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Muaz Belviranli, Nilsel Okudan, Nuran Karakuyu
The objective of this investigation was to compare irisin concentration and its relation with oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes and element levels in both male adolescent swimmers and sedentary controls. Twelve male swimmers aged between 11 and 18 years, who performed regular swimming training for at least 2 years and 12 age- and gender-matched sedentary controls participated in this study. After anthropometric measurements were performed, fasting venous blood samples were taken at rest. Irisin, malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of oxidative stress, superoxide dismutase (SOD) as a marker of antioxidant enzyme and elements (Zn, Cu, Se, Cr, Ni, Al, Fe) were analyzed in these samples...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Mursel Bicer, Saltuk Bugra Baltaci, Suleyman Patlar, Rasim Mogulkoc, Abdulkerim Kasim Baltaci
Aim The present study aimed to examine the effects of melatonin supplementation on lipid peroxidation in the bone tissue of diabetic rats subjected to acute swimming exercise. Methods The study was conducted on 80 Sprague-Dawley type adult male rats which were equally allocated to eight groups: group 1, general control; group 2, melatonin-supplemented control; group 3, melatonin-supplemented diabetic control; group 4, swimming control; group 5, melatonin-supplemented swimming; group 6, melatonin-supplemented diabetic swimming; group 7, diabetic swimming; group 8, diabetic control...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Ioana Miruna Balmus, Radu Lefter, Alin Ciobica, Iulia Antioch, Daniela Ababei, Romeo Dobrin
INTRODUCTION: Oxytocin (OT) is a well-known neuropeptides which together with vasopressin, melatonin, insulin and other hormones can alter both behavior and physiological or neuronal functions. This growing interest on OT roles is also based on the demonstrated beneficial effects as a stress reliever and a social bonding agent. The association between old age and OT was only vaguely studied. Little or few is known on the effect of the OT hormone on the old body. Hereby, we present our preliminary results in the research on behavioral changes regarding the intraperitoneal administration of OT in aged rats...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Senda Sammoud, Alan Michael Nevill, Yassine Negra, Raja Bouguezzi, Helmi Chaabene, Younés Hachana
This study aimed to estimate the optimal body size, limb segment length, and girth or breadth ratios of 100-m breaststroke performance in youth swimmers. In total, 59 swimmers [male: n = 39, age = 11.5 (1.3) y; female: n = 20, age = 12.0 (1.0) y] participated in this study. To identify size/shape characteristics associated with 100-m breaststroke swimming performance, we computed a multiplicative allometric log-linear regression model, which was refined using backward elimination. Results showed that the 100-m breaststroke performance revealed a significant negative association with fat mass and a significant positive association with the segment length ratio (arm ratio = hand length/forearm length) and limb girth ratio (girth ratio = forearm girth/wrist girth)...
March 16, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Stefan-Adrian Strungaru, Madalina Andreea Robea, Gabriel Plavan, Elena Todirascu-Ciornea, Alin Ciobica, Mircea Nicoara
Fishes are the first group of vertebrates that respond when the environment is contaminated with pollutants resulted from anthropogenic activities. The development of the toxicity tests is bringing new evidence about the toxicological effects of the pollutants upon the life forms. Behavioural abnormalities in the swimming performance and cognitive processes were well associated with the response of organisms to pollutants from environment. The aim of the paper was to study the behavioural changes of zebrafish (memory, swimming performances and aggression) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde) during 32 h of acute exposure with methylmercury (II) chloride to measure its neurotoxicity effects upon fish community...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Yun Tang, Zhen-Yuan Zhu, Li-Chao Pan, Huiqing Sun, Qiao-Ying Song, Yongmin Zhang
A polysaccharide was obtained from Lepidium meyenii Walp by hot water extraction and purification by Millipore (100 kD) and Sephadex G-200. The content of polysaccharide was examined to be 89.9% with phenol-sulfuric acid method. Its average molecular weight was estimated to be 2.213 × 106  Da by High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography (HPGPC). Monosaccharide analysis showed that the polysaccharide was composed of arabinose, mannose, glucose and galactose with the molar ratio of 2.134: 1: 2.78: 2...
