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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728031/applying-a-modified-donnan-model-to-describe-the-surface-complexation-of-chromate-to-iron-oxyhydroxide-agglomerates-with-heteromorphous-pores
#1
Zongsu Wei, Raphael Semiat
In this study, a modified Donnan model (mDM) is incorporated into surface complexation model (SCM) to better understand the physicochemical processes for adsorption of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), on porous iron oxyhydroxide agglomerates (IOAs). The mDM includes a chemical potential term μatt to account for ionic transport and electrostatic interaction in micropores (dmi<2nm) which is usually neglected in typical Donnan model (tDM). To estimate the parameters of mDM in a simple and accurate way, a rigorous protocol was presented...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724346/biosensing-technologies-for-therapeutic-drug-monitoring
#2
Anna Meneghello, Stefano Tartaggia, Maria Domenica Alvau, Federico Polo, Giuseppe Toffoli
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is the clinical practice of measuring pharmaceutical drug concentrations in patients' biofluids at designated intervals to allow a close and timely control of their dosage. This practice allows for rapid medical intervention in case of toxicity-related issues and/or adjustment of dosage to better fit the therapeutic demand. Currently, TDM is performed in centralized laboratories employing instruments, such as immunoassay analyzers and mass spectrometers that can be run only by trained personnel...
July 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723731/the-combined-effect-of-cyp2b6-genotype-and-other-candidate-genes-on-a-steady-state-serum-concentration-of-methadone-in-opioid-maintenance-treatment
#3
Marianne K Kringen, Fatemeh Chalabianloo, Jean-Paul Bernard, Jørgen G Bramness, Espen Molden, Gudrun Høiseth
BACKGROUND: A considerable inter-individual variability in methadone pharmacokinetics is seen in patients on methadone maintenance treatment. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of the reduced function CYP2B6*6 variant allele together with variants in other candidate genes on a steady-state methadone concentration in a naturalistic setting. METHODS: Information of methadone serum concentration, dose, age, gender and CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 genotypes were collected from a routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) database while variant alleles in CYP2B6 and CYP3A5 were retrospectively genotyped...
July 18, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713776/modulation-of-trehalose-dimycolate-and-immune-system-by-rv0774c-protein-enhanced-the-intracellular-survival-of-mycobacterium-smegmatis-in-human-macrophages-cell-line
#4
Arbind Kumar, Varinder Saini, Anjani Kumar, Jasbinder Kaur, Jagdeep Kaur
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv0774c protein was reported previously to express under stress conditions. Therefore, Rv0774c gene was cloned and expressed in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a surrogate host, to determine its role in bacterial persistence and immune modulation in natural environment. The bacterial colonies expressing Rv0774c (Ms_rv0774c) were larger, smoother, more moist, and flatter than the control ones (Ms_ve). Enhanced survival of Ms_rv0774c after treatment with streptomycin was observed when compared with control...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710970/validation-of-a-probe-for-assessing-deconjugation-of-glucuronide-and-sulfate-phase-ii-metabolites-assayed-through-lc-ms-ms-in-biological-matrices
#5
Claire Grignon, Antoine Dupuis, Marion Albouy-Llaty, Maxime Condylis, Laurence Barrier, Pascal Carato, Bertrand Brunet, Virginie Migeot, Nicolas Venisse
LC-MS/MS has been proposed in various areas such as Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM), Human Biomonitoring (HBM), disease diagnosis, clinical toxicology and doping control to identify and quantify chemical parents and their metabolites in biological matrices. To determine the total content of a xenobiotic (unconjugated+conjugated forms), an enzymatic hydrolysis step is required. Most studies in the literature have not controlled the effectiveness of the deconjugation process because no method has been described for that purpose...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708853/selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-and-venlafaxine-in-pregnancy-changes-in-drug-disposition
#6
Andreas Austgulen Westin, Malin Brekke, Espen Molden, Eirik Skogvoll, Olav Spigset
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy may cause changes in drug disposition. The clinical consequences may be profound and even counterintuitive; in some cases pregnant women may need more than twice their usual drug dose in order to maintain therapeutic drug levels. For antidepressants, evidence on drug disposition in pregnancy is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pregnancy on serum levels of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and venlafaxine in a large and naturalistic patient material, in order to provide tentative dose recommendations for pregnant women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707591/new-generation-non-ssri-antidepressants-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-and-pharmacological-interactions-part-1-snris-smss-saris
#7
Roberto Mandrioli, Michele Protti, Laura Mercolini
BACKGROUND: New-generation antidepressants (NGAs) are the latest additions to the clinician's arsenal in the fight against depression. After the introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a plethora of other groups followed, identified by their main mechanisms of activity: serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI); serotonin modulators and stimulators (SMS); serotonin antagonists and reuptake inhibitors (SARI); noradrenergic and selective serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSA); norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NeRI); serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors (SNDRI) or triple reuptake inhibitors (TRI); and melatonin and serotonin agonists (MaSA)...
