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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647792/regeneration-of-hyaline-cartilage-promoted-by-xenogeneic-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-embedded-within-elastin-like-recombinamer-based-bioactive-hydrogels
#1
David Pescador, Arturo Ibáñez-Fonseca, Fermín Sánchez-Guijo, Jesús G Briñón, Francisco Javier Arias, Sandra Muntión, Cristina Hernández, Alessandra Girotti, Matilde Alonso, María Consuelo Del Cañizo, José Carlos Rodríguez-Cabello, Juan Francisco Blanco
Over the last decades, novel therapeutic tools for osteochondral regeneration have arisen from the combination of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and highly specialized smart biomaterials, such as hydrogel-forming elastin-like recombinamers (ELRs), which could serve as cell-carriers. Herein, we evaluate the delivery of xenogeneic human MSCs (hMSCs) within an injectable ELR-based hydrogel carrier for osteochondral regeneration in rabbits. First, a critical-size osteochondral defect was created in the femora of the animals and subsequently filled with the ELR-based hydrogel alone or with embedded hMSCs...
August 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647733/role-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-bone-regenerative-medicine-what-is-the-evidence
#2
Ahmad Oryan, Amir Kamali, Ali Moshiri, Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad
Healing and regeneration of bone injuries, particularly those that are associated with large bone defects, are a complicated process. There is growing interest in the application of osteoinductive and osteogenic growth factors and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in order to significantly improve bone repair and regeneration. MSCs are multipotent stromal stem cells that can be harvested from many different sources and differentiated into a variety of cell types, such as preosteogenic chondroblasts and osteoblasts...
June 24, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647591/chitosan-based-nanocomposites-for-the-repair-of-bone-defects
#3
L Keller, A Regiel-Futyra, M Gimeno, S Eap, G Mendoza, V Andreu, Q Wagner, A Kyzioł, V Sebastian, G Stochel, M Arruebo, N Benkirane-Jessel
Chitosan scaffolds of different deacetylation degrees, average molecular weights and concentrations reinforced with silica nanoparticles were prepared for bone tissue regeneration. The resulting nanocomposites showed similar pore sizes (<300μm) regardless the deacetylation degree and concentration used in their formulation. Their mechanical compression resistance was increased by a 30% with the addition of silica nanoparticles as nanofillers. The biocompatibility of the three-dimensional chitosan scaffolds was confirmed by the Alamar Blue assay in human primary osteoblasts as well as the formation of cell spheroids indicative of their great potential for bone regeneration...
June 21, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646443/recent-discoveries-in-monogenic-disorders-of-childhood-bone-fragility
#4
REVIEW
Riikka E Mäkitie, Anders J Kämpe, Fulya Taylan, Outi Mäkitie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes our current knowledge on primary osteoporosis in children with focus on recent genetic findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in genetic research, particularly next-generation sequencing, have found several genetic loci that associate with monogenic forms of inherited osteoporosis, widening the scope of primary osteoporosis beyond classical osteogenesis imperfecta. New forms of primary osteoporosis, such as those related to WNT1, PLS3, and XYLT2, have identified defects outside the extracellular matrix components and collagen-related pathways, in intracellular cascades directly affecting bone cell function...
June 23, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645809/enhanced-in-vivo-retention-of-low-dose-bmp-2-via-heparin-microparticle-delivery-does-not-accelerate-bone-healing-in-a-critically-sized-femoral-defect
#5
Marian H Hettiaratchi, Tel Rouse, Catherine Chou, Laxminarayanan Krishnan, Hazel Y Stevens, Mon-Tzu A Li, Todd C McDevitt, Robert E Guldberg
Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is an osteoinductive growth factor used clinically to induce bone regeneration and fusion. Some complications associated with BMP-2 treatment have been attributed to rapid release of BMP-2 from conventional collagen scaffolds, motivating the development of tunable sustained-release strategies. We incorporated BMP-2-binding heparin microparticles (HMPs) into a hydrogel scaffold to improve spatiotemporal control of BMP-2 delivery to large bone defects. HMPs pre-loaded with BMP-2 were mixed into alginate hydrogels and compared to hydrogels containing BMP-2 alone...
