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Nicola L D Overton, Axel A Brakhage, Andreas Thywißen, David W Denning, Paul Bowyer
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in asthma is a severe, life-affecting disease that potentially affects over 4.8 million people globally. In the UK, ABPA is predominantly caused by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Phagocytosis is important in clearance of this fungus, and Early Endosome Antigen 1 (EEA1) has been demonstrated to be involved in phagocytosis of fungi. We sought to investigate the role of EEA1 mutations and phagocytosis in ABPA. We used exome sequencing to identify variants in EEA1 associated with ABPA...
2018: PloS One
Sylvina Alvarado, Ernesto Paya, María Teresa Valenzuela, Rodolfo Villena
INTRODUCTION: Special vaccines recommendation patients are a growing population. The Ministry of Health has developed a special vaccination program for these cases, through which our hospital manages vaccine forms by an established flowchart. OBJECTIVE: To describe the special vaccines model of management results in the period between March 2015 and September 2016, and the clinical and demographics characterization of the pediatric population benefited with this program in Dr...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
D Valenzuela, F Moya, M Luco, J L Tapia
50 years ago, Northway described Broncopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants exposed to mechanical ventilation. Since then, their survival has increased, nevertheless a "new BPD" has appeared and its incidence has not diminished. One of the characteristics of this pathology is the the abnormal vascular remodeling, which in its most severe expression is known as Pulmonary Hyper tension (PH); with an incidence of 17% in patients with BPD, which is proportional to the severity of the disease (33% in severe BPD), and as mortality factor (up to 48% 2-year mortality in PH-BPD)...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Mariann H Bentsen, Trond Markestad, Thomas Halvorsen
Early prediction of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) may facilitate tailored management for neonates at risk. We investigated whether easily accessible flow data from a mechanical ventilator can predict BPD in neonates born extremely premature (EP). In a prospective population-based study of EP-born neonates, flow data were obtained from the ventilator during the first 48 h of life. Data were logged for >10 min and then converted to flow-volume loops using custom-made software. Tidal breathing parameters were calculated and averaged from ≥200 breath cycles, and data were compared between those who later developed moderate/severe and no/mild BPD...
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
Glenn A Jacobson, Sharanne Raidal, Kate Robson, Christian K Narkowicz, David S Nichols, E Haydn Walters
BACKGROUND: Salmeterol (a long acting beta2-agonist) is a chiral molecule. (RR)-salmeterol is responsible for pharmacological effect, but basic knowledge of enantioselective pulmonary pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of salmeterol remains unknown. There are safety concerns with (S)-enantiomers of beta2-agonists, with suggestions that these enantiomers may increase bronchial hyperresponsivneness in asthma patients. METHODOLOGY: Horses (n = 12) received racemic (rac-) salmeterol 250 μg via inhalation...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Carol Kelly, James D Chalmers, Iain Crossingham, Nicola Relph, Lambert M Felix, David J Evans, Stephen J Milan, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation and distortion of the smaller airways. Bacterial colonisation of the damaged airways leads to chronic cough and sputum production, often with breathlessness and further structural damage to the airways. Long-term macrolide antibiotic therapy may suppress bacterial infection and reduce inflammation, leading to fewer exacerbations, fewer symptoms, improved lung function, and improved quality of life...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Alireza Sadeghnia, Behzad Koorang Beheshti, Majid Mohammadizadeh
Background: Considering all the latest achievements in neonatal respiratory care, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is still among the most prevalent morbidity causes in premature infants. Involvement in this process results in longer period of hospitalization for the newborn and in the long run makes the living conditions more difficult. Taking the multifactorial pathogenesis into account, approaches to tackle chronic lung disease (CLD) are mainly focused on interventions and prevention procedures...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Francesca Ciuffini, Colin F Robertson, David G Tingay
Chronic respiratory morbidity is a common complication of premature birth, generally defined by the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, both clinically and in trials of respiratory therapies. However, recent data have highlighted that bronchopulmonary dysplasia does not correlate with chronic respiratory morbidity in older children born preterm. Longitudinally evaluating pulmonary morbidity from early life through to childhood provides a more rational method of defining the continuum of chronic respiratory morbidity of prematurity, and offers new insights into the efficacy of neonatal respiratory interventions...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Katarina Bojanić, Ruža Grizelj, Jurica Vuković, Lana Omerza, Marina Grubić, Tomislav Ćaleta, Toby N Weingarten, Darrell R Schroeder, Juraj Sprung
BACKGROUND: Patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) have a high residual morbidity rate. We compared self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between patients with CDH and healthy children. METHODS: Forty-five patients with CDH who were born from January 1, 1990, through February 15, 2015, were matched to healthy, age-matched control participants at a 1:2 ratio. The health records of the study participants were reviewed to determine comorbid conditions, and HRQoL was assessed by both the participants and their parents with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL)...