July 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700523/dried-blood-spots-combined-with-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-for-the-quantification-of-the-antipsychotics-risperidone-aripiprazole-pipamperone-and-their-major-metabolites
#8
Camille Tron, Sanne M Kloosterboer, Bart C H van der Nagel, Rixt A Wijma, Bram Dierckx, Gwen C Dieleman, Teun van Gelder, Birgit C P Koch
BACKGROUND: Risperidone, aripiprazole, and pipamperone are antipsychotic drugs frequently prescribed for the treatment of comorbid behavioral problems in children with autism spectrum disorders. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) could be useful to decrease side effects and to improve patient outcome. Dried blood spot (DBS) sample collection seems to be an attractive technique to develop TDM of these drugs in a pediatric population. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a DBS assay suitable for TDM and home sampling...
August 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700520/current-practice-for-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-biopharmaceuticals-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
Frédéric Medina, Chamaida Plasencia, Philippe Goupille, David Ternant, Alejandro Balsa, Denis Mulleman
The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has largely improved in the biopharmaceutical era. These compounds, primarily tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, are effective, but some patients may show poor response, sometimes because of the presence of antidrug antibodies (ADAs). In some instances, clinicians may increase or taper the dose depending on the clinical response. Besides the current clinical-based practice, a tailored strategy based on drug monitoring has emerged as a way to improve the use of these drugs...
August 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700449/development-of-a-simple-and-rapid-method-to-measure-free-fraction-of-valproic-acid-in-plasma-using-ultrafiltration-and-uhplc-ms-application-to-therapeutic-drug-monitoring
#10
Shansen Xu, Yanan Chen, Mingming Zhao, Limei Zhao
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is widely used as an antiepileptic drug in children, and it is usually co-administered with other antiepileptic drugs. Due to its narrow therapeutic range and large variations in pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic behavior in different individuals, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of the trough total VPA concentration is commonly used to guide dosing. However, as only the free fraction of VPA that exerts pharmacological and toxic effects, it may be more meaningful to determine the unbound VPA concentration in plasma...
July 8, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699847/a-systematic-review-and-combined-analysis-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-studies-for-long-acting-risperidone
#11
Georgios Schoretsanitis, Edoardo Spina, Christoph Hiemke, Jose de Leon
This systematic review of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) identifies three long-acting injectable (LAI) risperidone formulations. Areas covered: Limited data is available on two formulations (RBP-7000 and in Situ Microparticle), but 20 TDM articles on the microsphere formulation were found. Risperidone TDM includes the serum concentrations of risperidone and its active metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, used for calculating: 1) the risperidone/9-hydroxyrisperidone (R/9-OH-R) ratio (a measure of CYP2D6; values >1 are indicative of a CYP2D6 poor metabolizer) and 2) the total risperidone concentration-to-dose (C/D) ratio (a measure of risperidone clearance with a normal value around 7 in oral risperidone)...
July 12, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696515/tbhq-suppresses-osteoclastic-resorption-in-xenogeneic-treated-dentin-matrix-based-scaffolds
#12
Jingjing Sun, Jie Li, Hui Li, Hefeng Yang, Jinlong Chen, Bo Yang, Fangjun Huo, Weihua Guo, Weidong Tian
Extracellularmatrix (ECM)-based scaffolds are important for their potential therapeutic application. Treated dentin matrix (TDM), a kind of ECM, seeded with allogeneic dental follicle stem cells (TDM/aDFC) provides a suitable inductive microenvironment for tooth root regeneration. Considering the limited sources, xenogeneic TDM (xTDM) is a possible alternative to allogeneic TDM; however, xTDM-based scaffold presents severe osteolysis and resorption lacunae causing regenerated tooth root failure. Immune response-induced excessive osteoclastogenesis plays a critical role in xenogeneic scaffold osteolysis and resorption...
July 11, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692346/the-validation-of-an-lc-ms-ms-assay-for-perhexiline-and-major-hydroxy-metabolites-and-its-application-to-therapeutic-monitoring-in-patient-plasma
#13
Patrick Camilleri, Duxi Zhang, Mark Midei, William Daly, James Copp, Cindy Flinn, Carl Luongo, Pirouz Shamszad
AIM: Perhexiline (PEX), being developed to treat hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, is toxic at levels above the therapeutic range. Plasma level monitoring is therefore essential. The absence of a UV-absorbing chromophore has in the past required quantitative analysis of PEX in plasma using lengthy derivatization methods, followed by HPLC and fluorescence detection. The routine and urgent analysis of a large number of patient plasma samples necessitates faster and reliable analytical methodology...
