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Boriphat Methachan, Kamolrat Thanapprapasr
The emergence of theranostics with ultrasound technology is a promising development, as it opens pathways to providing more effective treatments for cancer. Advancements in ultrasound imaging would give a more detailed and accurate image for better diagnosis and treatment planning. Polymeric ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are appealing because they are stable and easily modified for active targeting. In addition, a better therapy could be achieved in conjunction with advancements in UCAs. The active targeting not only makes the precise imaging possible, but also leads to targeted delivery of active components to specific local treatment sites...
October 14, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Juan Du, Dalong Liu, Emad S Ebbini
A nonlinear filtering approach to imaging the dynamics of microbubble ultrasound contrast agents (UCA) in microvessels is presented. The approach is based on the adaptive third-order Volterra filter (TVF), which separates the linear, quadratic, and cubic components from beamformed pulse-echo ultrasound data. The TVF captures polynomial nonlinearities utilizing the full spectral components of the echo data and not from prespecified bands, e.g. second or third harmonics. This allows for imaging using broadband pulse transmission to preserve the axial resolution and the SNR...
September 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Libertario Demi, Ruud J G Van Sloun, Hessel Wijkstra, Massimo Mischi
We report on the first study demonstrating the ability of a recently-developed, contrast-enhanced, ultrasound imaging method, referred to as cumulative phase delay imaging (CPDI), to image and quantify ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) kinetics. Unlike standard ultrasound tomography, which exploits changes in speed of sound and attenuation, CPDI is based on a marker specific to UCAs, thus enabling dynamic contrast-specific ultrasound tomography (DCS-UST). For breast imaging, DCS-UST will lead to a more practical, faster, and less operator-dependent imaging procedure compared to standard echo-contrast, while preserving accurate imaging of contrast kinetics...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Christian Steinberg, Gareth J Padfield, Jean Champagne, Shubhayan Sanatani, Paul Angaran, Jason G Andrade, Jason D Roberts, Jeffrey S Healey, Vijay S Chauhan, David H Birnie, Mikyla Janzen, Brenda Gerull, George J Klein, Richard Leather, Christopher S Simpson, Colette Seifer, Mario Talajic, Martin Gardner, Andrew D Krahn
BACKGROUND: Unexplained cardiac arrest (UCA) may be explained by inherited arrhythmia syndromes. The Cardiac Arrest Survivors With Preserved Ejection Fraction Registry prospectively assessed first-degree relatives of UCA or sudden unexplained death victims to screen for cardiac abnormalities. METHODS AND RESULTS: Around 398 first-degree family members (186 UCA, 212 sudden unexplained death victims' relatives; mean age, 44±17 years) underwent extensive cardiac workup, including ECG, signal averaged ECG, exercise testing, cardiac imaging, Holter-monitoring, and selective provocative drug testing with epinephrine or procainamide...
September 2016: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Jonathan Mathers, Alice Sitch, Jayne Parry
CONTEXT: Medical schools are increasingly using novel tools to select applicants. The UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) is one such tool and measures mental abilities, attitudes and professional behaviour conducive to being a doctor using constructs likely to be less affected by socio-demographic factors than traditional measures of potential. Universities are free to use UKCAT as they see fit but three broad modalities have been observed: 'borderline', 'factor' and 'threshold'. This paper aims to provide the first longitudinal analyses assessing the impact of the different uses of UKCAT on making offers to applicants with different socio-demographic characteristics...
October 2016: Medical Education
Sheena E Wotherspoon, Peter W McCarthy
BACKGROUND: There are many professional associations representing chiropractors and chiropractic in the United Kingdom (UK). Each has its unique selling points (USPs) and chiropractors can choose to join as many as they like; however, cost of membership has to be weighed against perceived benefits. The predictors of UK chiropractic association membership and motivational factors to join these associations, have not formally been identified. This research study aimed to identify some of the factors and motivations in Welsh Institute of Chiropractic (WIOC) Alumni regarding their decision to join (or not) a UK chiropractic professional association...
2016: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
Hyun Su Min, Sejin Son, Dong Gil You, Tae Woong Lee, Jangwook Lee, Sangmin Lee, Ji Young Yhee, Jaeyoung Lee, Moon Hee Han, Jae Hyung Park, Sun Hwa Kim, Kuiwon Choi, Kinam Park, Kwangmeyung Kim, Ick Chan Kwon
Although there is great versatility of ultrasound (US) technologies in the real clinical field, one main technical challenge is the compromising of high quality of echo properties and size engineering of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs); a high echo property is offset by reducing particle size. Herein, a new strategy for overcoming the dilemma by devising chemical gas (CO2) generating carbonate copolymer nanoparticles (Gas-NPs), which are clearly distinguished from the conventional gas-encapsulated micro-sized UCAs...
