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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640790/microrna-155-deficiency-in-kupffer-cells-ameliorates-liver-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-mice
#1
Yakun Li, Dongxia Ma, Zhimin Wang, Jun Yang
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is known to be involved in autoimmune diseases, inflammation, and transplantation. However, its role in a warm hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) model has not been fully elucidated. METHODS: Partial hepatic IR was performed in wild-type and miR-155-deficient mice treated with or without GdCl3, and then the serum transaminase concentration and histology were analyzed. Kupffer cells (KCs) were isolated from the liver after IR, and immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate activation and polarization...
July 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637102/-the-progression-of-liver-fibrosis-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#2
REVIEW
Moon Young Kim
Understanding the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and its fibrosis progression is still evolving. Nonetheless, current evidence suggests that mechanisms involved are very complex parallel processes with multiple metabolic factors. Lipotoxicity related with excess saturated free fatty acids, obesity, and insulin resistance acts as the central driver of cellular injury via oxidative stress. Hepatocyte apoptosis and/or senescence are also contribute to the activation of inflammasome via various intra- and inter-cellular signaling mechanisms that lead to fibrosis...
June 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636885/differential-changes-in-the-pharmacokinetics-of-statins-in-collagen-induced-arthritis-rats
#3
Chun-Han Lin, Ke-Wei Hsu, Chia-Hao Chen, Yow-Shieng Uang, Chun-Jung Lin
The elevated systemic levels of cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can change the expression of metabolic enzymes and transporters. Given that statins are lipid-lowering agents frequently used in RA patients with concurrent cardiovascular diseases, the objective of the present study was to investigate the impacts of RA on the pharmacokinetics of statins of different disposition properties in rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). The expression of metabolic enzymes and transporters in tissues of CIA rats were analyzed by RT-qPCR...
June 18, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636837/microrna-101-2-5p-targets-the-apob-gene-in-liver-of-chicken-gallus-gallus
#4
Zheng Ma, Hong Li, Hang Zheng, Keren Jiang, Lijuan Jia, Fengbin Yan, Yadong Tian, Xiangtao Kang, Yanbin Wang, Xiaojun Liu
Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is a major protein component of plasma lipoproteins, which have been involved in many important biological processes such as lipid transportation, enzyme activity regulation and receptor recognition. Extensive studies have showed that the expression of the ApoB was regulated at multiple levels. However, the regulation of ApoB expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) still remains unknown. In present studies, miRNAs that interact with ApoB have been predicted in chicken. The targeted relationship between the predicated miRNAs and ApoB was verified through dual luciferase reporter assay in chicken DF1 cells, and the effect of miRNAs on ApoB expression was analyzed in chicken embryo hepatocytes stimulated by 17β-estradiol...
June 21, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636622/inhibition-of-hepatitis-b-viral-entry-by-nucleic-acid-polymers-in-heparg-cells-and-primary-human-hepatocytes
#5
Clément Guillot, Nora Martel, Françoise Berby, Isabelle Bordes, Olivier Hantz, Matthieu Blanchet, Camille Sureau, Andrew Vaillant, Isabelle Chemin
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major public health concern worldwide with 240 million individuals chronically infected and at risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatments rarely cure chronic hepatitis B infection, highlighting the need for new anti-HBV drugs. Nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) are phosphorothioated oligonucleotides that have demonstrated a great potential to inhibit infection with several viruses. In chronically infected human patients, NAPs administration lead to a decline of blood HBsAg and HBV DNA and to HBsAg seroconversion, the expected signs of functional cure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635668/the-role-of-cccdna-in-hbv-maintenance
#6
REVIEW
Lena Allweiss, Maura Dandri
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection continues to be a major health burden worldwide; it can cause various degrees of liver damage and is strongly associated with the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The molecular mechanisms determining HBV persistence are not fully understood, but these appear to be multifactorial and the unique replication strategy employed by HBV enables its maintenance in infected hepatocytes. Both the stability of the HBV genome, which forms a stable minichromosome, the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the hepatocyte nucleus, and the inability of the immune system to resolve chronic HBV infection are believed to be key mechanisms of HBV chronicity...
June 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634814/assessment-of-waterborne-amine-coated-silver-nanoparticle-ag-np-induced-toxicity-in-labeo-rohita-by-histological-and-hematological-profiles
#7
Muhammad Saleem Khan, Naureen Aziz Qureshi, Farhat Jabeen, Muhammad Shakeel, Muhammad Saleem Asghar
Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) have wide applications in the medical field; however, the toxicological effects are still poorly studied. The study was aimed to determine the effects of 15.78 nm spherical and amine-coated Ag-NPs on hematology and histology of gills and liver tissues in 28 days treated Labeo rohita (L. rohita). It was found that Ag-NPs induced alterations in the hematological parameters in a dose dependent manner. The Ag-NPs also induced histological alterations in a dose-dependent manner. In gill tissues, it induced fusion of secondary lamellae, separation of gill epithelium, fusion and necrosis of lamellar cells, hyperplasia, deformed cartilaginous skeleton, separation and lifting of epithelium, and curling of lamellae in a dose dependent manner...
