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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635294/tunable-anisotropic-photon-emission-from-self-organized-cspbbr3-perovskite-nanocrystals
#1
Matthew Jurow, Thomas Lampe, Erika Penzo, Jun Kang, Matthew A Koc, Thomas Zechel, Zachary Nett, Michael A Brady, Lin-Wang Wang, A Paul Alivisatos, Stefano Cabrini, Wolfgang Brutting, Yi Liu
We report controllable anisotropic light emission of photons originating from vertically aligned transition dipole moments in spun-cast films of CsPbBr3 nanocubes. By depositing films of nanocrystals on pre-coated substrates we can control the packing density and resultant radiation pattern of the emitted photons. We develop a technical framework to calculate the average orientation of light emitters, i.e. the angle between the transition dipole moment vector (TDM) and the substrate. This model is applicable to any emissive material with a known refractive index...
June 21, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634655/effect-of-adherence-on-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-relationships-of-oral-targeted-anticancer-drugs
#2
Evelina Cardoso, Chantal Csajka, Marie P Schneider, Nicolas Widmer
The emergence of oral targeted anticancer agents transformed several cancers into chronic conditions with a need for long-term oral treatment. Although cancer is a life-threatening condition, oncology medication adherence-the extent to which a patient follows the drug regimen that is intended by the prescriber-can be suboptimal in the long term, as in any other chronic disease. Poor adherence can impact negatively on clinical outcomes, notably because most of these drugs are given as a standard non-individualized dosage despite marked inter-individual variabilities that can lead to toxic or inefficacious drug concentrations...
June 20, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618388/simultaneous-determination-of-nine-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics-in-human-plasma-by-an-ultrafast-hydrophilic-interaction-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#3
Alan Abdulla, Soma Bahmany, Rixt A Wijma, Bart C H van der Nagel, Birgit C P Koch
Contemporary β-lactam antibiotic dosing is debatable in severely ill patients, since the occurrence of pathophysiological changes in critical illness can result in great inter-individual variability. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a commonly used dosing strategy to optimize exposure and thereby minimize toxicity and maximize the efficacy. Currently, TDM of β-lactam antibiotics is rarely performed, due to poor availability in clinical practice. We describe an ultrafast Hydrophilic-Interaction Chromatography (HILIC) based UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of amoxicillin, benzylpenicillin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, flucloxacillin, imipenem, meropenem and piperacillin in human plasma...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600397/semi-mechanistic-bone-marrow-exhaustion-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model-for-chemotherapy-induced-cumulative-neutropenia
#4
Andrea Henrich, Markus Joerger, Stefanie Kraff, Ulrich Jaehde, Wilhelm Huisinga, Charlotte Kloft, Zinnia Patricia Parra-Guillen
Paclitaxel is a commonly used cytotoxic anticancer drug with potentially life-threatening toxicity at therapeutic doses and high interindividual pharmacokinetic variability. Thus, drug and effect monitoring is indicated to control dose-limiting neutropenia. A dose individualization algorithm was developed by Joerger et al. based on a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model describing paclitaxel and neutrophil concentrations. Further, the algorithm was prospectively compared in a clinical trial against standard dosing (CEPAC-TDM study, npatients=365, ncycles=720) but did not substantially improve neutropenia...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593609/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-tdm-as-a-tool-in-the-switch-from-infliximab-innovator-to-biosimilar-in-rheumatic-patients-results-of-a-12-month-observational-prospective-cohort-study
#5
E M H Schmitz, S Benoy-De Keuster, A J L Meier, V Scharnhorst, R A M Traksel, M A C Broeren, L J J Derijks
The objective of this study is to apply therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) as an objective tool to monitor the switch from infliximab innovator (INX) to infliximab biosimilar (INB) in our diverse rheumatic cohort in daily clinical practice. All rheumatic patients on INX treatment (Remicade®) and ≥18 years were switched to INB (Inflectra®) as part of routine care, but in a controlled setting. Patients were monitored by taking blood samples just before the first infusion of INB (T1), and after the second (T2), fourth (T3), and seventh (T4) infusion of INB...
