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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793038/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-and-safety-of-voriconazole-therapy-in-patients-with-child-pugh-class-b-and-c-cirrhosis-a-multicenter-study
#1
Taotao Wang, Miao Yan, Dan Tang, Ling Xue, Tao Zhang, Yuzhu Dong, Li Zhu, Xinggang Wang, Yalin Dong
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile and safety of voriconazole treatment in patients with Child-Pugh class B and C cirrhosis. METHODS: Liver cirrhosis patients receiving recommended voriconazole maintenance dose (group A) and halved maintenance dose (group B) orally or intravenously were involved. Voriconazole-related adverse events (AEs) were defined according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. RESULTS: A total of 110 voriconazole Cmin were monitored from 78 patients...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792945/cross-linking-by-epichlorohydrin-and-diepoxybutane-correlates-with-cytotoxicity-and-leads-to-apoptosis-in-human-leukemia-hl-60-cells
#2
Phuong M Le, Vanesa L Silvestri, Samuel C Redstone, Jordanne B Dunn, Julie T Millard
The bifunctional alkylating agents epichlorohydrin (ECH) and diepoxybutane (DEB) have been linked to increased cancer risks in industrial workers. These compounds react with DNA and proteins, leading to genotoxic effects. We used the comet assay to monitor formation of cross-links in HL-60 cells treated with ECH, DEB, and the structurally related anti-cancer drug mechlorethamine (HN2). We report a time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity that correlated with cross-linking activity, following the order HN2 > DEB > ECH...
May 21, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792734/clinical-updates-on-perianal-fistulas-in-crohn-s-disease
#3
Ori Rackovsky, Robert Hirten, Ryan Ungaro, Jean-Frederic Colombel
Perianal fistulizing disease is an aggressive and debilitating phenotype of Crohn's disease (CD), representing a significant therapeutic challenge. New work has led to advancement in epidemiology and long term outcomes of perianal disease. The range of therapeutic options continues to expand, including new biologic agents, biosimilars, and stem cell therapy. Areas covered: We discuss updates to all aspects of management of perianal disease, with a focus on the last three years of published data. Areas considered include new data on epidemiology and prognostication, medical and surgical therapy, and stem cell therapy...
May 24, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792142/collaboration-of-the-joint-research-centre-and-the-european-customs-laboratories-for-identification-of-new-psychoactive-substances
#4
Claude Guillou, Fabiano Reniero, Joana Lobo Pereira Vicente, Margaret Holland, Kamil Kolar, Hubert Chassaigne, Salvatore Tirendi, Herve Schepers
The emergence of designer drugs as substances of abuse has seen a dramatic increase over the last few years. Customs officials are responsible for the control of products entering the European Union (EU) market. This control applies to chemicals in general, pharmaceutical products and medicines. Numerous products imported from non-EU countries, often -declared as 'bath salts' or 'fertilizers', may in fact contain new psychoactive substance (NPS). These are not necessarily controlled under international law, but are subject to monitoring in agreement with EU legislation...
May 23, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791874/fabrication-of-electrospun-poly-vinyl-alcohol-dextran-nanofibers-via-emulsion-process-as-drug-delivery-system-kinetics-and-in-vitro-release-study
#5
A Meera Moydeen, M Syed Ali Padusha, Eman F Aboelfetoh, Salem S Al-Deyab, Mohamed H El-Newehy
A green method was used for the fabrication of coaxial nanofibers for use in biomedical applications. Coaxial nanofiber mats were fabricated by emulsion electrospinning from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and Dextran sulfate (Dex) blends loaded with ciprofloxacin (Cipro) as a model drug dissolved in edible oil. The ratio of the PVA/Dex mixture was optimized and nanofibers were stabilized against disintegration in water by thermal treatment at 120 °C. The morphology of the prepared nanofibers was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the structure of the core-shell nanofibers was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy...
May 20, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791475/ten-year-experience-with-ophthalmic-artery-chemosurgery-ocular-and-recurrence-free-survival
#6
Jasmine H Francis, Ariana M Levin, Emily C Zabor, Y Pierre Gobin, David H Abramson
PURPOSE: To report associations between disease- and treatment-related variables and rates of recurrence-free survival and ocular survival in eyes treated with ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC) for retinoblastoma. DESIGN: Pre-post study. SUBJECTS: All eyes treated with OAC for retinoblastoma at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center between May 2006 and February 2017. METHODS: This retrospective review included 452 retinoblastoma eyes treated with OAC...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791438/identity-by-descent-analyses-for-measuring-population-dynamics-and-selection-in-recombining-pathogens
#7
Lyndal Henden, Stuart Lee, Ivo Mueller, Alyssa Barry, Melanie Bahlo
Identification of genomic regions that are identical by descent (IBD) has proven useful for human genetic studies where analyses have led to the discovery of familial relatedness and fine-mapping of disease critical regions. Unfortunately however, IBD analyses have been underutilized in analysis of other organisms, including human pathogens. This is in part due to the lack of statistical methodologies for non-diploid genomes in addition to the added complexity of multiclonal infections. As such, we have developed an IBD methodology, called isoRelate, for analysis of haploid recombining microorganisms in the presence of multiclonal infections...