June 20, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634113/vitamin-d3-supplementation-attenuates-the-early-stage-of-mouse-hepatocarcinogenesis-promoted-by-hexachlorobenzene-fungicide
#8
Guilherme R Romualdo, Renata L Goto, Ana A H Fernandes, Bruno Cogliati, Luis F Barbisan
Hexachlorobezene (HCB), a fungicide widely distributed in the environment, promotes the development of hepatocellular preneoplastic lesions (PNL) and tumors in rodents. In contrast, vitamin D3 (VD3) supplementation presents a potential role for the prevention/treatment of chronic liver diseases. Thus, we investigated whether VD3 supplementation attenuates the early stage of HCB-promoted hepatocarcinogenesis. Female Balb/C mice were injected a single dose of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 50 mg/kg) at postnatal day 15...
June 17, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633873/elental%C3%A2-amino-acid-component-has-protective-effects-on-primary-cultured-hepatocytes-and-a-rat-model-of-acute-liver-injury
#9
Hirokazu Miki, Katsuji Tokuhara, Masaharu Oishi, Yoshito Tanaka, Richi Nakatake, Yosuke Ueyama, Masaki Kaibori, Mikio Nishizawa, Tadayoshi Okumura, Masanori Kon
Amino acids can exert protective effects on the liver either when administered as a medication or following an operation. In this study, we examined the protective effects of amino acids on the liver using in vitro and in vivo models by studying their influence on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide production as a liver injury marker in cultured hepatocytes and liver-protective effects in d-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS)-treated rats, respectively. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with interleukin (IL)-1β in the presence or absence of Elental® amino acid component (EleAA; 17 amino acids)...
June 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633424/three-dimensional-3d-heparg-spheroid-model-with-physiologically-relevant-xenobiotic-metabolism-competence-and-hepatocyte-functionality-for-liver-toxicity-screening
#10
Sreenivasa C Ramaiahgari, Suramya Waidyanatha, Darlene Dixon, Michael J DeVito, Richard S Paules, Stephen S Ferguson
Effective prediction of human responses to chemical and drug exposure is of critical importance in environmental toxicology research and drug development. While significant progress has been made to address this challenge using in vitro liver models, these approaches often fail due to inadequate tissue model functionality. Herein, we describe the development, optimization, and characterization of a novel three-dimensional (3D) spheroid model using differentiated HepaRG cells that achieve and maintain physiologically-relevant levels of xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4/5)...
June 15, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632197/toxic-age-tage-theory-for-the-pathophysiology-of-the-onset-progression-of-nafld-and-ald
#11
REVIEW
Masayoshi Takeuchi, Jun-Ichi Takino, Akiko Sakasai-Sakai, Takanobu Takata, Mikihiro Tsutsumi
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are among the most common causes of chronic liver diseases in the westernized world. NAFLD and ALD are frequently accompanied by extrahepatic complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma and cardiovascular diseases, which have a negative impact on patient survival. The chronic ingestion of an excessive daily diet containing sugar/high-fructose corn syrup increases the level of the fructose/glucose metabolite, glyceraldehyde (GA), while the chronic consumption of an excessive number of alcoholic beverages increases the level of the alcohol metabolite, acetaldehyde (AA) in the liver...
June 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630953/distribution-of-acetylated-histone-4-in-normal-liver-and-acetaminophen-induced-liver-damage
#12
N Nakamura, Chang C-W, X Yang, Q Shi, W F Salminen, A Suzuki
To describe cell-specific acetylation of histones and their zonal localization in normal mouse liver and characterize their changes in acetaminophen (APAP)-damaged mouse liver 24 hr after APAP exposure, we performed an immunohistochemical study using normal and APAP-injured mouse livers. Cell-specific expression of acetylated H4 was observed in normal mouse liver. The highest acetylated H4 expression levels were found in bile duct epithelial cells, followed by sinusoidal non-parenchymal cells, venous endothelial cells, and hepatocytes...
