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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026568/a-rare-case-of-cd1a-negative-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-a-child
#1
Priscilla Powell, Gaile Vitug, Fernando Castro-Silva, Anish Ray
Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a dendritic cell disorder with a wide spectrum of severity and presentations. Histopathology typically demonstrates a proliferation of Langerhans cells and a lymphohistiocytic inflammatory infiltrate with eosinophils. The diagnosis is supported by immunohistochemistry with the cell markers S100, CD1a, CD68, and Langerin [Blood, 126, 2015, 26 and N Engl J Med, 331, 1994, 154].
October 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024725/glucagon-a-key-factor-in-the-pathophysiology-of-type-2-diabetes
#2
REVIEW
Jean Girard
Excessive circulating glucagon levels have been reported in all forms of diabetes, clinical or experimental. The hyperglucagonemia of diabetes results from an excessive secretion of the hormone secondary from a deficit in insulin secretion and/or a dysfunction of various cells within the islets of Langerhans (somatostatin) leading to the notion of "paracrinopathy". Hyperglucagonemia contributes to the fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic patients through an increased hepatic glucose production (mainly gluconeogenesis)...
October 9, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021671/atlantoaxial-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-radiographic-characteristics-and-corresponding-prognosis-analysis
#3
Lihua Zhang, Liang Jiang, Huishu Yuan, Zhongjun Liu, Xiaoguang Liu
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) may affect atlas and axis, and there were very few published cases describing a characteristic of LCH of atlantoaxial. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to investigate the image manifestations of atlantoaxial LCH to improve the in-depth comprehension on it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was done of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging in atlas and axis and prognosis was analyzed...
July 2017: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021401/rnaseq-analysis-of-differentiated-keratinocytes-reveals-a-massive-response-to-late-events-during-human-papillomavirus-type-16-infection-including-loss-of-epithelial-barrier-function
#4
T Klymenko, Q Gu, I Herbert, A Stevenson, V Iliev, G Watkins, C Pollock, R Bhatia, K Cuschieri, P Herzyk, D Gatherer, S V Graham
The human papillomavirus (HPV) replication cycle is tightly linked to epithelial cell differentiation. To examine HPV-associated changes in the keratinocyte transcriptome, RNAs isolated from undifferentiated and differentiated cell populations of normal, spontaneously immortalised, keratinocytes (NIKS), and NIKS stably transfected with HPV16 episomal genomes (NIKS16), were compared using RNASeq. HPV16 infection altered expression of 2862 cellular genes. Next, to elucidate the role of keratinocyte gene expression in late events during the viral life cycle, RNASeq was carried out on triplicate differentiated populations of NIKS (uninfected) and NIKS16 (infected)...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017411/occult-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#5
Hee Jung Kwon, Phil Hyun Song, Mi Jin Gu
Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare disease that is characterized by a localized or systemic proliferation of Langerhans dendritic cells and a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. We experienced an unusual case of occult Langerhans cell histiocytosis associated with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. A 62-year-old man underwent a partial nephrectomy for left renal mass. Histologic examination showed nests of clear cells with surrounding thin-walled vessel that were suggestive of clear cell renal cell carcinoma...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017309/langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-of-the-thoracic-spine-in-an-adult
#6
Myeong Cheol Kim, Sun Hee Sung, Yongjae Cho
We report a case of a 45-year-old man with a complaint of both leg weakness and hypoesthesia. Radiological evaluation revealed an osteolytic lesion of the ninth thoracic vertebra. The patient underwent posterior corpectomy with total excision of the tumor, mesh cage insertion with posterior screw fixation and subsequent radiotherapy. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). This case report presents the diagnostic work-up, histopathological evaluation, and the treatment procedures of rare LCH in the thoracic spine...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017142/mechanisms-of-antidiabetic-effects-of-flavonoid-rutin
#7
REVIEW
Ahmad Ghorbani
Several lines of evidence suggest that flavonoids that originated from vegetables and medicinal plants have beneficial effects on diabetes by improving glycemic control, lipid profile, and antioxidant status. Rutin is a flavonoid found in many plants and shows a wide range of biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, nephroprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. In this review, the antihyperglycemic property of rutin and its protective effects against the development of diabetic complications are discussed...
