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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437797/central-and-peripheral-vision-for-scene-recognition-a-neurocomputational-modeling-exploration
#1
Panqu Wang, Garrison W Cottrell
What are the roles of central and peripheral vision in human scene recognition? Larson and Loschky (2009) showed that peripheral vision contributes more than central vision in obtaining maximum scene recognition accuracy. However, central vision is more efficient for scene recognition than peripheral, based on the amount of visual area needed for accurate recognition. In this study, we model and explain the results of Larson and Loschky (2009) using a neurocomputational modeling approach. We show that the advantage of peripheral vision in scene recognition, as well as the efficiency advantage for central vision, can be replicated using state-of-the-art deep neural network models...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437285/monitoring-protein-unbound-valproic-acid-serum-concentrations-in-clinical-practice
#2
Eveline Wallenburg, Bas Klok, Karin de Jong, Monique de Maat, Nielka van Erp, Sonja Stalpers-Konijnenburg, Guus Essink, Matthijs van Luin
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is an effective anti-epileptic drug and mood stabilizer. A key characteristic of VPA is its high and saturable protein binding at higher concentrations. While the unbound concentration of VPA is responsible for its pharmacological activity, total drug concentrations are monitored in routine clinical practice. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of unbound VPA is recommended for specific clinical situations. The goal of this study was to evaluate TDM requests for unbound VPA in clinical practice...
April 6, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432798/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-mitotane-analytical-assay-and-patient-follow-up
#3
Yoann Cazaubon, Helene Guillemin, Damien Vautier, Olivier Oget, Hervé Millart, Claire Gozalo, Zoubir Djerada, Catherine Feliu
BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive malignancy of the adrenal gland. Mitotane (o,p'-DDD) is the most effective chemotherapy for ACC. According to literature, mitotane plasma trough concentrations within 14-20 mg.L(1) are correlated with a higher response rate with acceptable toxicity. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of mitotane is therefore recommended. The aim of this study was to propose a robust, and simple method for mitotane quantification in plasma. The validation procedures were based on international guidelines...
April 22, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427917/application-of-the-isoniazid-assay-in-dried-blood-spots-using-the-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#4
Kyunghoon Lee, Sun-Hee Jun, Moon-Suk Choi, Sang Hoon Song, Jong Sun Park, Jae Ho Lee, Kyoung Un Park, Junghan Song
OBJECTIVES: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs is important for proper treatment of TB. Dried blood spots (DBSs) are widely used for TDM because of their several advantages. Rifampicin and pyrazinamide assays with DBSs have already been developed. However, isoniazid (INH) assay for capillary DBSs have not been reported because of INH instability. We developed an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for measuring INH concentrations in venous and capillary DBSs...
April 17, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427498/plasma-and-saliva-concentrations-of-abacavir-tenofovir-darunavir-and-raltegravir-in-hiv-1-infected-patients%C3%A2
#5
Eiko Yamada, Ritsuo Takagi, Yoshinari Tanabe, Hiroshi Fujiwara, Naoki Hasegawa, Shingo Kato
OBJECTIVE: We studied the relationships between plasma and saliva concentrations of antiretroviral drugs to explore whether saliva can be used for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). METHODS: Abacavir (ABC), tenofovir (TFV), darunavir (DRV), and raltegravir (RAL) in plasma and saliva from 30 HIV-1-infected patients were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Mean saliva-to-plasma concentration ratios were 0...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420860/comparison-of-the-docetaxel-concentration-in-human-plasma-measured-with-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-lc-ms-ms-and-a-nanoparticle-immunoassay-and-clinical-applications-of-that-assay
#6
Chunmei Geng, Pingli Li, Xuwang Chen, Guiyan Yuan, Nan Guo, Huanjun Liu, Rui Zhang, Ruichen Guo
To determine the feasibility of using a nanoparticle immunoassay for clinical therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of docetaxel concentrations, a sensitive and simple method of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was established to measure the docetaxel concentration in human plasma and the results of LC-MS/MS and the immunoassay were compared. Docetaxel and paclitaxel (the internal standard, or IS) in human plasma were extracted through protein precipitation, separated on a Diamonsil C18 column (150 mm × 4...