November 2016: Biomaterials
Tamerlan Saidov, Carola Heneweer, Maarten Kuenen, Julian von Broich-Oppert, Hessel Wijkstra, Jean de la Rosette, Massimo Mischi
Neoangiogenesis, which results in the formation of an irregular network of microvessels, plays a fundamental role in the growth of several types of cancer. Characterization of microvascular architecture has therefore gained increasing attention for cancer diagnosis, treatment monitoring and evaluation of new drugs. However, this characterization requires immunohistologic analysis of the resected tumors. Currently, dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging (DCE-US) provides new options for minimally invasive investigation of the microvasculature by analysis of ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) transport kinetics...
September 1, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Zhenyue Zhang, Zheng Zhai, Limin Li
Multi-view learning aims to integrate multiple data information from different views to improve the learning performance. The key problem is to handle the unconformities or distortions among viewspecific samples or measurements of similarity or dissimilarity. This paper models the view-specific samples as a nonlinear mapping of uniform but latent intact samples for all the views, and the viewspecific dissimilarity matrices or similarity matrices are estimated in terms of the uniform latent one. Two methods are then developed for multi-view clustering...
August 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Chun-Chia Chou, Patricia R Y Backwell
Perceptual biases explain the origin and evolution of female preference in many species. Some responses that mediate mate choice, however, may have never been used in nonmating contexts. In the fiddler crab, Uca mjoebergi, mate-searching females prefer faster wave rates and leading wave; however, it remains unclear whether such responses evolved in a mating context (i.e., the preference has effect on the fitness of the female and her offspring that arise from mating with a particular male) or a nonmating contexts (i...
August 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Hengli Yang, Tian Zhou, Wenbin Cai, Xiaomin Yi, Xi Liu, Yixiao Wang, Li Zhang, Yunyou Duan
The purpose of this study was to prepare tumor-specific dual-mode nanobubbles as both ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging agents for female tumors. Recent studies have demonstrated the conjugation of anti-tumor ligands on the surface of nanobubbles for use as molecule-targeting ultrasound contrast agents for tumor visualization. However, this complicated procedure has also posed a challenge to nanobubble stability. Thus, in the present study, we combined the fluorescent dye, NIRF IR-780 iodide, which has lipid solubility and tumor-targeting characteristics, with the phospholipid film of nanobubbles that we constructed...
August 19, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Ji Hwa Kim, Sang Hyun Suh, Joonho Chung, Yeo-Jin Oh, Sung Jun Ahn, Kyung-Yul Lee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The prevalence of unruptured cerebral aneurysms (UCAs) in ischemic stroke patients is not clearly defined. This study aimed to measure the prevalence and characteristics of UCAs in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and to compare our findings with those of the general population. In addition, we investigated the factors associated with cerebral aneurysms in AIS patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the brain magnetic resonance angiography images of 955 patients with AIS and 2,118 controls who had received a brain magnetic resonance angiography as part of a health check-up...
September 2016: Journal of Stroke
Abigail L Goodman, Adeboye O Osunkoya
The significance of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression in breast cancer is well established. However, only few large studies have analyzed HER2 expression in invasive high grade urothelial carcinoma (UCA). In this study, we sought to analyze the expression of HER2 in a large cohort of micropapillary UCA. A search was performed through our Urologic Pathology files and expert consult files of the senior author for cases of micropapillary UCA of the bladder. Twenty-seven cases were identified...
July 29, 2016: Human Pathology
Odile Diou, Annie Brûlet, Gérard Pehau-Arnaudet, Estelle Morvan, Romain Berti, Ksenia Astafyeva, Nicolas Taulier, Elias Fattal, Nicolas Tsapis
PEGylated nanocapsules containing a liquid core of perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) were formulated by an emulsion-evaporation process to be further used as ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs). In an attempt to modulate their acoustic response, related to their shell thickness-to-radius ratio, the initial concentration of polymer was varied in the formulation. Indeed, thinner shells may lead to higher echogenicity. PEGylated nanocapsules morphology was studied by electron microscopy, Small Angle Neutron Scattering and (19)F NMR spectroscopy and related to their mechanical properties to allow a better understanding of their mechanism of formation...
