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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158781/hypothalamic-beta-endorphin-neurons-suppress-preneoplastic-and-neoplastic-lesions-development-in-1-2-dimethylhydrazine-induced-rat-colon-cancer-model
#1
Sengottuvelan Murugan, Yatee Dave, Ankush Rakhit, Dipak K Sarkar
In recent years, experimental studies demonstrated negative impacts of impaired body stress response on colonic pathologies. In this study, we tested if reducing body stress response by the use of β-endorphin (BEP) neuronal transplants in the hypothalamus suppresses pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Colon cancer was induced by injecting 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) for sixteen weeks in Sprague Dawley rats with BEP neuron transplants or control neuron transplants, and their colonic histopathologies, colon tissue levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) proteins and splenic levels of cytotoxic proteins were measured...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155113/small-cell-glioblastoma-of-the-sella-turcica-region-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Shuanglin Deng, Linlin Liu, Danhua Wang, Dan Tong, Gang Zhao
BACKGROUND: Glioblastomas in the sellar region are very rare; in most cases, the tumor originates from the optic nerve/optic chiasm. Only 4 cases of sellar glioblastoma with a non-optic origin have been reported. We present such a case with detailed clinical, imaging and histopathological information. A review of similar published cases is also presented. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old woman presented with endocrinological abnormalities including, amenorrhea and lactation, symptoms of diabetes insipidus and signs of elevated ICP...
November 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125446/suprasellar-and-recurrent-pediatric-craniopharyngiomas-expanding-indications-for-the-extended-endoscopic-transsphenoidal-approach
#3
Andrew F Alalade, Elizabeth Ogando-Rivas, Jerome Boatey, Mark M Souweidane, Vijay K Anand, Jeffrey P Greenfield, Theodore H Schwartz
OBJECTIVE The expanded endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approach has become increasingly used for craniopharyngioma surgery in the pediatric population, but questions still persist regarding its utility in younger children, in recurrent and irradiated tumors, and in masses primarily located in the suprasellar region. The narrow corridor, incomplete pneumatization, and fear of hypothalamic injury have traditionally relegated this approach to application in older children with mostly cystic craniopharyngiomas centered in the sella...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121431/outcomes-of-oral-lichen-planus-and-oral-lichenoid-lesions-treated-with-topical-corticosteroid
#4
M A Gonzalez-Moles, J A Gil-Montoya, L Gonzalez-Ruiz, P Ramos, M Bravo
OBJECTIVE: To determine corticosteroid treatment effectiveness in patients with Oral Lichen Planus/Oral Lichenoid Lesions (OLP/OLL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-one OLP and eighty-one OLL patients received 0.05% clobetasol propionate (CP) or 0.05% triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in aqueous solution (AS) or orabase (OB), evaluating responses to treatment and follow-up compliance. RESULTS: Lesions were atrophic (72/102; 70.6%), extensive (58/100; 58%), producing eating difficulties (62/102; 60...
November 9, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112878/reproductive-and-endocrine-disrupting-toxicity-of-microcystis-aeruginosa-in-female-zebrafish
#5
Guangfu Liu, Mingjing Ke, Xiaoji Fan, Meng Zhang, Youchao Zhu, Tao Lu, Liwei Sun, Haifeng Qian
Microcystis aeruginosa, a primary species in cyanobacterial blooms, is ubiquitously distributed in water. Microcystins (MCs) purified from M. aeruginosa can exert reproductive toxicity in fish. However, the effects of M. aeruginosa at environmentally relevant levels on the reproductive and endocrine systems of zebrafish are still unknown. The present study investigated the reproductive and endocrine-disrupting toxicity of M. aeruginosa on female zebrafish (Danio rerio) by short-term exposure (96 h). After exposure, marked histological lesions in the liver or gonads, such as nuclear pyknosis and deformation, were observed, and the fertilization rate and hatchability of eggs spawned from treated females were both significantly lower than they were in females in the control group, suggesting the possibility of transgenerational effects of M...
