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drug monitoring

Paolo Girardi, Roberto Brugnoli, Giovanni Manfredi, Gabriele Sani
Lithium has been a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) for several decades. Despite a general reduction in the use of lithium over the past several years, it is effective in the management of both manic and depressive episodes in BD and continues to be recommended as a first-line mood stabilizer. This review provides an overview of the pharmacology of lithium and highlights its clinical profile in the management of BD, focusing on the potential advantages of prolonged-release (PR) versus immediate-release (IR) formulations of lithium...
October 21, 2016: Drugs in R&D
Eduardo Galdón, Marta Casas, Manuel Gayango, Isidoro Caraballo
The deep understanding of products and processes has become a requirement for pharmaceutical industries to follow the Quality by Design principles promoted by the regulatory authorities. With this aim, SeDeM expert system was developed as a useful preformulation tool to predict the likelihood to process drugs and excipients through direct compression. SeDeM system is a step forward in the rational development of a formulation, allowing the normalisation of the rheological parameters and the identification of the weaknesses and strengths of a powder or a powder blend...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Dario Cattaneo, Cristina Gervasoni, Valeria Cozzi, Simone Castoldi, Sara Baldelli, Emilio Clementi
Some studies have shown that adjustments to the linezolid dose guided by therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can reduce interindividual variability in drug exposure and improve linezolid tolerability. In this study, 6 years of linezolid TDM, a diagnostic service for our hospital and others in the Milan (Italy) area, is described. Samples were collected immediately before the morning dose intake (trough concentrations) in steady-state conditions. Linezolid concentrations were quantified by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Ferdaous Ghrab Ben Djemaa, Khaled Bellassoued, Sami Zouari, Abdelfatteh El Feki, Emna Ammar
Lavandula aspic L. is a strongly aromatic shrub plant of the Lamiaceae family and traditionally used in herbal medicine for the treatment of several skin disorders, including wounds, burns, and ulcers. The present study aimed to investigate the composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of lavender essential oil. In addition, it aimed to evaluate the excision wound healing activity and antioxidant property of a Lavandula aspic L. essential oil formulated in ointment using a rat model. The rats were divided into five groups of six animals each...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Tissue Viability
Bilal Demir, Tulay Yilmaz, Emine Guler, Z Pinar Gumus, Huseyin Akbulut, Ebru Aldemir, Hakan Coskunol, Demet Goen Colak, Ioan Cianga, Shuhei Yamada, Suna Timur, Takeshi Endo, Yusuf Yagci
Affinity-type sensors have emerged as outstanding platforms in the detection of diagnostic protein markers, nucleic acids and drugs. Thus, these novel platforms containing antibodies could be integrated into the monitoring systems for abused drugs. Herein, we established a novel detection platform for the analysis of a common illicit drug; methamphetamine (METH). Initially, a fluorescent-labeled polypeptide (EDOT-BTDA-Pala), derived from L-alanine N-carboxyanhydride (L-Ala-NCA) via ring-opening polymerization using 4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole-5,6-diamine (EDOT-NH2-BTDA) as initiator, was employed as a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) covering host, in order to immobilize the METH-selective antibody...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Xuan Zhang, Yi-Chi Zhang, Jia-Wei Zhang
Chloramphenicol (CAP), as a broad-spectrum antibiotic, has been worldwide banned for using in the food producing animals due to its overuse may cause severe threats to public health. It is therefore highly desirable to develop facile, selective and sensitive biosensor for CAP detection and monitoring in drug and foodstuff samples. In this work, three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (3DRGO) architectures were prepared through a green and template-free approach and used as active electrode materials to develop a highly selective electrochemical sensor for CAP detection...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Man Wang, Ping Ma, Xiaonan Xi, Lei Liu, Yabin Wen, Kangning Liu, Liang Sun, Yaxin Lu, Zheng Yin
The bioanalysis and especially the sample preparation of nucleoside drugs in complex media, such as human plasma, has been challenging due to the high polarity and high solubility of these drugs in water. Online solid phase extraction (SPE) offers significant advantages, such as automation and timesaving. Thus, several types of SPE columns have been developed for compounds with different polarities. In this study, SPE was applied to overcome the issue of sample pretreatment of nucleoside drugs in human plasma, with the final aim of establishing a robust analytical platform for drugs with similar structures...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Suwanna Chaorattanakawee, Chanthap Lon, Krisada Jongsakul, Jariyanart Gawee, Somethy Sok, Siratchana Sundrakes, Nareth Kong, Chatchadaporn Thamnurak, Soklyda Chann, Sorayut Chattrakarn, Chantida Praditpol, Nillawan Buathong, Nichapat Uthaimongkol, Philip Smith, Narongrid Sirisopana, Rekol Huy, Satharath Prom, Mark M Fukuda, Delia Bethell, Douglas S Walsh, Charlotte Lanteri, David Saunders
BACKGROUND: The recent dramatic decline in dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ) efficacy in northwestern Cambodia has raised concerns about the rapid spread of piperaquine resistance just as DHA-PPQ is being introduced as first-line therapy in neighbouring countries. METHODS: Ex vivo parasite susceptibilities were tracked to determine the rate of progression of DHA, PPQ and mefloquine (MQ) resistance from sentinel sites on the Thai-Cambodian and Thai-Myanmar borders from 2010 to 2015...
