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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226587/cellular-models-for-beta-cell-function-and-diabetes-gene-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Alastair D Green, Srividya Vasu, Peter R Flatt
Diabetes is characterised by the destruction and/or relative dysfunction of insulin secreting beta-cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Consequently, considerable effort has been made to understand the physiological processes governing insulin production and secretion in these cells, and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in their deterioration in the pathogenesis of diabetes. To date, considerable research has exploited clonal beta-cell lines derived from rodent insulinomas. Such cell-lines have proven to be a great asset in diabetes research, in vitro drug testing, and studies of beta-cell physiology; and provide a sustainable, and in many cases, more practical alternative to the use of animals or primary tissue...
December 11, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225068/lysophosphatidylcholine-and-its-phosphorothioate-analogues-potentiate-insulin-secretion-via-gpr40-ffar1-gpr55-and-gpr119-receptors-in-a-different-manner
#2
Anna Drzazga, Hjalti Kristinsson, Maciej Sałaga, Hubert Zatorski, Maria Koziołkiewicz, Edyta Gendaszewska-Darmach, Peter Bergsten
Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is an endogenous ligand for GPR119 receptor, mediating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). We demonstrate that LPC facilitates GSIS in MIN6 pancreatic β-cell line and murine islets of Langerhans by recognizing not only GPR119 but also GPR40 (free fatty acid receptor 1) and GPR55 activated by lysophosphatidylinositol. Natural LPCs are unstable when administered in vivo limiting their therapeutic value and therefore, we present phosphorothioate LPC analogues with increased stability...
December 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224921/effects-of-acrylamide-on-oxidant-antioxidant-parameters-and-cyp2e1-expression-in-rat-pancreatic-endocrine-cells
#3
Jelena Marković, Milena Stošić, Danijela Kojić, Milica Matavulj
Oxidative stress is one of the principle mechanism of acrylamide-induced toxicity. Acrylamide is metabolized by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to glycidamide or by direct conjugation with glutathione. Bearing in mind that up to now the effects of acrylamide on oxidative stress status and CYP2E1 level in endocrine pancreas have not been studied we performed qualitative and quantitative immunohistochemical evaluation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), catalase (CAT) and CYP2E1 expression in islets of Langerhans of rats subchronically treated with 25 or 50mg/kg bw of acrylamide...
December 7, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222007/current-concepts-in-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management-of-smoking-related-interstitial-lung-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Anupam Kumar, Sujith V Cherian, Robert Vassallo, Eunhee S Yi, Jay H Ryu
Tobacco exposure results in various changes to the airways and lung parenchyma. While emphysema represents the more common injury pattern, in some individuals, cigarette smoke injures alveolar epithelial and other lung cells resulting in diffuse infiltrates and parenchymal fibrosis. Smoking can trigger interstitial injury patterns mediated via recruitment and inappropriate persistence of myeloid and other immune cells including eosinophils. As our understanding of the role of cigarette smoke constituents in triggering lung injury continues to evolve, so does our recognition of the spectrum of smoking-related interstitial lung changes...
December 5, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221343/adult-onset-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-of-the-sternum
#5
Yi-Jhih Huang, Kuan-Hsun Lin, Tai-Kuang Chao, Tsai-Wang Huang, Hsu-Kai Huang
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease with uncertain etiology that is more prevalent in children. LCH typically invades skeletal systems, but in rare cases, it has been reported in the ribs or sternum. Optimal treatment choices for single-site, skeletal LCH are still undefined. We report a case of adult-onset LCH of the sternum. The range of surrounding soft tissue invasion was confirmed by three-dimensional fusion and reconstruction of chest computed tomography and magnetic resonance images...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218135/langerhans-cell-sarcoma-of-the-skin-in-association-with-superficial-atypical-langerhans-cell-proliferation
#6
Alejandro Peralta Soler, Michael Miller, Thomas L Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2017: Rare Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217373/langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-presenting-like-lichen-planus-in-a-4-month-old-infant
#7
Dilek Ece, Neriman Sahiner, Aslinur Ozkaya-Parlakay, Ayse Selcen Oguz-Erdogan, Derya Ozyoruk, Hasan Tezer, Belgin Gulhan, Saliha Kanik-Yuksek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215410/isolated-multinodular-soft-tissue-rosai-dorfman-disease-on-fdg-pet-ct
#8
Darko Pucar, William B Laskin, Lawrence Saperstein
Rosai-Dorfman disease (sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy) is a rare systemic histiocytic disorder of unknown etiology characterized by the accumulation of enlarged non-Langerhans histiocytes within lymph nodes and extranodal sites. The histiocytes display characteristic emperipolesis (nondestructive engulfment of inflammatory cells) and are CD68 and S100 positive and CD1a negative. Although extranodal disease frequently occurs with nodal involvement, isolated extranodal disease is uncommon. We report a case of isolated localized subcutaneous multinodular disease on FDG PET/CT...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214086/erdheim-chester-disease-with-no-skeletal-bone-involvement-and-massive-weight-loss
#9
Hind Salama, Suleiman Kojan, Shaima Abdulrahman, Fahad Azzumeea, Ayman Alhejazi
Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare type of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, with only 550 cases reported worldwide. ECD is characterized by diffuse histiocytic infiltration of multiorgans. The age of presentation of this disease is typically between 40 and 70 years. Bone disease is the most common symptom, as unique radiological findings of long bone sclerosis occur in 96% of cases. Furthermore, BRAF V600E mutation is detected in 60% of ECD cases. In this manuscript, we are describing a unique case of ECD; the patient is younger than most reported cases and has no bone pain or any skeletal involvement...
