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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432571/cell-therapy-for-type-1-diabetes-current-and-future-strategies
#1
REVIEW
Yasaman Aghazadeh, Maria Cristina Nostro
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is defined by an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing β-cells located in the endocrine part of the pancreas, the islets of Langerhans. As exogenous insulin administration fails at preventing severe complications associated with this disease, cell replacement therapies are being considered as a means to treat T1D. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the challenges associated with current strategies and discuss the potential of stem cell therapy for the treatment of T1D...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430616/evaluation-of-pituitary-uptake-incidentally-identified-on-18f-fdg-pet-ct-scan
#2
Huijun Ju, Jinxin Zhou, Yu Pan, Jing Lv, Yifan Zhang
The clinical significance of pituitary uptake on routine whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computer tomography (PET/CT) is not completely characterized. We seek to assess the potential differential diagnosis/underlying etiology of pituitary FDG uptake incidentally identified on routine PET/CT scans. A total of 24,007 PET/CT whole body scans in recent 5 years were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) > 4.1 in the pituitary glands were identified...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429464/inflammatory-features-of-frontal-fibrosing-alopecia
#3
Sophia A Ma, Sotonye Imadojemu, Kenneth Beer, John T Seykora
INTRODUCTION: Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a cicatricial alopecia typically occurring in post-menopausal women. The etiology and pathophysiology of FFA is poorly understood but thought to be immune mediated. This study aims to further explore the extent of fibrosis and the inflammatory microenvironment by characterizing Langerhans cells (LCs), helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, and B cells near hair follicles in FFA. METHODS: 11 paraffin-embedded tissues from patients with a clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of FFA were selected for immunohistochemical studies using CD3, CD4, CD8, CD1a, and CD20...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422066/diabetogenic-effects-of-ochratoxin-a-in-female-rats
#4
Firdevs Mor, Omur Sengul, Senay Topsakal, Mehmet Akif Kilic, Ozlem Ozmen
In this study, the diabetogenic effects of long term Ochratoxin A (OTA) administration in rats were investigated, and its role in the etiology of diabetes mellitus (DM) was examined utilizing 42 female Wistar rats for these purposes. The rats were divided into three different study and control groups according to the duration of the OTA administration. The rats received 45 μg OTA daily in their feed for 6, 9 and 24 weeks, respectively. Three control groups were also used for the same time periods. Blood and pancreatic tissue samples were collected during the necropsy at the end of the 6, 9 and 24 weeks...
April 19, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421232/clinical-spectrum-quality-of-life-braf-mutation-status-and-treatment-of-skin-involvement-in-adult-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#5
Etienne Crickx, Jean-David Bouaziz, Gwenaël Lorillon, Mathilde de Menthon, Florence Cordoliani, Emmanuell Bugnet, Martine Bagot, Michel Rybojad, Samia Mourah, Abdellatif Tazi
Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare histiocytic disorder for which skin involvement and management are poorly described in adults. The aim of this retrospective monocentric study in a national reference centre is to describe the clinical characteristics, quality of life, BRAF mutation status and outcomes of skin involvement in adult patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Twenty-five patients (14 females, mean age 47 years) were included, with a median follow-up of 33 months (range 4-420 months). Patients experienced poor dermatological quality of life despite low body surface involvement...
April 19, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420858/transcriptional-regulation-of-pancreas-development-and-%C3%AE-cell-function-review
#6
Yoshio Fujitani
A small number of cells in the adult pancreas are endocrine cells. They are arranged in clusters called islets of Langerhans. The islets make insulin, glucagon, and other endocrine hormones, and release them into the blood circulation. These hormones help control the level of blood glucose. Therefore, a dysfunction of endocrine cells in the pancreas results in impaired glucose homeostasis, or diabetes mellitus. The pancreas is an organ that originates from the evaginations of pancreatic progenitor cells in the epithelium of the forgut endoderm...
