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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166654/therapeutic-efficacy-of-equine-botulism-antitoxin-in-rhesus-macaques
#1
Shantha Kodihalli, Andrew Emanuel, Teresa Takla, Yi Hua, Charles Hobbs, Ross LeClaire, Denise C O'Donnell
BACKGROUND: There are currently no licensed vaccines available for prevention of botulism in humans. The vaccination is not desirable due to expanding therapeutic indications of botulinum toxins. The only available specific treatment for botulism is antitoxin to remove circulating toxin, thus, preventing further neuronal damage. BAT® (Botulism Antitoxin Heptavalent (A, B, C, D, E, F, G)-(Equine)) has been developed and its therapeutic efficacy evaluated against botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) in Rhesus macaques...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165853/past-year-prescription-drug-monitoring-program-opioid-prescriptions-and-self-reported-opioid-use-in-an-emergency-department-population-with-opioid-use-disorder
#2
Kathryn Hawk, Gail D'Onofrio, David A Fiellin, Marek C Chawarski, Patrick G O'Connor, Patricia H Owens, Michael V Pantalon, Steven L Bernstein
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing reliance on Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) as a response to the opioid epidemic, the relationship between aberrant drug-related behaviors captured by the PDMP and opioid use disorder is incompletely understood. How PDMP data should guide Emergency Department (ED) assessment has not been studied. STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a relationship between PDMP opioid prescription records and self-reported non-medical opioid use of prescription opioids in a cohort of opioid dependent ED patients enrolled in a treatment trial...
November 22, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165815/development-and-validation-of-a-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-analytical-method-for-the-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-eight-novel-anticancer-drugs
#3
M Herbrink, N de Vries, H Rosing, A D R Huitema, B Nuijen, J H M Schellens, J H Beijnen
To support therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of patients with cancer, a fast and accurate method for simultaneous quantification of the registered anticancer drugs afatinib, axitinib, ceritinib, crizotinib, dabrafenib, enzalutamide, regorafenib and trametinib in human plasma using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. Human plasma samples were collected from treated patients and stored at -20 (o) C. Analytes and internal standards (stable isotopically labeled analytes) were extracted with acetonitrile...
November 22, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165621/treatment-of-tuberculosis-in-complex-emergencies-in-developing-countries-a-scoping-review
#4
Geraldine Munn-Mace, Divya Parmar
Almost 172 million people live in complex emergencies globally resulting from political and/or economic instability. The provision and continuity of health care in complex emergencies remain a significant challenge. Health agencies are often hesitant to implement tuberculosis programmes in particular because its treatment requires a longer commitment than most acute diseases. However, not treating tuberculosis promptly increases mortality and untreated tuberculosis further increases the incidence of tuberculosis...
November 20, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165327/effects-of-dl-3-n-butylphthalide-on-cerebral-ischemia-infarction-in-rat-model-by-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#5
Run-Zhe Liu, Chao-Xin Fan, Zhi-Lin Zhang, Xin Zhao, Yi Sun, Hui-Hui Liu, Zong-Xiu Nie, Xiao-Ping Pu
Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) is a drug that is used in the treatment of ischaemic stroke. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no systematic studies investigating the effects of dl-3-n-butylphtalide on the brain metabolism of small molecules. In this study, we first investigated the effects of dl-3-n-butylphthalide on the spatial distribution of small molecules in the brains of rats with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) imaging...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165065/electrochemical-nucleic-acid-based-biosensing-of-drugs-of-abuse-and-pharmaceuticals
#6
Susana Campuzano, Maia Pedrero, Jose M Pingarron
Nowadays, studies of the interactions of DNA with small molecular drugs, especially anti-tumor agents, antibiotics and drugs of abuse are currently performed to explore their mechanism of action and develop new drugs with lower side effects and high curative properties. Currently, electrochemical biosensors are considered a very promising alternative analytical tool to conventional more complex techniques for drug determination due to rapidness, low cost, high sensitivity, compatibility with microfabrication technology, intuitively understandable design and simple operation mode...