April 17, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420531/high-throughput-determination-of-vancomycin-in-human-plasma-by-a-cost-effective-system-of-two-dimensional-liquid-chromatography
#7
Yanghao Sheng, Boting Zhou
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is one of the most important services of clinical laboratories. Two main techniques are commonly used: the immunoassay and chromatography method. We have developed a cost-effective system of two-dimensional liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (2D-LC-UV) for high-throughput determination of vancomycin in human plasma that combines the automation and low start-up costs of the immunoassay with the high selectivity and sensitivity of the liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection without incurring their disadvantages, achieving high cost-effectiveness...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419737/a-10-year-experience-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-tdm-of-linezolid-in-a-hospital-wide-population-of-patients-receiving-conventional-dosing-is-there-enough-evidence-for-suggesting-tdm-in-the-majority-of-patients
#8
Federico Pea, Pier Giorgio Cojutti, Massimo Baraldo
A retrospective study was conducted to assess our 10-year experience of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of linezolid in a large patient population to establish whether conventional dosing may result in adequate drug exposure in the majority of patients. Patients included in this study underwent TDM of linezolid trough concentration (Cmin ) during treatment with conventional doses of 600 mg every 12 hr in the period between January 2007 and June 2016. The desired range of Cmin was set between 2 and 7 mg/L (under-exposure, Cmin < 2 mg/L; over-exposure, Cmin > 7 mg/L)...
April 17, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415567/efficacy-and-safety-of-t-dm1-in-the-common-practice-of-her2-advanced-breast-cancer-setting-a-multicenter-study
#9
Alessandra Fabi, Michelino De Laurentiis, Michele Caruso, Enrichetta Valle, Luca Moscetti, Daniele Santini, Katia Cannita, Luisa Carbognin, Mariangela Ciccarese, Rosalba Rossello, Grazia Arpino, Vita Leonardi, Filippo Montemurro, Nicla La Verde, Daniele Generali, Alberto Zambelli, Giuseppa Scandurra, Michelangelo Russillo, Ida Paris, Anna Maria D'Ottavio, Gianfranco Filippelli, Marianna Giampaglia, Simonetta Stani, Agnese Fabbri, Daniele Alesini, Daniela Cianniello, Diana Giannarelli, Francesco Cognetti
Ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate approved for the treatment of patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive, metastatic breast cancer (mBC). The aim of this 'field-practice' study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of T-DM1, focusing on treatment line, previous lapatinib treatment and patterns of metastasis. Three hundred and three patients with HER2-positive mBC who received T-DM1 were identified by reviewing the medical records of 24 Italian Institutions...
March 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412689/simple-rapid-and-highly-sensitive-hplc-method-for-measurement-of-lamotrigine-in-human-plasma-and-its-clinical-applications
#10
Abdul Sami Shaikh, Wenlong Li, Guiyan Yuan, Meimei Gao, Chunmei Geng, Nan Guo, Ruichen Guo
Spikes in Lamotrigine concentrations levels and associated clinical toxicity may occur unpredictably. This study describes the development and validation of a simple, more rapid, highly sensitive and economical method for measuring Lamotrigine (LTG) concentration levels in human plasma using HPLC-UV and its clinical applications. Analyte from plasma was extracted with methanol (protein precipitation) and separated on the analytical column Diamonsil C18 (150mm×4.6mm, 5μm) Waters-Milford, MA, United States...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412197/an-uplc-ms-ms-method-for-the-quantification-of-braf-inhibitors-vemurafenib-dabrafenib-and-mek-inhibitors-cobimetinib-trametinib-binimetinib-in-human-plasma-application-to-treated-melanoma-patients
#11
Marine Rousset, Karine Titier, Stephane Bouchet, Caroline Dutriaux, Anne Pham-Ledard, Sorilla Prey, Mireille Canal-Raffin, Mathieu Molimard
Targeted therapies for cancers are fast-growing therapies. For instance kinase inhibitors such as BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) and MEK inhibitors (MEKi) are increasingly used to treat malignant melanoma. The metabolic profile of these drugs can result in great interindividual variability, justifying therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). We describe a rapid and specific method for quantification of 2 BRAFi (vemurafenib, dabrafenib) and 3 MEKi (cobimetinib, trametinib and binimetinib). Chromatography was performed on a Waters Acquity-UPLC system with CORTECS C18+ column, under a gradient of 10% acetic acid in water/acetonitrile...
