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hypothalamic lesion

Robert T Buckley, Anthony C Wang, John W Miller, Edward J Novotny, Jeffrey G Ojemann
OBJECTIVE Laser ablation is a novel, minimally invasive procedure that utilizes MRI-guided thermal energy to treat epileptogenic and other brain lesions. In addition to treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, laser ablation is increasingly being used to target deep or inoperable lesions, including hypothalamic hamartoma (HH), subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA), and exophytic intrinsic hypothalamic/third ventricular tumors. The authors reviewed their early institutional experience with these patients to characterize clinical outcomes in patients undergoing this procedure...
October 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
Anthony M Burrows, W Richard Marsh, Gregory Worrell, David A Woodrum, Bruce E Pollock, Krzysztof R Gorny, Joel P Felmlee, Robert E Watson, Timothy J Kaufmann, Steven Goerss, Jamie J Van Gompel
OBJECTIVE Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are associated with gelastic seizures and the development of medically refractory epilepsy. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRg-LITT) is a minimally invasive ablative treatment that may have applicability for these deep-seated lesions. Here, the authors describe 3 patients with refractory HHs who they treated with MRg-LITT. METHODS An institutional review board-approved prospective database of patients undergoing Visualase MRg-LITT was retrospectively reviewed...
October 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
O G Shaker, S M R Eltahlawi, S O Tawfic, A M Eltawdy, N I E Bedair
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is a disorder characterized by depigmented patches in the skin. Psychological stress can activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the brain as well as on the peripheral level and aggravate autoimmune skin diseases. Skin appendages have dual functions dually as prominent targets and sources of the peripheral corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-proopiomelanocortin axis. AIM: To assess the role of CRH and CRHR-1 in vitiligo, and its possible association with psychological stress...
October 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Kevin G Burfeind, Vijayshree Yadav, Daniel L Marks
Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis are usually attributed to demyelinating lesions in the spinal cord or cerebral cortex. The hypothalamus is a region that is often overlooked yet controls many important homeostatic functions, including those that are perturbed in multiple sclerosis. In this review we discuss how hypothalamic dysfunction may contribute to signs and symptoms in people with multiple sclerosis. While dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is common in multiple sclerosis, the effects and mechanisms of this dysfunction are not well understood...
November 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
A Einstien, Rahul A Virani
INTRODUTION: Spatially resolved metabolic data obtained from Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) provides information which increases the diagnostic accuracy of imaging sequences in predicting the histology of suprasellar tumors. AIM: To evaluate the role of (1)H MRS in the diagnosis of various suprasellar tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty cases of various suprasellar, hypothalamic and third ventricular neoplasms were investigated with long-echo single voxel (1)H -MRS using 1...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Hermann L Müller
PURPOSE: This report is a review of findings on the diagnosis, treatment, clinical course, follow-up, and prognosis of craniopharyngioma patients with special regard to clinical trials and long-term management. METHODS: Literature search on Pubmed for paper published after 1994. RESULTS: Craniopharyngiomas are rare, embryonic malformations of the sellar/parasellar region with low histological grade. Clinical manifestations are related to increased intracranial pressure, visual impairment, and hypothalamic/pituitary deficiencies...
September 7, 2016: Pituitary
Raja Brauner, Raphaël Serreau, Jean-Claude Souberbielle, Monique Pouillot, Sophie Grouazel, Christophe Recasens, Michel Zerah, Christian Sainte-Rose, Jean-Marc Treluyer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of diazoxide (DZX) for decreasing obesity with hyperinsulinemia in patients treated for hypothalamic-pituitary lesions during childhood. DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in parallel groups using a centralized randomization process (PEDIAC). SETTING: Single-center study. PATIENTS: Among the 40 patients included, 35 fulfilled the study requirements. INTERVENTIONS: Six-month treatment with DZX (4 mg/kg/d) or placebo...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Min Jeong Han, Soon Chul Kim, Chan Uhng Joo, Sun Jun Kim
RATIONALE FOR THIS CASE REPORT: Cerebral Salt-Wasting Syndrome (CSWS) is characterized by hyponatremia and sodium wasting in the urine. These conditions are triggered by various neurosurgical disorders such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain tumor, head injury, and brain surgery. To our knowledge, CSWS caused by Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) has been rarely reported. PRESENTING CONCERNS OF THE PATIENT: A 2-year-old male patient presented to our hospital due to a seizure attack...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Anna M M Daubenbüchel, Anika Hoffmann, Maria Eveslage, Jale Özyurt, Kristin Lohle, Julia Reichel, Christiane M Thiel, Henri Martens, Vincent Geenen, Hermann L Müller
: Quality of survival of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma patients is frequently impaired by hypothalamic involvement or surgical lesions sequelae such as obesity and neuropsychological deficits. Oxytocin, a peptide hormone produced in the hypothalamus and secreted by posterior pituitary gland, plays a major role in regulation of behavior and body composition. In a cross-sectional study, oxytocin saliva concentrations were analyzed in 34 long-term craniopharyngioma survivors with and without hypothalamic involvement or treatment-related damage, recruited in the German Childhood Craniopharyngioma Registry, and in 73 healthy controls, attending the Craniopharyngioma Support Group Meeting 2014...
