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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637156/the-sink-or-swim-hypothesis-a-roadmap-from-pathology-to-work-instability
#1
Bilal Akter Mateen, Catherine Doogan, Kate Hayward, Susan Hourihan, Joanne Hurford, E Diane Playford
PURPOSE: Selecting the most appropriate health-related work outcome to evaluate an intervention can be fraught with difficulty. To aid clinicians in navigating this problem we have developed a model, which illustrates how pathology can affect specific measureable quantities, such as work instability. METHODS: Using a modified-Delphi procedure, a panel of experts met initially to analyze the content of 95 health-related work outcome measures and organize the identified areas of measurement into a coherent model, complemented by a narrative review of the literature...
March 3, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637123/inhibition-of-swarming-motility-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-by-methanol-extracts-of-alpinia-officinarum-hance-and-cinnamomum-tamala-t-nees-and-eberm
#2
Divya Lakshmanan, Jishudas Nanda, K Jeevaratnam
Bacterial drug resistance is a challenge in clinical settings, especially in countries like India. Hence, discovery of novel alternative therapeutics has become a necessity in the fight against drug resistance. Compounds that inhibit bacterial virulence properties form new therapeutic alternatives. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic, nosocomial pathogen that infects immune-compromised patients. Swarming motility is an important virulence property of Pseudomonas which aids it in reaching host cells under nutrient limiting conditions...
June 15, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637051/teaching-transnasal-endoscopy-to-graduate-students-without-a-hospital-or-simulation-laboratory-pool-noodles-and-cadavers
#3
Shari Salzhauer Berkowitz
Purpose: This study reports on a training opportunity in endoscopy in which speech-language pathology graduate students use inanimate objects and cadavers. Best practices for transnasal endoscopy in vivo require a physician to be nearby, but many graduate programs do not have this access. Method: Endoscopy was offered as a graduate elective. Students (13 women) initially learned to manipulate the endoscope through the lumen of a swimming pool noodle that was embedded with trinkets...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636529/bladder-cancer-and-water-disinfection-by-product-exposures-through-multiple-routes-a-population-based-case-control-study-new-england-usa
#4
Laura E Beane Freeman, Kenneth P Cantor, Dalsu Baris, John R Nuckols, Alison Johnson, Joanne S Colt, Molly Schwenn, Mary H Ward, Jay H Lubin, Richard Waddell, G Monawar Hosain, Chris Paulu, Richard McCoy, Lee E Moore, An-Tsun Huang, Nat Rothman, Margaret R Karagas, Debra T Silverman
BACKGROUND: Ingestion of disinfection byproducts has been associated with bladder cancer in multiple studies. Although associations with other routes of exposure have been suggested, epidemiologic evidence is limited. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the relationship between bladder cancer and total, chlorinated, and brominated trihalomethanes (THMs) through various exposure routes. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study in New England ( cases; controls), we estimated lifetime exposure to THMs from ingestion, showering/bathing, and hours of swimming pool use...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634434/an-acidic-exopolysaccharide-from-haloarcula-hispanica-atcc33960-and-two-genes-responsible-for-its-synthesis
#5
Yang Lü, Hua Lu, Shiwei Wang, Jing Han, Hua Xiang, Cheng Jin
A 1.1 × 10(6) Da acidic exopolysaccharide (EPS) was purified from an extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula hispanica ATCC33960 with a production of 30 mg L(-1) when grown in AS-168 medium, which mainly composed of mannose and galactose with a small amount of glucose in a molar ratio of 55.9 : 43.2 : 0.9. Two glycosyltransferase genes (HAH_1662 and HAH_1667) were identified to be responsible for synthesis of the acidic EPS. Deletion of either HAH_1662 or HAH_1667 led to loss of the acidic EPS...
2017: Archaea: An International Microbiological Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633651/epidemiology-of-intestinal-helminthiasis-among-school-children-with-emphasis-on-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-in-wolaita-zone-southern-ethiopia
#6
Bereket Alemayehu, Zewdneh Tomass, Fiseha Wadilo, Dawit Leja, Song Liang, Berhanu Erko
BACKGROUND: Intestinal helminth infections are major parasitic diseases causing public health problems in Ethiopia. Although the epidemiology of these infections are well documented in Ethiopia, new transmission foci for schistosomiasis are being reported in different parts of the country. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal helminth infections among school children and determine the endemicity of schistosomiasis in Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia...