November 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103920/influence-of-the-anteromedial-thalamus-on-social-defeat-associated-contextual-fear-memory
#6
Miguel J Rangel, Marcus Vinicius C Baldo, Newton Sabino Canteras
The ventral part of the anteromedial thalamic nucleus (AMv) is heavily targeted by the dorsal premammillary nucleus (PMd), which is the main hypothalamic site that is responsive to both predator and conspecific aggressor threats. This PMd-AMv pathway is likely involved in modulating memory processing, and previous findings from our group have shown that cytotoxic lesions or pharmacological inactivation of the AMv drastically reduced contextual fear responses to predator-associated environments. In the present study, we investigated the role of the AMv in both unconditioned (i...
November 2, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080684/chronic-social-stress-ameliorates-psoriasiform-dermatitis-through-upregulation-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#7
Oscar Vegas, Brian Poligone, Paul Blackcloud, Elaine S Gilmore, JoAnne VanBuskirk, Christopher T Ritchlin, Alice P Pentland, Scott A Walter, Yasmine Nousari, Francisco Tausk
Acute stress is a physiological response of an organism to adverse conditions, contributing to survival; however, persistence through time may lead to disease. Indeed, exacerbation of inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis has been reported to follow stressors in susceptible patients. Because chronic stress cannot ethically be elicited in patients under controlled laboratory conditions, we studied genetically modified mice that naturally develop psoriasiform dermatitis, and subjected them to an ethological chronic social contact stress paradigm...
October 25, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076472/-a-rare-case-of-diencephalic-cachexia-in-an-adult-female-with-cranio-pharyngioma
#8
I S Klochkova, L I Astaf'eva, A N Konovalov, B A Kadashev, P L Kalinin, O I Sharipov, M A Kutin, Yu G Sidneva, L V Shishkina, I N Pronin
Diencephalic cachexia (DС) is progressive weight loss despite a normal caloric intake and a satisfactory state of health, which is caused by hypothalamic lesions. This is a rare (about 100 cases were reported) and potentially fatal disorder of unknown pathogenesis. At present, there is no effective pharmacological therapy for the disorder. Cachexia may regress only if the tumor reduces in size, therefore the timely diagnosis and treatment are of vital importance for the patient. DС is typical of early childhood, and only a few cases have been reported in adults...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038894/the-supraorbital-eyebrow-approach-for-removal-of-craniopharyngioma-in-children-a-case-series
#9
Ricardo Santos de Oliveira, Dinark Conceição Viana, Lucas Pires Augusto, Marcelo Volpon Santos, Hélio Rubens Machado
OBJECTIVE: Craniopharyngiomas can be a surgical challenge for the pediatric neurosurgeon. Ideally, total removal must be achieved. However, the need to reduce surgical morbidity and preserve quality of life has led to a number of neurosurgical approaches in order to attain this goal. The aim of this article is to present an alternative surgical approach to these lesions and to provide the rationale for this technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical charts and operative records of eight pediatric patients harboring craniopharyngiomas who underwent surgical treatment using a supraorbital eyebrow approach (SOA) were reviewed from 2014 to 2016...
October 16, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026268/characteristic-clinical-features-of-adipsic-hypernatremia-patients-with-subfornical-organ-targeting-antibody
#10
Akari Nakamura-Utsunomiya, Takeshi Y Hiyama, Satoshi Okada, Masaharu Noda, Masao Kobayashi
Adipsic hypernatremia is a rare disease presenting as persistent hypernatremia with disturbance of thirst regulation and hypothalamic dysfunction. As a result of congenital disease, tumors, or inflammation, most cases are accompanied by structural abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary area. While cases with no hypothalamic-pituitary structural lesion have been reported, their etiology has not been elucidated. Recently, we reported three patients with adipsic hypernatremia whose serum-derived immunoglobulin (Ig) specifically reacted with mouse subfornical organ (SFO) tissue...
