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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351336/chemotactic-drift-speed-for-bacterial-motility-pattern-with-two-alternating-turning-events
#1
Evgeniya V Pankratova, Alena I Kalyakulina, Mikhail I Krivonosov, Sergei V Denisov, Katja M Taute, Vasily Yu Zaburdaev
Bacterial chemotaxis is one of the most extensively studied adaptive responses in cells. Many bacteria are able to bias their apparently random motion to produce a drift in the direction of the increasing chemoattractant concentration. It has been recognized that the particular motility pattern employed by moving bacteria has a direct impact on the efficiency of chemotaxis. The linear theory of chemotaxis pioneered by de Gennes allows for calculation of the drift velocity in small gradients for bacteria with basic motility patterns...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351066/contamination-of-swimming-pools-and-hot-tubs-biofilms-with-acanthamoeba
#2
Behroz Mahdavi Poor, Abdolhossein Dalimi, Fatemeh Ghafarifar, Fariba Khoshzaban, Jalal Abdolalizadeh
The members of Acanthamoeba genus are ubiquitous amoeba which could be a pathogenic parasite. The amoeba is resistant to the common chlorine concentration that used for disinfecting the swimming pool water. Therefore, the pools can be suitable environments for the survival and multiplication of the amoeba. In this cross sectional study, 10 indoor recreational water centers from different regions of Tabriz city were selected and sampling was done from fixed and floating biofilms of the swimming pools and hot tubs...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350276/effect-of-swimming-exercise-on-premenstrual-syndrome
#3
Ahmed Mohamed Maged, Amr H Abbassy, Hend R S Sakr, Heba Elsawah, Heba Wagih, Asmaa I Ogila, Amal Kotb
OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness of performing swimming on the severity of symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized controlled trial that was conducted on 70 women diagnosed with PMS divided randomly into two equal groups: Group I included women who engaged into exercise and group II controls. Daily Symptoms Report was filled at the start and at end of the study. RESULTS: At the posttreatment evaluation, there was a highly significant difference between the study and control groups regarding anxiety (0 vs...
January 19, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350264/linking-muscle-metabolism-and-functional-variation-to-field-swimming-performance-in-bluegill-sunfish-lepomis-macrochirus
#4
David J Ellerby, Shauna Cyr, Angela X Han, Mika Lin, Lloyd A Trueblood
Skeletal muscle has diverse mechanical roles during locomotion. In swimming fish, power-producing muscles work in concert with the accessory muscles of the fins which augment and control power transfer to the water. Although fin muscles represent a significant proportion of the locomotor muscle mass, their physiological properties are poorly characterized. To examine the relationship between muscle metabolism and the differing mechanical demands placed on distinct muscle groups, we quantified the aerobic and glycolytic capacities of the myotomal, pectoral and caudal muscles of bluegill sunfish...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348729/panax-ginseng-exerts-antidepressant-like-effects-by-suppressing-neuroinflammatory-response-and-upregulating-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2-signaling-in-the-amygdala
#5
Jong Hee Choi, Min Jung Lee, Minhee Jang, Hak-Jae Kim, Sanghyun Lee, Sang Won Lee, Young Ock Kim, Ik-Hyun Cho
Background: Depression is one of the most commonly diagnosed neuropsychiatric diseases, but the underlying mechanism and medicine are not well-known. Although Panax ginseng has been reported to exert protective effects in various neurological studies, little information is available regarding its antidepressant effects. Methods: Here, we examined the antidepressant effect and underlying mechanism of P. ginseng extract (PGE) in a chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced depression model in mice...