2017: SM J Biol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630632/erchen-decoction-and-linguizhugan-decoction-ameliorate-hepatic-insulin-resistance-by-inhibiting-irs-1ser307-phosphorylation-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#13
Huicun Zhang, Na Ta, Pengmin Chen, Hongbing Wang
Erchen decoction (ECD) and Linguizhugan decoction (LGZGD), both are Chinese herbal formula, have been used clinically for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, their therapeutic mechanisms are still unclear. Because insulin resistance (IR) is a key etiological factor in the pathology of high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD, in this study, the protective effects of ECD and LGZGD on HFD-induced insulin resistance in rats were evaluated and their mechanisms were investigated by OGTT and Western blot...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630501/ifn-%C3%AE-4-potently-blocks-ifn-%C3%AE-signalling-by-isg15-and-usp18-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#14
Pil Soo Sung, Seon-Hui Hong, Jae-Hee Chung, Sojeong Kim, Su-Hyung Park, Ho Min Kim, Seung Kew Yoon, Eui-Cheol Shin
Genetic polymorphisms in IFNL4 have been shown to predict responses to IFN-α-based therapy in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. The IFNL4-ΔG genotype, which encodes functional IFN-λ4 protein, is associated with a poor treatment response. In the present study, we investigated the induction and biological effects of IFN-λ4 in HCV-infected hepatocytes and their association with responsiveness to IFN-α. We also studied the effects of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment on IFN-λ4 expression and IFN-α responsiveness...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630420/functional-evaluation-of-a-bioartificial-liver-support-system-using-immobilized-hepatocyte-spheroids-in-a-porcine-model-of-acute-liver-failure
#15
Ji-Hyun Lee, Doo-Hoon Lee, Sanghoon Lee, Choon Hyuck David Kwon, Jae-Nam Ryu, Jeong-Kwon Noh, In Keun Jang, Hey-Jung Park, Hee-Hoon Yoon, Jung-Keug Park, Young-Jin Kim, Sung-Koo Kim, Suk-Koo Lee
Bioartificial livers (BAL) may offer acute liver failure (ALF) patients an opportunity for cure without liver transplantation. We evaluated the efficacy of a spheroid-based BAL system, containing aggregates of porcine hepatocytes, in a porcine model of ALF. ALF pigs were divided into three groups. The control group consisted of treatment naïve pigs (n = 5), blank group consisted of pigs that were attached to the BAL system not containing hepatocytes for 12 hours (n = 5) and BAL group consisted of pigs that were attached to the BAL containing hepatocytes for 12 hours (n = 5)...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630354/not-all-cells-are-equal-effects-of-temperature-and-sex-on-the-size-of-different-cell-types-in-the-madagascar-ground-gecko-paroedura-picta
#16
Marcin Czarnoleski, Anna Maria Labecka, Zuzana Starostová, Anna Sikorska, Elżbieta Bonda-Ostaszewska, Katarzyna Woch, Lukáš Kubička, Lukáš Kratochvíl, Jan Kozlowski
Cell size plays a role in evolutionary and phenotypically plastic changes in body size. To examine this role, we measured the sizes of seven cell types of geckos (Paroedura picta) reared at three constant temperatures (24, 27, and 30 °C). Our results show that the cell size varies according to the body size, sex and developmental temperature, but the pattern of this variance depends on the cell type. We identified three groups of cell types, and the cell sizes changed in a coordinated manner within each group...
June 19, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629694/interleukin-6-participation-in-pathology-of-ocular-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Forouhe Zahir-Jouzdani, Fatemeh Atyabi, Nazanin Mojtabavi
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that affects a variety of cells in the body such as osteoclasts, hepatocytes, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, white and red blood cells and etc. Elevated levels of IL-6 have been detected in many ocular diseases. Studies show that IL-6 has a major role in the pathology of glaucoma, CRVO, macular edema, ocular neovascularization, posterior capsule opacity formation, keratitis, dry eye disease, allergic eye disease, ocular autoimmune disease, corneal chemical burn, ocular inflammation and so on...
June 10, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629287/anti-acetylcholinesterase-activity-and-antioxidant-properties-of-extracts-and-fractions-of-carpolobia-lutea
#18
Lucky Legbosi Nwidu, Ekramy Elmorsy, Jack Thornton, Buddhika Wijamunige, Anusha Wijesekara, Rebecca Tarbox, Averil Warren, Wayne Grant Carter
CONTEXT: There is an unmet need to discover new treatments for Alzheimer's disease. This study determined the anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, DPPH free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of Carpolobia lutea G. Don (Polygalaceae). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to quantify C. lutea anti-AChE, DPPH free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities and cell cytotoxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plant stem, leaves and roots were subjected to sequential solvent extractions, and screened for anti-AChE activity across a concentration range of 0...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628229/troxerutin-with-copper-generates-oxidative-stress-in-cancer-cells-its-possible-chemotherapeutic-mechanism-against-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#19
A Subastri, A Suyavaran, Preedia Babu E, Nithyananthan S, R Bharathidasan, C Thirunavukkarasu
Troxerutin (TXER) a rutin derivative is known for its anticancer effect against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As part of large study, recently we have shown TXER interact with genetic material and its anti-mutagenic property. In the present study we have explored its possible mode of action in HCC. Since TXER alone did not show significant anticancer effect on Huh-7 cells, in vitro biochemical assays were performed for determining anticancer efficacy of TXER + metal complex using transition metals such as Cu, Zn & Fe...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628031/kinase-independent-functions-of-ripk1-regulate-hepatocyte-survival-and-liver-carcinogenesis
#20
Trieu-My Van, Apostolos Polykratis, Beate Katharina Straub, Vangelis Kondylis, Nikoletta Papadopoulou, Manolis Pasparakis
The mechanisms that regulate cell death and inflammation play an important role in liver disease and cancer. Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) induces apoptosis and necroptosis via kinase-dependent mechanisms and exhibits kinase-independent prosurvival and proinflammatory functions. Here, we have used genetic mouse models to study the role of RIPK1 in liver homeostasis, injury, and cancer. While ablating either RIPK1 or RelA in liver parenchymal cells (LPCs) did not cause spontaneous liver pathology, mice with combined deficiency of RIPK1 and RelA in LPCs showed increased hepatocyte apoptosis and developed spontaneous chronic liver disease and cancer that were independent of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) signaling...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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