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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812416/role-of-branchiomotor-neurons-in-controlling-food-intake-of-zebrafish-larvae
#1
James R Allen, Kiran D Bhattacharyya, Emilia Asante, Badr Almadi, Kyle Schafer, Jeremy Davis, Jane Cox, Mark Voigt, John A Viator, Anand Chandrasekhar
The physical act of eating or feeding involves the coordinated action of several organs like eyes and jaws, and associated neural networks. Moreover, the activity of the neural networks controlling jaw movements (branchiomotor circuits) is regulated by the visual, olfactory, gustatory and hypothalamic systems, which are largely well characterized at the physiological level. By contrast, the behavioral output of the branchiomotor circuits and the functional consequences of disruption of these circuits by abnormal neural development are poorly understood...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812258/chromosomal-flhb1-gene-of-the-alphaproteobacterium-azospirillum-brasilense-sp245-is-essential-for-correct-assembly-of-both-constitutive-polar-flagellum-and-inducible-lateral-flagella
#2
Yulia Filip'echeva, Andrei Shelud'ko, Alexei Prilipov, Elizaveta Telesheva, Dmitry Mokeev, Andrei Burov, Lilia Petrova, Elena Katsy
Azospirillum brasilense has the ability of swimming and swarming motility owing to the work of a constitutive polar flagellum and inducible lateral flagella, respectively. The interplay between these flagellar systems is poorly understood. One of the key elements of the flagellar export apparatus is the protein FlhB. Two predicted flhB genes are present in the genome of A. brasilense Sp245 (accession nos. HE577327-HE577333). Experimental evidence obtained here indicates that the chromosomal coding sequence (CDS) AZOBR_150177 (flhB1) of Sp245 is essential for the production of both types of flagella...
August 15, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811490/mammary-tumors-induce-central-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-but-not-behavioral-deficits-in-balb-c-mice
#3
William H Walker Ii, Jeremy C Borniger, Surbhi, Abigail A Zalenski, Stevie L Muscarella, Julie A Fitzgerald, Ning Zhang, Monica M Gaudier-Diaz, A Courtney DeVries
Breast cancer survivors are more likely to develop mood disorders and cognitive deficits than women in the general population. Previous studies suggest that peripheral tumors elicit central pro-inflammatory cytokine production, in turn leading to depression and cognitive deficits. In the current study, two cohorts of female Balb/C mice received bilateral orthotopic injections of syngeneic 67NR, 4T07, or 4T1cells (1 × 10(5) cells per injection) to induce mammary tumors. Approximately three weeks later, learned fear (via fear conditioning) or depressive-like behavior (via tail suspension and forced swim test) was assessed...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811019/introducing-a-new-and-rapid-microextraction-approach-based-on-magnetic-ionic-liquids-stir-bar-dispersive-liquid-microextraction
#4
Alberto Chisvert, Juan L Benedé, Jared L Anderson, Stephen A Pierson, Amparo Salvador
With the aim of contributing to the development and improvement of microextraction techniques, a novel approach combining the principles and advantages of stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) is presented. This new approach, termed stir bar dispersive liquid microextraction (SBDLME), involves the addition of a magnetic ionic liquid (MIL) and a neodymium-core magnetic stir bar into the sample allowing the MIL coat the stir bar due to physical forces (i.e., magnetism)...
August 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810991/posterior-cruciate-ligament-injuries-associated-with-military-survival-swim-training
#5
Michael S Crowell, John S Mason, Matthew A Posner, Chad A Haley
OBJECTIVES: Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries are relatively common injuries associated with athletic activities and high-energy trauma. Posterolateral corner (PLC) injuries frequently accompany injury to the PCL. Diagnosis can be challenging and requires a comprehensive history and physical examination. Patients frequently report vague, nonspecific symptoms and the mechanism of injury is often useful in localizing injured structures. Two of the more common mechanisms for PCL injury include a direct blow to the proximal anterior tibia with the knee flexed, as well as a significant knee hyperextension injury...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810562/anti-depressant-like-effects-of-jieyu-chufan-capsules-in-a-mouse-model-of-unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress
#6
Hui Zhao, Bingyu Liang, Linjie Yu, Yun Xu
Jieyu chufan (JYCF) is a well-known Chinese traditional medicine used for depression; however, the molecular mechanism underlying its anti-depressant action has remained elusive. In the present study, the anti-depressant effects of JYCF and the potential mechanisms were investigated in a mouse model. Five groups of 12 C57BL/6 mice each were used in the study, including a normal control group (NC group), a model control group (MC group) and three groups, which received different doses of JYCF (1.25, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) orally for 21 days (JYCF groups)...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809869/-some-considerations-on-revision-of-legislation-hygiene-sanitary-for-the-management-of-swimming-pools-for-swimming-pool-use-and-the-national-consultation-of-the-ministry-of-health
#7
Federica Valeriani, Rossella Briancesco, Sara Sanzari, Gianluca Gianfranceschi, Emanuele Ferretti, Lucia Bonadonna, Vincenzo Romano Spica
After over a decade the Italian regulation on hygiene and surveillance in swimming pools is under revision based on WHO guidelines and current laws from other European countries. The Ministry of Health is proposing an update of the Annex 1 that contains physical, chemical and microbiological indicators for monitoring swimming pool hygiene. The authors review current regulations and the new proposal for updating surveillance. A comparison of Annex 1 as approved in 2003 and the new version as proposed in 2016 allowed to enlighten innovative improvements...