November 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164889/comparison-of-quantitative-mass-spectrometry-platforms-for-monitoring-kinase-atp-probe-uptake-in-lung-cancer
#7
Melissa A Hoffman, Bin Fang, Eric B Haura, Uwe Rix, John M Koomen
Recent developments in instrumentation and bioinformatics have led to new quantitative mass spectrometry platforms including LC-MS/MS with data-independent acquisition (DIA) and targeted analysis using parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-PRM), which provide alternatives to well-established methods, such as LC-MS/MS with data-dependent acquisition (DDA) and targeted analysis using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-MRM). These tools have been used to identify signaling perturbations in lung cancers and other malignancies, supporting the development of effective kinase inhibitors and, more recently, providing insights into therapeutic resistance mechanisms and drug repurposing opportunities...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164853/microfluidic-free-flow-electrophoresis-based-solvent-exchanger-for-continuously-operating-lab-on-chip-applications
#8
Franziska D Zitzmann, Heinz-Georg Jahnke, Simon Pfeiffer, Ronny Frank, Felix Nitschke, Laura Mauritz, Bernd Abel, Detlev Belder, Andrea A Robitzki
For miniaturization and integration of chemical synthesis and analytics on small length scales, the development of complex lab on chip (LOC) systems is in the focus of many current research projects. While application specific synthesis and analytic modules and LOC devices are widely described, the combination and integration of different modules is intensively investigated. Problems for in-line processes such as solvent incompatibilities, e.g., for a multistep synthesis or the combination of an organic drug synthesis with a cell-based biological activity testing system, require a solvent exchange between serialized modules...
November 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164599/neurocognition-and-subjective-experience-following-acute-doses-of-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-jwh-018-a-phase-1-placebo-controlled-pilot-study
#9
Eef L Theunissen, Nadia R P W Hutten, Natasha L Mason, Stefan W Toennes, Kim P C Kuypers, Eliza B de Sousa Fernandes Perna, Johannes G Ramaekers
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Synthetic cannabinoids (often sold as Spice or K2) have become a very popular alternative to cannabis due to the easy access and portrayed safety. Controlled studies on the behavioral effects of synthetic cannabinoids are currently lacking, which hampers risk assessments of these compounds. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: This is a first attempt to assess the influence of a synthetic cannabinoid, JWH-018, on neurocognition and subjective experience in humans after controlled administration...
November 22, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164507/enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-the-quantitative-qualitative-analysis-of-plant-secondary-metabolites
#10
REVIEW
Seiichi Sakamoto, Waraporn Putalun, Sornkanok Vimolmangkang, Waranyoo Phoolcharoen, Yukihiro Shoyama, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Satoshi Morimoto
Immunoassays are antibody-based analytical methods for quantitative/qualitative analysis. Since the principle of immunoassays is based on specific antigen-antibody reaction, the assays have been utilized worldwide for diagnosis, pharmacokinetic studies by drug monitoring, and the quality control of commercially available products. Berson and Yalow were the first to develop an immunoassay, known as radioimmunoassay (RIA), for detecting endogenous plasma insulin [1], a development for which Yalow was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1977...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164397/factors-for-time-to-trastuzumab-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-breast-cancer-patients
#11
Mi Hyung Lee, Jeong Yee, Young Ju Kim, Jin Young Moon, Joo Hee Kim, Sandy Jeong Rhie, Hye Sun Gwak
Trastuzumab is a drug used for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer patients. Due to blockage of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 signaling in cardiac myocytes, cardiotoxicity has been observed. There are many studies that investigated risk factors for trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity, but no study has been published for factors on the time to cardiotoxicity. This study aimed to investigate the factors for the time to occur trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity. From January 2014 to December 2015, a retrospective study was performed with breast cancer patients who were treated with trastuzumab...
November 21, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163651/molecular-detection-of-virulence-genes-and-multi-drug-resistance-patterns-in-escherichia-coli-stec-in-clinical-bovine-mastitis-alborz-province-iran
#12
M Tavakoli, H Pourtaghi
The aim of this study was to identify virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from bovine clinical mastitis in dairy herds in Iran. Sampling was done from 86 inflamed quarters of dairy cows in 8 commercial farms of Alborz province, Iran in summer 2015. Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) virulence genes were detected by multiplex PCR and multi-drug resistance profiles were confirmed using disk diffusion method. Among 60 E. coli isolated from examined samples, 13 (21.6%) of them were STEC...
2017: Iranian journal of veterinary research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163515/nanobody-based-delivery-systems-for-diagnosis-and-targeted-tumor-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Yaozhong Hu, Changxiao Liu, Serge Muyldermans
The development of innovative targeted therapeutic approaches are expected to surpass the efficacy of current forms of treatments and cause less damage to healthy cells surrounding the tumor site. Since the first development of targeting agents from hybridoma's, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been employed to inhibit tumor growth and proliferation directly or to deliver effector molecules to tumor cells. However, the full potential of such a delivery strategy is hampered by the size of mAbs, which will obstruct the targeted delivery system to access the tumor tissue...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162497/expression-signatures-of-early-stage-and-advanced-medaka-melanomas
#14
Barbara Klotz, Susanne Kneitz, Martina Regensburger, Lena Hahn, Michael Dannemann, Janet Kelso, Birgit Nickel, Yuan Lu, William Boswell, John Postlethwait, Wesley Warren, Manfred Kunz, Ronald B Walter, Manfred Schartl
Melanoma is one of the most aggressive tumors with a very low survival rate once metastasized. The incidence of newly detected cases increases every year suggesting the necessity of development and application of innovative treatment strategies. Human melanoma develops from melanocytes localized in the epidermis of the skin to malignant tumors because of deregulated effectors influencing several molecular pathways. Despite many advances in describing the molecular changes accompanying melanoma formation, many critical and clinically relevant molecular features of the transformed pigment cells and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown...