October 1, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Chiara Ionio, Elisa Riboni, Emanuela Confalonieri, Chiara Dallatomasina, Eleonora Mascheroni, Andrea Bonanomi, Maria Grazia Natali Sora, Monica Falautano, Antonella Poloniato, Graziano Barera, Giancarlo Comi
OBJECTIVE: Despite the presence of many studies on difficulties related to premature birth, findings on developmental outcomes are heterogeneous. This could be explained from a biological and environmental point of view, but also from a methodological one. The aims of this study were as follows: assess cognitive and linguistic performance using the BSID-III in a population of healthy preterm infants at 24 and 36 months (corrected age); analyze whether the correction for prematurity should be applied, decide when to stop using corrected age and evaluate possible improvements between 24 and 36 months...
August 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Luis Felipe de Almeida Duarte, Caroline Araújo de Souza, Caio Rodrigues Nobre, Camilo Dias Seabra Pereira, Marcelo Antonio Amaro Pinheiro
There is a global lack of knowledge on tropical ecotoxicology, particularly in terms of mangrove areas. These areas often serve as nurseries or homes for several animal species, including Ucides cordatus (the uçá crab). This species is widely distributed, is part of the diet of human coastal communities, and is considered to be a sentinel species due to its sensitivity to toxic xenobiotics in natural environments. Sublethal damages to benthic populations reveal pre-pathological conditions, but discussions of the implications are scarce in the literature...
November 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Wing Fuk Chan, Julie A Parks-Dely, Brad G Magor, Katharine E Magor
In many nonmammalian vertebrates, the genomic organization of the MHC class I region leads to biased expression of a single classical MHC class I gene coevolving with TAP transporters, whereas class I genes are poorly expressed. This contrasts to the three codominantly expressed classical MHC class I genes in humans and mice. In a sequenced haplotype from White Pekin duck, Anas platyrhynchos, there is one predominantly expressed MHC class I, UAA, although they have five MHC class I genes in the complex, arranged TAP1-TAP2-UAA-UBA-UCA-UDA-UEA The UAA gene, situated proximal to the TAP2 gene, is expressed at levels 10-fold greater than that of another expressed gene, UDA...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Lei Zhang, C Q Ru
Imperfection sensitivity is essential for mechanical behavior of biopolymer shells [such as ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) and spherical viruses] characterized by high geometric heterogeneity. In this work, an imperfection sensitivity analysis is conducted based on a refined shell model recently developed for spherical biopolymer shells of high structural heterogeneity and thickness nonuniformity. The influence of related parameters (including the ratio of radius to average shell thickness, the ratio of transverse shear modulus to in-plane shear modulus, and the ratio of effective bending thickness to average shell thickness) on imperfection sensitivity is examined for pressured buckling...
June 2016: Physical Review. E
G Yealland, G Battaglia, O Bandmann, H Mortiboys
Mutations in parkin cause autosomal recessive Parkinsonism and mitochondrial defects. A recent drug screen identified a class of steroid-like hydrophobic compounds able to rescue mitochondrial function in parkin-mutant fibroblasts. Whilst these possess therapeutic potential, the size and high hydrophobicity of some may limit their ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier from systemic circulation, something that could be improved by novel drug formulations. In the present study, the steroid-like compounds Ursolic Acid (UA) and Ursocholanic Acid (UCA) were successfully encapsulated within nanoscopic polymersomes formed by poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine)-poly(2-di-isopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PMPC-PDPA) and separated into spherical and tubular morphologies to assess the effects of nanoparticle mediated delivery on drug efficacy...
September 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Hsi-Te Shih, Jung-Hsiang Lee, Ping-Ho Ho, Hung-Chang Liu, Chia-Hsiang Wang, Hiroshi Suzuki, Shao-Jyun Teng
The fiddler crabs, genus Uca Leach, 1814 (Decapoda, Ocypodidae) of Taiwan, including the offshore islands of Penghu (Pescadores), Kinmen (Quemoy), Matsu (Matzu), and Dongsha (Pratas), are revised, with the recognition of five subgenera and 15 species, viz. Uca (Austruca) Bott, 1973: U. lactea (De Haan, 1835), U. perplexa (H. Milne Edwards, 1837), U. triangularis (A. Milne-Edwards, 1873); U. (Gelasimus) Latreille, 1817: U. borealis Crane, 1975, U. jocelynae Shih, Naruse & Ng, 2010, U. tetragonon (Herbst, 1790), U...
2016: Zootaxa
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