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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917801/development-of-a-quantitative-approach-in-blood-plasma-for-low-dosed-hallucinogens-and-opioids-using-lc-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#1
Achim T Caspar, Andreas B Kollas, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer
The WHO annually reports an increasing abuse of new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are a heterogeneous group of synthetic drugs and are consumed as substitute for controlled drugs of abuse. In this work, we focused on highly potent derivatives such those of phenethylamine (2C), N-2-methoxybenzyl phenethylamine (NBOMes), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and fentanyl. Severe to fatal intoxications were described due to their high potency. Therefore, they have to be taken at very low doses resulting in low blood concentration in the low ng/mL range, which is a challenge for reliable analytical detection and quantification...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917762/full-validation-of-a-method-for-the-determination-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-non-mineralized-dental-biofilm-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-application-to-postmortem-samples
#2
Kerstin Henkel, Markus J Altenburger, Volker Auwärter, Merja A Neukamm
Alternative matrices play a major role in postmortem forensic toxicology, especially if common matrices (like body fluids or hair) are not available. Incorporation of illicit and medicinal drugs into non-mineralized dental biofilm (plaque) seems likely but has not been investigated so far. Analysis of plaque could therefore extend the spectrum of potentially used matrices in postmortem toxicology. For this reason, a rapid, simple and sensitive method for the extraction, determination and quantification of ten drugs of abuse from plaque using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and fully validated...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917751/structural-characterization-of-electrochemically-and-in-vivo-generated-potential-metabolites-of-selected-cardiovascular-drugs-by-ec-uhplc-esi-ms-using-an-experimental-design-approach
#3
Małgorzata Szultka-Młyńska, Sylwia Bajkacz, Irena Baranowska, Bogusław Buszewski
In the last few years, a number of studies were conducted which aimed at understanding the mechanisms of cardiovascular drug, metabolism, and there is still the need to determine the metabolites of cardiac drugs for the purpose of metabolism control. In this study, we employ a direct combination of electrochemical oxidation and mass spectrometric (EC-MS) identification for monitoring the oxidation pathway of ten cardiovascular drugs (metoprolol, propranolol, propafenone, mexiletine, oxprenolol, pirbuterol, pindolol, cicloprolol, acebutolol and atenolol)...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917581/an-engineering-insight-into-the-relationship-of-selective-cytoskeletal-impairment-and-biomechanics-of-hela-cells
#4
Daniele Borin, Luca Puzzi, Valentina Martinelli, Matteo Cibinel, Romano Lapasin, Orfeo Sbaizero
It is widely accepted that the pathological state of cells is characterized by a modification of mechanical properties, affecting cellular shape and viscoelasticity as well as adhesion behaviour and motility. Thus, assessing these parameters could represent an interesting tool to monitor disease development and progression, but also the effects of drug treatments. Since biomechanical properties of cells are strongly related to cytoskeletal architecture, in this work we extensively studied the effects of selective impairments of actin microfilaments and microtubules on HeLa cells through force-deformation curves and stress relaxation tests with atomic force microscopy...
September 8, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917289/imaging-of-convective-drug-delivery-in-the-nervous-system
#5
REVIEW
Russell R Lonser
Convection-enhanced delivery permits the direct homogeneous delivery of small- and large-molecular-weight putative therapeutics to the nervous system in a manner that bypasses the blood-nervous system barrier. The development of co-infused surrogate imaging tracers (for computed tomography and MRI) allows for the real-time, noninvasive monitoring of infusate distribution during convective delivery. Real-time image monitoring of convective distribution of therapeutic agents insures that targeted structures/nervous system regions are adequately perfused, enhances safety, informs efficacy (or lack thereof) of putative agents, and provides critical information regarding the properties of convection-enhanced delivery in normal and various pathologic tissue states...
October 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917153/cb7-as-a-drug-vehicle-and-controlled-release-of-drug-through-non-ionic-surfactant-spectroscopic-technique
#6
Dipti Singharoy, Soumya Sundar Mati, Swadesh Ghosh, Subhash Chandra Bhattacharya
A study of the comparative drug carrier properties of cucurbituril[7] (CB7) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with a naphthalimide derivative, [2-(2-aminoethyl)-1H-benzo[deisoquinoline-1,3(2H)-dione] (NAP) and its release in aqueous solution using micellar environment, is the key research interest of this work. The profound changes in the different spectroscopic behavior have been attributed to the formation of a 1:1 inclusion complex for NAP:CB7 system. Several experimental outcomes clearly interpreted that CB7 has better drug carrier properties for NAP compared to β-CD...