September 1, 2016: Endocrine
Kento Ujita, Ken-Ichi Kinoshita, Yoshikage Muroi, Toshiaki Ishii
AIMS: Bilateral lesions of the mesencephalic trigeminal sensory nucleus (Me5), which receives histaminergic neurons from the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), alter nocturnal feeding and related behaviors in mice, concomitant with a decrease in orexin mRNA level in the perifornical area (PFA) during the dark phase. Therefore, we investigated the neuronal input to the TMN from the Me5, as well as the effects of TMN lesions on the circadian profiles of feeding and related behaviors. MAIN METHODS: We examined the presence of neurons projecting from the Me5 to the TMN by direct injection of a retrograde tracer, Fluorogold, into the TMN E2 sub-region (TMN-E2)...
October 1, 2016: Life Sciences
Christian L Roth, Gabrielle D'Ambrosio, Clinton Elfers
BACKGROUND: Hypothalamic obesity (HO) occurs in patients with tumors and lesions in the medial hypothalamic region. In this study, a hyperphagic rat model of combined medial hypothalamic lesions (CMHL) was used to test which specific inflammatory molecules are involved. METHODS: In order to target specific homeostatic medial hypothalamic nuclei (arcuate, ventromedial, and dorsomedial nuclei), male Sprague-Dawley rats (age of 8 weeks, ~250 g body weight) received four electrolytic lesions or sham surgery...
February 2016: Journal of Systems and Integrative Neuroscience
Michael S Hildebrand, Nicole G Griffin, John A Damiano, Elisa J Cops, Rosemary Burgess, Ezgi Ozturk, Nigel C Jones, Richard J Leventer, Jeremy L Freeman, A Simon Harvey, Lynette G Sadleir, Ingrid E Scheffer, Heather Major, Benjamin W Darbro, Andrew S Allen, David B Goldstein, John F Kerrigan, Samuel F Berkovic, Erin L Heinzen
Hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) with gelastic epilepsy is a well-recognized drug-resistant epilepsy syndrome of early life.(1) Surgical resection allows limited access to the small deep-seated lesions that cause the disease. Here, we report the results of a search for somatic mutations in paired hamartoma- and leukocyte-derived DNA samples from 38 individuals which we conducted by using whole-exome sequencing (WES), chromosomal microarray (CMA), and targeted resequencing (TRS) of candidate genes. Somatic mutations were identified in genes involving regulation of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway in 14/38 individuals (37%)...
August 4, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Richard A Prayson
Sarcoidosis is a well-recognized systemic granulomatous process which involves the central nervous system in 5-15% of patients. One of the more frequent sites of central nervous system involvement is the pituitary and hypothalamic region. Involvement of the sellar region by sarcoidosis is overall an infrequent occurrence, comprising less than 1% of all intrasellar lesions. Patients typically present with an infiltrative lesion on imaging studies and clinically with symptoms related to diabetes insipidus or hyperprolactinemia...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Beatriz Godínez-Chaparro, Guadalupe Martínez-Lorenzana, Javier Rodríguez-Jiménez, Alfredo Manzano-García, Gerardo Rojas-Piloni, Miguel Condés-Lara, Abimael González-Hernández
The role of oxytocin (OXT) in pain modulation has been suggested. Indeed, hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) electrical stimuli reduce the nociceptive neuronal activity (i.e., neuronal discharge associated with activation of Aδ- and C-fibers) of the spinal dorsal horn wide dynamic range (WDR) cells and nociceptive behavior. Furthermore, raphe magnus nuclei lesion reduces the PVN-induced antinociception, suggesting a functional interaction between the OXT and the serotoninergic system. The present study investigated in Wistar rats the potential role of spinal serotonergic mechanisms in the OXT- and PVN-induced antinociception...