January 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348553/night-eating-model-shows-time-specific-depression-like-behavior-in-the-forced-swimming-test
#6
Atsushi Haraguchi, Miyabi Fukuzawa, Shiho Iwami, Yutaro Nishimura, Hiroaki Motohashi, Yu Tahara, Shigenobu Shibata
The circadian clock system is associated with feeding and mood. Patients with night eating syndrome (NES) delay their eating rhythm and their mood declines during the evening and night, manifesting as time-specific depression. Therefore, we hypothesized that the NES feeding pattern might cause time-specific depression. We established new NES model by restricted feeding with high-fat diet during the inactive period under normal-fat diet ad libitum. The FST (forced swimming test) immobility time in the NES model group was prolonged only after lights-on, corresponding to evening and early night for humans...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347779/effective-viscosity-of-a-suspension-of-flagellar-beating-microswimmers-three-dimensional-modeling
#7
Levan Jibuti, Walter Zimmermann, Salima Rafaï, Philippe Peyla
Micro-organisms usually can swim in their liquid environment by flagellar or ciliary beating. In this numerical work, we analyze the influence of flagellar beating on the orbits of a swimming cell in a shear flow. We also calculate the effect of the flagellar beating on the rheology of a dilute suspension of microswimmers. A three-dimensional model is proposed for Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii swimming with a breaststroke-like beating of two anterior flagella modeled by two counter-rotating fore beads. The active swimmer model reveals unusual angular orbits in a linear shear flow...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347649/pressure-and-flow-of-exponentially-self-correlated-active-particles
#8
Cato Sandford, Alexander Y Grosberg, Jean-François Joanny
Microscopic swimming particles, which dissipate energy to execute persistent directed motion, are a classic example of a nonequilibrium system. We investigate the noninteracting Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Particle (OUP), which is propelled through a viscous medium by a force which is correlated over a finite time. We obtain an exact expression for the steady-state phase-space density of a single OUP confined by a quadratic potential, and use the result to explore more complex geometries, both through analytical approximations and numerical simulations...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347505/diffusivity-of-e-coli-like-microswimmers-in-confined-geometries-the-role-of-the-tumbling-rate
#9
Giorgia Guccione, Daniela Pimponi, Paolo Gualtieri, Mauro Chinappi
We analyzed the effect of confinement on the effective diffusion of a run-and-tumble E. coli-like flagellated microswimmer. We used a simulation protocol where the run phases are obtained via a fully resolved swimming problem, i.e., Stokes equations for the fluid coupled with rigid-body dynamics for the microorganism, while tumbles and collisions with the walls are modeled as random reorientation of the microswimmer. For weak confinement, the swimmer is trapped in circular orbits close to the solid walls. In this case, optimal diffusivity is observed when the tumbling frequency is comparable with the angular velocity of the stable orbits...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347410/mode-coupling-theory-for-active-brownian-particles
#10
Alexander Liluashvili, Jonathan Ónody, Thomas Voigtmann
We present a mode-coupling theory (MCT) for the slow dynamics of two-dimensional spherical active Brownian particles (ABPs). The ABPs are characterized by a self-propulsion velocity v_{0} and by their translational and rotational diffusion coefficients D_{t} and D_{r}, respectively. Based on the integration-through-transients formalism, the theory requires as input only the equilibrium static structure factors of the passive system (where v_{0}=0). It predicts a nontrivial idealized-glass-transition diagram in the three-dimensional parameter space of density, self-propulsion velocity, and rotational diffusivity that arise because at high densities, the persistence length of active swimming ℓ_{p}=v_{0}/D_{r} interferes with the interaction length ℓ_{c} set by the caging of particles...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347300/swimming-efficiency-in-a-shear-thinning-fluid
#11
Herve Nganguia, Kyle Pietrzyk, On Shun Pak
Micro-organisms expend energy moving through complex media. While propulsion speed is an important property of locomotion, efficiency is another factor that may determine the swimming gait adopted by a micro-organism in order to locomote in an energetically favorable manner. The efficiency of swimming in a Newtonian fluid is well characterized for different biological and artificial swimmers. However, these swimmers often encounter biological fluids displaying shear-thinning viscosities. Little is known about how this nonlinear rheology influences the efficiency of locomotion...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347147/generalized-run-and-turn-motions-from-bacteria-to-l%C3%A3-vy-walks
#12
François Detcheverry
Swimming bacteria exhibit a repertoire of motility patterns, in which persistent motion is interrupted by turning events. What are the statistical properties of such random walks? If some particular instances have long been studied, the general case where turning times do not follow a Poisson process has remained unsolved. We present a generic extension of the continuous time random walks formalism relying on operators and noncommutative calculus. The approach is first applied to a unimodal model of bacterial motion...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346379/a-putative-lateral-flagella-of-the-cystic-fibrosis-pathogen-burkholderia-dolosa-regulates-swimming-motility-and-host-cytokine-production
#13
Damien Roux, Matthew Schaefers, Bradley S Clark, Molly Weatherholt, Diane Renaud, David Scott, John J LiPuma, Gregory Priebe, Craig Gerard, Deborah R Yoder-Himes
