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Bernard Grandjean, Marc A Maier
Muscle spindle discharge during active movement is a function of mechanical and neural parameters. Muscle length changes (and their derivatives) represent its primary mechanical, fusimotor drive its neural component. However, neither the action nor the function of fusimotor and in particular of γ-drive, have been clearly established, since γ-motor activity during voluntary, non-locomotor movements remains largely unknown. Here, using a computational approach, we explored whether γ-drive emerges in an artificial neural network model of the corticospinal system linked to a biomechanical antagonist wrist simulator...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
Andrei Barcaru, Eduard Derks, Gabriel Vivó-Truyols
A novel peak tracking method based on Bayesian statistics is proposed. The method consists of assigning (i.e. tracking) peaks from two GCxGC-FID data sets of the same sample taken in different conditions. Opposed to traditional (i.e. deterministic) peak tracking algorithms, in which the assignment problem is solved with a unique solution, the proposed algorithm is probabilistic. In other words, we quantify the uncertainty of matching two peaks without excluding other possible candidates, ranking the possible peak assignments regarding their posterior probability...
October 12, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Romain Pirracchio, John K Yue, Geoffrey T Manley, Mark J van der Laan, Alan E Hubbard
Standard statistical practice used for determining the relative importance of competing causes of disease typically relies on ad hoc methods, often byproducts of machine learning procedures (stepwise regression, random forest, etc.). Causal inference framework and data-adaptive methods may help to tailor parameters to match the clinical question and free one from arbitrary modeling assumptions. Our focus is on implementations of such semiparametric methods for a variable importance measure (VIM). We propose a fully automated procedure for VIM based on collaborative targeted maximum likelihood estimation (cTMLE), a method that optimizes the estimate of an association in the presence of potentially numerous competing causes...
June 29, 2016: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Denisa Salihović Hajdarević, Aleksandra M Pavlović, Dzevdet Smajlović, Ana Podgorac, Zagorka Jovanović, Tamara Svabić Medjedović, Nadezda Covicković Sternić
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral ischemic small-vessel disease (SVD), causing lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is a progressive disease associated with an increased risk of stroke, dementia and death. Increased arterial stiffness has been associated with ischemic stroke and cerebral SVD independently of common vascular risk factors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze arterial stiffness in our patients with symptomatic SVD...
January 2016: Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo
Vanja Basić Kes, Miljenka-Jelena Jurasić, Iris Zavoreo, Lejla Corić, Kresimir Rotim
Recently migraine has been associated with increased arterial stiffness, procoagulant state, increased incidence of cerebral white matter lesions (WML) and stroke. Our aim was to compare the characteristics of migraineurs to headache free controls regarding their functional carotid ultrasound parameters. Sixty patients (45 women) with migraine (mean age 40.42 ± 10.61 years) were compared with 45 controls (30 women) with no prior history of repeating headache (mean age 38.94 ± 5.46 years) using E-tracking software on Alpha 10 ultrasound platform...
December 2015: Acta Clinica Croatica
Anne Choquette, Janet E Rennick, Virginia Lee
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the influence of cancer on the adolescent's developing self-identity and social relationships as he/she transitions back to school following cancer treatment. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the meaning of returning to school for adolescents who have completed cancer treatment. METHODS: In this qualitative study, in-depth interviews using an interpretive descriptive approach were conducted with 11 adolescents (aged 13-17 years) who had completed treatment for cancer...
September 2016: Cancer Nursing
Michelle Hurst, Sara Cordes
Although fractions, decimals, and whole numbers can be used to represent the same rational-number values, it is unclear whether adults conceive of these rational-number magnitudes as lying along the same ordered mental continuum. In the current study, we investigated whether adults' processing of rational-number magnitudes in fraction, decimal, and whole-number notation show systematic ratio-dependent responding characteristic of an integrated mental continuum. Both reaction time (RT) and eye-tracking data from a number-magnitude comparison task revealed ratio-dependent performance when adults compared the relative magnitudes of rational numbers, both within the same notation (e...
February 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Christine J Catling, Caroline S E Homer
BACKGROUND: In 1989, the first major state-wide report into maternity services, known as the Shearman Report after its author, was released in New South Wales, the most populous state in Australia. AIM: This paper reflects upon the report and tracks the progress of five of its key recommendations. The recommendations are still some of the major issues facing maternity services across the country. These are: community-based maternity care, rural maternity services, hospital visiting rights for privately practising midwives, obstetric intervention, and midwifery continuity of maternity care...
February 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Andrés Schlageter-Tello, Eddie A M Bokkers, Peter W G Groot Koerkamp, Tom Van Hertem, Stefano Viazzi, Carlos E B Romanini, Ilan Halachmi, Claudia Bahr, Daniël Berckmans, Kees Lokhorst
Lameness is still an important problem in modern dairy farming. Human observation of locomotion, by looking at different traits in one go, is used in practice to assess locomotion. The objectives of this article were to determine which individual locomotion traits are most related to locomotion scores in dairy cows, and whether experienced raters are capable of scoring these individual traits consistently. Locomotion and 5 individual locomotion traits (arched back, asymmetric gait, head bobbing, reluctance to bear weight, and tracking up) were scored independently on a 5-level scale for 58 videos of different cows...
December 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
Paul E Milligan, Mary C Bocox, Elizabeth Pratt, Christine M Hoehner, John E Krettek, Wm Claiborne Dunagan
PURPOSE: Substantial reductions in inpatient episodes of severe hypoglycemia achieved by a large healthcare system through enhanced use of technology and sustained quality-improvement initiatives are described. SUMMARY: After internal data collection and analysis revealed that severe hypoglycemia accounted for 75% of all systematically monitored adverse drug events in its hospital network, St. Louis-based BJC HealthCare designed and executed a multifaceted approach to reducing hypoglycemia events...