March 16, 2018: Natural Product Research
Adrienne J Bartlett, Amanda M Hedges, Kyna D Intini, Lisa R Brown, France J Maisonneuve, Stacey A Robinson, Patricia L Gillis, Shane R de Solla
Neonicotinoid insecticides are environmentally persistent and highly water-soluble, and thus are prone to leaching into surface waters where they may negatively affect non-target aquatic insects. Most of the research to date has focused on imidacloprid, and few data are available regarding the effects of other neonicotinoids or their proposed replacements (butenolide insecticides). The objective of this study was to assess the toxicity of six neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, clothianidin, thiacloprid, and dinotefuran) and one butenolide (flupyradifurone) to Hexagenia spp...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
H Rahmati-Holasoo, M Soltani, M Masoudifard, S Shokrpoor, A Taheri Mirghaed, M Ahmadpoor
Abdominal distention occurred at an incidence of 1% (15 from 1500 fish) in the population of 1-year-old bester (Huso huso × Acipenser ruthenus). Computed tomography (CT) images and radiographs showed a soft tissue mass compressed the posterior part of the swim bladder. Ultrasonography showed that the masses had different patterns. Internal examination revealed the abdominal cavities to be filled with large masses which appeared to encompass most of the visceral organs, including the swim bladder. The masses originated from the posterior kidney...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Di Du, Elaa Hilou, Sibani Lisa Biswal
Swimming at low Reynolds number is typically dominated by a large viscous drag, therefore microscale swimmers require non-reciprocal body deformation to generate locomotion. Purcell described a simple mechanical swimmer at the microscale consisting of three rigid components connected together with two hinges. Here we present a simple microswimmer consisting of two rigid paramagnetic particles with different sizes. When placed in an eccentric magnetic field, this simple microswimmer exhibits non-reciprocal body motion and its swimming locomotion can be directed in a controllable manner...
March 15, 2018: Soft Matter
Sebastian V Nielsen, Martin Kellner, Per G Henriksen, Håkan Olsén, Steen H Hansen, Erik Baatrup
Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors are pharmaceuticals used to treat a range of psychological disorders. They are frequently found in surface waters in populated areas. In recent years, they have been shown to affect the behaviour of various aquatic organisms in a way that can have ecological effects. In this study, we exposed zebrafish of both sexes to nominally 0.00, 0.15 and 1.50 µg L-1 Escitalopram in flow-through tanks for three weeks. Subsequently, ten swimming behaviour parameters were quantified using high-resolution video tracking...
March 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Brijesh Kumar, John L Sorensen, Silvia T Cardona
Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic bacterium that can thrive in different environments, including the amino acid-rich mucus of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. B. cenocepacia responds to the nutritional conditions that mimic the CF sputum by increasing flagellin expression and swimming motility. Individual amino acids also induce swimming but not flagellin expression. Here, we show that modulation of the second messenger cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) levels by the PAS-containing c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase, BCAL1069 (CdpA), regulates the swimming motility of B...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Michael D Kennedy, Jessie M S Gill, Alastair N H Hodges
Background: Diagnosing Airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) requires bronchial provocation tests that are performed at rest and after exercise or hyperventilation in either a lab or field setting. Presently, it is unclear whether the proposed AHR field test for swimming induces sufficient provocation due to lack of intensity. Thus we aimed to examine how the 8 minute field swim test compared to all out racing and a lower intensity practice exposure affected AHR. We hypothesized that the race would affect AHR the most thereby highlighting the importance of maximal effort in swim AHR...
June 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Wei Zhou, Geoffry N De Iuliis, Matthew D Dun, Brett Nixon
The testicular spermatozoa of all mammalian species are considered functionally immature owing to their inability to swim in a progressive manner and engage in productive interactions with the cumulus-oocyte complex. The ability to express these key functional attributes develops progressively during the cells' descent through the epididymis, a highly specialized ductal system that forms an integral part of the male reproductive tract. The functional maturation of the spermatozoon is achieved via continuous interactions with the epididymal luminal microenvironment and remarkably, occurs in the complete absence of de novo gene transcription or protein translation...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Michael Cleary-Gaffney, Andrew N Coogan
Circadian rhythms are recurring patterns in a range of behavioural, physiological and molecular parameters that display periods of near 24 h, and are underpinned by an endogenous biological timekeeping system. Circadian clocks are increasingly recognised as being key for health. Environmental light is the key stimulus that synchronises the internal circadian system with the external time cues. There are emergent health concerns regarding increasing worldwide prevalence of electric lighting, especially man-made light-at-night, and light's impact on the circadian system may be central to these effects...