July 10, 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691952/intrapatient-variability-in-the-pharmacokinetics-of-etanercept-maintenance-treatment
#14
Ji S van Bezooijen, Marco W J Schreurs, Birgit C P Koch, Henk Te Velthuis, Martijn B A van Doorn, Errol P Prens, Teun van Gelder
AIM: Etanercept has shown to mediate a favorable effect on immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID), including plaque psoriasis. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of etanercept could improve clinical outcome and cost-effectiveness. A high intrapatient variability (IPV) of etanercept trough concentrations at standard dosing would reduce the feasibility of therapeutic drug monitoring. Studies have focused on the interpatient differences associated with the exposure to biologics. The aim of this study was to determine IPV of etanercept and correlate etanercept trough concentrations and IPV with treatment response...
August 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686523/clinical-utility-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-biological-disease-modifying-anti-rheumatic-drug-treatment-of-rheumatic-disorders-a-systematic-narrative-review
#15
Noortje van Herwaarden, Bart J F van den Bemt, Maike H M Wientjes, Cornelis Kees Kramers, Alfons A den Broeder
Biological Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (bDMARDs) have improved the treatment outcomes of inflammatory rheumatic diseases including Rheumatoid Arthritis and spondyloarthropathies. Inter-individual variation exists in (maintenance of) response to bDMARDs. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of bDMARDs could potentially help in optimizing treatment for the individual patient. Areas covered: Evidence of clinical utility of TDM in bDMARD treatment is reviewed. Different clinical scenarios will be discussed, including: prediction of response after start of treatment, prediction of response to a next bDMARD in case of treatment failure of the first, prediction of successful dose reduction or discontinuation in case of low disease activity, prediction of response to dose-escalation in case of active disease and prediction of response to bDMARD in case of flare in disease activity...
July 7, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682925/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-gentamicin-peak-concentrations-in-critically-ill-patients
#16
C J Hodiamont, J M Janssen, M D de Jong, R A Mathôt, N P Juffermans, R M van Hest
BACKGROUND: Adequate gentamicin peak concentrations (Cmax) are important for optimal clinical efficacy. Within a critically ill patient, substantial variability in Cmax can occur over time, hampering the usefulness of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gentamicin dosing based on Cmax after the 1st dose on gentamicin target attainment in critically ill patients. METHODS: From gentamicin-treated critically ill patients, dosing information, clinical parameters, and serum concentrations were collected prospectively...
July 3, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682924/lamotrigine-drug-interactions-in-combination-therapy-and-the-influence-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-on-clinical-outcomes-of-adult-patients
#17
Milan Grundmann, Blanka Koristkova, Hana Brozmanova, Ivana Kacirova
BACKGROUND: The aim was to study the impact of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) on patients on lamotrigine (LTG) therapy and the evaluation of possible drug interactions, especially in triple antiepileptic drug combinations. METHODS: During the period of 2001-2014, 3118 pre-dose samples were taken from 1137 patients >15 years of age as part of their routine TDM. Drug interactions were evaluated using calculation of LTG clearance. RESULTS: Valproic acid (VPA) decreased LTG clearance by 66% in bitherapy, and by 35% and 31% in triple therapy with carbamazepine (CBZ) and phenytoin (PHT) respectively...
July 3, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680633/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-for-colistin-therapy-in-severe-multi-resistant-acinetobacter-intracerebral-abscess-a-single-case-study-with-high-dose-colistin-and-review-of-literature
#18
Sascha Tafelski, Lukas Wagner, Stefan Angermair, Maria Deja
OBJECTIVES: Intracranial infections due to multidrug- resistant (MDR) gram-negative pathogens are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. As therapeutic options are limited and systemic drug penetration into the infection focus is difficult, intraventricular therapy has been described. METHODS: We report on a patient with intracranial abscess caused by MDR Acinetobacter baumannii. RESULTS: He was treated with high doses of intravenous and intraventricular colistin resulting in microbiological clearance and clinical cure...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680354/an-lc-ms-assay-with-isocratic-separation-and-on-line-solid-phase-extraction-to-improve-the-routine-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-busulfan-in-plasma
#19
Cristiano Ialongo, Alessia Francesca Mozzi, Sergio Bernardini
BACKGROUND: Busulfan (Bu) requires therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in subjects undergoing a conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To speed up the procedure and increase reproducibility, we improved our routine LC-MS/MS assay using the on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) of samples. METHODS: A protein precipitation (PP) step was performed before the on-line SPE of Bu from 200 µL of plasma spiked with octa-deuterated Bu (D8-Bu) as the internal standard...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680343/current-biochemical-monitoring-and-risk-management-of-immunosuppressive-therapy-after-transplantation
#20
Aleksandra Catić-Đorđević, Tatjana Cvetković, Nikola Stefanović, Radmila Veličković-Radovanović
Immunosuppressive drugs play a crucial role in the inhibition of immune reaction and prevention of graft rejection aswell as in the pharmacotherapy of autoimmune disorders. Effective immunosuppression should provide an adequate safety profile and improve treatment outcomes and the patients' quality of life. High-risk transplant recipients may be identified, but a definitive prediction model has still not been recognized. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for immunosuppressive drugs is an essential, but at the same time insufficient tool due to low predictability of drug exposition and marked pharmacokinetic variability...
January 2017: Journal of Medical Biochemistry
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