May 23, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791411/optical-nondestructive-dynamic-measurements-of-wafer-scale-encapsulated-nanofluidic-channels
#8
Vladimir Liberman, Melissa Smith, Isaac Weaver, Mordechai Rothschild
Nanofluidic channels are of great interest for DNA sequencing, chromatography, and drug delivery. However, metrology of embedded or sealed nanochannels and measurement of their fill-state have remained extremely challenging. Existing techniques have been restricted to optical microscopy, which suffers from insufficient resolution, or scanning electron microscopy, which cannot measure sealed or embedded channels without cleaving the sample. Here, we demonstrate a novel method for accurately extracting nanochannel cross-sectional dimensions and monitoring fluid filling, utilizing spectroscopic ellipsometric scatterometry, combined with rigorous electromagnetic simulations...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791170/effectiveness-and-safety-of-lixisenatide-for-treatment-of-diabetes-in-the-real-world-data-from-the-monitoring-registry-in-a-real-life-cohort-in-the-czech-and-slovak-republic
#9
Martin Haluzík, Alena Adamíková, Milan Běhunčík, Marek Macko, Radka Štěpánová
INTRODUCTION: GLP1 receptor agonist lixisenatide has demonstrated its efficacy in numerous clinical trials, nevertheless its real-life effectiveness data is limited. AIM: To describe effectiveness and safety of lixisenatide in routine clinical practice in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, as recorded by the Registry-Based Observational Study. METHODS: Multinational, multicenter, observational, non-interventional, 6-month prospective product registry of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged > 18 years who were initiating therapy with lixisenatide...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790360/-current-and-future-pharmacotherapy-of-severe-psychiatric-disorders
#10
Eva Češková
Despite of tremendous development in CNS research, current treatment is suboptimal especially in severe mental disorders. In medicine, there are two main methods of improving the healthcare provided: seeking new treatment procedures and perfecting (optimizing) the existing ones. Optimization of treatment includes not only practical tools such as therapeutic drug monitoring, but also implementation of general trends into the clinical practice. New pharmacological options include drugs aimed at other than monoaminergic systems and old drugs used before the psychopharmacological era...
2018: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790082/chronic-administration-of-pimozide-fails-to-attenuate-motor-and-pathological-deficits-in-two-mouse-models-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#11
Silvia Pozzi, Sai Sampath Thammisetty, Jean-Pierre Julien
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease which presently does not have any efficient therapeutic approach. Pimozide, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved neuroepileptic drug, has been recently proposed as a promising treatment for ALS patients based on apparent stabilization of right hand muscles after a short-time administration. A new clinical trial started at the end of 2017 to recruit patients with a prolonged drug delivery schedule. Here, our aim was to investigate the effects of chronic administration of pimozide on disease progression and pathological events in two mouse models of ALS...
May 22, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789788/development-of-two-analytical-methods-based-on-reverse-phase-chromatographic-and-sds-page-gel-for-assessment-of-deglycosylation-yield-in-n-glycan-mapping
#12
Anahita D Eckard, David R Dupont, Johnie K Young
N -lined glycosylation is one of the critical quality attributes (CQA) for biotherapeutics impacting the safety and activity of drug product. Changes in pattern and level of glycosylation can significantly alter the intrinsic properties of the product and, therefore, have to be monitored throughout its lifecycle. Therefore fast, precise, and unbiased N -glycan mapping assay is desired. To ensure these qualities, using analytical methods that evaluate completeness of deglycosylation is necessary. For quantification of deglycosylation yield, methods such as reduced liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and reduced capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) have been commonly used...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789564/establishing-quasi-steady-state-operations-of-microphysiological-systems-mps-using-tissue-specific-metabolic-dependencies
#13
Christian Maass, Matthew Dallas, Matthew E LaBarge, Michael Shockley, Jorge Valdez, Emily Geishecker, Cynthia L Stokes, Linda G Griffith, Murat Cirit
Microphysiological systems (MPS), consisting of tissue constructs, biomaterials, and culture media, aim to recapitulate relevant organ functions in vitro. MPS components are housed in fluidic hardware with operational protocols, such as periodic complete media replacement. Such batch-like operations provide relevant nutrients and remove waste products but also reset cell-secreted mediators (e.g. cytokines, hormones) and potentially limit exposure to drugs (and metabolites). While each component plays an essential role for tissue functionality, MPS-specific nutrient needs are not yet well-characterized nor utilized to operate MPSs at more physiologically-relevant conditions...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789530/efficient-blood-brain-barrier-opening-in-primates-with-neuronavigation-guided-ultrasound-and-real-time-acoustic-mapping
#14
Shih-Ying Wu, Christian Aurup, Carlos Sierra Sanchez, Julien Grondin, Wenlan Zheng, Hermes Kamimura, Vincent P Ferrera, Elisa E Konofagou
Brain diseases including neurological disorders and tumors remain under treated due to the challenge to access the brain, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricting drug delivery which, also profoundly limits the development of pharmacological treatment. Focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles is the sole method to open the BBB noninvasively, locally, and transiently and facilitate drug delivery, while translation to the clinic is challenging due to long procedure, targeting limitations, or invasiveness of current systems...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789498/tools-for-detection-of-schistosomiasis-in-resource-limited-settings
#15
REVIEW
Olumide Ajibola, Bashar Haruna Gulumbe, Anthonius Anayochukwu Eze, Emmanuel Obishakin
Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease affecting over 200 million people, with the highest burden of morbidity and mortality in African countries. Despite its huge impact on the health and socio-economic burden of the society, it remains a neglected tropical disease, with limited attention from governments and stakeholders in healthcare. One of the critical areas that is hugely under-developed is the development of accurate diagnostics for both intestinal and urogenital schistosomiasis. Diagnosis of schistosomiasis is important for the detection and treatment of disease in endemic and non-endemic settings...