2017: Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology: Case Reports and Clinical Investigations: Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979194/the-locus-coeruleus-norepinephrine-system-mediates-empathy-for-pain-through-selective-up-regulation-of-p2x3-receptor-in-dorsal-root-ganglia-in-rats
#11
Yun-Fei Lü, Yan Yang, Chun-Li Li, Yan Wang, Zhen Li, Jun Chen
Empathy for pain (vicariously felt pain), an ability to feel, recognize, understand and share the painful emotions of others, has been gradually accepted to be a common identity in both humans and rodents, however, the underlying neural and molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Recently, we have developed a rat model of empathy for pain in which pain can be transferred from a cagemate demonstrator (CD) in pain to a naïve cagemate observer (CO) after 30 min dyadic priming social interaction. The naïve CO rats display both mechanical pain hypersensitivity (hyperalgesia) and enhanced spinal nociception...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977204/tadalafil-protective-action-against-the-development-of-multiple-organ-failure-syndrome
#12
Granville G de Oliveira, Samer A H de Oliveira, Paulo Henrique H Botelho, Marcos Aurelio Barboza de Oliveira, Ka Bian, Ferid Murad
INTRODUCTION: Multiple organ failure syndrome (MOFS) is a pathology associated to unspecified and severe trauma, characterized by elevated morbidity and mortality. The complex inflammatory MOFS-related reactions generate important ischemia-reperfusion responses in the induction of this syndrome. Nitric oxide elevation, through the activation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), has the potential of counteracting the typical systemic vasoconstriction, and platelet-induced hypercoagulation...
July 2017: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946146/third-ventricle-germ-cell-tumor-originating-from-the-infundibulum-with-rapidly-expansive-enlargement
#13
Yuichiro Yoneoka, Junichi Yoshimura, Masakazu Sano, Masayasu Okada, Akiyoshi Kakita, Yukihiko Fujii
We present a pediatric case of a rapidly expanding third ventricle germ cell tumor (GCT). A 14-year-old boy suffered from gradual-onset central diabetes insipidus (DI) and received desmopressin treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed nonspecific findings of the pituitary-hypothalamic axis. Nine months after the initial DI diagnosis, he developed progressively worsening headache. MRI demonstrated a third ventricle tumor causing noncommunicating hydrocephalus, although an MRI 16 weeks before admission did not show the lesion...
September 26, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944988/evaluation-and-treatment-of-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-patients-with-central-nervous-system-abnormalities-current-views-and-new-vistas
#14
REVIEW
E Ann Yeh, Jay Greenberg, Oussama Abla, Giulia Longoni, Eli Diamond, Michelle Hermiston, Brandon Tran, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, Carl E Allen, Kenneth L McClain
Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) can include mass lesions of the hypothalamic pituitary axis, choroid plexus, cerebrum, and cerebellum or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal abnormalities of the cerebellum, pons, and basal ganglia. The term neurodegenerative (ND) CNS-LCH has been given to the MRI signal abnormalities and neurologic dysfunction, although initially patients may have no clinical symptoms. Standardized evaluations to better understand the natural history and response to therapy are needed...
September 25, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926419/peduncular-hallucinosis-and-autonomic-dysfunction-in-anti-aquaporin-4-antibody-syndrome
#15
Renee Berry, Peter K Panegyres
Neuromyelitis optica is a rare, severe inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, previously described as affecting only the optic nerve and spinal cord. Since the discovery of a highly specific autoantibody, anti-aquaporin-4, lesions are now recognized outside these regions. We report a man with severe, debilitating symptoms resulting from a symptomatic lesion within the diencephalon, manifesting with abnormal circadian rhythms, autonomic dysfunction, behavioral disturbance, and complex visual hallucinations...
