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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783197/quantification-of-21-antihypertensive-drugs-in-serum-using-uhplc-ms-ms
#1
Per Ole M Gundersen, Arne Helland, Olav Spigset, Solfrid Hegstad
BACKGROUND: Poor drug adherence in hypertensive patients can lead to treatment failure and increased cardiovascular morbidity, as well as increased costs to society. An analytical method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MSMS) was developed and validated for use in routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). The method includes 21 antihypertensive drugs or active metabolites from the groups beta blockers (n=5), calcium antagonists (n=5), angiotensin II receptor antagonists (n=4), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (n=3) and diuretics (n = 3), in addition to one α1-selective alpha blocker...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781274/the-synthesis-of-branched-trehalose-glycolipids-and-their-mincle-agonist-activity
#2
Jessie H Bird, Ashna A Khan, Naoya Nishimura, Sho Yamasaki, Mattie S M Timmer, Bridget L Stocker
The macrophage inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) is a pattern recognition receptor that recognises trehalose dimycolate (TDM), and trehalose dibehenate (TDB) and related trehalose diesters, and thus represents a promising target for the development of vaccine adjuvants based on the trehalose glycolipid scaffold. To this end, we report on the synthesis of a series of long-chain α-branched, β-modified trehalose monoesters and diesters to explore how glycolipid structure affects signalling through Mincle. Key steps in our synthetic strategy include a Fráter-Seebach α-alkylation to install the C20 aliphatic lipid on a malic acid derivative, and the formation of a β, γ-epoxide as an intermediate from which modifications to the β-position of the lipid can be made...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776316/a-systematic-review-and-combined-analysis-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-studies-for-oral-paliperidone
#3
Georgios Schoretsanitis, Edoardo Spina, Christoph Hiemke, Jose de Leon
This article includes a combined analysis of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) studies and a review of the marketer's data on pharmacological mechanisms. Areas covered: An article search led to the inclusion of 21 paliperidone studies in the systematic review plus 2 case reports. Paliperidone clearance was calculated from: 1) steady-state studies using concentration/dose (C/D) ratios, and 2) single-dose studies describing 24-hour area under the curve calculations. The marketed extended-release formulation has 28% bioavailability...
May 18, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752633/clinical-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-considerations-in-the-treatment-of-ulcerative-colitis
#4
REVIEW
Sophie E Berends, Anne S Strik, Mark Löwenberg, Geert R D'Haens, Ron A A Mathôt
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of unknown etiology, probably caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The treatment of patients with active UC depends on the severity, localization and history of IBD medication. According to the classic step-up approach, treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid compounds is the first step in the treatment of mild to moderately active UC. Corticosteroids, such as prednisolone are used in UC patients with moderate to severe disease activity, but only for remission induction therapy because of side effects associated with long-term use...
May 12, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750738/large-scale-variability-of-inpatient-tacrolimus-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-at-an-academic-transplant-center-a-retrospective-study
#5
Garth W Strohbehn, Warren W Pan, Christopher M Petrilli, Lauren Heidemann, Sophia Larson, Keith D Aaronson, Matt Johnson, Tammy Ellies, Michael Heung
BACKGROUND: Inpatient tacrolimus therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) lacks standardized guidelines. In this study, the authors analyzed variability in the pre-analytical phase of the inpatient tacrolimus TDM process at their institution. METHODS: Patients receiving tacrolimus (twice-daily formulation) and tacrolimus laboratory analysis were included in the study. Times of tacrolimus administration and laboratory study collection were extracted and time distribution plots for each step in the inpatient TDM process were generated...
April 30, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750737/inter-and-intraindividual-variation-of-methylphenidate-concentrations-in-serum-and-saliva-of-patients-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#6
Joshua Preiskorn, Sophie Studer, Reinhold Rauh, Richard Lukačin, Christoph Geffert, Christian Fleischhaker, Hans-Willi Clement, Eberhard Schulz, Monica Biscaldi
BackgroundTherapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is becoming increasingly important in psychiatric therapy; especially in children. However, for several reasons, it cannot yet be implemented as a daily routine in clinical or outpatient settings. To evaluate new, non-invasive procedures; blood and saliva (oral fluid) samples were collected from patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were also being administered methylphenidate (MPH). The study's main purposes were to correlate MPH concentrations in serum and saliva between subjects; and to analyze intraindividual variation of serum concentration...