May 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808766/water-penetration-of-grommets-an-in-vitro-study
#8
Yousef Ibrahim, Paul Fram, Gavin Hughes, Pete Phillips, David Owens
The insertion of grommets has been one of the most common procedures carried out by ENT surgeons for patients with persistent middle ear fluid. There has always been apprehension at the use of grommets by patients undertaking swimming or other water sports due to concerns of grommet penetration by water into the middle ear. Despite this, no common consensus exists amongst otolaryngologists regarding post-operative advice following grommet insertion. Most studies focus on surface swimming and do not consider other activities such as diving that patients may undertake...
August 14, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808405/catha-edulis-forsk-khat-evaluation-of-its-antidepressant-like-activity
#9
Hassan Alfaifi, Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab, Syam Mohan, Manal Mohamed Elhassan Taha, Sohier M Syame, Lamiaa A Shaala, Rashad Alsanosy
BACKGROUND: Catha edulis Forsk. (Khat) is traditionally used for treating various disorders. Nevertheless there are no reports of any scientific assessment of its psychopharmacological properties. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, the current study was designed to evaluate the antidepressant-like activity of Khat ethanolic extract using established animal models of depression and stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety healthy male albino mice were used in this study...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807934/a-novel-bounding-gait-in-swimming-turtles-implications-for-aquatic-locomotor-diversity
#10
Christopher J Mayerl, Richard W Blob
Turtles are an iconic lineage in studies of animal locomotion, typifying the use of slow, alternating footfalls during walking. Alternating movements of contralateral limbs are also typical during swimming gaits for most freshwater turtles. Here, we report a novel gait in turtles, in which the pleurodire Emydura subglobosa swims using a bounding gait that coordinates bilateral protraction of both forelimbs with bilateral retraction of both hindlimbs. Use of this bounding gait is correlated with increased limb excursion and decreased stride frequency, but not increased velocity when compared to standard swimming strokes...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807503/morphological-physiological-and-dietary-covariation-in-migratory-and-resident-adult-brown-trout-salmo-trutta
#11
Kathryn S Peiman, Kim Birnie-Gauvin, Martin H Larsen, Scott F Colborne, Kathleen M Gilmour, Kim Aarestrup, William G Willmore, Steven J Cooke
The causes and consequences of trait relationships within and among the categories of physiology, morphology, and life-history remain poorly studied. Few studies cross the boundaries of these categories, and recent reviews have pointed out not only the dearth of evidence for among-category correlations but that trait relationships may change depending on the ecological conditions a population faces. We examined changes in mean values and correlations between traits in a partially migrant population of brown trout when migrant sea-run and resident stream forms were breeding sympatrically...
July 14, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807106/developmental-adaptations-of-trypanosome-motility-to-the-tsetse-fly-host-environments-unravel-a-multifaceted-in-vivo-microswimmer-system
#12
Sarah Schuster, Timothy Krüger, Ines Subota, Sina Thusek, Brice Rotureau, Andreas Beilhack, Markus Engstler
The highly motile and versatile protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma brucei undergoes a complex life cycle in the tsetse fly. Here we introduce the host insect as an expedient model environment for microswimmer research, as it allows examination of microbial motion within a diversified, secluded and yet microscopically tractable space. During their week-long journey through the different microenvironments of the fly´s interior organs, the incessantly swimming trypanosomes cross various barriers and confined surroundings, with concurrently occurring major changes of parasite cell architecture...
August 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805432/strain-dependent-sex-differences-in-a-long-term-forced-swim-paradigm
#13
José Colom-Lapetina, Sabrina L Begley, Megan E Johnson, Kristina J Bean, Whitney N Kuwamoto, Rebecca M Shansky
Women are twice as likely as men to suffer from trauma- and stressor-related disorders. The development of improved therapeutic interventions is contingent upon a more complete grasp of both the neural and behavioral dynamics of the stress response in females. The rodent forced swim test (FST) is a valuable animal model for exploring the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for selection of active and passive responses to inescapable stressors, but it is often neglected in 2-day FST studies is the dissociation of innate (Day 1) versus learned (Day 2) coping responses...