April 12, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409203/the-role-of-infection-models-and-pk-pd-modelling-for-optimising-care-of-critically-ill-patients-with-severe-infections
#12
REVIEW
T Tängdén, V Ramos Martín, T W Felton, E I Nielsen, S Marchand, R J Brüggemann, J B Bulitta, M Bassetti, U Theuretzbacher, B T Tsuji, D W Wareham, L E Friberg, J J De Waele, V H Tam, Jason A Roberts
Critically ill patients with severe infections are at high risk of suboptimal antimicrobial dosing. The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of antimicrobials in these patients differ significantly from the patient groups from whose data the conventional dosing regimens were developed. Use of such regimens often results in inadequate antimicrobial concentrations at the site of infection and is associated with poor patient outcomes. In this article, we describe the potential of in vitro and in vivo infection models, clinical pharmacokinetic data and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models to guide the design of more effective antimicrobial dosing regimens...
April 13, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408108/busulfan-drug-monitoring-is-needed-in-patients-undergoing-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#13
Bushra Salman, Mohammed Al-Zaabi, Mohammed Al-Huneini, David Dennison, Abdulhakeem Al-Rawas, Salam Al-Kindi, Khalil Al-Farsi, Melanie Tauro, Murtadha Al-Khabori
Busulfan (Bu)-based preparative regimens in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are commonly used. Previous studies have shown that Bu at a fixed dose of 3.2mg/kg/day (FBD) given intravenously decreases variability in drug pharmacokinetics and this decreases the dependency on therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of Bu. We compared the Bu dose given using TDM with the FBD of 3.2mg/kg/day. Seventy-three patients with acute leukemia, myelodysplasia, chronic myeloid leukemia, thalassemia major, and sickle cell disease were included...
April 6, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401887/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-combine-with-treated-dentin-matrix-to-build-biological-root
#14
Shiwei Luo, Fei Pei, Wen Zhang, Weihua Guo, Rui Li, Wei He, Weidong Tian
Treated dentin matrix (TDM) as a kind of scaffolding material has been proved odontogenic induction ability on dental-derived stem cells. Given the limited resources of dental stem cells, it is necessary to seek new seed cell which easily obtained. Jaw bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (JBMMSC) as non-dental-derived stem cell relates to the development of teeth and jaws which suggest us JBMMSCs could act as a new seed cell for tooth tissue engineering. To assess the odontogenic and osteogenic potential of JBMMSCs, cells were induced by TDM extraction in vitro and combined with TDM in vivo...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397349/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-venlafaxine-in-an-everyday-clinical-setting-analysis-of-age-sex-and-dose-concentration-relationships
#15
Morten Rix Hansen, Ida Berglund Kuhlmann, Anton Pottegård, Per Damkier
Venlafaxine is a commonly used antidepressant agent. We aimed to provide detailed information on the associations between venlafaxine dose and concentrations of venlafaxine, by patient age and sex. From a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) database located at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, we identified all adults for whom the treating physician had requested clinical advice on the TDM result for venlafaxine between 2002 and 2012. We identified 1,077 TDM samples of venlafaxine from 334 males and 743 females (median age 45 years), and the median daily dose was 225 mg...