September 6, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916443/aq-13-an-investigational-antimalarial-versus-artemether-plus-lumefantrine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-a-randomised-phase-2-non-inferiority-clinical-trial
#7
Ousmane A Koita, Lansana Sangaré, Haiyan D Miller, Aliou Sissako, Moctar Coulibaly, Trevor A Thompson, Saharé Fongoro, Youssouf Diarra, Mamadou Ba, Ababacar Maiga, Boubakar Diallo, David M Mushatt, Frances J Mather, Jeffrey G Shaffer, Asif H Anwar, Donald J Krogstad
BACKGROUND: Chloroquine was used for malaria treatment until resistant Plasmodium falciparum was identified. Because 4-aminoquinolines with modified side chains, such as AQ-13, are active against resistant parasites, we compared AQ-13 against artemether plus lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated P falciparum malaria. METHODS: We did a randomised, non-inferiority trial. We screened men (≥18 years) with uncomplicated malaria in Missira (northeast Mali) and Bamako (capital of Mali) for eligibility (≥2000 asexual P falciparum parasites per μL of blood)...
September 12, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916385/bacterial-pneumonia-in-older-adults
#8
REVIEW
Oryan Henig, Keith S Kaye
The incidence of pneumonia increases with age, and is particularly high in patients who reside in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Mortality rates for pneumonia in older adults are high and have not decreased in the last decade. Atypical symptoms and exacerbation of underlying illnesses should trigger clinical suspicion of pneumonia. Risk factors for multidrug-resistant organisms are more common in older adults, particularly among LTCF residents, and should be considered when making empiric treatment decisions...
September 12, 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916378/clinical-pharmacology-of-anti-angiogenic-drugs-in-oncology
#9
REVIEW
P Gougis, J Wassermann, J P Spano, N Keynan, C Funck-Brentano, J E Salem
Abnormal vasculature proliferation is one of the so-called hallmarks of cancer. Angiogenesis inhibitor therapies are one of the major breakthroughs in cancer treatment in the last two decades. Two types of anti-angiogenics have been approved: monoclonal antibodies and derivatives, which are injected and target the extracellular part of a receptor, and protein kinase inhibitors, which are orally taken small molecules targeting the intra-cellular Adenosine Triphosphate -pocket of different kinases. They have become an important part of some tumors' treatment, both in monotherapy or in combination...
September 1, 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916044/antibiotic-affinity-strategy-for-bioluminescent-detection-of-viable-gram-positive-bacteria-using-daptomycin-as-recognition-agent
#10
Mengyao Wang, Yue Wu, Yong He, Xiaoxiao Su, Hui Ouyang, Zhifeng Fu
A bioluminescent method was proposed for rapid detection of viable Gram-positive bacteria based on a novel antibiotic-affinity strategy on a magnetic beads (MBs) platform. Daptomycin, a highly efficient lipopeptide antibiotic for Gram-positive bacteria, was used as a recognition agent to functionalize MBs. The daptomycin-functionalized MBs showed high capture and concentration efficiency for Gram-positive bacteria due to the strong binding between daptomycin and bacterial cell membrane in the presence of Ca(2+) ion...
September 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915583/n-acetylcysteine-breaks-resistance-to-trastuzumab-caused-by-muc4-overexpression-in-human-her2-positive-bc-bearing-nude-mice-monitored-by-89-zr-trastuzumab-and-18-f-fdg-pet-imaging
#11
Zéna Wimana, Geraldine Gebhart, Thomas Guiot, Bruno Vanderlinden, Denis Larsimont, Gilles Doumont, Gaetan Van Simaeys, Serge Goldman, Patrick Flamen, Ghanem Ghanem
Trastuzumab remains an important drug in the management of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpressing breast cancer (BC). Several studies reported resistance mechanisms to trastuzumab, including impaired HER2-accessibility caused by mucin 4 (MUC4). Previously, we demonstrated an increase of Zirconium-89-radiolabeled-trastuzumab ((89)Zr-Trastuzumab) accumulation when MUC4-overexpressing BC-cells were challenged with the mucolytic drug N-Acetylcysteine (NAC). Hereby, using the same approach we investigated whether tumor exposure to NAC would also enhance trastuzumab-efficacy...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915437/temporal-characterization-of-the-non-structural-adenovirus-type-2-proteome-and-phosphoproteome-using-high-resolving-mass-spectrometry
#12
Malin Källsten, Arina Gromova, Hongxing Zhao, Alberto Valdés, Anne Konzer, Ulf Pettersson, Sara Bergström Lind
The proteome and phosphoproteome of non-structural proteins of Adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) were time resolved using a developed mass spectrometry approach. These proteins are expressed by the viral genome and important for the infection process, but not part of the virus particle. We unambiguously confirm the existence of 95% of the viral proteins predicted to be encoded by the viral genome. Most non-structural proteins peaked in expression at late time post infection. We identified 27 non-redundant sites of phosphorylation on seven different non-structural proteins...
September 12, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915410/aiegens-for-biological-process-monitoring-and-disease-theranostics
#13
REVIEW
Xinggui Gu, Ryan T K Kwok, Jacky W Y Lam, Ben Zhong Tang
Biological processes are of great significance for the normal physiological functions of living organisms and closely related to the health. Monitoring of biological processes and diagnosis of diseases based on fluorescent techniques would provide comprehensive insight into mechanism of life and pathogenesis of diseases, precisely guiding therapeutic effect in theranostics. It largely relied on fluorophores with the properties of excellent photostability, large Stokes shift, high signal-to-noise ratio and free of aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect...
