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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450403/iris-juvenile-xanthogranuloma-in-an-infant-spontaneous-hyphema-and-secondary-glaucoma
#1
Anca Pantalon, Tudor Ștefănache, Mihai Danciu, Sabina Zurac, Dorin Chiseliță
Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a benign histiocytic skin disorder mainly encountered during infancy and childhood. Although with multiple potential localizations, less than 1% of the cases exhibit ocular manifestations. Some of these might lead to serious complications, specifically, secondary glaucoma that can result in severe and blinding eye disease. The aim of the present case report was to demonstrate typical clinical features, emphasize the difficulties attributed when managing these patients and literature review...
July 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449841/langerhans-cells-sensing-the-environment-in-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Julie Deckers, Hamida Hammad, Esther Hoste
In the last few decades, our understanding of Langerhans cells (LCs) has drastically changed based on novel findings regarding the developmental origin and biological functions of these epidermis-specific resident immune cells. It has become clear that LCs not only exert pivotal roles in immune surveillance and homeostasis but also impact on pathology by either inducing tolerance or mediating inflammation. Their unique capabilities to self-renew within the epidermis, while also being able to migrate to lymph nodes in order to present antigen, place LCs in a key position to sample the local environment and decide on the appropriate cutaneous immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448069/micro-environmental-signals-directing-human-epidermal-langerhans-cell-differentiation
#3
REVIEW
Herbert Strobl, Corinna Krump, Izabela Borek
Human Langerhans cells (LC) can be generated ex vivo from hematopoietic precursor cells in response to cytokines and cell-membrane associated ligands. These in vitro differentiation models provided mechanistic insights into the molecular and cellular pathways underlying the development of this unique, epithelia-associated dendritic cell subset. Notably, the human epidermal microenvironment is fully sufficient to induce LC differentiation from hematopoietic progenitors. Hence, dissecting the molecular characteristics of the human epithelial/epidermal LC niche, and testing defined ligands for their capacity to induce LC differentiation, led to a refined molecular model of LC lineage commitment...
February 12, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447824/central-xanthoma-of-the-mandible-associated-with-hyperlipidemia-a-rare-presentation
#4
John K Brooks, Behzad Mostoufi, Ahmed S Sultan, Zaid H Khoury, Jeffery B Price, John C Papadimitriou, John R Basile, Cinthia B Drachenberg, Rania H Younis
Xanthoma is a common, self-limiting cutaneous lesion of non-Langerhans cell, lipid-laden foamy histiocytes that is often concomitant with hyperlipidemia. The intraosseous counterpart is rarely encountered and typically presents as a painless, expansile osteolytic process in the context of hyperlipidemia or normolipidemia. Only a scant number of gnathic xanthomas have been reported in the otolaryngologic literature. We report the clinical, laboratory, radiographic, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies of a mandibular lesion discovered in an asymptomatic 16-year-old male, and associated with 2 previously unreported comorbidities, namely hyperlipidemia and vitamin D deficiency...
February 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438881/crosstalk-between-core-multishell-nanocarriers-for-cutaneous-drug-delivery-and-antigen-presenting-cells-of-the-skin
#5
Alexander Edlich, Pierre Volz, Robert Brodwolf, Michael Unbehauen, Lars Mundhenk, Achim D Gruber, Sarah Hedtrich, Rainer Haag, Ulrike Alexiev, Burkhard Kleuser
Owing their unique chemical and physical properties core-multishell (CMS) nanocarriers are thought to underlie their exploitable biomedical use for a topical treatment of skin diseases. This highlights the need to consider not only the efficacy of CMS nanocarriers but also the potentially unpredictable and adverse consequences of their exposure thereto. As CMS nanocarriers are able to penetrate into viable layers of normal and stripped human skin ex vivo as well as in in vitro skin disease models the understanding of nanoparticle crosstalk with components of the immune system requires thorough investigation...
February 3, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436047/congenital-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-presenting-in-a-27-week-gestation-neonate
#6
Margaret H Dennin, Carly J Roman, Sarah L Stein
Langerhans cell histiocytosis is exceedingly rare in premature infants, and the few cases reported suggest a poor prognosis with systemic involvement. We present a case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis limited to a single cutaneous lesion, presenting in a 27-week-gestation infant, which is the youngest gestational age of reported Langerhans cell histiocytosis cases. The lesion showed spontaneous resolution by 41 weeks corrected gestational age, and systemic involvement was absent, demonstrating a mild course of skin-only Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a premature infant...
February 13, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435464/solving-a-mystery-8-years-later
#7
Hayan Jouni, Ronald S Kuzo, Nandan S Anavekar
Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis with multisystem involvement and insidious symptoms. In this article, we describe an interesting case of Erdheim-Chester disease that was eventually diagnosed 8 years after symptoms initially started.