June 20, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645704/reconstruction-of-large-diaphyseal-bone-defect-by-simplified-bone-transport-over-nail-technique-a-7-case-series
#6
F Ferchaud, L Rony, F Ducellier, P Cronier, V Steiger, L Hubert
INTRODUCTION: Reconstruction of large diaphyseal bone defect is complex and the complications rate is high. This study aimed to assess a simplified technique of segmental bone transport by monorail external fixator over an intramedullary nail. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A prospective study included 7 patients:2 femoral and 5 tibial defects.Mean age was 31 years (range, 16-61 years). Mean follow-up was 62 months (range, 46-84 months). Defects were post-traumatic, with a mean length of 7...
June 20, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645669/multidisciplinary-approach-to-oral-rehabilitation-with-dental-implants-after-gunshot-injury-a-clinical-report
#7
Lélis Gustavo Nícoli, Suzane Cristina Pigossi, Raphael Ferreira de Souza Bezerra Araújo, Cláudio Marcantonio, Élcio Marcantonio, Élcio Marcantonio
This clinical report describes a multidisciplinary approach to treat a patient with edentulism and a severe anatomic defect in the mandible caused by a gunshot injury by using an implant-fixed complete dental prosthesis. An immediate loading interim implant-fixed complete dental prosthesis in the mandible associated with a maxillary removable complete denture prosthesis was initially provided to restore the intermaxillary relation. Nasal floor elevation and maxillary sinus augmentation were subsequently performed to increase the maxillary bone volume...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645356/-endocrine-control-of-serum-phosphate-from-the-discoveries-of-phosphatonins-to-novel-therapies
#8
A Linglart, C Chaussain
Phosphate is absorbed through the gut, stored in the bone and reabsorbed through the proximal renal tubule. More importantly, PTH and FGF23 have been identified as the main phosphaturic factors that control the expression of the phosphate co-transporters NaPi-IIa et IIc. By allowing the adjustment of the urinary phosphate reabsorption, these two phosphatonins play a major role in bone and tooth mineralization and growth. Recently, novel therapies have successfully targeted the FGF23 signaling pathway to treat the hypophosphatemia in patients affected with molecular defects of this pathway (mutations in the PHEX gene)...
October 2016: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643773/a-cdc42-rhoa-regulatory-circuit-downstream-of-glycoprotein-ib-guides-transendothelial-platelet-biogenesis
#9
Sebastian Dütting, Frederique Gaits-Iacovoni, David Stegner, Michael Popp, Adrien Antkowiak, Judith M M van Eeuwijk, Paquita Nurden, Simon Stritt, Tobias Heib, Katja Aurbach, Oguzhan Angay, Deya Cherpokova, Niels Heinz, Ayesha A Baig, Maximilian G Gorelashvili, Frank Gerner, Katrin G Heinze, Jerry Ware, Georg Krohne, Zaverio M Ruggeri, Alan T Nurden, Harald Schulze, Ute Modlich, Irina Pleines, Cord Brakebusch, Bernhard Nieswandt
Blood platelets are produced by large bone marrow (BM) precursor cells, megakaryocytes (MKs), which extend cytoplasmic protrusions (proplatelets) into BM sinusoids. The molecular cues that control MK polarization towards sinusoids and limit transendothelial crossing to proplatelets remain unknown. Here, we show that the small GTPases Cdc42 and RhoA act as a regulatory circuit downstream of the MK-specific mechanoreceptor GPIb to coordinate polarized transendothelial platelet biogenesis. Functional deficiency of either GPIb or Cdc42 impairs transendothelial proplatelet formation...
June 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643535/efficacy-of-platelets-in-bone-healing-a-systematic-review-on-animal-studies
#10
Sabrina Marcazzan, Roberto Lodovico Weinstein, Massimo Del Fabbro
In presence of large bone defects, delayed bone union, non-union, fractures, and implant surgery, bone reconstruction may be necessary. Different strategies have been employed to enhance bone healing among which the use of autologous platelet concentrates. Due to the high content of platelets and platelet-derived bioactive molecules (e.g., growth factors, antimicrobial peptides), they are promising candidates to increase bone healing. However, a high heterogeneity of both preclinical and clinical studies resulted in contrasting results...
