a batch of results under different ambiguities, and by searching the nearest value among subarrays, which is always corresponding to correct ambiguity, rough angle estimation with no ambiguity is realized...
May 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487935/folate-receptor-targeted-ultrasonic-pfob-nanoparticles-synthesis-characterization-and-application-in-tumor-targeted-imaging
#18
Keshi Li, Yahui Liu, Shengmin Zhang, Youfeng Xu, Jianshuai Jiang, Fengying Yin, Yue Hu, Baosan Han, Shuxiong Ge, Li Zhang, Yong Wang
In this study, we aimed to determine an effective strategy for the synthesis of folate receptor (FR) targeted-nanoparticles (FRNPs). The nanoparticles used as ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) were composed of a liquid core of perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) liposome and a targeted shell chemically conjugated with folic acid (FA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). This was done in order to avoid recognition and clearance by the mononuclear phagocyte system [also known as the reticuloendothelial system (RES)] and enhance the targeting capability of the nanoparticles to tumors overexpressing folate receptor (FR)...
June 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480544/resolving-nmr-signals-of-short-chain-fatty-acid-mixtures-using-unsupervised-component-analysis
#19
Jorge Costa Pereira, Ivana Jarak, Rui Albuquerque Carvalho
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a very powerful instrumental technique suited to identify and characterize organic compounds. NMR has been successfully used in the analysis of complex biological and environmental samples; however, these applications are still rather limited. In this work, we describe unsupervised component analysis as a multivariate unsupervised method suited to identify the number of relevant NMR signal contributions and to deconvolve mixed signals into signal individual sources and respective contributions...
May 8, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465560/increased-cis-to-trans-urocanic-acid-ratio-in-the-skin-of-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-patients
#20
Duy Le Pham, Kyung-Min Lim, Kyung-Mi Joo, Hae-Sim Park, Donald Y M Leung, Young-Min Ye
Increased filaggrin expression was found to be correlated with severity scores in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU); however, the role of filaggrin breakdown products (FBPs) in CSU has not been studied. We collected stratum corneum (SC) specimens from the volar forearms of 10 CSU patients, 10 AD patients, and 10 healthy normal controls (NCs) and measured contents of FBPs (pyrrolidone carboxylic acid [PCA] and urocanic acid [UCA]) using UPLC-MS/MS, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and epidermal pH. Compared to NCs, cis-UCA level was increased in CSU lesions (P < 0...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
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