June 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632299/simningsorsakat-lung%C3%A3-dem-vid-svenska-f%C3%A3-rh%C3%A3-llanden-otillr%C3%A3-ckligt-studerat-erfarenheter-fr%C3%A3-n-vansbrosimningen-2016
#7
Annika Braman Eriksson, Martin Annsberg, Maria Hårdstedt
Swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE) has been described in sports and military medicine during strenuous swimming in open water. Symptoms include dyspnea, cough, frothy mucus and hemoptysis. Hypertension, a tight wetsuit, overhydration and previous episodes of SIPE are suggested risk factors. Immediate interruption of swimming prevents more serious symptoms. In the open water race at Vansbro 2016, 69 swimmers (of 13,878 in total) were treated for symptoms suspected for SIPE. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was successfully used to treat suspected SIPE in 46 patients in the on-site emergency care center...
June 20, 2017: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632275/architectures-of-soft-robotic-locomotion-enabled-by-simple-mechanical-principles
#8
Liangliang Zhu, Yunteng Cao, Yilun Liu, Zhe Yang, Xi Chen
In nature, a variety of limbless locomotion patterns flourish, from the small or basic life forms (Escherichia coli, amoebae, etc.) to the large or intelligent creatures (e.g., slugs, starfishes, earthworms, octopuses, jellyfishes, and snakes). Many bioinspired soft robots based on locomotion have been developed in the past few decades. In this work, based on the kinematics and dynamics of two representative locomotion modes (i.e., worm-like crawling and snake-like slithering), we propose a broad set of innovative designs for soft mobile robots through simple mechanical principles...
June 20, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629964/a-novel-heterocyclic-compound-improves-working-memory-in-the-radial-arm-maze-and-modulates-the-dopamine-receptor-d1r-in-frontal-cortex-of-the-sprague-dawley-rat
#9
Ahmed M Hussein, Yogesh D Aher, Predrag Kalaba, Nilima Y Aher, Vladimir Dragačević, Bojana Radoman, Marija Ilic, Johann Leban, Tetyana Beryozkina, Abdel Baset M A Ahmed, Ernst Urban, Thierry Langer, Gert Lubec
A series of compounds have been shown to enhance cognitive function via the dopaminergic system and indeed the search for more active and less toxic compounds is continuing. It was therefore the aim of the study to synthetise and test a novel heterocyclic compound for cognitive enhancement in a paradigm for working memory. Specific and effective dopamine re-uptake inhibition (DAT (IC50=4,1 ± 0,8μM) made us test this compound in a radial arm maze (RAM) in the rat. CE-125 (4-((benzhydrylsulfinyl)methyl)-2-cyclopropylthiazole), was tested for dopamine (DAT), serotonin and norepinephrine re-uptake inhibition by a well-established system...
June 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629963/environmental-enrichment-reduces-innate-anxiety-with-no-effect-on-depression-like-behaviour-in-mice-lacking-the-serotonin-transporter
#10
Jake Rogers, Shanshan Li, Laurence Lanfumey, Anthony J Hannan, Thibault Renoir
Along with being the main target of many antidepressant medications, the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is known to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety disorders. In line with this, mice with varying 5-HTT genotypes are invaluable tools to study depression- and anxiety-like behaviours as well as the mechanisms mediating potential therapeutics. There is clear evidence that both genetic and environmental factors play a role in the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. In that regard, housing paradigms which seek to enhance cognitive stimulation and physical activity have been shown to exert beneficial effects in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders...
June 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629794/uncoupling-effect-of-palmitate-is-exacerbated-in-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-of-sea-acclimatized-king-penguins-aptenodytes-patagonicus
#11
Benjamin Rey, Claude Duchamp, Damien Roussel
In king penguin juveniles, the environmental transition from a terrestrial to a marine habitat, occurring at fledging, drastically stimulates lipid catabolism and the remodelling of muscle mitochondria to sustain extensive swimming activity and thermoregulation in the cold circumpolar oceans. However, the exact nature of these mechanisms remains only partially resolved. Here we investigated, in vitro, the uncoupling effect of increasing doses of fatty acids in pectoralis muscle intermyofibrillar mitochondria isolated, either from terrestrial never-immersed or experimentally cold water immersed pre-fledging king penguins or from sea-acclimatized fledged penguins...
