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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903121/craniopharyngioma-adherence-a-comprehensive-topographical-categorization-and-outcome-related-risk-stratification-model-based-on-the-methodical-examination-of-500-tumors
#1
Ruth Prieto, José María Pascual, Maria Rosdolsky, Inés Castro-Dufourny, Rodrigo Carrasco, Sewan Strauss, Laura Barrios
OBJECTIVE Craniopharyngioma (CP) adherence strongly influences the potential for achieving a radical and safe surgical treatment. However, this factor remains poorly addressed in the scientific literature. This study provides a rational, comprehensive description of CP adherence that can be used for the prediction of surgical risks associated with the removal of these challenging lesions. METHODS This study retrospectively analyzes the evidence provided in pathological, neuroradiological, and surgical CP reports concerning 3 components of the CP attachment: 1) the intracranial structures attached to the tumor; 2) the morphology of the adhesion; and 3) the adhesion strength...
December 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895561/evidence-of-a-role-for-the-lateral-hypothalamic-area-juxtadorsomedial-region-lhajd-in-defensive-behaviors-associated-with-social-defeat
#2
Miguel J Rangel, Marcus V C Baldo, Newton S Canteras, Joel D Hahn
Our understanding of the extrinsic connections of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) has deepened in recent years. In particular, a series of studies using neural pathway-tracing methods to investigate the macroconnections of histologically differentiated LHA regions, have revealed that the neural connections of these regions are substantially distinct, and have robust connections with neural circuits controlling survival behaviors. To begin testing functional associations suggested by the distinct LHA region neural connections, the present study has investigated the role of the LHA juxtadorsomedial region (LHAjd) in the control of social defeat (a socially-relevant defensive behavior)...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888771/increased-anxiety-like-behaviors-but-blunted-cortisol-stress-response-after-neonatal-hippocampal-lesions-in-monkeys
#3
Jessica Raper, Mark Wilson, Mar Sanchez, Christa Payne, Jocelyne Bachevalier
The hippocampus is most notably known for its role in cognition and spatial memory; however it also plays an essential role in emotional behaviors and neuroendocrine responses. The current study investigated the long-term effects of neonatal hippocampal lesions (Neo-Hibo) on emotional and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. During infancy, unlike controls, Neo-Hibo monkeys exhibited enhanced expression of emotional behaviors (e.g. freezing, anxiety-like, and self-directed behaviors) when exposed to a human intruder (HI task)...
November 18, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849360/robust-reductions-of-excess-weight-and-hyperphagia-by-beloranib-in-rat-models-of-genetic-and-hypothalamic-obesity
#4
Clinton T Elfers, Christian L Roth
Hypothalamic lesions or deficient melanocortin (MC) signaling via MC4 receptor (MC4r) mutations often lead to hyperphagia and severe treatment resistant obesity. We tested the methionine amino peptidase 2-inhibitor beloranib (ZGN-440) in two male rat models of obesity, one modeling hypothalamic obesity (HO) with combined medial hypothalamic lesions (CMHL), and the other modeling a monogenic form of obesity with MC4r mutations (MC4rKO). In CMHL rats (age 3 months), post-surgery excess weight gain was significantly inhibited (ZGN-440 0...
November 16, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845440/odour-induced-analgesia-mediated-by-hypothalamic-orexin-neurons-in-mice
#5
Shogo Tashiro, Ran Yamaguchi, Sodemi Ishikawa, Takeshi Sakurai, Katsuko Kajiya, Yuichi Kanmura, Tomoyuki Kuwaki, Hideki Kashiwadani
Various folk remedies employ certain odorous compounds with analgesic effects. In fact, linalool, a monoterpene alcohol found in lavender extracts, has been found to attenuate pain responses via subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, intrathecal, and oral administration. However, the analgesic effects of odorous compounds mediated by olfaction have not been thoroughly examined. We performed behavioural pain tests under odourant vapour exposure in mice. Among six odourant molecules examined, linalool significantly increased the pain threshold and attenuated pain behaviours...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784851/postpartum-hypothalamic-adrenal-insufficiency-with-remission-a-rare-case
#6
Yuko Akehi, Yoko Hashimoto, Junko Meren, Makito Tanabe, Takashi Nomiyama, Toshihiko Yanase
A 37-year-old female patient was hospitalized because of general fatigue and loss of axillary and pubic hair after massive bleeding at delivery of her third child. The basal levels of both plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and serum cortisol were very low, 5.2 pg/mL and 1.9 μg/dL, respectively. Based on the fact that ACTH showed a low response to insulin tolerance test and a normal response to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), she was diagnosed with hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency. No organic lesions were found in the hypothalamic-pituitary region by pituitary MRI and hydrocortisone therapy was instituted...