June 23, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643081/distraction-osteogenesis-reconstruction-of-large-segmental-bone-defects-after-primary-tumor-resection-pitfalls-and-benefits
#11
REVIEW
Jan Lesensky, Daniel E Prince
Successful cure is achieved in almost 70% of patients with primary bone sarcomas with currently available therapies. Some soft tissue sarcomas require wide bone resection in order to achieve appropriate margins for cure of disease, and patients undergoing these procedures need durable reconstruction. Biological reconstruction has been shown to provide patients with superior long-term results over other alternatives. Distraction osteogenesis is well studied in the correction of deformities as well as in addressing some congenital musculoskeletal pathologies...
June 22, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642822/the-effect-of-concentrated-growth-factors-in-the-treatment-of-periodontal-intrabony-defects
#12
Jing Qiao, Jinyu Duan, Yong Zhang, Yi Chu, Changzhou Sun
AIM: To investigate the effect of concentrated growth factors (CGFs) in human intrabony defect treatment. METHODS: Thirty-one intrabony defects were randomly treated with CGFs + bovine porous bone mineral (BPBM) or BPBM alone. Probing depth, clinical attachment level and hard tissue fill were evaluated at baseline and 1 year post surgery. RESULTS: No differences in any of the investigated parameters were observed at baseline. At 1 year post therapy, both groups showed significant improvement in clinical parameters (p < 0...
December 2016: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642654/quantitative-evaluation-of-experimental-bone-regeneration-using-indentation-tests
#13
Valéria Trombini Vidotto, Nilza Alzira Batista, José Ricardo Lenzi Mariolani, William Dias Belangero
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the macroindentation test can be applied to quantitatively assess bone regeneration. METHODS: A 3.2 mm diameter transverse monocortical defect was created on the medial aspect of both proximal metaphyses of the tibia of male Unib-WH rats. For the macroindentation tests, we used 5.00 mm diameter indenters with a 3.2 mm tip. Defect testing was performed 1 to 12 weeks following the surgical procedures to compare the hardness of the newly developed tissue over the 12-week study period...
March 2017: Acta Ortopedica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642196/gdf5-significantly-augments-the-bone-formation-induced-by-an-injectable-plga-fiber-reinforced-brushite-forming-cement-in-a-sheep-defect-model-of-lumbar-osteopenia
#14
Matthias Bungartz, Elke Kunisch, Stefan Maenz, Victoria Horbert, Long Xin, Francesca Gunnella, Joerg Mika, Juliane Borowski, Sabine Bischoff, Harald Schubert, Andre Sachse, Bernhard Illerhaus, Jens Günster, Jörg Bossert, Klaus D Jandt, Frank Plöger, Raimund W Kinne, Olaf Brinkmann
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Biodegradable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) represents a promising option for the surgical treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Due to augmented local bone catabolism, however, additional targeted delivery of bone morphogenetic proteins with the CPC may be needed to promote rapid and complete bone regeneration. PURPOSE: In the present study, an injectable, poly (l-lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA)-fiber reinforced, brushite-forming cement (CPC) containing the bone morphogenetic protein GDF5 was tested in a sheep lumbar osteopenia model...
June 19, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641745/long-term-stability-of-an-injection-molded-zirconia-bone-level-implant-a-testing-protocol-considering-aging-kinetics-and-dynamic-fatigue
#15
Benedikt C Spies, Madeleine E Maass, Erik Adolfsson, Valter Sergo, Tobias Kiemle, Christoph Berthold, Elisa Gurian, Stefano Fornasaro, Kirstin Vach, Ralf-Joachim Kohal
OBJECTIVE: Separately addressing the fatigue resistance (ISO 14801, evaluation of final product) and aging behavior (ISO 13356, standardized sample) of oral implants made from yttria-stabilized zirconia proved to be insufficient in verifying their long-term stability, since (1) implant processing is known to significantly influence transformation kinetics and (2) aging, up from a certain level, is liable to decrease fatigue resistance. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to apply a new testing protocol considering environmental conditions adequately inducing aging during dynamic fatigue...