May 23, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789279/opportunities-for-enhanced-strategic-use-of-surveys-medical-records-and-program-data-for-hiv-surveillance-of-key-populations-scoping-review
#16
Sharon Stucker Weir, Stefan D Baral, Jessie K Edwards, Sabrina Zadrozny, James Hargreaves, Jinkou Zhao, Keith Sabin
BACKGROUND: Normative guidelines from the World Health Organization recommend tracking strategic information indicators among key populations. Monitoring progress in the global response to the HIV epidemic uses indicators put forward by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. These include the 90-90-90 targets that require a realignment of surveillance data, routinely collected program data, and medical record data, which historically have developed separately. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe current challenges for monitoring HIV-related strategic information indicators among key populations ((men who have sex with men [MSM], people in prisons and other closed settings, people who inject drugs, sex workers, and transgender people) and identify future opportunities to enhance the use of surveillance data, programmatic data, and medical record data to describe the HIV epidemic among key populations and measure the coverage of HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs...
May 22, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789190/use-of-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-to-identify-mlst-clade-4-clostridium-difficile-isolates
#17
Jing-Wei Cheng, Chang Liu, Timothy Kudinha, Meng Xiao, Shu-Ying Yu, Chun-Xia Yang, Ming Wei, Guo-Wei Liang, Dong-Hua Shao, Fanrong Kong, Zhao-Hui Tong, Ying-Chun Xu
Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of health care-associated infections. Previous studies suggest that C. difficile MLST clade 4 strains with higher drug resistance rates constitute the major clone spreading in China. Thus development of a rapid and accurate typing method for these strains is needed to monitor the epidemiology of this clone and to guide clinical treatment. A total of 160 non-duplicate C. difficile isolates recovered from three large teaching hospitals in Beijing were studied. All the 41 clade 4 C...
April 26, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789189/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-from-united-states-medical-centers-stratified-by-infection-type-results-from-the-international-network-for-optimal-resistance-monitoring-inform-surveillance-program-2015
#18
Helio S Sader, Mariana Castanheira, Leonard R Duncan, Robert K Flamm
A total of 18,656 Enterobacteriaceae and 4,175 Pseudomonas aeruginosa were consecutively collected from 85 US hospitals and tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution methods in a central monitoring laboratory (JMI Laboratories). The antimicrobial susceptibility and frequency of key resistance phenotypes were assessed and stratified by infection type as follows: bloodstream (BSI; 3,434 isolates; 15.0%), pneumonia (6,439; 28.2%), skin and skin structure (SSSI; 4,134; 18.1%), intra-abdominal (IAI; 951; 4...
April 26, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788839/phenobarbital-pharmacokinetics-in-neonates-and-infants-during-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#19
Pavla Pokorná, Martin Šíma, Václav Vobruba, Dick Tibboel, Ondřej Slanař
INTRODUCTION: The disposition of drugs is potentially changed due to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in neonates and infants. METHODS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the individual pharmacokinetics (PK) of phenobarbital and the effect of PK covariates in neonates and infants undergoing ECMO. Sixteen patients (7 neonates, 9 infants) treated with phenobarbital during ECMO (centrifugal-flow pump circuits) were enrolled in the PK study. Phenobarbital serum concentrations were measured using a fluorescence polarization immunoassay...
May 2018: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788338/clinical-pharmacology-in-adult-and-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
Amy Hemperly, William J Sandborn, Niels Vande Casteele
This review describes the clinical pharmacology of the major drugs used for the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Pharmacokinetics, drug metabolism, mechanism of action, efficacy, and safety profile are discussed. Some small molecules were developed to act systemically (eg, ozanimod) or locally (eg, aminosalicylates) and thus have disparate pharmacokinetic properties. In addition, locally acting compounds have been optimized to mitigate systemic exposure-eg, budesonide, which undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism-thereby reducing systemic bioavailability and side effects...
May 17, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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