October 25, 2016: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780163/giant-hypothalamic-hamartoma-in-an-infant-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Sandeep Kandregula, Amey R Savardekar, B N Nandeesh, A Arivazhagan, Malla Bhaskar Rao
Giant hypothalamic hamartomas (GHH) are extremely rare lesions in infants and usually intrinsically epileptogenic. We present the case of a 10-month-old girl child presenting with drug-resistant seizures and a giant hypothalamic lesion that was confirmed as hamartoma on histopathology. Surgical decompression and disconnection from the hypothalamus was performed with the intent of controlling her seizures. Unfortunately, the patient developed right middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery territory infarction, possibly due to vasospasm or thrombosis of the vessels...
2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690656/stereotactic-laser-ablation-for-hypothalamic-and-deep-intraventricular-lesions
#8
Robert T Buckley, Anthony C Wang, John W Miller, Edward J Novotny, Jeffrey G Ojemann
OBJECTIVE Laser ablation is a novel, minimally invasive procedure that utilizes MRI-guided thermal energy to treat epileptogenic and other brain lesions. In addition to treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, laser ablation is increasingly being used to target deep or inoperable lesions, including hypothalamic hamartoma (HH), subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA), and exophytic intrinsic hypothalamic/third ventricular tumors. The authors reviewed their early institutional experience with these patients to characterize clinical outcomes in patients undergoing this procedure...
October 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690651/magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-for-previously-treated-hypothalamic-hamartomas
#9
Anthony M Burrows, W Richard Marsh, Gregory Worrell, David A Woodrum, Bruce E Pollock, Krzysztof R Gorny, Joel P Felmlee, Robert E Watson, Timothy J Kaufmann, Steven Goerss, Jamie J Van Gompel
OBJECTIVE Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are associated with gelastic seizures and the development of medically refractory epilepsy. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRg-LITT) is a minimally invasive ablative treatment that may have applicability for these deep-seated lesions. Here, the authors describe 3 patients with refractory HHs who they treated with MRg-LITT. METHODS An institutional review board-approved prospective database of patients undergoing Visualase MRg-LITT was retrospectively reviewed...
October 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663146/corticotropin-releasing-hormone-crh-and-crh-receptor-1-gene-expression-in-vitiligo
#10
O G Shaker, S M R Eltahlawi, S O Tawfic, A M Eltawdy, N I E Bedair
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is a disorder characterized by depigmented patches in the skin. Psychological stress can activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the brain as well as on the peripheral level and aggravate autoimmune skin diseases. Skin appendages have dual functions dually as prominent targets and sources of the peripheral corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-proopiomelanocortin axis. AIM: To assess the role of CRH and CRHR-1 in vitiligo, and its possible association with psychological stress...
October 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662896/hypothalamic-dysfunction-and-multiple-sclerosis-implications-for-fatigue-and-weight-dysregulation
#11
Kevin G Burfeind, Vijayshree Yadav, Daniel L Marks
Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis are usually attributed to demyelinating lesions in the spinal cord or cerebral cortex. The hypothalamus is a region that is often overlooked yet controls many important homeostatic functions, including those that are perturbed in multiple sclerosis. In this review we discuss how hypothalamic dysfunction may contribute to signs and symptoms in people with multiple sclerosis. While dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is common in multiple sclerosis, the effects and mechanisms of this dysfunction are not well understood...
November 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630921/clinical-relevance-of-single-voxel-1-h-mrs-metabolites-in-discriminating-suprasellar-tumors
#12
A Einstien, Rahul A Virani
INTRODUTION: Spatially resolved metabolic data obtained from Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) provides information which increases the diagnostic accuracy of imaging sequences in predicting the histology of suprasellar tumors. AIM: To evaluate the role of (1)H MRS in the diagnosis of various suprasellar tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty cases of various suprasellar, hypothalamic and third ventricular neoplasms were investigated with long-echo single voxel (1)H -MRS using 1...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604996/risk-adapted-long-term-management-in-childhood-onset-craniopharyngioma
#13
Hermann L Müller
PURPOSE: This report is a review of findings on the diagnosis, treatment, clinical course, follow-up, and prognosis of craniopharyngioma patients with special regard to clinical trials and long-term management. METHODS: Literature search on Pubmed for paper published after 1994. RESULTS: Craniopharyngiomas are rare, embryonic malformations of the sellar/parasellar region with low histological grade. Clinical manifestations are related to increased intracranial pressure, visual impairment, and hypothalamic/pituitary deficiencies...