April 14, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417851/nuclear-medicine-techniques-in-pediatric-bone-imaging
#7
REVIEW
Laura A Drubach
An important mandate when imaging pediatric patients is the reduction of radiation exposure to the lowest possible level consistent with good quality diagnostic imaging, so individual selection of radiopharmaceutical dosage and imaging technique is essential. Although the logistics of image acquisition and the approach to interpretation mirror the more common use in adults, the challenges of imaging young children typically require greater attention to patient preparation, positioning, and supervision during imaging, with the use of parental or family engagement in the procedure, gentle restraint, and occasionally the need for sedation...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413819/multisystemic-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-in-an-adult
#8
Marie-Valerie Hegemann, Stephan Schreml
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: JAAD Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410606/in-vivo-quantification-of-quantum-dot-systemic-transport-in-c57bl-6-hairless-mice-following-skin-application-post-ultraviolet-radiation
#9
Samreen Jatana, Brian C Palmer, Sarah J Phelan, Robert Gelein, Lisa A DeLouise
BACKGROUND: Previous work has demonstrated size, surface charge and skin barrier dependent penetration of nanoparticles into the viable layers of mouse skin. The goal of this work was to characterize the tissue distribution and mechanism of transport of nanoparticles beyond skin, with and without Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) induced skin barrier disruption. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were used to examine the effect of UVR dose (180 and 360 mJ/cm(2) UVB) on the skin penetration and systemic distribution of quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles topically applied at different time-points post UVR using a hairless C57BL/6 mouse model...
April 14, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410280/long-term-impacts-of-orthokeratology-treatment-on-sub-basal-nerve-plexus-and-corneal-sensitivity-responses-and-their-reversibility
#10
María Nombela-Palomo, Gema Felipe-Marquez, Miguel Angel Teus, Jose Luis Hernandez-Verdejo, Amelia Nieto-Bona
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of one year of overnight orthokeratology (OK) treatment on the sub-basal nerve plexus (SBNP) and corneal sensitivity and to assess the reversibility of these effects one month after treatment interruption. METHODS: Thirty-two subjects with low-moderate myopia underwent OK treatment for one year. Fifteen non-contact lens wearers served as controls. At the time points baseline, one year of treatment, and one month after removing the OK lenses, two tests were conducted: corneal sensitivity (Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer) and SBNP imaging by in vivo confocal microscopy...
April 13, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409826/glycogen-phosphorylase-inhibition-improves-%C3%AE-cell-function
#11
Lilla Nagy, Judit Márton, András Vida, Gréta Kis, Éva Bokor, Sándor Kun, Mónika Gönczi, Tibor Docsa, Attila Tóth, Miklós Antal, Pál Gergely, Balázs Csóka, Pal Pacher, László Somsák, Péter Bai
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is the key enzyme for glycogen degradation. GP inhibitors (GPi-s) are glucose lowering agents trapping glucose in the liver as glycogen. Glycogen metabolism has implications in β-cell function; glycogen degradation can maintain cellular glucose levels, which feeds into catabolism to maintain insulin secretion, and elevated glycogen degradation levels contribute to glucotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to assess whether influencing glycogen metabolism in β-cells by GPi-s impacts β-cell function...
April 13, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407623/fine-needle-aspiration-of-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-a-cytopathologic-study-of-37-cases
#12
Jen-Fan Hang, Momin T Siddiqui, Syed Z Ali
OBJECTIVE: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an uncommon neoplasm of dendritic cells and predominantly occurs in children and young adults. The study aims to evaluate cytopathologic features and current diagnostic concepts in a large series of LCH on fine needle aspiration (FNA). STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively searched the pathology archives of The Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) and Emory University Hospital (EUH) to identify all FNA cases diagnosed as LCH in a period of 21 years...
April 14, 2017: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406136/pulmonary-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-case-with-diabetes-insipidus-and-tuberculosis
#13
E Ugurlu, G Altinisik, U Aydogmus, F Bir
A 19-year-old male patient was observed due to having central diabetes insipidus (DI) for five years. He had a history of smoking 5-10 cigarettes a day for two years, but stopped smoking from the last month. The computerized tomography revealed thin-walled cystic lesions in different sizes more dominantly in the upper lobes and consolidated areas in the left upper and lower lobes. The wedge resection from the right lower lobe revealed pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis. Follow-up acid-fast bacteria (AFB) examinations revealed (+++) and antituberculous treatment was started...
April 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404573/cytomegalovirus-virions-shed-in-urine-have-a-reversible-block-to-epithelial-cell-entry-and-are-highly-resistant-to-antibody-neutralization
#14
Xiaohong Cui, Stuart P Adler, Mark R Schleiss, Ravit Arav-Boger, Gail J Demmler Harrison, Michael A McVoy
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes sensorineural hearing loss and developmental disabilities in newborns when infections are aquired in utero Pregnant women may acquire CMV from oral exposure to CMV in urine or saliva from young children. Neutralizing antibodies in maternal saliva have potential to prevent maternal infection and in turn fetal infection. As CMV uses different viral glycoprotein complexes to enter different cell types, the first cells to be infected in the oral cavity could determine the type of antibodies needed to disrupt oral transmission...