April 11, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397129/the-evolving-evidence-for-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-monoclonal-antibodies-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
REVIEW
Christopher Sheasgreen, Geoffrey C Nguyen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Biological medications are effective in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but adverse events, cost, and loss of response make their use challenging. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) allows clinicians to more safely, effectively, and efficiently use medications. The purpose of this article is to review and summarize the most recent literature pertaining to TDM in IBD. RECENT FINDINGS: Measurement of biological drug trough levels predicts ongoing patient response and can be used to titrate the medication to be more effective and efficient...
May 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395245/validation-of-a-dried-blood-spot-method-for-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-citalopram-mirtazapine-and-risperidone-and-its-active-metabolite-9-hydroxyrisperidone-using-hplc-ms
#17
Johanna Weber, Stefanie Oberfeld, Andrea Bonse, Klaus Telger, Rainer Lingg, Georg Hempel
Citalopram, mirtazapine and risperidone are frequently prescribed for psychiatric illnesses such as depression and psychosis or for aggressive behavior in elderly patients with dementia. The plasma concentrations vary greatly between patients, especially in elderly patients. Thus, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) increases the safety of antipsychotic treatment and a more rapid response to treatment may be achieved. To facilitate TDM, the objectives of this study were to develop and validate a reliable dried blood spot method to simultaneously quantify citalopram, mirtazapine and risperidone including its active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392327/new-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-routine-tdm-of-vancomycin-in-patients-with-both-normal-and-impaired-renal-functions-and-comparison-with-results-of-polarization-fluoroimmunoassay-in-light-of-varying-creatinine-concentrations
#18
Hana Brozmanová, Ivana Kacířová, Romana Uřinovská, Pavel Šištík, Milan Grundmann
A new LC-MS/MS method with simple sample extraction and a relatively short period of vancomycin analysis for routine therapeutic drug monitoring was developed and validated. 50μL serum was precipitated using 20μL 33% trichloroacetic acid and 0.5mol/L NH4OH was added to increase pH before analysis. A RP BEH C18, 1.7μm, 2.1×50mm column maintained at 30°C and tobramycin as internal standard were used. Mass detection was performed in positive electrospray mode. The results obtained with LC-MS/MS method were correlated with an FPIA assay (Abbott AxSYM) using mouse monoclonal antibody...
April 7, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391006/capillary-blood-collected-on-volumetric-absorptive-microsampling-vams-device-for-monitoring-hydroxychloroquine-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients
#19
Ying Qu, Kelley Brady, Robert Apilado, Tyler O'Malley, Smitha Reddy, Puja Chitkara, Claudia Ibarra, Roberta Vezza Alexander, Thierry Dervieux
A novel technique for collection of capillary blood, termed volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS), has been recently cleared by the FDA for collection of human blood. VAMS absorbs a fixed volume of blood (10μl) and overcomes area bias and homogeneity issues associated with dried blood spot (DBS). This study is the application of VAMS for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in human capillary blood. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) workflow for analysis of VAMS sample was developed and validated...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384255/trehalose-dimycolate-interferes-with-fc%C3%AE-r-mediated-phagosome-maturation-through-mincle-shp-1-and-fc%C3%AE-riib-signalling
#20
Emmanuel C Patin, Anna C Geffken, Sam Willcocks, Christoph Leschczyk, Albert Haas, Falk Nimmerjahn, Roland Lang, Theresa H Ward, Ulrich E Schaible
The causative agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), contains an abundant cell wall glycolipid and a crucial virulence factor, trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM). TDM causes delay of phagosome maturation and thus promotes survival of mycobacteria inside host macrophages by a not fully understood mechanism. TDM signals through the Monocyte-INducible C-type LEctin (Mincle), a recently identified pattern recognition receptor. Here we show that recruitment of Mincle by TDM coupled to immunoglobulin (Ig)G-opsonised beads during Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated phagocytosis interferes with phagosome maturation...
2017: PloS One
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