October 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994174/subcutaneous-phaeohyphomycosis-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-series-of-seven-cases
#8
Haridasan Satish, Sreejith Parameswaran, B H Srinivas, C Laxmisha, B S Bibilash, S Rakesh, R Jayasurya, Padhi Rajesh, S Ezhilnilavan, D K Avinash, P S Priyamvada
BACKGROUND: Superficial and deep fungal infections are more frequent in transplant recipients primarily because of the failure of cell-mediated immunity and lesser amount of antigen-presenting Langerhans cells in their epidermis. Here we report seven cases of post-renal transplant subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis, all of which manifested within 1 year after transplantation and were unresponsive to prolonged courses of itraconazole. This is the first case series, to our knowledge, of phaeohyphomycosis in transplant recipients in India...
October 9, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993226/vulvar-lesions-in-an-8-year-old-girl-cutaneous-manifestations-of-multisystem-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#9
Elisa M Jorgensen, Peter P Chen, Sarah Rutter, Julia A Cron
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare localized or systemic disease characterized by proliferation of myeloid-derived dendritic cells. Vulvar lesions may be the herald symptom of LCH and may mimic other cutaneous lesions. Prognosis varies widely based on the extent and spread of disease. CASE: An 8-year-old girl with a 4-month history of vulvar lesions resistant to topical steroids was referred by her pediatrician. Vulvar biopsy was diagnostic for LCH...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993191/the-anti-aging-protein-klotho-is-induced-by-gaba-therapy-and-exerts-protective-and-stimulatory-effects-on-pancreatic-beta-cells
#10
Gérald J Prud'homme, Yelena Glinka, Merve Kurt, Wenjuan Liu, Qinghua Wang
Systemic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) therapy prevents or ameliorates type 1 diabetes (T1D), by suppressing autoimmune responses and stimulating pancreatic beta cells. In beta cells, it increases insulin secretion, prevents apoptosis, and induces regeneration. It is unclear how GABA mediates these effects. We hypothesized that Klotho is involved. It is a multi-functional protein expressed in the kidneys, brain, pancreatic beta cells, other tissues, and is cell-bound or soluble. Klotho knockout mice display accelerated aging, and in humans Klotho circulating levels decline with age, renal disease and diabetes...
October 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977321/late-onset-self-healing-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-report-of-a-very-rare-entity
#11
Fatma Sule Afsar, Malik Ergin, Gulcihan Ozek, Canan Vergin, Ali Karakuzu, Sila Seremet
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of late-onset self-healing Langerhans cell histiocytosis. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 4½-month-old female patient presenting with an eythematopurpuric eruption underwent a skin biopsy for histopathology and was first diagnosed with isolated cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Her lesions regressed within a few months and she was retrospectively diagnosed with late-onset self-healing Langerhans cell histiocytosis after being without skin or systemic involvement in a follow-up four years later...
January 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975176/deformability-based-microfluidic-separation-of-pancreatic-islets-from-exocrine-acinar-tissue-for-transplant-applications
#12
Walter B Varhue, Linda Langman, Molly Kelly-Goss, Morgan Lataillade, Kenneth L Brayman, Shayn Peirce-Cottler, Nathan S Swami
The long-term management of type-1 diabetes (T1D) is currently achieved through lifelong exogenous insulin injections. Although there is no cure for T1D, transplantation of pancreatic islets of Langerhans has the potential to restore normal endocrine function versus the morbidity of hypoglycemic unawareness that is commonly associated with sudden death among fragile diabetics. However, since endocrine islet tissues form a small proportion of the pancreas, sufficient islet numbers can be reached only by combining islets from multiple organ donors and the transplant plug contains significantly high levels of exocrine acinar tissue, thereby exacerbating immune responses...
October 4, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972093/the-cooperative-role-of-cd326-and-cd11b-dendritic-cell-subsets-for-a-hapten-induced-th2-differentiation
#13
Yuri Cho, Dohyeong Kwon, Suk-Jo Kang
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in directing immune responses. Previous studies have identified a variety of DC subsets and elucidated their context-dependent functions that parallel those of effector Th cell subsets. However, little is known about the DC subsets responsible for differentiation of Th2 cells governing allergic contact dermatitis. In this study, we sought to determine the DC subset(s) that mediate Th2 priming in hapten-sensitized mice. We induced hapten-specific Th2 differentiation by sensitizing the mice with a single application of FITC dissolved in acetone:dibutyl phthalate, and traced the immune cells responsible for inducing the Th2 differentiation process at the primary stimulation, enabling us to track Th2 priming in vivo and to delete basophils and specific DC subsets...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969735/langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-involving-both-jaws-in-an-adult
#14
Hira Salam, Ruqaiya Shahid, Talat Mirza
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is the latest terminology for a disorder of reticulo-endothelial system, previously known as histiocytosis X, and marked by aberrant proliferation of bone marrow derived Langerhans cells with variable inflammatory infiltrate including neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and multinucleated giant cells. Although rare, the disorder frequently inflicts children with peak incidence recorded in 2-4 years age group. LCH is rare in adults. A22-year adult male presented with the complaint of teeth mobility...