April 12, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403515/an-aggressive-multifocal-primary-cns-histiocytosis-with-ptpn11-shp2-mutation
#15
Qi Zhang, Areej Shibani, Bekim Sadikovic, Christopher J Howlett, Lee-Cyn Ang
Primary histiocytic tumors of the CNS are rare. The current WHO classification (2016) included 5 entities: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD), Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG), and histiocytic sarcoma (HS) (1). The diagnosis usually is made based on the tumor differentiation as to the counterpart in normal histiocyte development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 12, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398921/hemosiderotic-juvenile-xanthogranuloma
#16
Angel Fernandez-Flores, Ina Nicklaus, Fiona Browne, Isabel Colmenero
Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a non-Langerhans cell lesion mostly limited to the skin but occasionally presenting in extracutaneous locations or associated with systemic conditions. Lesions need to be distinguished mainly from dermatofibroma, xanthoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, or reticulohistiocytoma. Herein, we present a hemosiderotic variant of juvenile xanthogranuloma in a 12-year-old girl, which we have not found described in literature. The lesion presented at the back of the scalp as a slowly growing yellowish polypoid lesion showing occasional bleeding...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396615/bone-pathologic-fracture-revealing-an-unusual-association-coexistence-of-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-with-rosai-dorfman-disease
#17
Boubacar Efared, Asmae Mazti, Badarou Chaibou, Gabrielle Atsame-Ebang, Ibrahim Sory Sidibé, Layla Tahiri, Fatimazahra Erregad, Nawal Hammas, Abdelmajid El Mrini, Hinde El Fatemi, Laila Chbani
BACKGROUND: The coexistence of Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is very rare, as to date only 17 cases have been reported in the english literature. The pathophysiology of this uncommon co-occurrence still remains enigmatic and a subject of various speculations. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 30-year-old female patient who presented with a pathologic fracture of the left proximal femur. Her medical history was unremarkable, there were no fever, skin lesions, lymphadenopathy or other organomegaly at physical examination...
2017: BMC Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387351/multi-color-electron-microscopy-by-element-guided-identification-of-cells-organelles-and-molecules
#18
Marijke Scotuzzi, Jeroen Kuipers, Dasha I Wensveen, Pascal de Boer, Kees C W Hagen, Jacob P Hoogenboom, Ben N G Giepmans
Cellular complexity is unraveled at nanometer resolution using electron microscopy (EM), but interpretation of macromolecular functionality is hampered by the difficulty in interpreting grey-scale images and the unidentified molecular content. We perform large-scale EM on mammalian tissue complemented with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) to allow EM-data analysis based on elemental composition. Endogenous elements, labels (gold and cadmium-based nanoparticles) as well as stains are analyzed at ultrastructural resolution...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386100/petri-net-computational-modelling-of-langerhans-cell-interferon-regulatory-factor-network-predicts-their-role-in-t-cell-activation
#19
Marta E Polak, Chuin Ying Ung, Joanna Masapust, Tom C Freeman, Michael R Ardern-Jones
Langerhans cells (LCs) are able to orchestrate adaptive immune responses in the skin by interpreting the microenvironmental context in which they encounter foreign substances, but the regulatory basis for this has not been established. Utilising systems immunology approaches combining in silico modelling of a reconstructed gene regulatory network (GRN) with in vitro validation of the predictions, we sought to determine the mechanisms of regulation of immune responses in human primary LCs. The key role of Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) as controllers of the human Langerhans cell response to epidermal cytokines was revealed by whole transcriptome analysis...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385175/on-the-role-of-the-gut-in-diabetic-hyperglucagonaemia
#20
Asger Lund
Patients with type 2 diabetes are characterised not only by compromised insulin secretion and action, but also by elevated plasma concentrations of the 29-amino acid peptide hormone glucagon, which generally is thought of as a pancreas-derived hormone (produced in and secreted from alpha cells in the islet of Langerhans). In patients with diabetes, circulating glucagon concentrations are elevated in the fasting state and fail to decrease appropriately or even increase in response to ingestion of nutrients. Glucagon is known to be a potent stimulator of hepatic glucose production, and, thus, the elevated glucagon concentrations in diabetes contribute decisively to the predominating trait of patients with diabetes namely hyperglycaemia...
April 2017: Danish Medical Journal
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