June 7, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593549/nitrogen-and-plant-population-change-radiation-capture-and-utilization-capacity-of-sunflower-in-semi-arid-environment
#6
Muhammad Awais, Aftab Wajid, Muhammad Usman Bashir, Muhammad Habib-Ur-Rahman, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza, Ashfaq Ahmad, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Hafiz Mohkum Hammad, Muhammad Mubeen, Umer Saeed, Muhammad Naveed Arshad, Shah Fahad, Wajid Nasim
The combination of nitrogen and plant population expresses the spatial distribution of crop plants. The spatial distribution influences canopy structure and development, radiation capture, accumulated intercepted radiation (Sa), radiation use efficiency (RUE), and subsequently dry matter production. We hypothesized that the sunflower crop at higher plant populations and nitrogen (N) rates would achieve early canopy cover, capture more radiant energy, utilize radiation energy more efficiently, and ultimately increase economic yield...
June 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592271/simulating-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-results-for-dose-individualisation-to-maintain-investigator-blinding-in-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
Maia Lesosky, John Joska, Eric Decloedt
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is essential practice when dosing drugs with a narrow therapeutic index in order to achieve a plasma drug concentration within a narrow target range above the efficacy concentration but below the toxicity concentration. However, TDM with dose individualisation is challenging during a double-blind clinical trial with laboratory staff and investigators blinded to treatment arm allocation. METHODS: Drug concentrations were simulated for participants in the placebo arm by an unblinded independent statistician, utilising the measured values from the treatment arm participants...
June 7, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578254/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-beta-lactam-antibiotics-influence-of-sample-stability-on-the-analysis-of-piperacillin-meropenem-ceftazidime-and-flucloxacillin-by-hplc-uv
#8
Nadine Pinder, Thorsten Brenner, Stefanie Swoboda, Markus A Weigand, Torsten Hoppe-Tichy
INTRODUCTION: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a useful tool to optimize antibiotic therapy. Increasing interest in alternative dosing strategies of beta-lactam antibiotics, e.g. continuous or prolonged infusion, require a feasible analytical method for quantification of these antimicrobial agents. However, pre-analytical issues including sample handling and stability are to be considered to provide valuable analytical results. METHODS: For the simultaneous determination of piperacillin, meropenem, ceftazidime and flucloxacillin, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method including protein precipitation was established utilizing ertapenem as internal standard...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577540/overview-of-systematic-reviews-of-therapeutic-ranges-methodologies-and-recommendations-for-practice
#9
Lewis Cooney, Yoon K Loke, Su Golder, Jamie Kirkham, Andrea Jorgensen, Ian Sinha, Daniel Hawcutt
BACKGROUND: Many medicines are dosed to achieve a particular therapeutic range, and monitored using therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). The evidence base for a therapeutic range can be evaluated using systematic reviews, to ensure it continues to reflect current indications, doses, routes and formulations, as well as updated adverse effect data. There is no consensus on the optimal methodology for systematic reviews of therapeutic ranges. METHODS: An overview of systematic reviews of therapeutic ranges was undertaken...
June 2, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561203/relationship-between-daily-dose-serum-concentration-and-clinical-response-to-quetiapine-in-children-and-adolescents-with-psychotic-and-mood-disorders
#10
Laura Albantakis, Karin Egberts, Rainer Burger, Christine Kulpok, Claudia Mehler-Wex, Regina Taurines, Stefan Unterecker, Christoph Wewetzer, Marcel Romanos, Manfred Gerlach
Introduction In child and adolescent psychiatry, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is strongly recommended. However, therapeutic ranges (TR) are defined only for adults. The objectives of this naturalistic study were to assess the relationships between serum quetiapine concentration, daily dose, and clinical outcomes as well as the determinants of pharmacokinetic variability. Furthermore, it was elucidated whether the recommended TR for adult patients with psychotic disorders is valid for children and adolescents...
