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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353344/safety-study-of-intravitreal-and-suprachoroidal-laponite-clay-in-rabbit-eyes
#1
Esther Prieto, Eugenio Vispe, Alba De Martino, Miriam Idoipe, María J Rodrigo, Elena Garcia-Martin, José M Fraile, Vicente Polo-Llorens, José A Mayoral
PURPOSE: To study the safety and biocompatibility of Laponite clay (LAP) within an intravitreal and suprachoroidal administration in rabbit eyes. METHODS: Thirty-two New Zealand albino rabbits were divided into two experimental groups to test intravitreal (IVT group) and suprachoroidal (SCS group) administration of a 100-μl and 50-μl Laponite suspension respectively. Following injection, the eyes were monitored by ocular tonometry, slit-lamp eye examination and indirect ophthalmoscopy, at 24 h, 1, 4, 12, and 14 weeks post administration...
January 20, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352991/molecular-monitoring-of-dihydrofolatereductase-dhfr-and-dihydropteroatesynthetase-dhps-associated-with-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-resistance-in-plasmodium-vivax-isolates-of-palawan-philippines
#2
Alison Paolo Bareng, Fe Esperanza Espino, Wanna Chaijaroenkul, Kesara Na-Bangchang
The emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium vivax poses problems for malaria control and elimination in some parts of the world, especially in developing countries where individuals are routinely exposed to the infection. The aim of this study was to determine the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in dihydropteroate synthase (pvdhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) genes associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) drug resistance among P. vivax isolates collected in Palawan, Philippines. Genetic polymorphisms of pvdhps and pvdhfr were analysed by nested PCR...
January 15, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352885/synthesis-of-stimuli-responsive-chitosan-based-hydrogels-by-diels-alder-cross-linking-click%C3%A2-reaction-as-potential-carriers-for-drug-administration
#3
O Guaresti, C García-Astrain, R H Aguirresarobe, A Eceiza, N Gabilondo
Stimuli-responsive chitosan-based hydrogels for biomedical applications using the Diels-Alder reaction were prepared. Furan modified chitosan (Cs-Fu) was cross-linked with polyetheramine derived bismaleimide at different equivalent ratios in order to determine the effect in the swelling and release properties on the final CsFu:BMI hydrogels. The Diels Alder cross-linking reaction was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy and rheological measurements. Both the sol-gel transition value and the final storage modulus for the different formulations were similar and close to 40 min and 400 Pa, respectively...
March 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352367/continuous-manufacturing-of-co-crystals-challenges-and-prospects
#4
REVIEW
Rahul B Chavan, Rajesh Thipparaboina, Balvant Yadav, Nalini R Shastri
The last decade has witnessed extensive growth in the field of co-crystallization for mitigating the solubility and dissolution-related issues of poorly soluble drugs. This is largely because co-crystals can modify the physicochemical properties of drugs without any covalent modification in the drug molecules. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) now considers drug products that are designed to contain a new co-crystal, analogous to new polymorph of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). This positive change in regulatory perspective coupled with successful commercialization of valsartan-sacubitril co-crystal (Entresto, Novartis) has now brought co-crystals into focus, in both industries as well as academia...
January 19, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351800/drug-resistance-genes-pvcrt-o-and-pvmdr-1-polymorphism-in-patients-from-malaria-endemic-south-western-coastal-region-of-india
#5
Shiny Joy, Benudhar Mukhi, Susanta K Ghosh, Rajeshwara N Achur, D Channe Gowda, Namita Surolia
BACKGROUND: Malaria is highly prevalent in many parts of India and is mostly caused by the parasite species Plasmodium vivax followed by Plasmodium falciparum. Chloroquine (CQ) is the first-line treatment for blood stage P. vivax parasites, but cases of drug resistance to CQ have been reported from India. One of the surveillance strategies which is used to monitor CQ drug resistance, is the analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the associated gene markers. Susceptibility to CQ can also be determined by copy number assessment of multidrug resistant gene (mdr-1)...
January 19, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350178/use-of-rifabutin-to-treat-tuberculosis-in-a-cardiac-transplant-recipient-a-case-report%C3%A2
#6
Maya Takayoshi, Kyoichi Wada, Yuka Terada, Sachi Matsuda, Kazuki Nakagita, Akira Oita, Mitsutaka Takada, Aki Shionoiri, Haruki Sunami, Seiko Nakajima, Kensuke Kuroda, Takuma Sato, Osamu Seguchi, Masanobu Yanase, Norihide Fukushima
OBJECTIVE: Tuberculosis is an important concern following organ transplantation. Unfortunately, several antituberculosis drugs interact with immunosuppressants. This report describes our experience with rifabutin (RBT) in the treatment of acute tuberculosis in a cardiac transplant recipient. CASE: A 61-year-old cardiac transplant recipient developed tuberculosis meningitis during treatment of miliary tuberculosis. RBT was given for 27 days concomitantly with cyclosporine (CsA)...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349918/dual-drug-backboned-shattering-polymeric-theranostic-nanomedicine-for-synergistic-eradication-of-patient-derived-lung-cancer
#7
Yuwei Cong, Haihua Xiao, Hejian Xiong, Zigui Wang, Jianxun Ding, Chan Li, Xuesi Chen, Xing-Jie Liang, Dongfang Zhou, Yubin Huang
Most of the current nanoparticle-based therapeutics worldwide failing in clinical trials face three major challenges: (i) lack of an optimum drug delivery platform with precise composition, (ii) lack of a method of directly monitoring the fate of a specific drug rather than using any other labelling molecules as a compromise, and (iii) lack of reliable cancer models with high fidelity for drug screen and evaluation. Here, starting from a PP2A inhibitor demethylcantharidin (DMC) and cisplatin, the design of a dual sensitive dual drug backboned shattering polymer (DDBSP) with exact composition at a fixed DMC/Pt ratio for precise nanomedicine is shown...