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431265/blockade-of-cannabinoid-1-receptor-improves-glucose-responsiveness-in-pancreatic-beta-cells
#8
Hanho Shin, Ji Hye Han, Juhwan Yoon, Hyo Jung Sim, Tae Joo Park, Siyoung Yang, Eun Kyung Lee, Rohit N Kulkarni, Josephine M Egan, Wook Kim
Cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs) are expressed in peripheral tissues, including islets of Langerhans, where their function(s) is under scrutiny. Using mouse β-cell lines, human islets and CB1R-null (CB1R-/- ) mice, we have now investigated the role of CB1Rs in modulating β-cell function and glucose responsiveness. Synthetic CB1R agonists diminished GLP-1-mediated cAMP accumulation and insulin secretion as well as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mouse β-cell lines and human islets. In addition, silencing CB1R in mouse β cells resulted in an increased expression of pro-insulin, glucokinase (GCK) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), but this increase was lost in β cells lacking insulin receptor...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429903/increased-infiltration-of-cd11-c-cd123-dendritic-cell-subsets-and-upregulation-of-tlr-ifn-%C3%AE-signaling-participate-in-pathogenesis-of-oral-lichen-planus
#9
Yufeng Wang, Shu Shang, Qianqian Sun, Junjun Chen, Guanhuan Du, Hong Nie, Xiaozhe Han, Guoyao Tang
OBJECTIVE: Investigation of dendritic cell (DC) subsets and expression patterns of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) was conducted to understand the pathogenesis in oral lichen planus (OLP). STUDY DESIGN: Blood, OLP lesion, and control samples were collected. Four DC subsets (CD11c + CD123 - myeloid DC1 [mDC1], CD141 + mDC2, CD11c - CD123 + plasmacytoid DC [pDC], and CD1a + CD207 + Langerhans cells [LC]) were investigated via flow cytometry (FCM) and immunohistochemical staining...
December 18, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429301/-research-progress-of-corneal-langerhans-cells-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-dry-eye-disease
#10
X Yang, Y Li
Dry eye disease (DED) is the most common ocular surface diseasenowadays. DED can be divided into different types based on the pathogenesis. The progression of DED is strongly related to chronic ocular surface inflammation, regardless of the type of DED. The corneal Langerhans cells (LC) are the dedicated antigen presenting cells in the ocular surface immune system. Along with further understanding of LC recently, its double-sided functions have been discovered: on one hand, LC phagocytize antigen and induce immune tolerance, and on the other hand, LC process and present antigen, and initiate immune response...
February 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428671/swertisin-ameliorates-diabetes-by-triggering-pancreatic-progenitors-for-islet-neogenesis-in-streptozotocin-treated-balb-c-mice
#11
Abhay Srivastava, Nidheesh Dadheech, Mitul Vakani, Sarita Gupta
In the present study, Swertisin's role in triggering resident pancreatic progenitors for islet neogenesis in Streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic mice was explored. STZ diabetic mice when treated with Swertisin demonstrated reversion to normoglycemia and significant elevation of fasting serum insulin levels. On screening the pancreatic tissue post Swertisin treatment in the STZ diabetic mice, we observed significant up-regulation of key transcription factors viz. Pdx1, Neurog3, MafA and Nkx6.1 required for islet neogenesis and beta cell homeostasis...
February 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428448/pulmonary-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-acute-myeloid-leukemia-and-myelofibrosis-in-a-large-family-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Matthew P Blakley, Janice P Dutcher, Peter H Wiernik
BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence that Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are hematopoietic neoplasms that arise from the same myeloid precursor cell. In addition, studies suggest a relationship between LCH and primary idiopathic myelofibrosis (MF). Furthermore familial LCH, AML, and MF have each been reported. METHODS: We examined more than 750 pedigrees of familial hematologic malignancies for evidence of familial LCH, AML, and/or MF and identified one family with all three neoplasms, which is presented here...
February 2, 2018: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422234/an-overview-of-type-2-diabetes-and-importance-of-vitamin-d3-vitamin-d-receptor-interaction-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#13
REVIEW
Abraham Neelankal John, Fang-Xu Jiang
One significant health issue that plagues contemporary society is that of Type 2 diabetes (T2D). This disease is characterised by higher-than-average blood glucose levels as a result of a combination of insulin resistance and insufficient insulin secretions from the β-cells of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Previous developmental research into the pancreas has identified how early precursor genes of pancreatic β-cells, such as Cpal, Ngn3, NeuroD, Ptf1a, and cMyc, play an essential role in the differentiation of these cells...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418009/multidisciplinary-approach-in-a-case-of-hand-sch%C3%A3-ller-christian-disease-with-maxillary-involvement
#14
Angela Pia Cazzolla, Nunzio Francesco Testa, Gianfranco Favia, Maria Grazia Lacaita, Domenico Ciavarella, Khrystyna Zhurakivska, Giuseppe Troiano, Lorenzo Lo Muzio
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a childhood pathology with a peak of incidence ranging from 1 to 4 years of age, though diagnosis is often made in adult age. LCH is clinically classified into three types: eosinophilic granuloma, Hand-Schuller-Christian disease and Abt-Letterer-Siwe disease. We report a case of Hand-Schüller-Christian disease with diabetes insipidus, skull and maxillary involvement in a 16-year-old boy referred to our observation for gradual increase in mobility of the teeth and subsequent gradual loss of the second premolars and the first molars of the upper jaw...