September 7, 2016: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603903/diazoxide-in-children-with-obesity-after-hypothalamic-pituitary-lesions-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#14
Raja Brauner, Raphaël Serreau, Jean-Claude Souberbielle, Monique Pouillot, Sophie Grouazel, Christophe Recasens, Michel Zerah, Christian Sainte-Rose, Jean-Marc Treluyer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of diazoxide (DZX) for decreasing obesity with hyperinsulinemia in patients treated for hypothalamic-pituitary lesions during childhood. DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in parallel groups using a centralized randomization process (PEDIAC). SETTING: Single-center study. PATIENTS: Among the 40 patients included, 35 fulfilled the study requirements. INTERVENTIONS: Six-month treatment with DZX (4 mg/kg/d) or placebo...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603336/cerebral-salt-wasting-syndrome-in-a-child-with-wernicke-encephalopathy-treated-with-fludrocortisone-therapy-a-case-report
#15
Min Jeong Han, Soon Chul Kim, Chan Uhng Joo, Sun Jun Kim
RATIONALE FOR THIS CASE REPORT: Cerebral Salt-Wasting Syndrome (CSWS) is characterized by hyponatremia and sodium wasting in the urine. These conditions are triggered by various neurosurgical disorders such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain tumor, head injury, and brain surgery. To our knowledge, CSWS caused by Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) has been rarely reported. PRESENTING CONCERNS OF THE PATIENT: A 2-year-old male patient presented to our hospital due to a seizure attack...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585663/oxytocin-in%C3%A2-survivors-of-childhood-onset-craniopharyngioma
#16
Anna M M Daubenbüchel, Anika Hoffmann, Maria Eveslage, Jale Özyurt, Kristin Lohle, Julia Reichel, Christiane M Thiel, Henri Martens, Vincent Geenen, Hermann L Müller
: Quality of survival of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma patients is frequently impaired by hypothalamic involvement or surgical lesions sequelae such as obesity and neuropsychological deficits. Oxytocin, a peptide hormone produced in the hypothalamus and secreted by posterior pituitary gland, plays a major role in regulation of behavior and body composition. In a cross-sectional study, oxytocin saliva concentrations were analyzed in 34 long-term craniopharyngioma survivors with and without hypothalamic involvement or treatment-related damage, recruited in the German Childhood Craniopharyngioma Registry, and in 73 healthy controls, attending the Craniopharyngioma Support Group Meeting 2014...
September 1, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515503/the-effects-of-unilateral-lesion-of-the-tuberomammillary-nucleus-e2-sub-region-on-nocturnal-feeding-and-related-behaviors-in-mice
#17
Kento Ujita, Ken-Ichi Kinoshita, Yoshikage Muroi, Toshiaki Ishii
AIMS: Bilateral lesions of the mesencephalic trigeminal sensory nucleus (Me5), which receives histaminergic neurons from the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), alter nocturnal feeding and related behaviors in mice, concomitant with a decrease in orexin mRNA level in the perifornical area (PFA) during the dark phase. Therefore, we investigated the neuronal input to the TMN from the Me5, as well as the effects of TMN lesions on the circadian profiles of feeding and related behaviors. MAIN METHODS: We examined the presence of neurons projecting from the Me5 to the TMN by direct injection of a retrograde tracer, Fluorogold, into the TMN E2 sub-region (TMN-E2)...
October 1, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512604/activation-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-pathway-and-reduction-of-hypothalamic-oxytocin-following-hypothalamic-lesions
#18
Christian L Roth, Gabrielle D'Ambrosio, Clinton Elfers
BACKGROUND: Hypothalamic obesity (HO) occurs in patients with tumors and lesions in the medial hypothalamic region. In this study, a hyperphagic rat model of combined medial hypothalamic lesions (CMHL) was used to test which specific inflammatory molecules are involved. METHODS: In order to target specific homeostatic medial hypothalamic nuclei (arcuate, ventromedial, and dorsomedial nuclei), male Sprague-Dawley rats (age of 8 weeks, ~250 g body weight) received four electrolytic lesions or sham surgery...
February 2016: Journal of Systems and Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453577/mutations-of-the-sonic-hedgehog-pathway-underlie-hypothalamic-hamartoma-with-gelastic-epilepsy
#19
Michael S Hildebrand, Nicole G Griffin, John A Damiano, Elisa J Cops, Rosemary Burgess, Ezgi Ozturk, Nigel C Jones, Richard J Leventer, Jeremy L Freeman, A Simon Harvey, Lynette G Sadleir, Ingrid E Scheffer, Heather Major, Benjamin W Darbro, Andrew S Allen, David B Goldstein, John F Kerrigan, Samuel F Berkovic, Erin L Heinzen
Hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) with gelastic epilepsy is a well-recognized drug-resistant epilepsy syndrome of early life.(1) Surgical resection allows limited access to the small deep-seated lesions that cause the disease. Here, we report the results of a search for somatic mutations in paired hamartoma- and leukocyte-derived DNA samples from 38 individuals which we conducted by using whole-exome sequencing (WES), chromosomal microarray (CMA), and targeted resequencing (TRS) of candidate genes. Somatic mutations were identified in genes involving regulation of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway in 14/38 individuals (37%)...
August 4, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452130/biopsy-proven-pituitary-sarcoidosis-presenting-as-a-possible-adenoma
#20
Richard A Prayson
Sarcoidosis is a well-recognized systemic granulomatous process which involves the central nervous system in 5-15% of patients. One of the more frequent sites of central nervous system involvement is the pituitary and hypothalamic region. Involvement of the sellar region by sarcoidosis is overall an infrequent occurrence, comprising less than 1% of all intrasellar lesions. Patients typically present with an infiltrative lesion on imaging studies and clinically with symptoms related to diabetes insipidus or hyperprolactinemia...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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