October 21, 2016: Malaria Journal
Mahnaz Ashoorkhani, Ali Bozorgi, Reza Majdzadeh, Hamed Hosseini, Ali Yoonessi, Ali Ramezankhani, Hassan Eftekhar
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is one of the most important and well-known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, in spite of effective treatments, adherence to the regular use of drugs and other nondrug treatments, such as lifestyle improvement, is often poor. This study evaluates the effectiveness of an educational, supportive intervention - in the form of a Blood Pressure Management Application (BPMAP) - on self-management in patients with primary hypertension on controlling the determinant factors of hypertension, and on adherence to treatment...
October 21, 2016: Trials
Tshifhiwa Magoro, George Gachara, Lufuno Mavhandu, Emmaculate Lum, Helen K Kimbi, Roland N Ndip, Pascal Bessong
BACKGROUND: HBV and HIV share similar transmission routes. Concurrent infection with the two viruses usually results in more severe and progressive liver disease, and a higher incidence of cirrhosis, liver cancer and mortality. Further, this co-infection may lead to cross-resistance between HIV and HBV drugs and increased liver injury, either due to direct hepatotoxicity or drug-related immune-reconstitution hepatitis. These challenges necessitate continuous surveillance for HBV among HIV infected individuals to guide patient management...
October 21, 2016: Virology Journal
Seul-Gi Oh, Xian Li, Ho Won Lee, Thoudam Debraj Singh, Sang Bong Lee, Hyun Dong Ji, GhilSuk Yoon, Sung Jin Cho, In-Kyu Lee, Shin Young Jeong, Byeong-Cheol Ahn, Jaetae Lee, Hyeun Wook Chang, Sang-Woo Lee, Yong Hyun Jeon
The inability to monitor the in vivo dynamics of mast cells (MCs) limits the better understanding of its role in cancer progression. Here, we report on noninvasive imaging of MC migration to tumor lesions in mice and evaluation of the effects of migrated MCs on tumor progression through reporter gene-based in vivo optical imaging and glucose metabolism monitoring in cancer with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) in vitro and in vivo. Murine MCs (MC-9) and Lewis lung cancer cells (LLC) expressing an enhanced firefly luciferase (effluc) gene were established, termed MC-9/effluc and LLC/effluc, respectively...
October 13, 2016: Biomaterials
Xiang-Xin Huang, Yun-Xuan Li, Xiang-Yu Li, Xiao-Xia Hu, Peng-Fei Tang, Guo-Xin Hu
Currently, crizotinib is the first generation drug, which has been used in the treatment of ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, more and more patients are found in crizotinib-resistance. In the last year, alectinib has been approved for treatment of patients with crizotinib-resistance. In this study, we aim to develop and validate a simple, rapid and sensitive tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of alectinib in rat plasma. Diazepam was chosen as an internal standard (IS)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Amal A Sultan, Sanaa A El-Gizawy, Mohamed A Osman, Gamal M El Maghraby
Mixed micelles provide promising strategy for enhancing dissolution and permeability of drugs. However, their fluid nature limited the stability of the loaded drug and hindered the development of stable oral dosage form. Accordingly, the objective was to develop solid self dispersing mixed micelle forming systems (MMFS) for enhanced dissolution and intestinal permeability of hydrochlorothiazide. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed using sodium cholate, lecithin with either poloxamer 407 or PEG 4000 to determine the composition of MMFS...