Burkholderia dolosa caused an outbreak in the cystic fibrosis clinic at Boston Children's Hospital and was associated with high mortality in these patients. This species is part of a larger complex of opportunistic pathogens known as the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). Compared to other species in the Bcc, B. dolosa is highly transmissible; thus understanding its virulence mechanisms is important for preventing future outbreaks. The genome of one of the outbreak strains, AU0158, revealed a homolog of the lafA gene encoding a putative lateral flagellin, which, in other non-Bcc species, is used for movement on solid surfaces, attachment to host cells, or movement inside host cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345161/caffeine-improves-triathlon-performance-a-field-study-in-males-and-females
#14
Sunita Potgieter, Hattie H Wright, Carine Smith
The ergogenic effect of caffeine on endurance exercise is commonly accepted. We aimed to elucidate realistically the effect of caffeine on triathlon event performance using a field study design, while allowing investigation into potential mechanisms at play. A double-blind, randomized, crossover, field trial was conducted. Twenty-six triathletes (14 males, 12 females) participated (age: 37.8±10.6 years, habitual caffeine intake: 413±505 mg/day, percentage body fat: 14.5±7.2%, training/week: 12.8±4.5 hours)...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343730/first-estimates-of-greenland-shark-somniosus-microcephalus-local-abundances-in-arctic-waters
#15
Brynn M Devine, Laura J Wheeland, Jonathan A D Fisher
Baited remote underwater video cameras were deployed in the Eastern Canadian Arctic, for the purpose of estimating local densities of the long-lived Greenland shark within five deep-water, data-poor regions of interest for fisheries development and marine conservation in Nunavut, Canada. A total of 31 camera deployments occurred between July-September in 2015 and 2016 during joint exploratory fishing and scientific cruises. Greenland sharks appeared at 80% of deployments. A total of 142 individuals were identified and no individuals were observed in more than one deployment...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343597/evidence-for-dispersal-syndromes-in-freshwater-fishes
#16
Lise Comte, Julian D Olden
Dispersal is a fundamental process defining the distribution of organisms and has long been a topic of inquiry in ecology and evolution. Emerging research points to an interdependency of dispersal with a diverse suite of traits in terrestrial organisms, however the extent to which such dispersal syndromes exist in freshwater species remains uncertain. Here, we test whether dispersal in freshwater fishes (1) is a fixed property of species, and (2) correlates with life-history, morphological, ecological and behavioural traits, using a global dataset of dispersal distances collected from the literature encompassing 116 riverine species and 196 locations...
January 31, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342146/a-theory-of-how-active-behavior-stabilises-neural-activity-neural-gain-modulation-by-closed-loop-environmental-feedback
#17
Christopher L Buckley, Taro Toyoizumi
During active behaviours like running, swimming, whisking or sniffing, motor actions shape sensory input and sensory percepts guide future motor commands. Ongoing cycles of sensory and motor processing constitute a closed-loop feedback system which is central to motor control and, it has been argued, for perceptual processes. This closed-loop feedback is mediated by brainwide neural circuits but how the presence of feedback signals impacts on the dynamics and function of neurons is not well understood. Here we present a simple theory suggesting that closed-loop feedback between the brain/body/environment can modulate neural gain and, consequently, change endogenous neural fluctuations and responses to sensory input...
January 17, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340835/repurposed-fda-approved-drugs-targeting-genes-influencing-aging-can-extend-lifespan-and-healthspan-in-rotifers
#18
Terry W Snell, Rachel K Johnston, Amelia B Matthews, Hongyi Zhou, Mu Gao, Jeffrey Skolnick
Pharmaceutical interventions can slow aging in animals, and have advantages because their dose can be tightly regulated and the timing of the intervention can be closely controlled. They also may complement environmental interventions like caloric restriction by acting additively. A fertile source for therapies slowing aging is FDA approved drugs whose safety has been investigated. Because drugs bind to several protein targets, they cause multiple effects, many of which have not been characterized. It is possible that some of the side effects of drugs prescribed for one therapy may have benefits in retarding aging...
January 16, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339988/impact-of-futsal-and-swimming-participation-on-bone-health-in-young-athletes
#19
André Seabra, Ricardo J Fernandes, Elisa Marques, Miguel Moura, Esther Ubago-Guisado, Enrique Hernando, Leonor Gallardo
Physical activity plays a crucial role in bone mass acquisition during childhood and adolescence, with weightbearing and high-impact sport activities being more beneficial. This study sought to evaluate the impact of different sports activities on bone mineral density and content in male Portuguese athletes. Seventy adolescent boys (aged 12-15 years) including 28 futsal players (FG), 20 swimmers (SG) and 22 non-athletic adolescents used as control subjects (CG), participated in the current study. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and areal bone mineral content (aBMC) were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339985/butterfly-sprint-swimming-technique-analysis-of-somatic-and-spatial-temporal-coordination-variables
#20
Marek Strzała, Arkadiusz Stanula, Piotr Krężałek, Andrzej Ostrowski, Marcin Kaca, Grzegorz Głąb
The aim of this study was to investigate somatic properties and force production of leg extensor muscles measured in the countermovement jump test (CMJ), as well as to analyse kinematic variables of sprint surface butterfly swimming. Thirty-four male competitive swimmers were recruited with an average age of 19.3 ± 1.83 years. Their average body height (BH) was 183.7 ± 5.93 cm, body fat content 10.8 ± 2.64% and body mass (BM) 78.3 ± 5.0 kg. Length measurements of particular body segments were taken and a counter movement jump (CMJ) as well as an all-out 50 m butterfly speed test were completed...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
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