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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787857/high-fructose-diet-during-adolescent-development-increases-neuroinflammation-and-depressive-like-behavior-without-exacerbating-outcomes-after-stroke
#1
C S Harrell, C Zainaldin, D McFarlane, M M Hyer, D Stein, I Sayeed, G N Neigh
Diseases, disorders, and insults of aging are frequently studied in otherwise healthy animal models despite rampant co-morbidities and exposures among the human population. Stressor exposures can increase neuroinflammation and augment the inflammatory response following a challenge. The impact of dietary exposure on baseline neural function and behavior has gained attention; in particular, a diet high in fructose can increase activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and alter behavior. The current study considers the implications of a diet high in fructose for neuroinflammation and outcomes following the cerebrovascular challenge of stroke...
May 19, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755800/hypothermia-in-multiple-sclerosis-beyond-the-hypothalamus-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Francesco Berti, Zeeshan Arif, Cris Constantinescu, Bruno Gran
Hypothermia is a rare and poorly understood complication of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). We report on a 66-year-old patient currently with Secondary Progressive MS (SP-MS) who developed unexplained hypothermia associated with multiple hospitalisations and we review the literature on this topic. In our case, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain failed to highlight hypothalamic disease, but spinal MRI identified a number of spinal cord lesions. Given the incidence and clinical significance of spinal involvement in MS and the hypothermic disturbances observed in high Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), we hypothesise that upper spinal cord pathology, along with hypothalamic and brainstem dysfunctions, can contribute to hypothermia...
2018: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752488/open-resection-of-hypothalamic-hamartomas-for-intractable-epilepsy-revisited-using-intraoperative-mri
#3
Libby van Tonder, Sasha Burn, Anand Iyer, Jo Blair, Mohammed Didi, Michael Carter, Timothy Martland, Conor Mallucci
INTRODUCTION: Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are rare non-neoplastic lesions which cause drug-resistant epilepsy with associated behavioural, psychiatric and endocrine issues. With the development of new minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of HH, there is a need to reappraise the effectiveness and safety of each approach. We review the outcomes of HH patients treated surgically, utilizing intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (IOMRI), by a team of Alder Hey NHS Foundation Trust tumour and epilepsy neurosurgeons since 2011...
May 11, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751050/effects-of-hypergravity-on-the-gene-expression-of-the-hypothalamic-feeding-related-neuropeptides-in-mice-via-vestibular-inputs
#4
Satomi Sonoda, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Chikara Abe, Hironobu Morita, Hiromichi Ueno, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Takashi Maruyama, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Yoshiya Tanaka, Yoichi Ueta
The effects of hypergravity on the gene expression of the hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides in sham-operated (Sham) and vestibular-lesioned (VL) mice were examined by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the paraventricular nucleus was increased significantly in Sham but not in VL mice after 3 days of exposure to a 2 g environment compared with a 1 g environment. Significant decreases in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and significant increases in neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein in the arcuate nucleus and orexin in the lateral hypothalamic area were observed in both Sham and VL mice...
May 8, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731557/effects-of-topical-application-of-propolis-extract-on-fibroblast-growth-factor-2-and-fibroblast-expression-in-the-traumatic-ulcers-of-diabetic-rattus-norvegicus
#5
Ade Puspasari, Kus Harijanti, Bagus Soebadi, Hening Tuti Hendarti, Desiana Radithia, Diah Savitri Ernawati
Background: A traumatic ulcer caused by diabetes mellitus (DM) is a lesion caused by an increase in advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs), which takes a long time to heal. AGEs cause angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and a decrease in leukocytes. Fibroblast proliferation and the number of glycosaminoglycans decline, thereby inhibiting the formation of granulation tissue, collagen deposition and platelet derivatives growth factor. The application of topical propolis extract gel to ulcers has an anti-inflammatory function, triggers angiogenesis and accelerates wound healing...
January 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692902/normosmic-idiopathic-hypogonadotrophic-hypogonadism-due-to-a-rare-kiss1r-gene-mutation
#6
N Chelaghma, S O Oyibo, J Rajkanna
Hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism is due to impaired or reduced gonadotrophin secretion from the pituitary gland. In the absence of any anatomical or functional lesions of the pituitary or hypothalamic gland, the hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism is referred to as idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (IHH). We present a case of a young lady born to consanguineous parents who was found to have IHH due to a rare gene mutation. Learning points: The genetic basis of a majority of cases of IHH remains unknown...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627122/radiofrequency-thermoablation-general-principle-historical-overview-and-modern-applications-for-epilepsy
#7
J Voges, L Büntjen, F C Schmitt
Stereotactically guided radiofrequency thermoablation (RFTA) for epilepsy has been frequently applied over the last 40 years. Radiofrequency electrodes with temperature control function generate a coagulation lesion with clearly defined borders. In combination with high-resolution MRI imaging, this technique allows minimally-invasive ablation of periventricular nodular heterotopias, small focal type II dysplasias, and hypothalamic hamartomas. This review summarises the literature addressing this topic mainly regarding technical aspects...