July 14, 2016: Neuropeptides
Jie Wu, Ming Gao, Stephen G Rice, Candy Tsang, John Beggs, Dharshaun Turner, Guohui Li, Bo Yang, Kunkun Xia, Fenfei Gao, Shenfeng Qiu, Qiang Liu, John F Kerrigan
Human hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) is a rare subcortical lesion associated with treatment-resistant epilepsy. Cellular mechanisms responsible for epileptogenesis are unknown. We hypothesized that neuronal gap junctions contribute to epileptogenesis through synchronous activity within the neuron networks in HH tissue. We studied surgically resected HH tissue with Western-blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, biocytin microinjection of recorded HH neurons, and microelectrode patch clamp recordings with and without pharmacological blockade of gap junctions...
June 2016: EBioMedicine
Oliver Rompel, Rolf Buslei, Matthias Hammon, Helmuth-Günther Dörr, Martin Chada, Guido Nikkhah, Michael Uder, Regina Trollmann
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare disease of the monocyte-macrophage system. Abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary region are common in individuals with central nervous system involvement. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: This six-year-old boy developed rapidly progressive aggressive behavior, central diabetes insipidus, and repeated complex partial seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a diffuse leukoencephalopathy-like pattern and numerous infratentorial and supratentorial granulomatous nodules in the brain parenchyma along with infundibular and hypothalamic mass lesions...
September 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Qun-Fang Zhang, Ying-Wen Li, Zhi-Hao Liu, Qi-Liang Chen
Mercury (Hg) is a prominent environmental contaminant that causes a variety of adverse effects on aquatic organisms. However, the mechanisms underlying inorganic Hg-induced reproductive impairment in fish remains largely unknown. In this study, adult zebrafish were exposed to 0 (control), 15 and 30μg Hg/l (added as mercuric chloride, HgCl2) for 30days, and the effects on histological structure, antioxidant status and sex hormone levels in the ovary and testis, as well as the mRNA expression of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis were analyzed...
August 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Takeshi Y Hiyama, Akari N Utsunomiya, Masahito Matsumoto, Akihiro Fujikawa, Chia-Hao Lin, Keiichi Hara, Reiko Kagawa, Satoshi Okada, Masao Kobayashi, Ishikawa Mayumi, Makoto Anzo, Hideo Cho, Shinobu Takayasu, Takeshi Nigawara, Makoto Daimon, Tomohiko Sato, Kiminori Terui, Etsuro Ito, Masaharu Noda
Adipsic (or essential) hypernatremia is a rare hypernatremia caused by a deficiency in thirst regulation and vasopressin release. In 2010, we reported a case in which autoantibodies targeting the sensory circumventricular organs (sCVOs) caused adipsic hypernatremia without hypothalamic structural lesions demonstrable by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); sCVOs include the subfornical organ (SFO) and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), which are centers for the control of water and salt intakes, and harbor neurons innervating hypothalamic nuclei for vasopressin release...
June 24, 2016: Brain Pathology
Erika Navarrete, Juan Roberto Ortega-Bernal, Lucero Trejo-Muñoz, Georgina Díaz, Rodrigo Montúfar-Chaveznava, Ivette Caldelas
Experimental evidence indicates that during pre-visual stages of development in mammals, circadian regulation is still not under the control of the light-entrainable hypothalamic pacemaker, raising the possibility that the circadian rhythmicity that occurs during postnatal development is under the control of peripheral oscillators, such as the main olfactory bulb (MOB). We evaluated the outcome of olfactory bulbectomy on the temporal pattern of core body temperature and gross locomotor activity in newborn rabbits...
2016: PloS One
Jörg Wellmer, Jürgen Voges, Yaroslav Parpaley
Lesion guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation (L-RFTC) via stereotactically inserted coagulation probes is a further development of stereotactic thermocoagulation thalamotomy and stereo-EEG guided RFTC. In this method epileptogenic lesions detected via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) move to the center of coagulation planning. Two surgical strategies can be applied: lesion disconnection and lesion destruction. This focused review collects all data published until January 2016 on L-RFTC for the indications hypothalamic hamartoma, periventricular nodular heterotopia and focal cortical dysplasia and describes technical issues, surgical objectives and outcomes...
October 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
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