May 23, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557187/automated-high-throughput-analysis-of-antiretroviral-drugs-in-dried-blood-spots
#11
U Duthaler, B Berger, S Erb, M Battegay, E Letang, S Gaugler, S Krähenbühl, M Haschke
For therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in remote settings, dried blood spots (DBS) are particularly advantageous, as blood sample collection and handling is uncomplicated. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an automated extraction method for the analysis of nevirapine, efavirenz, and lopinavir in DBS samples. Automated extraction was performed with methanol:water (70:30 v/v), using a DBS-MS 500 autosampler coupled to a LC-MS/MS system. The autosampler used digital images of each DBS to position the extraction head, sprayed 10 μL internal standard (IS) onto each DBS and extracted a 4 mm disk (Ø) from the centre of each spot by unilateral flow using 25 μl extraction solvent...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555688/a-high-throughput-immunoassay-for-the-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-tegafur
#12
Marta Broto, Rita McCabe, Roger Galve, M-Pilar Marco
Cancer is a group of diseases in which abnormal cells grow and divide without control, with the potential to invade other parts of the body. Chemotherapy is a type of treatment that uses chemical agents to treat cancer. These drugs are toxic and produce undesirable adverse drug reactions due to their narrow therapeutic window and highly variable pharmacokinetics, thus, they need to be monitored to establish personalized treatment to achieve maximal efficiency and reduce drug toxicity. Nowadays, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is not routinely used for chemotherapy agents, however, TDM has the potential to improve the clinical benefit of chemotherapy drugs...
May 30, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533244/a-population-pharmacokinetic-model-of-gentamicin-in-paediatric-oncology-patients-to-facilitate-personalised-dosing
#13
C C Llanos-Paez, C E Staatz, R Lawson, S Hennig
To ensure safe and effective dosing of gentamicin in children therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is recommended. TDM utilising Bayesian forecasting software is recommended, but is unavailable as no population model exists that describes the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in paediatric oncology patients. This study aimed to develop and externally evaluate a population pharmacokinetic model of gentamicin to support personalised dosing in paediatric oncology patients. A non-linear mixed effect population pharmacokinetic model was developed from retrospective data...
May 22, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530164/biocompatibility-of-intensified-decellularized-equine-carotid-arteries-in-a-rat-subcutaneous-implantation-model-and-in-a-human-in-vitro-model
#14
Niklas Jeinsen, Lavinia Maegel, Danny Jonigk, Melanie Klingenberg, Axel Haverich, Mathias Wilhelmi, Ulrike Böer
Limited biocompatibility of decellularized scaffolds is an ongoing challenge in tissue engineering. We recently demonstrated that intensified detergent-based decellularization of equine carotid artery (dEACintens) removed residual cellular molecules from the scaffold more efficiently than a conventional decellularization (dEACcon) though this approach did not eliminate its immunogenicity entirely. CCN1 has been shown to improve biocompatibility of dEACcon in a sheep model. Here, we tested the biocompatibility of dEACintens and dEACcon with or without CCN1-coating after subcutaneous implantation in rats for up to 12 weeks...