January 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349855/understanding-remote-aboriginal-drug-and-alcohol-residential-rehabilitation-clients-who-attends-who-leaves-and-who-stays
#8
Alice Munro, Anthony Shakeshaft, Courtney Breen, Philip Clare, Julaine Allan, Norm Henderson
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Aboriginal residential rehabilitation services provide healing for Aboriginal people who misuse substances. There is limited available research that empirically describes client characteristics of these services. This study examined 5 years of data of a remote Aboriginal residential rehabilitation service. DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 329 client admissions to Orana Haven Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation Centre from 2011 to 2016...
January 18, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349833/a-systematic-assessment-of-key-design-and-performance-characteristics-of-drug-exposure-registries-requested-by-the-u-s-food-and-drug-administration
#9
Yanling Zhao, Ellen Pinnow, Jacqueline M Major
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to evaluate contributions to postmarket safety assessments and identify potential factors for enhancing implementation and utilization of registries in regulatory decision-making. METHODS: Registry documents (e.g., protocols, reports) submitted to the FDA were identified up to January 2016 through an extensive, systematic review of internal records and resources. We characterized nonpregnancy drug exposure registries based on prespecified design elements, performance, and regulatory impact...
January 19, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348806/therapeutic-nanosystem-consisting-of-singlet-oxygen-responsive-prodrug-and-photosensitizer-excited-by-two-photon-light
#10
Yi Lin, Xiao-Fang Jiang, Xiangyan Duan, Fang Zeng, Bo Wu, Shuizhu Wu
Using light as the sole stimulus and employing the generated singlet oxygen as a therapeutic agent and the trigger to activate chemo-drug release could serve as an elegant way to bring into full play the advantageous features of light and enhance therapeutic efficacy through a combination of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy. Herein a liposomal drug system has been developed by embedding a fluorescent photosensitizer and a prodrug into phospholipid vesicles. Upon one- or two-photon light irradiation, the photosensitizer generates singlet oxygen, which removes the protecting group of the prodrug and subsequently causes the release of the active drug chlorambucil...
January 11, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347984/the-effects-of-state-rules-on-opioid-prescribing-in-indiana
#11
Morhaf Al Achkar, Shaun Grannis, Debra Revere, Palmer MacKie, Meredith Howard, Sumedha Gupta
BACKGROUND: Prescription opioids have been linked to over half of the 28,000 opioid overdose deaths in 2014. High rates of prescription opioid non-medical use have continued despite nearly all states implementing large-scale prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP), which points to the need to examine the impact of state PDMP's on curbing inappropriate opioid prescribing. In the short-term, PDMPs have been associated with short-term prescribing declines. Yet little is known about how such policies differentially impact patient subgroups or are interpreted by prescribing providers...
January 18, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347215/optomechanical-proposal-for-monitoring-microtubule-mechanical-vibrations
#12
Sh Barzanjeh, V Salari, J A Tuszynski, M Cifra, C Simon
Microtubules provide the mechanical force required for chromosome separation during mitosis. However, little is known about the dynamic (high-frequency) mechanical properties of microtubules. Here, we theoretically propose to control the vibrations of a doubly clamped microtubule by tip electrodes and to detect its motion via the optomechanical coupling between the vibrational modes of the microtubule and an optical cavity. In the presence of a red-detuned strong pump laser, this coupling leads to optomechanical-induced transparency of an optical probe field, which can be detected with state-of-the art technology...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346804/trabodenoson-an-adenosine-mimetic-with-a1-receptor-selectivity-lowers-intraocular-pressure-by-increasing-conventional-outflow-facility-in-mice
#13
Guorong Li, Karen Y Torrejon, Andrea M Unser, Feryan Ahmed, Iris D Navarro, Rudolf A Baumgartner, David S Albers, W Daniel Stamer
Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between the IOP-lowering effect of trabodenoson and the associated structural and functional changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM). Methods: Six independent cohorts of young and aged mice were exposed to three different topical once-a-day formulations of trabodenoson and eyes were compared to those treated with placebo drops. IOP was measured daily just before drug administration using rebound tonometry. Outflow facility was measured in enucleated eyes...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346699/teaching-chronic-pain-in-the-family-medicine-residency
#14
Kimberly Zoberi, Kelly M Everard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chronic pain is a significant condition affecting many Americans. Primary care physicians play an important role in chronic pain management, but many residents and physicians feel poorly prepared to manage it. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the 2016 Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance (CERA) Program Director Survey, which was sent electronically to 484 program directors in the United States. The authors sought to determine whether residency directors' attitudes about treating chronic pain were associated with the amount of time devoted to teaching family medicine residents about chronic pain assessment, therapy (use of opioids, use adjuvant pain medications, use of other nonopioids, use of nonpharmacological treatments), and risk management (risk assessment, use of pain management contracts, informed consent when prescribing opioids, and urine drug monitoring)...