February 8, 2018: Special Care in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414659/evaluation-of-immune-responses-induced-by-a-novel-human-papillomavirus-type-16-e7-peptide-based-vaccine-with-candida-skin-test-reagent-as-an-adjuvant-in-c57bl-6-mice
#15
Xingxuan Wang, Yuxin Che, Bingnan Chen, Yao Zhang, Mayumi Nakagawa, Xuelian Wang
Cell mediated immune (CMI) responses are crucial for the clearance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-associated lesions. Activated CD8 T cells are critical effector cells in recognizing and killing HPV-infected or HPV-transformed cells. CD4 T cells provide help for priming the generation and maintenance of CD8 T cells as well as for tumors immunity. An ideal therapeutic HPV peptide-based vaccine should induce both a robust CD8 T-cell response as well as a CD4 T-cell response for ensuring their efficiency...
January 30, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413280/outcome-after-radiation-therapy-for-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-is-dependent-on-site-of-involvement
#16
James Laird, Jennifer Ma, Karen Chau, Monica Chelius, Weiji Shi, Zhigang Zhang, Benjamin H Lok, Joachim Yahalom
PURPOSE: To characterize the efficacy and safety of radiation therapy in a contemporary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) cohort and to explore whether there are sites at higher risk for local recurrence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1995 and 2015 we identified 39 consecutive LCH patients who were treated primarily with radiation therapy. Patients were staged by single/multisystem involvement and established risk organ criteria. In 46 irradiated lesions, clinical and radiologic responses were evaluated at multiple time points after radiation therapy...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412821/role-of-islet-peptides-in-beta-cell-regulation-and-type-2-diabetes-therapy
#17
Dawood Khan, Charlotte R Moffet, Peter R Flatt, Catriona Kelly
The endocrine pancreas is composed of islets of Langerhans, which secrete a variety of peptide hormones critical for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Insulin is the primary regulator of glucose and its secretion from beta-cells is tightly regulated in response to physiological demands. Direct cell-cell communication within islets is essential for glucose-induced insulin secretion. Emerging data suggest that islet connectivity is also important in the regulating the release of other islet hormones including glucagon and somatostatin...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409356/therapeutic-potential-of-lentivirus-mediated-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-gene-therapy-for-diabetes
#18
Hale M Tasyurek, Hasan A Altunbas, Mustafa K Balci, Thomas S Griffith, Salih Sanlioglu
Postprandial glucose-induced insulin secretion from the islets of Langerhans is facilitated by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) - a metabolic hormone with insulinotropic properties. Among the variety of effects it mediates, GLP-1 induces delta cell secretion of somatostatin, inhibits alpha cell release of glucagon, reduces gastric emptying, and slows food intake. These events collectively contribute to weight loss over time. During type 2 diabetes (T2DM), however, the incretin response to glucose is reduced and accompanied by a moderate reduction in GLP-1 secretion...
February 6, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408953/skin-biopsy-findings-in-patients-with-cmt1a-baseline-data-from-the-cln-pxt3003-01-study-provide-new-insights-into-the-pathophysiology-of-the-disorder
#19
Mathilde Duchesne, Aurore Danigo, Laurence Richard, Jean-Michel Vallat, Shahram Attarian, Pierre-Marie Gonnaud, Arnaud Lacour, Yann Péréon, Tania Stojkovic, Klaus-Armin Nave, Viviane Bertrand, Serguei Nabirotchkin, Daniel Cohen, Claire Demiot, Laurent Magy
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), the most common form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseases, is a demyelinating neuropathy caused by a deletion encompassing the gene coding for PMP22, a myelin protein of the peripheral nervous system. Although myelinated fibers are mostly involved in CMT1A, some patients experience neuropathic pain. We thus investigated whether unmyelinated fibers are lost in CMT1A. Skin biopsies were taken from the distal portion of the leg of 80 patients with CMT1A as part of the PXT30003-01 study and processed for quantification of intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408929/cytokine-mediated-inflammation-mediates-painful-neuropathy-from-metabolic-syndrome
#20
Can Zhang, Joseph Ward, Jacqueline R Dauch, Rudolph E Tanzi, Hsinlin T Cheng
Painful neuropathy (PN) is a prevalent condition in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the pathogenic mechanisms of metabolic syndrome-associated painful neuropathy (MetSPN) remain unclear. In the current study, high-fat-fed mice (HF mice) were used to study MetSPN. HF mice developed MetS phenotypes, including increased body weight, elevated plasma cholesterol levels, and insulin resistance in comparison with control-fat-fed (CF) mice. Subsequently, HF mice developed mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in hind paws after 8 wk of diet treatment...
2018: PloS One
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