October 13, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
David C Classen, William Munier, Nancy Verzier, Noel Eldridge, David Hunt, Mark Metersky, Chesley Richards, Yun Wang, P Jeffrey Brady, Amy Helwig, James Battles
The explicit declaration in the landmark 1999 Institute of Medicine report "To Err Is Human" that, in the United States, 44,000 to 98,000 patients die each year as a consequence of "medical errors" gave widespread validation to the magnitude of the patient safety problem and catalyzed a number of U.S. federal government programs to measure and improve the safety of the national healthcare system. After more than 10 years, one of those federal programs, the Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System (MPSMS), has reached a level of maturity and stability that has made it useful for the consistent measurement of the safety of inpatient care...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Patient Safety
Po C Liu, Yi T Lee, Chun Y Wang, Ya-Tang Yang
We describe a low cost, configurable morbidostat for characterizing the evolutionary pathway of antibiotic resistance. The morbidostat is a bacterial culture device that continuously monitors bacterial growth and dynamically adjusts the drug concentration to constantly challenge the bacteria as they evolve to acquire drug resistance. The device features a working volume of ~10 ml and is fully automated and equipped with optical density measurement and micro-pumps for medium and drug delivery. To validate the platform, we measured the stepwise acquisition of trimethoprim resistance in Escherichia coli MG 1655, and integrated the device with a multiplexed microfluidic platform to investigate cell morphology and antibiotic susceptibility...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Shery Jacob, Anroop B Nair
Given the distinctive characteristics of both epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can make a significant contribution to the field of epilepsy. The measurement and interpretation of serum drug concentrations can be of benefit in the treatment of uncontrollable seizures and in cases of clinical toxicity; it can aid in the individualization of therapy and in adjusting for variable or nonlinear pharmacokinetics; and can be useful in special populations such as pregnancy. This review examines the potential for TDM of newer AEDs such as eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, perampanel, pregabalin, rufinamide, retigabine, stiripentol, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, and zonisamide...
October 20, 2016: Drugs in R&D
T Apaydin, H M Ozkaya, F E Keskin, O A Haliloglu, K Karababa, S Erdem, P Kadioglu
PURPOSE: To determine the differences in acromegaly diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up among Turkish endocrinologists, and to investigate how the published guidelines are applied in clinical practice. METHODS: The questionnaire was formatted as an electronic survey, conducted between November and December 2015, and sent weekly for 6 weeks via e-mail to 528 endocrinologists in Turkey. RESULTS: The questionnaire was answered by 37.4 % of endocrinologists...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Umberto Melia, Eva Gabarron, Mercé Agustí, Nuria Souto, Patricia Pineda, Joan Fontanet, Montserrat Vallverdu, Erik Weber Jensen, Pedro Gambus
The objective of this work is to compare the performances of two electroencephalogram based indices for detecting loss of consciousness and loss of response to nociceptive stimulation. Specifically, their behaviour after drug induction and during recovery of consciousness was pointed out. Data was recorded from 140 patients scheduled for general anaesthesia with a combination of propofol and remifentanil. The qCON 2000 monitor (Quantium Medical, Barcelona, Spain) was used to calculate the qCON and qNOX. Loss of response to verbal command and loss of eye-lash reflex were assessed during the transition from awake to anesthetized, defining the state of loss of consciousness...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Yu Sun, Jesper Østergaard
Efficient drug delivery is dependent on the drug substance dissolving in the body fluids, being released from dosage forms and transported to the site of action. A fundamental understanding of the interplay between the physicochemical properties of the active compound and pharmaceutical excipients defining formulation behavior after exposure to the aqueous environments and pharmaceutical performance is critical in pharmaceutical development, manufacturing and quality control of drugs. UV imaging has been explored as a tool for qualitative and quantitative characterization of drug dissolution and release with the characteristic feature of providing real-time visualization of the solution phase drug transport in the vicinity of the formulation...
October 20, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
U M Stamer, U Gundert-Remy, E Biermann, J Erlenwein, W Meiβner, S Wirz, T Stammschulte
BACKGROUND: Dipyrone (metamizole) is a non-opioid analgesic commonly used in Germany, which can, in very rare cases, cause life-threatening agranulocytosis. The prescribing information calls for regular monitoring of the differential blood count in cases of long-term treatment. However, there is uncertainty about how this testing should be handled in practice. OBJECTIVES: Which recommendations can be derived from the published literature for evaluating blood cell counts during treatment with metamizole and which other options for monitoring exist? METHODS: Data from recent epidemiological studies, reviews, and spontaneously reported cases were evaluated...
October 20, 2016: Der Schmerz
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