May 3, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747155/manual-punch-versus-automated-flow-through-sample-desorption-for-dried-blood-spot-lc-ms-ms-analysis-of-voriconazole
#7
Lisa C Martial, Erik van den Hombergh, Cornelis Tump, Otto Halmingh, David M Burger, Erik M van Maarseveen, Roger J Brüggemann, Rob E Aarnoutse
Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling is a patient-friendly alternative for plasma sampling for the purpose of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). To speed up the analysis time, an automated flow-through desorption method of DBS samples may be beneficial. This article describes the cross-validation of a manual punch DBS method with an automated desorption (DBS autosampler, DBSA) method for the DBS analysis of the antifungal drug voriconazole, followed by cross-validation of both DBS methods with a plasma-based method, and an assessment of agreement between DBS/DBSA and regular plasma concentration measurements (gold standard) in samples from patients on voriconazole treatment...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746714/evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-dose-individualization-to-achieve-therapeutic-vancomycin-concentrations
#8
Ahmed A Abulfathi, Maxwell Chirehwa, Bernd Rosenkranz, Eric H Decloedt
The glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin is used for treatment of methicillin-resistant Gram-positive cocci. Adequate vancomycin plasma concentrations are related to bacterial cure. However, inter- and intrapatient variability make it difficult to achieve therapeutic vancomycin concentrations. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of using computerized therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to assist in achieving therapeutic vancomycin concentrations at a tertiary hospital in South Africa...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746551/a-multi-chamber-microfluidic-intestinal-barrier-model-using-caco-2-cells-for-drug-transport-studies
#9
Hsih-Yin Tan, Sofie Trier, Ulrik L Rahbek, Martin Dufva, Jörg P Kutter, Thomas L Andresen
This paper presents the design and fabrication of a multi-layer and multi-chamber microchip system using thiol-ene 'click chemistry' aimed for drug transport studies across tissue barrier models. The fabrication process enables rapid prototyping of multi-layer microfluidic chips using different thiol-ene polymer mixtures, where porous Teflon membranes for cell monolayer growth were incorporated by masked sandwiching thiol-ene-based fluid layers. Electrodes for trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements were incorporated using low-melting soldering wires in combination with platinum wires, enabling parallel real-time monitoring of barrier integrity for the eight chambers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746433/measurement-of-teicoplanin-concentration-with-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-demonstrates-the-usefulness-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-hematologic-patient-populations
#10
Hyojin Chae, Jeong Joong Lee, Kyoungho Cha, Su Hyun Her, Hyo-Young Kim, Eunhee Han, Myungshin Kim, Yonggoo Kim, Sung-Yeon Cho, Dong-Gun Lee
BACKGROUND: Teicoplanin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that has become increasingly popular with the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The aim of the study was to develop and validate an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for teicoplanin, and analyze trough teicoplanin concentrations achieved in patients with hematological diseases. METHODS: The UHPLC-MS/MS method for teicoplanin was developed, validated, and applied in a retrospective analysis of trough plasma teicoplanin concentrations from 305 patients receiving standard dose, and 17 patients receiving therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)-guided individualized dose...
June 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739110/comparison-of-new-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-method-and-enzyme-multiplied-immunoassay-technique-for-routine-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of
#11
Guiyan Yuan, Huanjun Liu, Abdul S Shaikh, Rui Zhang, Pingli Li, Benjie Wang, Ruichen Guo
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic drug monitoring of vancomycin is very valuable due to the good correlation between trough levels and clinical outcome. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine the concentration of vancomycin in patient plasma for adequate dose-adjustment. The objective of this study was to develop a new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for determination of vancomycin in patient plasma and compare the results with those obtained from enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT)...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735569/isavuconazole-concentration-in-real-world-practice-consistency-with-results-from-clinical-trials
#12
David Andes, Laura Kovanda, A Desai, Theresa Kitt, M Zhao, Thomas J Walsh
Clinical use of voriconazole, posaconazole, and itraconazole revealed the need for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of plasma concentrations of these antifungal agents. This need for TDM was not evident from clinical trials of these drugs. In order to establish if this requirement also applies to isavuconazole, we examined the plasma concentrations of 283 samples receiving isavuconazole in clinical practice and compared the values to those from clinical trials. The concentration distributions from real-world use and clinical trials were nearly identical (>1 μg/mL in 90% of patients)...
May 7, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727013/everolimus-dosing-recommendations-for-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-associated-refractory-seizures
#13
David N Franz, John A Lawson, Zuhal Yapici, Christian Brandt, Michael H Kohrman, Michael Wong, Mathieu Milh, Adelheid Wiemer-Kruel, Maurizio Voi, Neva Coello, Wing Cheung, Kai Grosch, Jacqueline A French
OBJECTIVE: The present analysis examined the exposure-response relationship by means of the predose everolimus concentration (Cmin ) and the seizure response in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex-associated seizures in the EXIST-3 study. Recommendations have been made for the target Cmin range of everolimus for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and the doses necessary to achieve this target Cmin . METHODS: A model-based approach was used to predict patients' daily Cmin ...