September 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915356/real-time-apoptosis-and-viability-high-throughput-screening-of-3d-multicellular-tumor-spheroids-using-the-celigo-image-cytometer
#14
Sarah Kessel, Scott Cribbes, Surekha Bonasu, Jean Qiu, Leo Li-Ying Chan
Three-dimensional tumor spheroid models have been increasingly used to investigate and characterize cancer drug compounds. Previously, the Celigo image cytometer has demonstrated its utility in a high-throughput screening manner for evaluating potential drug candidates in a 3D multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) primary screen. In addition, we have developed real-time kinetic caspase 3/7 apoptosis and propidium iodide viability 3D MCTS assays, both of which can be used in a secondary screen to better characterize the hit compounds...
September 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914169/development-of-an-algorithm-for-determination-of-the-likelihood-of-virological-failure-in-hiv-positive-adults-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-in-decentralized-care
#15
Anton Reepalu, Taye Tolera Balcha, Sten Skogmar, Per-Erik Isberg, Patrik Medstrand, Per Björkman
BACKGROUND: Early identification of virological failure (VF) limits occurrence and spread of drug-resistant viruses in patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). Viral load (VL) monitoring is therefore recommended, but capacities to comply with this are insufficient in many low-income countries. Clinical algorithms might identify persons at higher likelihood of VF to allocate VL resources. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to construct a VF algorithm (the Viral Load Testing Criteria; VLTC) and compare its performance to the 2013 WHO treatment failure criteria...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914120/the-furthest-left-behind-the-urgent-need-to-scale-up-harm-reduction-in-prisons
#16
Gen Sander, Fionnuala Murphy
Purpose Raise awareness about the disproportionate impact of HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) on prisoners worldwide and the need for key harm reduction services such as needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy in prisons offer practical recommendations to assist policy makers in implementing or scaling up these services. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This study is a desk review of existing data and evidence on HIV, HCV and harm reduction in prisons, analysis of political barriers and formulation of key policy recommendations...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914115/knowledge-attitudes-and-perspective-on-adverse-drug-reaction-reporting-in-a-public-sector-hospital-in-south-africa-baseline-analysis
#17
Antionette Terblanche, Johanna Catharina Meyer, Brian Godman, Robert Stanley Summers
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) can cause significant harm in patients; however, ADRs are under-reported in many countries, including South Africa, where evidence of a pharmacovigilance (PV) system to monitor and manage ADRs is a requirement for compliance with norms and standards for quality healthcare delivery. We conducted an analysis amongst health care professionals (HCPs) at Sebokeng Hospital to assess the situation there. METHODS: Data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire, targeting all medical practitioners, nurses, pharmacists and pharmacist assistants in the hospital...
September 15, 2017: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914077/decision-algorithms-for-direct-oral-anticoagulant-use-in-patients-with-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation-a-practical-guide-for-neurologists
#18
Isabella Canavero, Giuseppe Micieli, Maurizio Paciaroni
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are valid alternative options to vitamin K antagonists due to their limited interactions with drugs or food and the fact that they do not require regular coagulation monitoring. To this regard, recent practice guidelines recommend that DOACs should be considered as first-line anticoagulant therapy for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). This review (1) outlines current international guidelines for the management of DOACs to prevent stroke in patients with NVAF, (2) outlines indications for elderly patients as well as specific settings including acute coronary syndromes and intracranial hemorrhage, and (3) offers a practical guide for the use of DOACs in neurological settings...
January 1, 2017: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913818/a-spectroscopic-study-of-interaction-of-auricyanide-with-n-acetylcysteine
#19
Syed G T Kazimi, Mohammad S Iqbal, C Frank Shaw
Interaction of auricyanide, an important metabolite of anti-arthritic gold-based drug auranofin, was studied in vitro with a pharmacologically active ligand n-acetylcysteine with a view to understand reactivity of gold in vivo. Formation of reduction product aurocyanide occurred through mono- and di-n-acetylcysteine-substituted intermediates. The product and intermediates were identified and monitored spectrophotometrically and by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. This study suggests successive substitution with n-acetylcysteine through trans effect...
September 14, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913815/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-analysis-of-cisplatin-with-hydration-and-mannitol-diuresis-the-contribution-of-urine-cisplatin-concentration-to-nephrotoxicity
#20
Keizo Fukushima, Akira Okada, Hiroyuki Oe, Mika Hirasaki, Mami Hamori, Asako Nishimura, Nobuhito Shibata, Nobuyuki Sugioka
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Forced diuresis, high-volume hydration with diuresis, is widely used as a prophylactic treatment against cisplatin nephrotoxicity. However, the details of the underlying mechanisms and the optimal protocol of forced diuresis remain unclear. The present study investigated the alterations in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (nephrotoxicity) of cisplatin with forced diuresis treatment. METHODS: Cisplatin (5 mg/kg) was intravenously injected to rats (5 rats/group, except for control group in pharmacodynamic study, n = 13) treated with or without forced diuresis 2-h pre- and post-hydration with 10% mannitol at different infusion rates (0...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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