August 14, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804856/toxic-effects-of-copper-on-liver-and-cholinesterase-of-clarias-gariepinus
#14
Siti Nadzirah Padrilah, Siti Aqlima Ahmad, Nur Adeela Yasid, Mohd Khalizan Sabullah, Hassan Mohd Daud, Ariff Khalid, Mohd Yunus Shukor
The release of pollutants, especially heavy metals, into the aquatic environment is known to have detrimental effects on such an environment and on living organisms including humans when those pollutants are allowed to enter the food chain. The aim of this study is to analyse the damage to Clarias gariepinus' liver caused by exposure to different concentrations of copper. In the present study, samples of C. gariepinus were exposed to sub-lethal copper sulphate (CuSO4) concentrations (from 0.2 to 20.0 mg/L) for 96 h...
August 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804451/behavioral-changes-over-time-following-ayahuasca-exposure-in-zebrafish
#15
Robson Savoldi, Daniel Polari, Jaquelinne Pinheiro-da-Silva, Priscila F Silva, Bruno Lobao-Soares, Mauricio Yonamine, Fulvio A M Freire, Ana C Luchiari
The combined infusion of Banisteriopsis caapi stem and Psychotria viridis leaves, known as ayahuasca, has been used for centuries by indigenous tribes. The infusion is rich in N, N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, with properties similar to those of serotonin. Despite substantial progress in the development of new drugs to treat anxiety and depression, current treatments have several limitations. Alternative drugs, such as ayahuasca, may shed light on these disorders. Here, we present time-course behavioral changes induced by ayahuasca in zebrafish, as first step toward establishing an ideal concentration for pre-clinical evaluations...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804259/multi-fractal-characterization-of-bacterial-swimming-dynamics-a-case-study-on-real-and-simulated-serratia-marcescens
#16
Hana Koorehdavoudi, Paul Bogdan, Guopeng Wei, Radu Marculescu, Jiang Zhuang, Rika Wright Carlsen, Metin Sitti
To add to the current state of knowledge about bacterial swimming dynamics, in this paper, we study the fractal swimming dynamics of populations of Serratia marcescens bacteria both in vitro and in silico, while accounting for realistic conditions like volume exclusion, chemical interactions, obstacles and distribution of chemoattractant in the environment. While previous research has shown that bacterial motion is non-ergodic, we demonstrate that, besides the non-ergodicity, the bacterial swimming dynamics is multi-fractal in nature...
July 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803855/elucidating-the-functions-of-brain-gsk3%C3%AE-possible-synergy-with-gsk3%C3%AE-upregulation-and-reversal-by-antidepressant-treatment-in-a-mouse-model-of-depressive-like-behaviour
#17
Dmitri Pavlov, Nataliia Markova, Lucien Bettendorff, Vladimir Chekhonin, Igor Pomytkin, Viktoria Lioudyno, Andrei Svistunov, Eugene Ponomarev, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Tatyana Strekalova
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) has been linked to the mechanisms of stress, mood regulation, and the effects of antidepressants. The functions of the GSK3β isoform have been extensively investigated, but little is known about the α-isoform, although they may functionally related. In a recently established modified swim test with a third delayed swim exposure, brain GSK3β mRNA expression positively correlated with floating behavior on the third test. A two-week-long pretreatment regime with imipramine (7...
August 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803453/repeated-exposure-to-two-stressors-in-sequence-demonstrates-that-corticosterone-and-pvn-interleukin-1%C3%AE-responses-habituate-independently
#18
Dennis F Lovelock, Terrence Deak
A wide range of stress-related pathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder are thought to arise from aberrant or maladaptive forms of stress adaptation. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis readily adapts to repeated stressor exposure, yet little is known about adaptation in neuroimmune responses to repeated or sequential stress challenges. In Experiment 1, rats were exposed to ten days of restraint alone (60 min daily), forced swim alone (30 min daily), or daily sequential exposure to restraint (60 min) followed immediately by forced swim (30 minutes), termed sequential stress exposure...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803134/age-related-changes-of-physiological-performance-and-survivorship-of-bank-voles-selected-for-high-aerobic-capacity
#19
Agata Marta Rudolf, Maciej Jan Dańko, Edyta Teresa Sadowska, Geoffrey Dheyongera, Paweł Koteja
Variation in lifespans is an intriguing phenomenon, but how metabolic rate influence this variation remains unclear. High aerobic capacity can result in health benefits, but also in increased oxidative damage and accelerated ageing. We tested these contradictory predictions using bank voles (Myodes=Clethrionomys glareolus) from lines selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism (A), which had about 50% higher maximum metabolic rate and a higher basal and routine metabolic rates, than those from unselected control lines (C)...
August 9, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802958/interaction-of-erythromycin-and-ketoconazole-on-the-neurological-biochemical-and-behavioral-responses-in-crucian-carp
#20
Jianchao Liu, Yuanfei Cai, Guanghua Lu, Xiaoxiang Dan, Donghai Wu, Zhenhua Yan
The presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has received great attention due to their potential impacts on public health. The single, as well as the combined toxicities of erythromycin (ERY) and ketoconazole (KCZ) on the bioaccumulation, biochemical and behavioral responses, were examined in crucian carp. This study focused on the uptake of contaminants, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain, swimming and shoaling behavior of fish. After 14days of binary exposure, the addition of KCZ at nominal concentrations of 0...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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