September 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910727/gene-environment-interaction-does-fluoride-influence-the-reproductive-hormones-in-male-farmers-modified-by-er%C3%AE-gene-polymorphisms
#16
Qiang Ma, Hui Huang, Long Sun, Tong Zhou, Jingyuan Zhu, Xuemin Cheng, Lijv Duan, Zhiyuan Li, Liuxin Cui, Yue Ba
The occurrence of endemic fluorosis is derived from high fluoride levels in drinking water and industrial fumes or dust. Reproductive disruption is also a major harm caused by fluoride exposure besides dental and skeletal lesions. However, few studies focus on the mechanism of fluoride exposure on male reproductive function, especially the possible interaction of fluoride exposure and gene polymorphism on male reproductive hormones. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study in rural areas of Henan province in China to explore the interaction between the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) gene and fluoride exposure on reproductive hormone levels in male farmers living in the endemic fluorosis villages...
September 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886982/management-of-epilepsy-due-to-hypothalamic-hamartomas
#17
REVIEW
Ayaz M Khawaja, Sandipan Pati, Yu-Tze Ng
A hypothalamic hamartoma consists of hyperplastic heterotopic tissue growing in a disorganized fashion. These lesions occur in about one per 50,000 to 100,000 people. Hypothalamic hamartomas can cause intrinsic epileptogenesis leading to gelastic seizures. Surrounding cortical structures may also develop secondary epileptogenesis. Persistent seizures caused by hypothalamic hamartomas can be debilitating and result in significant cognitive and behavioral impairment. Early recognition and treatment is important in controlling seizures and in preventing further cognitive deterioration...
July 5, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882981/characteristics-of-a-nationwide-cohort-of-patients-presenting-with-isolated-hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism-ihh
#18
Marco Bonomi, Valeria Vezzoli, Csilla Gabriella Krausz, Fabiana Guizzardi, Silvia Vezzani, Manuela Simoni, Ivan Bassi, Paolo Duminuco, Natascia Di Iorgi, Claudia Giavoli, Alessandro Pizzoccaro, Gianni Russo, Mirella Moro, Letizia Maria Fatti, Alberto Ferlin, Laura Mazzanti, Maria Chiara Zatelli, Salvatore Cannavò, Andrea M Isidori, Angela I Pincelli, Flavia Prodam, Antonio Mancini, Paolo Limone, Maria Laura Tanda, Rossella Gaudino, Mariacarolina Salerno, Francesca Pregnolato, Mohammad Maghnie, Mario Maggi, Luca Persani
OBJECTIVE: IHH is a rare disorder with pubertal delay, normal (normoosmic-IHH, nIHH) or defective sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome, KS). Other reproductive and non-reproductive anomalies might be present altough information on their frequency are scanty, particularly according to the age of presentation. DESIGN: Observational cohort study carried out between January 2008-June 2016 within a national network of academic or general hospitals Methods: We performed a detailed phenotyping of 503 IHH patients with: 1) manifestations of hypogonadism with low sex steroid hormone and low/normal gonadotropins; 2) absence of expansive hypothalamic/pituitary lesions or multiple pituitary hormone defects...
September 7, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866683/the-avian-hippocampal-formation-and-the-stress-response
#19
Tom V Smulders
Though widely studied for its function in memory and navigation, the hippocampal formation (HF) in mammals also plays an important role in regulating the stress response. If this is an ancestral feature of the hippocampus, then it is likely that the avian HF plays a similar role. Indeed, the avian HF strongly expresses both mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors, and has indirect projections to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, which controls the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859571/exploring-the-brain-through-posterior-hypothalamus-surgery-for-aggressive-behavior
#20
Michele Rizzi, Andrea Trezza, Giuseppe Messina, Alessandro De Benedictis, Angelo Franzini, Carlo Efisio Marras
Neurological surgery offers an opportunity to study brain functions, through either resection or implanted neuromodulation devices. Pathological aggressive behavior in patients with intellectual disability is a frequent condition that is difficult to treat using either supportive care or pharmacological therapy. The bulk of the laboratory studies performed throughout the 19th century enabled the formulation of hypotheses on brain circuits involved in the generation of emotions. Aggressive behavior was also studied extensively...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
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