2017: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209883/disseminated-juvenile-xanthogranuloma-occurring-after-treatment-of-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-a-case-report
#10
Tae-Kyu Lee, Tae-Young Jung, Hee-Jo Baek, Seul-Kee Kim, Kyung-Hwa Lee, Sook Jung Yun
CASE PRESENTATION: An 11-year-old boy presented with a complaint of a painful temporal mass. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a 3-cm-sized, homogeneously enhancing mass in the greater wing of the left sphenoid bone, which was diagnosed as Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Chemotherapy with vincristine and prednisolone was performed for 1 year. After 1 year and 11 months off treatment, he developed symptoms such as polydipsia and polyuria. Brain MRI showed thickening of the pituitary stalk with enhancement, suggestive of LCH involvement, and no recurrence in the sphenoid bone...
December 5, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204962/adult-leukoencephalopathies-with-prominent-infratentorial-involvement-can-be-caused-by-erdheim-chester-disease
#11
Luisa Chiapparini, Giulio Cavalli, Tiziana Langella, Anna Venerando, Giacomo De Luca, Sergio Raspante, Giorgio Marotta, Bianca Pollo, Giuseppe Lauria, Maria Giulia Cangi, Simonetta Gerevini, Andrea Botturi, Davide Pareyson, Lorenzo Dagna, Ettore Salsano
BACKGROUND: Leukoencephalopathies with prominent involvement of cerebellum and brainstem, henceforward called prominent infratentorial leukoencephalopathies (PILs), encompass a variety of inherited and acquired white matter diseases. Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis likely under-diagnosed as cause of adult PIL. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical and laboratory information of ten consecutive sporadic adult patients with PIL of unknown origin, who were investigated for ECD...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204886/membrane-mediated-amyloid-deposition-of-human-islet-amyloid-polypeptide
#12
REVIEW
Kenji Sasahara
Amyloid deposition of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) within the islet of Langerhans is closely associated with type II diabetes mellitus. Accumulating evidence indicates that the membrane-mediated aggregation and subsequent deposition of hIAPP are linked to the dysfunction and death of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells, but the molecular process of hIAPP deposition is poorly understood. In this review, I focus on recent in vitro studies utilizing model membranes to observe the membrane-mediated aggregation/deposition of hIAPP...
December 4, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204304/langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-a-diagnostic-challenge-in-the-oral-cavity
#13
Mehmet Ali Altay, Alper Sindel, Öznur Özalp, Burak Kocabalkan, İrem Hicran Özbudak, Ramazan Erdem, Ozan Salim, Dale A Baur
Background: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder of the reticuloendothelial system with unknown etiology. This report aims to present a case of LCH with diffuse involvement of the oral cavity and to raise awareness of the distinguishing features of this diagnostically challenging entity. Case Report: A 26-year-old male patient presented with complaints of teeth mobility, intense pain, and difficulty in chewing. Intraoral and radiological examinations revealed generalized gingival hyperplasia and severe teeth mobility with widespread alveolar bone loss...