May 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526350/designing-novel-bioconjugates-of-hydroxyethyl-cellulose-and-salicylates-for-potential-pharmaceutical-and-pharmacological-applications
#15
Khawar Abbas, Muhammad Amin, Muhammad Ajaz Hussain, Muhammad Sher, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari, Ibrahim Jantan, Kevin J Edgar
This deals with fabrication of macromolecular prodrugs (MPDs) of salicylic acid (SA) and aspirin (ASP) based on a hydrophilic cellulose ether, hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC). Degrees of substitution (DS) of SA and ASP per HEC repeating unit (HEC-RU) were achieved ranging from 0.60 to 2.18 and 0.53 to1.50, respectively. The amphiphilic HEC-SA conjugate 2 assembled into nanowire-like structures, while HEC-ASP conjugate 6 formed nanoparticles (diameter 300-00nm) at a water/DMSO interface. After oral administration in rabbit models, conjugates 2 and 6 showed plasma half-life of 6...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520619/late-efavirenz-induced-ataxia-and-encephalopathy-a-case-series
#16
Ebrahim Variava, Farai R Sigauke, Jennifer Norman, Modiehi Rakgokong, Petudzai Muchichwa, Andre Mochan, Gary Maartens, Neil A Martinson
BACKGROUND: WHO treatment guidelines recommend efavirenz in first line antiretroviral therapy (ART). Efavirenz commonly causes early transient neuro-psychiatric adverse events. We present 20 cases with severe encephalopathy accompanied by ataxia due to efavirenz toxicity METHODS:: Consecutive HIV-infected adults taking efavirenz-containing ART admitted to Tshepong hospital, Klerksdorp, South Africa with ataxia and encephalopathy were included in this case series. RESULTS: We identified 20 women admitted to hospital with severe ataxia...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518054/comparison-of-three-estimators-for-determining-cyclosporine-dosing-in-infants-after-liver-transplantation%C3%A2
#17
Dzhem Farandzha, Veneta Dimitrova, Ivanka Atanasova, Lubomir Spassov, Dimiter Terziivanov
OBJECTIVE: To compare and analyze how allometrically- and linearly-scaled daily doses of cyclosporine could affect the therapeutic drug monitoring concentrations when applied to 8 infants with liver transplants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight infants who underwent liver transplantations were put on twice-daily oral cyclosporine immunosuppressive regimens. After starting therapy, the adjustments of individual daily doses were determined by using therapeutic monitoring of plasma cyclosporine levels by measuring trough concentrations (C0) and concentrations at 2 hours after drug administration (C2)...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507111/real-life-assessment-of-the-safety-and-effectiveness-of-the-new-tablet-and-intravenous-formulations-of-posaconazole-in-the-prophylaxis-of-invasive-fungal-infections-analysis-of-343-courses
#18
Frank P Tverdek, Sang Taek Heo, Samuel L Aitken, Bruno Granwehr, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
BACKGROUND: Posaconazole is the preferred mold-active azole for prophylaxis against invasive fungal infection (IFI) in patients with hematologic malignancy (HM). Delayed release tablet and intravenous formulations of posaconazole have recently become available, but clinical data are limited. We sought to examine the real-world pharmacokinetics and prophylactic effectiveness of the new formulations of posaconazole given as prophylaxis in patients with HM. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of all consecutive adult inpatients with HM who received ≥3 days of posaconazole as tablet or intravenous from 12/1/2013-12/31/2015 for primary IFI prophylaxis at MD Anderson Cancer center...
May 15, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506869/model-based-clinical-dose-optimization-for-phenobarbital-in-neonates-an-illustration-of-the-importance-of-data-sharing-and-external-validation
#19
Swantje Völler, Robert B Flint, Leo M Stolk, Pieter L J Degraeuwe, Sinno H P Simons, Paula Pokorna, David M Burger, Ronald de Groot, Dick Tibboel, Catherijne A J Knibbe
BACKGROUND: Particularly in the pediatric clinical pharmacology field, data-sharing offers the possibility of making the most of all available data. In this study, we utilize previously collected therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data of term and preterm newborns to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for phenobarbital. We externally validate the model using prospective phenobarbital data from an ongoing pharmacokinetic study in preterm neonates. METHODS: TDM data from 53 neonates (gestational age (GA): 37 (24-42) weeks, bodyweight: 2...
May 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504021/the-theory-of-dyadic-morality-reinventing-moral-judgment-by-redefining-harm
#20
Chelsea Schein, Kurt Gray
The nature of harm-and therefore moral judgment-may be misunderstood. Rather than an objective matter of reason, we argue that harm should be redefined as an intuitively perceived continuum. This redefinition provides a new understanding of moral content and mechanism-the constructionist Theory of Dyadic Morality (TDM). TDM suggests that acts are condemned proportional to three elements: norm violations, negative affect, and-importantly-perceived harm. This harm is dyadic, involving an intentional agent causing damage to a vulnerable patient (A→P)...
May 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
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