September 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966058/-congenital-hyperinsulinism-revealed-by-sudden-infant-death
#15
Anne Guyot, Fanny Moreau, Maxime Eberhard, Jean-Michel Gaulier, François Paraf
We report the case of a girl of 5 and a half months admitted for discomfort and consciousness loss at home and supported on sudden infant death protocol. Workup was negative. Autopsy showed only signs of asphyxia. Microscopic examination of the pancreas showed hypertrophic beta cells of Langerhans islets, explaining death linked to severe hypoglycemia by inappropriate insulin hypersecretion. This observation highlights the importance of the management of sudden infant unexpected death according to the protocol of the National Health Authority, which includes an autopsy with complete sampling, which in this case resulted in a diagnosis of unknown disease the lifetime of the child...
September 28, 2017: Annales de Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962589/multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-enhance-insulin-secretion-from-human-islets-via-n-cadherin-interaction-and-prolong-function-of-transplanted-encapsulated-islets-in-mice
#16
Elisa Montanari, Raphael P H Meier, Redouan Mahou, Jörg D Seebach, Christine Wandrey, Sandrine Gerber-Lemaire, Leo H Buhler, Carmen Gonelle-Gispert
BACKGROUND: Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) enhance viability and function of islets of Langerhans. We aimed to examine the interactions between human MSC and human islets of Langerhans that influence the function of islets. METHODS: Human MSC and human islets (or pseudoislets, obtained after digestion and reaggregation of islet cells) were cocultured with or without cellular contact and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion assays were performed to assess cell function...
September 29, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960169/systemic-juvenile-xanthogranuloma-a-case-of-spontaneous-regression-of-intramedullary-spinal-cord-cerebral-and-cutaneous-lesions
#17
Anne Morice, Sylvie Fraitag, Catherine Miquel, Christian Sainte Rose, Stéphanie Puget
Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a rare disease that belongs to the non-Langerhans cell histiocytoses. It presents a wide clinical spectrum, usually occurs before 5 years of age, and is commonly confined to the skin; however, it can affect multiple sites, including the nervous system, and can lead to severe disorders. Although JXG is a benign disease that usually regresses spontaneously, several curative treatments have been proposed in cases of organ involvement. Treatment options include corticosteroids, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy; however, these can have severe, long-term adverse effects in children...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954765/new-insights-in-lymphangioleiomyomatosis-and-pulmonary-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#18
REVIEW
Olga Torre, Davide Elia, Antonella Caminati, Sergio Harari
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) are rare diseases that lead to progressive cystic destruction of the lungs. Despite their distinctive characteristics, these diseases share several features. Patients affected by LAM or PLCH have similar radiological cystic patterns, a similar age of onset, and the possibility of extrapulmonary involvement. In this review, the recent advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis, as well as the current and most promising biomarkers and therapeutic approaches, are described...
September 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954111/congenital-self-healing-reticulohistiocytosis-with-spontaneous-regression
#19
Leela Rani Parimi, Jiabao You, Liu Hong, Furen Zhang
Congenital self-healing reticulohistiocytosis is a rare, benign, self-limiting variant of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). LCH encompasses a group of idiopathic disorders characterized by the clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. Congenital self-healing reticulohistiocytosis typically appears at birth or in the neonatal period as isolated cutaneous lesions, often appearing as multiple crusted papules with no systemic findings. Although clinical features seem aggressive, the lesions tend to involute spontaneously within weeks to a few months leaving residual hypo or hyperpigmented macules...
July 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954107/langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-with-neurological-injuries-diagnosed-from-a-single-cutaneous-lesion
#20
Andréa Bauer Bannach, Maria Teresa Fernandes Castilho Garcia, Deusita Fernandes Gandia Soares, Antônio Luiz de Arruda Mattos, Tomás Zecchini Barrese, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado de Abreu
Histiocytoses are rare diseases caused by the proliferation of histiocytes. The pathogenesis remains unknown and the highest incidence occurs in pediatric patients. The clinical presentations can be varied, in multiple organs and systems, and the skin lesions are not always present. Evolution is unpredictable and treatment depends on the extent and severity of the disease. It is described the case of a patient with various neurological symptoms, extensively investigated, who had its was diagnosed with histiocytosis from a single skin lesion...
July 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
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