2017: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200726/influence-of-flavonoids-on-mechanism-of-modulation-of-insulin-secretion
#14
Juliana Mikaelly Dias Soares, Ana Ediléia Barbosa Pereira Leal, Juliane Cabral Silva, Jackson R G S Almeida, Helinando Pequeno de Oliveira
Background: The development of alternatives for insulin secretion control in vivo or in vitro represents an important aspect to be investigated. In this direction, natural products have been progressively explored with this aim. In particular, flavonoids are potential candidates to act as insulin secretagogue. Objective: To study the influence of flavonoid on overall modulation mechanisms of insulin secretion. Methods: The research was conducted in the following databases and platforms: PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, LILACS, and ScienceDirect, and the MeSH terms used for the search were flavonoids, flavones, islets of Langerhans, and insulin-secreting cells...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200169/sinus-histiocytosis-with-massive-lymphadenopathy-rosai-dorfman-disease-diagnostic-and-treatment-modalities-for-this-rare-entity-revisited
#15
Andrew W Averitt, Kenneth Heym, Lauren Akers, Fernando Castro-Silva, Anish Ray
Rosai-Dorfman disease, also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy is a rare non-Langerhans' cell histiocytic disease resulting from the proliferation and accumulation of sinus histiocytes within lymph nodes. Extranodal involvement frequently occurs, which increases the morbidity and mortality of the disease. There is no clear consensus with regard to the most effective diagnostic and treatment modalities. This report will focus on the diagnostic imaging, treatment, and outcomes for 3 cases of Rosai-Dorfman disease...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200145/treatment-outcome-of-children-with-multisystem-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-the-experience-of-a-single-children-s-hospital-in-shanghai-china
#16
Yi-Jin Gao, Meng Su, Jing-Yan Tang, Ci Pan, Jing Chen
We reported the outcome of 150 children newly diagnosed with multisystem langerhans cell histiocytosis following a langerhans cell histiocytosis-II-based protocol (arm B). However, the continuation treatment was extended to 56 weeks and etoposide was omitted from the continuation treatment. Risk organ (RO) involvement was defined as: liver (≥3 cm with or without functional impairment); spleen (≥2 cm below the costal margin in the midclavicular line); hematopoietic system (hemoglobin <100 g/L, and/or white blood cell count <4...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198444/endocrine-and-metabolic-assessment-in-adults-with-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#17
L Montefusco, S Harari, D Elia, A Rossi, C Specchia, O Torre, G Adda, M Arosio
CONTEXT: Diabetes insipidus (DI) is one of most common complications of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) but prevalence of anterior pituitary deficiencies and metabolic alterations have not been clearly defined yet. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate prevalence of endocrine and metabolic manifestations in a cohort of patients affected by Pulmonary LCH. METHODS: Observational cross-sectional study on 18 adults (7 M/11 F, 42±12years) studied for complete basal and dynamic endocrine lab tests and glucose metabolism...
November 29, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194565/impaired-langerhans-cell-migration-in-psoriasis-is-due-to-an-altered-keratinocyte-phenotype-induced-by-interleukin-17
#18
L H Eaton, K T Mellody, S M Pilkington, R J Dearman, I Kimber, C E M Griffiths
Psoriasis is a common skin condition driven by increased expression of interleukin (IL)-17. Langerhans' cells (LC) are epidermal dendritic cells that regulate cutaneous immune responses. Within uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis, LC display impaired migration from the epidermis. Here the role of keratinocytes (KC) in the regulation of LC function, and the response of KC to IL-17 has been investigated. Keratinocytes were cultured from the uninvolved skin of psoriasis patients and healthy individuals with or without IL-17 treatment and the conditioned medium examined for its ability to alter LC function in an ex vivo human skin explant model...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194093/cdkn2a-b-deletion-and-double-hit-mutations-of-the-mapk-pathway-underlie-the-aggressive-behavior-of-langerhans-cell-tumors
#19
Luc Xerri, José Adélaïde, Cornel Popovici, Séverine Garnier, Arnaud Guille, Lenaïg Mescam-Mancini, Camille Laurent, Pierre Brousset, Carole Coze, Gérard Michel, Max Chaffanet, Reda Bouabdallah, Diane Coso, François Bertucci, Daniel Birnbaum
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) has a mostly favorable outcome, whereas Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS) is an aggressive tumor. It is still unclear whether any specific molecular alterations could underlie the aggressive behavior of Langerhans cell proliferations. We used targeted next-generation sequencing and array-comparative genomic hybridization to profile 22 LCH samples from different patients together with 3 LCS samples corresponding to different relapses from the same patient. The third LCS relapse was a composite tumor including both B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and LCS components...
November 29, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193084/gap-junctional-communication-between-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-cells-another-player-for-suppression-of-glucagon-release
#20
Martina Düfer
Islets of Langerhans are characterized by precisely sensing changes in blood glucose concentration and transferring this signal to adequate secretion of pancreatic hormones. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 28, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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