March 14, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Laurie G Sherlock, Ashley Trumpie, Laura Hernandez-Lagunas, Sarah McKenna, Susan Fisher, Russell Bowler, Clyde J Wright, Cassidy Delaney, Eva Nozik-Grayck
BACKGROUND: A naturally occurring single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), (R213 G), in extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3), decreases SOD3 matrix binding affinity. Humans and mature mice expressing the R213 G SNP exhibit increased cardiovascular disease but decreased lung disease. The impact of this SNP on the neonatal lung at baseline or with injury is unknown. METHODS: Wild type and homozygous R213 G mice were injected with intraperitoneal bleomycin or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) three times weekly for three weeks and tissue harvested at 22 days of life...
March 14, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Joseph B Cantey, Kelsey R Anderson, Ram R Kalagiri, Lea H Mallett
BACKGROUND: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most common cause of late-onset sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and usually require vancomycin treatment. Our objective was to determine whether CoNS are associated with neonatal morbidity and mortality. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW, ≤ 1500 g) infants from 1989 to 2015. Exclusion criteria were major congenital anomaly or death within 72 h...
March 13, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Sanata Bamba, Adama Zida, Ibrahim Sangaré, Mamoudou Cissé, David W Denning, Christophe Hennequin
Because of the limited access to more powerful diagnostic tools, there is a paucity of data regarding the burden of fungal infections in Burkina Faso. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in this sub-Saharan country. We primarily used the national demographic data and performed a PubMed search to retrieve all published papers on fungal infections from Burkina Faso and its surrounding West African countries. Considering the prevalence of HIV infection (0...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Jean-Claude Lavoie, Ibrahim Mohamed, Anne-Monique Nuyt, Wesam Elremaly, Thérèse Rouleau
BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants. In animals, PN leads to alveolar loss following stimulation of apoptosis by oxidative stress (oxidized redox potential). Peroxides and aldehydes generated in PN can induce hypo-alveolarization. The implication of peroxides, which is reduced by light protection, is demonstrated. The implication of aldehydes from omega-6 fatty acids oxidation is expected. The hypothesis is that composition and light exposure of PN influences bronchopulmonary dysplasia development...
March 13, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Eleftherios Spartalis, Michael Spartalis, Demetrios Moris, Antonios Athanasiou, Theodore Troupis, Periklis Tomos
Congenital bronchopulmonary malformations are usually asymptomatic. Precise multimodality imaging plays an essential role in the identification of rare cardiothoracic entities, offering excellent imaging quality and the decisive diagnosis.
March 2018: Clinical Case Reports
Jeanne M Pimenta, Myla Ebeling, Timothy H Montague, Kathleen J Beach, Jill Abell, Michael T O'Shea, Marcy Powell, Thomas C Hulsey
Objective  To propose and assess a composite endpoint (CE) of neonatal benefit based on neonatal mortality and morbidities by gestational age (GA) for use in preterm labor clinical trials. Study Design  A descriptive, retrospective analysis of the Medical University of South Carolina Perinatal Information System database was conducted. Neonatal morbidities were assessed for inclusion in the CE based on clinical significance/risk of childhood neurodevelopmental impairment, frequency, and association with GA in a mother-neonate linked cohort, comprising women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies delivered at ≥24 weeks' GA...