November 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162101/ivermectin-susceptibility-sporontocidal-effect-and-inhibition-of-time-to-re-feed-in-the-amazonian-malaria-vector-anopheles-darlingi
#15
Kevin C Kobylinski, Karín S Escobedo-Vargas, Victor M López-Sifuentes, Salomón Durand, Edward S Smith, G Christian Baldeviano, Robert V Gerbasi, Sara-Blythe Ballard, Craig A Stoops, Gissella M Vásquez
BACKGROUND: Outdoor malaria transmission hinders malaria elimination efforts in the Amazon region and novel vector control tools are needed. Ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) to humans kills wild Anopheles, targets outdoor-feeding vectors, and can suppress malaria parasite transmission. Laboratory investigations were performed to determine ivermectin susceptibility, sporontocidal effect and inhibition of time to re-feed for the primary Amazonian malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi...
November 21, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161918/in-process-rheometry-as-a-pat-tool-for-hot-melt-extrusion
#16
A L Kelly, T Gough, M Isreb, R Dhumal, J W Jones, S Nicholson, A B Dennis, A Paradkar
Real time measurement of melt rheology has been investigated as a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) to monitor hot melt extrusion of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) in a polymer matrix. A developmental API was melt mixed with a commercial copolymer using a heated twin screw extruder at different API loadings and set temperatures. The extruder was equipped with an instrumented rheological slit die which incorporated three pressure transducers flush mounted to the die surface. Pressure drop measurements within the die at a range of extrusion throughputs were used to calculate rheological parameters such as shear viscosity and exit pressure, related to shear and elastic melt flow properties respectively...
November 22, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161395/postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-dementia-what-we-need-to-know-and-do
#17
M J Needham, C E Webb, D C Bryden
Approximately 12% of apparently previously cognitively well patients undergoing anaesthesia and noncardiac surgery will develop symptoms of cognitive dysfunction after their procedure. Recent articles in this Journal have highlighted the difficulties of confirming any clear links between anaesthesia and cognitive dysfunction, in part because of the lack of consistency regarding definition and diagnosis. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is usually self-limiting and rarely persists in the longer term, although plausible biological mechanisms for an impact on brain protein deposition do exist...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161389/innovations-in-management-of-cardiac-disease-drugs-treatment-strategies-and-technology
#18
P Foëx
Within the last generation, the management of patients with heart disease has been transformed by advances in drug treatments, interventions and diagnostic technologies. The management of arterial hypertension saw beta-blockers demoted from first- to third-line treatment. Recent studies suggest that the goal of treatment may have to change to lower systolic blood pressures to prevent long-term organ damage. Today less than 15% of coronary revascularizations are surgical and more than 85% are done by interventional cardiologists inserting coronary stents...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161387/reversal-of-residual-neuromuscular-block-complications-associated-with-perioperative-management-of-muscle-relaxation
#19
J M Hunter
The use of anticholinesterases to reverse residual neuromuscular block at the end of surgery became routine practice in the 1950s. These drugs could only be used when recovery from block was established [two twitches of the train-of-four (TOF) count detectable] and concern was expressed about their cholinergic side-effects. By the 1990s, it was recognized that failure to reverse residual block adequately to a TOF ratio (TOFR) >0.7 was associated with increased risk of postoperative pulmonary complications (POPCs) following the long-acting non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug (NDNMBD) pancuronium...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161369/pace-capture-guided-ablation-after-contact-force-guided-pulmonary-vein-isolation-results-of-the-randomized-controlled-dragon-trial
#20
Masaharu Masuda, Masashi Fujita, Osamu Iida, Shin Okamoto, Takayuki Ishihara, Kiyonori Nanto, Takashi Kanda, Akihiro Sunaga, Takuya Tsujimura, Yasuhiro Matsuda, Takuya Ohashi, Masaaki Uematsu
Aims: Before the discovery of contact-force guidance, eliminating pacing capture along the pulmonary vein (PV) isolation line had been reported to improve PV isolation durability and rhythm outcomes. DRAGON (UMIN-CTR, UMIN000015332) aimed to elucidate the efficacy of pace-capture-guided ablation following contact-force-guided PV isolation ablation in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Methods and results: A total of 156 paroxysmal AF patients with AF-trigger ectopies from any of the four PVs induced by isoproterenol were randomly assigned to undergo pace-capture-guided ablation along a contact-force-guided isolation line around AF-trigger PVs (PC group, n = 76) or contact-force-guided PV isolation ablation alone (control group, n = 80)...
November 17, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
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