January 2018: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346431/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-two-dried-blood-spot-methods-for-hiv-1-viral-load-monitoring-among-patients-in-hanoi-vietnam
#15
Todd M Pollack, Hao T Duong, Phuong T Truong, Thuy T Pham, Cuong D Do, Donn Colby
The use of dried blood spot (DBS) specimens for HIV viral load (VL) monitoring is recommended to support the roll-out of routine VL monitoring in low and middle income countries (LMICs). To better understand the use of DBS for VL monitoring, we evaluated two DBS testing methods, Roche TaqMan® Free Virus Evolution protocol (DBS-FVE) and Roche TaqMan® SPEX protocol (DBS-SPEX)) in patients receiving ART at an HIV clinic in Hanoi, Vietnam. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for each DBS testing method at the thresholds of 1000 and 5000 copies/ml compared to plasma VL...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345606/prevalence-of-transmitted-drug-resistance-among-hiv-1-treatment-naive-patients-in-beijing
#16
Y X Song, R L Xin, Z C Li, H W Yu, W H Lun, J Ye, A Liu, A X Li, J W Li, J Z Ye, M Q Hao, H Y Lu, L J Sun
To optimise patients' outcomes and gain insight into transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 treatment-naive patients in Beijing, the prevalence of TDR was assessed. Demographic and clinical data of 1241 treatment-naive patients diagnosed between April 2014 and February 2015 were collected. TDR was defined using the Stanford University HIV drug resistance mutations database. The risk factors were evaluated by multi-logistic regression analysis. Among 932 successfully amplified cases, most were male (96...
January 18, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345598/dolutegravir-related-neurological-adverse-events-a-case-report-of-successful-management-with-therapeutic-drug-monitoring
#17
Francois Parant, Patrick Miailhes, Florence Brunel, Marie-Claude Gagnieu
Dolutegravir (DTG), a highly effective second-generation HIV integrase inhibitor with high genetic barrier to resistance, has shown excellent tolerability and safety profiles in clinical trials. However, some patients may experience neurological or psychiatric adverse effects leading to DTG discontinuation. This report describes a case of 29-year-old woman who developed neurological adverse events after starting the DTG-based antiretroviral therapy. Serum DTG concentrations were supra-therapeutic which has required a dosing interval adjustment...
January 16, 2018: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345521/development-and-validation-of-an-elisa-to-study-panitumumab-pharmacokinetics
#18
Céline Desvignes, Christophe Passot, David Ternant, Morgane Caulet, Caroline Guérineau, Thierry Lecomte, Gilles Paintaud
AIM: Panitumumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against EGFR that is approved for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. To investigate its pharmacokinetics and concentration-response relationship, a validated assay is required. RESULTS: An ELISA assay was developed and validated according to international recommendations. Six calibrators (ranging from 0.1 to 20 mg/l) plus one anchor point (50 mg/l) and three quality controls (0.45, 2 and 8 mg/l) were defined...
January 18, 2018: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344469/successful-use-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-for-refractory-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus
#19
Do-Hyung Kim, Hye-Hoon Kang, Minjung Kim, Tae-Won Yang, Oh-Young Kwon, Jung Sook Yeom, Bong Su Kang, Yong Hwan Kim, Young-Soo Kim
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has rarely been utilized as an adjunct to anticonvulsants in treating patients with refractory convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). However, determining the effectiveness of TH in CSE is difficult due to the unavoidable use of sedative drugs to manage hypothermia. Additionally, the effectiveness of TH has not been studied in patients with refractory non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). Here, we report the successful use of TH without additional sedative drugs in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy and refractory NCSE...
December 2017: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344376/effectiveness-of-pharmacist-s-intervention-in-the-management-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Stefano Omboni, Marina Caserini
The pharmacist may play a relevant role in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, mainly through patient education and counselling, drug safety management, medication review, monitoring and reconciliation, detection and control of specific cardiovascular risk factors (eg, blood pressure, blood glucose, serum lipids) and clinical outcomes. Systematic reviews of randomised controlled and observational studies have documented an improved control of hypertension, dyslipidaemia or diabetes, smoking cessation and reduced hospitalisation in patients with heart failure, following a pharmacist's intervention...
2018: Open Heart
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