March 11, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa, Jonathan Cueto-Escobedo, Luis Ángel Flores-Aguilar, Gilberto Uriel Rosas-Sánchez, María de Jesús Rovirosa-Hernández, Francisco García-Orduña, Miguel Carro-Juárez
BACKGROUND: Montanoa frutescens and Montanoa grandiflora have been indistinctly used for centuries in traditional Mexican medicine for reproductive impairments, anxiety, and mood disorders. Preclinical studies support their aphrodisiac and anxiolytic properties, but their effects on mood are still unexplored. METHODS: The effects of 25 and 50 mg/kg of M frutescens and M grandiflora extracts were evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of treatment, and compared with fluoxetine (1 mg/kg) and Remotiv (7...
January 2018: J Evid Based Integr Med
Katie Conover, Sarah Romero
Drowning contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population but it is largely preventable through judicious use of safety measures. To affect outcomes surrounding drowning, pediatricians need to understand the most updated terminology, the basic resuscitation protocols, and the assessment and management of a drowning victim. Most importantly, pediatricians must appreciate the importance of properly counseling patients and families about drowning prevention. Effective preventive measures supported by the literature include constant and reliable adult supervision, swim instruction for most children older than age 4 years, pool isolation fencing, and the proper use of personal floatation devices...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Simone de Campos Neitzke Winter, Rafael Michel de Macedo, Júlio Cesar Francisco, Paula Costa Santos, Ana Paula Sarraff Lopes, Leanderson Franco de Meira, Katherine A Teixeira de Carvalho, José Rocha Faria Neto, Ana Carolina Brandt de Macedo, Luiz César Guarita-Souza
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise should be part of the treatment of post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of two training prescription models (continuous x interval) and its impact on ventricular function in rats after AMI with normal ventricular function. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were evaluated by echocardiography 21 days after the AMI. Those with LVEF = 50% (n = 29) were included in the study and randomized to control group (CG n = 10), continuous training group (CTG n = 9) or interval training group (ITG, n = 10)...
March 12, 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Steven Caskey, Jonathan Stirling, John E Moore, Jacqueline C Rendall
Chronic P. aeruginosa infection is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Current understanding of risk factors for acquisition is limited and so the aim of this study was to examine a large sample of environmental waters from diverse sources. Environmental water samples [n= 7904] from jacuzzis, hydrants, swimming pools, hot tubs, plunge pools, bottled natural mineral water (NMW), taps, springs, ice machines, water coolers, bores and showers were examined for the presence of P...
March 14, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
R Brackley, M C Lucas, R Thomas, C E Adams, C W Bean
This study assessed the usefulness of passing euthanized Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts through an Archimedean screw turbine to test for external damage, as compared with live, actively swimming smolts. Scale loss was the only observed effect. Severe scale loss was 5·9 times more prevalent in euthanized turbine-passed fish (45%) than the live fish (7·6%). Additionally, distinctive patterns of scale loss, consistent with grinding between the turbine helices and housing trough, were observed in 35% of euthanized turbine-passed smolts...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Dayanne S Lima-Borges, Paula F Martinez, Luiz Carlos M Vanderlei, Fernando S S Barbosa, Silvio A Oliveira-Junior
OBJECTIVES: Young athletes' participation in competitive sports is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the occurrence of overtraining and sports injuries. Since these issues are poorly understood, this study analyzed heart rate variability, stress/recovery relationship, and sports injury incidence during a training macrocycle of young sprint and endurance swimmers. METHODS: Thirty teenage swimmers (aged 12 to 17 years) were divided into two groups as follows: Sprint (n=17) and Endurance (n=13)...
March 14, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
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