June 19, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640846/endothelial-angiogenesis-is-directed-by-runx1t1-regulated-vegfa-bmp4-and-tgf-%C3%AE-2-expression
#16
Ko-Hsun Liao, Shing-Jyh Chang, Hsin-Chuan Chang, Chen-Li Chien, Tse-Shun Huang, Te-Chia Feng, Wen-Wei Lin, Chuan-Chi Shih, Muh-Hwa Yang, Shung-Haur Yang, Chi-Hung Lin, Wei-Lun Hwang, Oscar K Lee
Tissue angiogenesis is intimately regulated during embryogenesis and postnatal development. Defected angiogenesis contributes to aberrant development and is the main complication associated with ischemia-related diseases. We previously identified the increased expression of RUNX1T1 in umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) by gene expression microarray. However, the biological relevance of RUNX1T1 in endothelial lineage is not defined clearly. Here, we demonstrate RUNX1T1 regulates the survival, motility and tube forming capability of ECFCs and EA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640802/peroxisomal-biogenesis-is-genetically-and-biochemically-linked-to-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-drosophila-and-mouse
#17
Michael F Wangler, Yu-Hsin Chao, Vafa Bayat, Nikolaos Giagtzoglou, Abhijit Babaji Shinde, Nagireddy Putluri, Cristian Coarfa, Taraka Donti, Brett H Graham, Joseph E Faust, James A McNew, Ann Moser, Marco Sardiello, Myriam Baes, Hugo J Bellen
Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are a group of multi-system human diseases due to mutations in the PEX genes that are responsible for peroxisome assembly and function. These disorders lead to global defects in peroxisomal function and result in severe brain, liver, bone and kidney disease. In order to study their pathogenesis we undertook a systematic genetic and biochemical study of Drosophila pex16 and pex2 mutants. These mutants are short-lived with defects in locomotion and activity. Moreover these mutants exhibit severe morphologic and functional peroxisomal defects...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640112/cement-leakage-in-osteoporotic-vertebral-compression-fractures-with-cortical-defect-using-high-viscosity-bone-cement-during-unilateral-percutaneous-kyphoplasty-surgery
#18
Tie Liu, Zhe Li, Qingjun Su, Yong Hai
The purpose of this study was to investigate cement leakage (CL) in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) with cortical defect using high-viscosity bone cement during unilateral percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) surgery.This study included a series of 77 patients (23 males, 54 females) with single level osteoporotic vertebral body fracture (OVCF) who underwent unilateral PKP in our hospital. Preoperative x-ray, computed tomography (CT) scan, and 3-dimensional reconstructions were studied. During the PKP procedure, needle was carefully put to avoid too near to the cortical defect according to CT image...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639852/osteochondritis-dissecans-etiology-pathology-and-imaging-with-a-special-focus-on-the-knee-joint
#19
Juergen Bruns, Mathias Werner, Christian Habermann
This article is a review of the current understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis, and how to diagnose and treat knee osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) followed by an analysis of and outcomes of the treatments available. OCD is seen in children and adolescents with open growth plates (juvenile OCD) and adults with closed growth plates (adult OCD). The etiology of OCD lesions remains unclear and is characterized by an aseptic necrosis in the subchondral bone area. Mechanical factors seem to play an important role...
June 1, 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639529/circular-external-fixation-and-cemented-pmma-spacers-for-the-treatment-of-complex-tibial-fractures-and-infected-nonunions-with-segmental-bone-loss
#20
Andries H van Niekerk, Franz F Birkholtz, Phillip de Lange, Kevin Tetsworth, Erik Hohmann
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the outcome of combined circular external fixation and cemented polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) spacer application between a cohort of patients with grade 3 open fractures and infected tibial nonunions and concomitant segmental bone loss. METHODS: The study was designed as a retrospective cohort study. All patients who were treated for complex tibial fractures or infected nonunions with segmental bone loss between 2009 and 2013 were included if they were aged between 16 years and 60 years, sustained acute traumatic grade 3 open tibial fractures, presented with infected nonunion, and were followed up for a minimum of 12 months...
May 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
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