March 28, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605700/stereoelectroencephalography-guided-radiofrequency-thermocoagulation-for-hypothalamic-hamartomas-preliminary-evidence
#8
Peng-Hu Wei, Yang An, Xiao-Tong Fan, Yi-He Wang, Yan-Feng Yang, Lian-Kun Ren, Yong-Zhi Shan, Guo-Guang Zhao
BACKGROUND: The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided ablation methods, such as laser interstitial thermal therapy and MRI-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RF-TC), poses a risk of mistreatment in patients with nonepileptic hypothalamic hamartoma (HH). Using stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG)-guided RF-TC could solve this problem; however, there are no reports on the efficacy of this technique. Thus, we examined the safety and efficacy of this method. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in 9 consecutive patients with HH treated between August 2015 and July 2017...
March 30, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599407/microstructural-white-matter-alterations-and-hippocampal-volumes-are-associated-with-cognitive-deficits-in-craniopharyngioma
#9
Sigridur Fjalldal, Cecilia Follin, Daniel Svärd, Lars Rylander, Sanaz Gabery, Åsa Petersen, Danielle Van Westen, Pia Sundgren, Isabella Bjorkman-Burtscher, Jimmy Lätt, Bertil Ekman, Aki Johanson, Eva Marie Erfurth
CONTEXT: Patients with craniopharyngioma (CP) and hypothalamic lesions (HL) have cognitive deficits. Which neural pathways are affected is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a relationship between microstructural white matter (WM) alterations detected with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and cognition in adults with childhood onset CP. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study with a median follow-up time of 22 (6-49) years after operation...
March 29, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570004/demographics-and-clinical-characteristics-of-episodic-hypothermia-in-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Michel Toledano, Brian G Weinshenker, Timothy J Kaufmann, Joseph E Parisi, M Mateo Paz Soldán
BACKGROUND: Episodic hypothermia (EH) can occur in multiple sclerosis (MS). The putative mechanism is impairment of thermoregulation due to a presumed demyelinating hypothalamic lesion. OBJECTIVE: To describe a cohort of patients with MS, who developed EH. METHODS: Patients were identified through review of the Mayo Clinic electronic medical record (1996 to July 2015). Search terms were [multiple sclerosis] or [MS] within the diagnoses field and [hypothermia] within any field...
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559780/secondary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-spectrum-of-morphological-mri-appearances
#11
Hana Malikova, Miroslava Burghardtova, Eva Koubska, Vaclav Mandys, Tomas Kozak, Jiri Weichet
Background: Secondary central nervous system lymphoma (SCNSL) is a rare and aggressive disease, which is defined as secondary central nervous system (CNS) involvement in patients with systemic lymphoma. According to previous reports, SCNSL presents mostly with leptomeningeal spread; however, our experience differs. In the present study, we demonstrate the diversity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns in SCNSL. Patients and methods: Initial morphological MRI findings in 21 patients (10 women and 11 men with mean age 62...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543211/-preoperative-and-postoperative-endocrine-disorders-associated-with-pituitary-stalk-injuries-caused-by-suprasellar-growing-tumors
#12
B A Kadashev, A N Konovalov, L I Astaf'eva, P L Kalinin, M A Kutin, I S Klochkova, D V Fomichev, O I Sharipov, D N Andreev
The pituitary stalk (PS) is a relatively thin bundle connecting the hypophyseal stalk to the pituitary gland; it consists of both axons of the hypothalamic nuclei (terminating in the neurohypophysis) and the system of portal vessels. Compression of the PS by a space-occupying lesion or its transection (forced or intended) during surgery may lead to the development of endocrine disorders: hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus, and hyperprolactinemia. The modern literature lacks studies evaluating the severity of endocrine disorders depending on the PS condition before and after surgery...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520296/rathke-s-cleft-cyst-as-origin-of-a-pediatric-papillary-craniopharyngioma
#13
Sven-Martin Schlaffer, Michael Buchfelder, Robert Stoehr, Rolf Buslei, Annett Hölsken
A 6-year old patient presented with an intra and suprasellar cystic lesion accompanied with impairment of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and partial hypopituitarism. The most likely cause of sellar lesions in this age group are adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (adaCP) or Rathke´s cleft cysts (RCCs). AdaCP are characterized by CTNNB1 mutations accompanied with aberrant nuclear beta-catenin expression. RCC show neither nuclear beta-catenin expression nor BRAF mutation. The latter is a hallmark of papillary craniopharyngiomas (papCP) that exhibit remarkable histological similarity with metaplasia of RCC...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515215/publisher-correction-medial-preoptic-circuit-induces-hunting-like-actions-to-target-objects-and-prey
#14
Sae-Geun Park, Yong-Cheol Jeong, Dae-Gun Kim, Min-Hyung Lee, Anna Shin, Geunhong Park, Jia Ryoo, Jiso Hong, Seohui Bae, Cheol-Hu Kim, Phill-Seung Lee, Daesoo Kim
In the version of this article initially published, a sentence in the fifth paragraph of the Results read, "Immunohistochemistry revealed that VGLUT2+ MPA neurons rarely expressed CaMKIIα, which is a putative marker for subcortical glutamatergic neurons." It should have read, "Immunohistochemistry revealed that CaMKIIα+ MPA neurons rarely expressed VGLUT2, which is a putative marker for subcortical glutamatergic neurons." The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article...