October 1, 2015: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Christopher F Shay, Michele Ferrante, G William Chapman, Michael E Hasselmo
Rebound spiking properties of medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) stellate cells induced by inhibition may underlie their functional properties in awake behaving rats, including the temporal phase separation of distinct grid cells and differences in grid cell firing properties. We investigated rebound spiking properties using whole cell patch recording in entorhinal slices, holding cells near spiking threshold and delivering sinusoidal inputs, superimposed with realistic inhibitory synaptic inputs to test the capacity of cells to selectively respond to specific phases of inhibitory input...
March 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Christopher P Calderon, Kerry Bloom
Understanding the basis for intracellular motion is critical as the field moves toward a deeper understanding of the relation between Brownian forces, molecular crowding, and anisotropic (or isotropic) energetic forcing. Effective forces and other parameters used to summarize molecular motion change over time in live cells due to latent state changes, e.g., changes induced by dynamic micro-environments, photobleaching, and other heterogeneity inherent in biological processes. This study discusses limitations in currently popular analysis methods (e...
2015: PloS One
Samuel T Edwards, Lisa V Rubenstein, Lisa S Meredith, Nicole Schmidt Hackbarth, Susan E Stockdale, Kristina M Cordasco, Andrew B Lanto, Philip J Roos, Elizabeth M Yano
BACKGROUND: Unclear roles in interdisciplinary primary care teams can impede optimal team-based care. We assessed perceived task allocation among primary care providers (PCPs) and staff during implementation of a new patient-centered care model in Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care practices. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey of PCPs and primary care staff (registered nurses (RNs), licensed practical/vocational nurses (LPNs), and medical assistants/clerks (MAs)) in 23 primary care practices within one VA region...
September 2015: Healthcare
Jessica Knilans, Gayle DeDe
PURPOSE: There is a lot of evidence that people with aphasia have more difficulty understanding structurally complex sentences (e.g., object clefts) than simpler sentences (subject clefts). However, subject clefts also occur more frequently in English than object clefts. Thus, it is possible that both structural complexity and frequency affect how people with aphasia understand these structures. METHOD: Nine people with aphasia and 8 age-matched controls participated in the study...
November 2015: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Hye Hyeon Kim, Soo Youn Lee, Su Youn Baik, Ju Han Kim
OBJECTIVE: The increasing use of health self-tracking devices is making the integration of heterogeneous data and shared decision-making more challenging. Computational analysis of lifelog data has been hampered by the lack of semantic and syntactic consistency among lifelog terms and related ontologies. Medical lifelog ontology (MELLO) was developed by identifying lifelog concepts and relationships between concepts, and it provides clear definitions by following ontology development methods...
December 2015: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Clara E Dismuke, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Leonard E Egede
OBJECTIVE: Primary: To examine Veterans Administration (VA) utilization and other potential mediators between racial/ethnic differentials and mortality in veterans diagnosed with traumatic brain injury (TBI). DESIGN: A national cohort of veterans clinically diagnosed with TBI in 2006 was followed from January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2009 or until date of death. Utilization was tracked for 12 months. Differences in survival and potential mediators by race were examined via K-Wallis and chi-square tests...
2016: Global Journal of Health Science
Yuri Burnishev, Victor Steinberg
We report unexpected results of a drastic difference in the transition to fully developed turbulent and turbulent drag reduction (TDR) regimes and in their properties in a von Karman swirling flow with counter-rotating disks of water-based polymer solutions for viscous (by smooth disks) as well as inertial (by bladed disks) forcing and by tracking just torque Γ(t) and pressure p(t) . For the viscous forcing, just a single TDR regime is found with the transition values of the Reynolds number (Re) Re turb c =Re TDR c ≃(4...
August 2015: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
David D McCowan
Since the mid-1980s, mode-coupling theory (MCT) has been the de facto theoretic description of dense fluids and the transition from the fluid state to the glassy state. MCT, however, is limited by the approximations used in its construction and lacks an unambiguous mechanism to institute corrections. We use recent results from a new theoretical framework--developed from first principles via a self-consistent perturbation expansion in terms of an effective two-body potential--to numerically explore the kinetics of systems of classical particles, specifically hard spheres governed by Smoluchowski dynamics...
August 2015: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Zhe Zhen, Yan Chen, Kendrick Shih, Ju-Hua Liu, Michele Yuen, David Sai-Hung Wong, Karen Siu-Ling Lam, Hung-Fat Tse, Kai-Hang Yiu
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) complicated by retinopathy is associated with altered left ventricular (LV) structure and resting myocardial dysfunction unlike T2DM without retinopathy. The myocardial response to stress has not been compared in patients with and without diabetic retinopathy. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the relationship between retinopathy and myocardial function in patients with T2DM at rest and during exercise echocardiography. METHODS: 134 patients with T2DM and no evidence of underlying coronary artery disease were recruited...
2015: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Michael C Meyers, Robert Higgs, Arnold D LeUnes, Anthony E Bourgeois, C Matthew Laurent
CONTEXT: The primary goal of traditional treatment and rehabilitation programs is to safely return athletes to full functional capacity. Nontraditional activities such as rock climbing or rodeo are typically less training structured and coach structured; individualism, self-determination, and autonomy are more prevalent than observed in athletes in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)-sponsored sports. The limited research available on nontraditional athletes has provided the athletic trainer little insight into the coping skills and adaptations to stressors that these athletes may bring into the clinical setting, especially among the growing number of women participating in these types of activities...
October 2015: Journal of Athletic Training
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