May 4, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726958/proactive-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-tnf-antagonists-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
Xavier Roblin, Pauline Riviere, Mathurin Flamant, Pauline Veyrard, Fabien Poullenot, S Paul, David Laharie
Background: Proactive therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to titrate tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists has emerged recently as a tool to routinely monitor drug concentration to achieve target levels in patients with quiescent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: The purpose of the present review article was to present available data exploring the concept of proactive TDM. Results: While several observational studies have identified an association between proactive TDM and better IBD outcomes, 2 randomized controlled studies did not confirm this advantage...
May 3, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704771/new-approach-based-on-immunochemical-techniques-for-monitoring-of-selective-estrogen-receptor-modulators-serms-in-human-urine
#15
J-Pablo Salvador, Ester Vila-Roca, Núria Monfort, Rosa Ventura, M-Pilar Marco
Antiestrogenic compounds such as tamoxifen, toremifen and chlomifen are used illegally by athletes to minimize physical impacts such as gynecomastia resulting from the secondary effects of anabolic androgenic steroids, used to increase athletic efficiency unlawfully. The use of these compounds is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and controls are made through analytical methodologies such as HPLC-MS/MS, which do not fulfil the sample throughput requirements. Moreover, compounds such as tamoxifen are also used to treat hormone receptor-positive breast cancer (ER + )...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700609/potential-of-cationic-liposomes-as-adjuvants-delivery-systems-for-tuberculosis-subunit-vaccines
#16
Farzad Khademi, Ramezan Ali Taheri, Amir Abbas Momtazi-Borojeni, Gholamreza Farnoosh, Thomas P Johnston, Amirhossein Sahebkar
The weakness of the BCG vaccine and its highly variable protective efficacy in controlling tuberculosis (TB) in different age groups as well as in different geographic areas has led to intense efforts towards the development and design of novel vaccines. Currently, there are several strategies to develop novel TB vaccines. Each strategy has its advantages and disadvantages. However, the most important of these strategies is the development of subunit vaccines. In recent years, the use of cationic liposome-based vaccines has been considered due to their capacity to elicit strong humoral and cellular immune responses against TB infections...
April 27, 2018: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693771/simple-glycolipid-mimic-of-phosphatidylinositol-mannoside-core-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-inhibits-macrophage-cytokine-production
#17
Tamim Mosaiab, Sandra Boiteux, Abu Zulfiker, Ming Wei, Milton J Kiefel, Todd A Houston
Glycolipids from Mycobacterium tuberculosis have a profound impact on the innate immune response of the host. Macrophage inducible C-type Lectin (Mincle) is a pattern recognition receptor that has been shown to bind trehalose dimycolate (TDM) from the mycobacteria and instigate intracellular signaling in the immune cell. There are structural similarities between TDM and phosphatidyl inositol mannoside (PIM) structures. We thus hypothesized that these latter structures might also modulate an immune response in a similar manner...
April 25, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684922/saliva-versus-plasma-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-pregabalin-in-jordanian-patients
#18
Nasir Idkaidek, Salim Hamadi, Manal El-Assi, Ahmad Al-Shalalfeh, Ahmad Al-Ghazawi
The objective is using saliva instead of plasma for pregabalin therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) since saliva reflects the free non-protein bound drug concentration, simple and noninvasive sampling, cheaper and does not require the expertise of drawing blood. Forty four patients participated in this study, two samples of saliva and another two of blood were taken from each patient; first sample of both saliva and blood is the trough sample and was taken just before the first dose of the day and second sample is the peak sample and was taken 1 h after taking the first dose of the day...
April 23, 2018: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684896/impacts-of-transportation-sector-emissions-on-future-u-s-air-quality-in-a-changing-climate-part-ii-air-quality-projections-and-the-interplay-between-emissions-and-climate-change
#19
Patrick Campbell, Yang Zhang, Fang Yan, Zifeng Lu, David Streets
In Part II of this work we present the results of the downscaled offline Weather Research and Forecasting/Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF/CMAQ) model, included in the "Technology Driver Model" (TDM) approach to future U.S. air quality projections (2046-2050) compared to a current-year period (2001-2005), and the interplay between future emission and climate changes. By 2046-2050, there are widespread decreases in future concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx  = NO + NO2 ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3 ), sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683873/eltrombopag-induced-acute-liver-failure-in-a-pediatric-patient-a-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacogenetic-analysis
#20
M Marano, J Serafinelli, S Cairoli, D Martinelli, M Pisani, G Palumbo, M G Cefalo, C Cecchetti, M Di Nardo, F S Falvella, B M Goffredo
Eltrombopag is an oral thrombopoietin-receptor-agonist (TPO-RA) approved for the treatment of patients with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), who are more than one year old, and show poor response to first-line therapy. ITP is a hematological disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia in the absence of secondary causes or disorders. Eltrombopag is generally well tolerated in the pediatric population, therefore therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is not usually performed in clinical practice...
April 20, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
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