January 2018: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
Marc Beltempo, Prakesh S Shah, Xiang Y Ye, Jehier Afifi, Shoo Lee, Douglas D McMillan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the specific Score of Neonatal Acute Physiology (SNAP-II) cut-off scores associated with outcomes in extremely preterm infants, and to examine its contribution to predictive models that include nonmodifiable birth predictors. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study of 9240 infants born at 22-28 weeks' gestation and admitted to the Canadian Neonatal Network from 2010 to 2015. Outcomes included early and hospital mortality, composite of mortality/morbidity and individual morbidities...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Rodrigo T Figueiredo, Josiane S Neves
Eosinophils are the prominent cells in asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPMs), and fungal-sensitization-associated asthma, but their roles in the immunopathology of these disorders are not well understood. Moreover, the immunological mechanisms underlying the molecular direct effector interactions between fungi and eosinophils are rare and not fully known. Here, we provide an overview of eosinophil contributions to allergic asthma and ABPMs. We also revise the major general mechanisms of fungal recognition by eosinophils and consider past and recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with eosinophil innate effector responses to different fungal species relevant to ABPMs (Alternaria alternata, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus fumigatus)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Abdulhadi A AlAmodi, Mohamad H Farhoud, Najwa Mohammad, Rawan Alatassi, Dana Alolayet, Noor AlQeshtaini, Raghad AlMamlouk, Mohamed Hussein Ahmed, Mahmoud Ashour, Sara S Kayyali, Abdullah AlShammari
BACKGROUND Leiomyomas are benign neoplasms of the smooth muscle. When found in the pulmonary system, a rare occurrence, leiomyomas can result in hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, or significant clubbing, associated with proliferation of long bone periosteum. Bronchopulmonary fistulas, or communications between the bronchial tree and pleural space, are an uncommon postoperative complication of pneumonectomies. Even more infrequent is the presence of a bronchopulmonary fistula that is determined to be sterile. CASE REPORT The patient presented in the current case report is a 40-year-old previously healthy woman who presented with a 5-year history of chronic cough, right-sided chest discomfort, and dyspnea associated with back pain, and lower leg pain...
March 9, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
S Nadya J Kazzi, Sreenivas Karnati, Subhash Puthuraya, Ronald Thomas
BACKGROUND: Very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) have unexplained variation in respiratory morbidity, including respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We examined a potential association to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25OHD) on day one. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, observational study on 89 VLBWI (≤1250 g). S-25OHD (day one and 21) and respiratory severity score (RSS) (day one) were examined. Other respiratory morbidities including BPD were compared between infants with s-25OHD ≤ 10 ng/ml (deficient) versus >10 ng/ml (adequate)...
March 5, 2018: Early Human Development
Charitharth Vivek Lal, Nelida Olave, Colm Travers, Gabriel Rezonzew, Kalsang Dolma, Alexandra Simpson, Brian Halloran, Zubair Aghai, Pragnya Das, Nirmal Sharma, Xin Xu, Kristopher Genschmer, Derek Russell, Tomasz Szul, Nengjun Yi, J Edwin Blalock, Amit Gaggar, Vineet Bhandari, Namasivayam Ambalavanan
Premature infants are at high risk for developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), characterized by chronic inflammation and inhibition of lung development, which we have recently identified as being modulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) and alterations in the airway microbiome. Exosomes and exosomal miRNAs may regulate cell differentiation and tissue and organ development. We discovered that tracheal aspirates from infants with severe BPD had increased numbers of, but smaller, exosomes compared with term controls...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
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