March 7, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486290/functional-ectopic-neural-lobe-increases-gap-43-expression-via-pi3k-akt-pathways-to-alleviate-central-diabetes-insipidus-after-pituitary-stalk-lesion-in-rats
#15
Zhanpeng Feng, Yichao Ou, Mingfeng Zhou, Guangsen Wu, Linzi Ma, Yuan Zhang, Yawei Liu, Songtao Qi
Central diabetes insipidus can occur after hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract injury. This injury is linked with a deficit in circulating vasopressin and oxytocin, which are produced in the supraoptic nuclei and the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei. Previous studies indicate that an ectopic neural lobe forms after pituitary stalk lesion in rats, and while the relationship between an ectopic neural lobe and CDI outcomes is unclear, the underlying mechanisms are also unknown. Here, we report that two different CDI characteristics are shown in rats that underwent pituitary stalk electric lesion and are defined by two different groups classified as the recovery group and the no-recovery group...
April 23, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484978/ras-in-the-central-nervous-system-potential-role-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#16
Natalia Pessoa Rocha, Ana Cristina Simões e Silva, Thiago Ruiz Rodrigues Prestes, Victor Feracin, Caroline Amaral Machado, Rodrigo Novaes Ferreira, Antonio Lucio Teixeira, Aline Silva de Miranda
BACKGROUND: The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) is a key regulator of cardiovascular and renal homeostasis, but also plays important roles in mediating physiological functions in the central nervous system (CNS). The effects of the RAS were classically described as mediated by angiotensin (Ang) II via angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptors. However, another arm of the RAS formed by the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), Ang-(1-7) and the Mas receptor has been a matter of investigation due to its important physiological roles, usually counterbalancing the classical effects exerted by Ang II...
February 25, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466834/central-and-peripheral-expression-of-dna-double-strand-breaks-in-human-and-mouse-tissues
#17
Mia P Castiglione, Raddy L Ramos, Joerg R Leheste, German Torres
Mammalian cells accumulate DNA lesions when they undergo phases of the cell cycle or during normal cellular activity. In this regard, several DNA repair signaling pathways have evolved to maintain genome stability and avoid the potential acquisition of mutations. To define and further characterize the expression of DNA double-strand breaks in humans and mice, we used immunocytochemistry to localize a DNA damage signal within the spatial confines of the cell nucleus. We show that DNA double-strand breaks are abundantly expressed in postmitotic neurons of the human and mouse brain...
February 21, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462137/the-premammillary-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-is-not-necessary-for-photoperiodic-timekeeping-in-female-turkeys-meleagris-gallopavo
#18
Ashli F Moore, Vincent M Cassone, Kevin D Alloway, Paul A Bartell
In birds, seasonal reproduction is regulated by day length, with long days in the spring activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and reproductive behaviors. The photoreceptors mediating this process remain unknown, but recently, the premammillary nucleus (PMM) of the hypothalamus has been implicated as the site of photoperiodic signaling in turkeys. We performed electrolytic lesions of the PMM to elucidate its role in the photoactivation and maintenance of egg production in female turkeys. Our results show that ablation of the PMM does not alter the normal lay cycle...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451455/laser-ablative-therapy-of-sessile-hypothalamic-hamartomas-in-children-using-interventional-mri-report-of-5-cases
#19
Derek G Southwell, Harjus S Birk, Paul S Larson, Philip A Starr, Leo P Sugrue, Kurtis I Auguste
Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are benign lesions that cause medically refractory seizures, behavioral disturbances, and endocrine dysfunction. Open resection of HHs does not guarantee seizure freedom and carries a relatively high risk of morbidity. Minimally invasive stereotactic laser ablation has recently been described as an effective and safe alternative for HH treatment. Prior studies have not, however, assessed HH lesion size and morphology, 2 factors that may influence treatment results and, ultimately, the generalizability of their findings...
May 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442094/a-potential-side-effect-of-oral-topical-steroids-central-serous-chorioretinopathy
#20
Saranya George, Anita Balan
Topical corticosteroids are some of the most common drugs used in oral medicine for treating atrophic and erosive lesions that affect the mucosa. Adverse effects of these drugs include oral candidiasis with associated burning mouth and hypogeusia, hypersensitive reactions to the drug, and inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and secondary adrenal insufficiency. The ocular side effects of oral topical steroids are less documented. This short communication describes a case of central serous retinopathy that developed following administration of oral topical steroid...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
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