June 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629384/involvement-of-the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-and-glutamate-transporter-glt-1-in-antidepressant-like-effects-of-xiao-yao-san-on-chronically-stressed-mice
#12
Xiu-Fang Ding, Yue-Hua Li, Jia-Xu Chen, Long-Ji Sun, Hai-Yan Jiao, Xin-Xin Wang, Yan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Xiao Yao San (XYS) is an herbal prescription which is used in the treatment of depression for thousands of years from Song dynasty in China (960-1127 A.D.), and is the bestselling and most popular herb formula for treating major depression. This study aimed to assess the chronic antidepressant effects of XYS and fluoxetine in depressed mice induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and its association with  alterations in glutamate/glutamine cycle and glutamate transporters...
June 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628968/performance-trends-in-age-group-triathletes-in-the-olympic-distance-triathlon-at-the-world-championships-2009-2014
#13
Martin Wonerow, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
Performance trends in elite triathletes competing in age group classes have been investigated for Ironman triathlon in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ but not for short distance triathletes competing at international level in event such as the Olympic distance triathlon at the World Championships. The aim of the present study was to evaluate participation and performance trends of age group triathletes competing in the Olympic distance triathlon at the ITU (International Triathlon Union) World Championships 2009-2014...
June 30, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627439/mitochondrial-prohibitin-and-its-ubiquitination-during-spermatogenesis-of-the-swimming-crab-charybdis-japonica
#14
Ya-Ru Xu, Yun-Shu Fan, Wan-Xi Yang
It has been proposed that prohibitin (PHB) involved in multiple cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, senescence and carcinogenesis. Various cellular compartment location of PHB demonstrates its diverse roles. Based on the full-length sequence of PHB gene, we analyzed the deduced amino acid sequence and the predicted protein structure of this gene in the swimming crab Charybdis japonica. It shows that the structure and function of PHB are conservative. The expression level of PHB mRNA and protein in different tissues were analyzed by sqRT-PCR and western blot respectively, which showed its high expression in testis...
June 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627408/developmental-exposure-to-glyphosate-based-herbicide-and-depressive-like-behavior-in-adult-offspring-implication-of-glutamate-excitotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress
#15
Daiane Cattani, Patrícia Acordi Cesconetto, Mauren Kruger Tavares, Eduardo Benedetti Parisotto, Paulo Alexandre De Oliveira, Carla Elise Heinz Rieg, Marina Concli Leite, Rui Daniel Schröder Prediger, Nestor Cubas Wendt, Guilherme Razzera, Danilo Wilhelm Filho, Ariane Zamoner
We have previously demonstrated that maternal exposure to glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) leads to glutamate excitotoxicity in 15-day-old rat hippocampus. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of subchronic exposure to GBH on some neurochemical and behavioral parameters in immature and adult offspring. Rats were exposed to 1% GBH in drinking water (corresponding to 0.36% of glyphosate) from gestational day 5 until postnatal day (PND)-15 or PND60. Results showed that GBH exposure during both prenatal and postnatal periods causes oxidative stress, affects cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in offspring hippocampus from immature and adult rats...
June 13, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626607/phenotypic-variation-in-dorsal-fin-morphology-of-coastal-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-off-mexico
#16
Eduardo Morteo, Axayácatl Rocha-Olivares, Rodrigo Morteo, David W Weller
Geographic variation in external morphology is thought to reflect an interplay between genotype and the environment. Morphological variation has been well-described for a number of cetacean species, including the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). In this study we analyzed dorsal fin morphometric variation in coastal bottlenose dolphins to search for geographic patterns at different spatial scales. A total of 533 dorsal fin images from 19 available photo-identification catalogs across the three Mexican oceanic regions (Pacific Ocean n = 6, Gulf of California n = 6 and, Gulf of Mexico n = 7) were used in the analysis...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625859/harmine-produces-antidepressant-like-effects-via-restoration-of-astrocytic-functions
#17
Fengguo Liu, Jingjing Wu, Yu Gong, Peng Wang, Lei Zhu, Li-Juan Tong, Xiangfan Chen, Yong Ling, Chao Huang
Depression is a world-wide disease with no effective therapeutic methods. Increasing evidence indicates that astrocytic pathology contributes to the formation of depression. In this study, we investigated the effects of harmine, a natural β-carboline alkaloid and potent hallucinogen, known to modulate astrocytic glutamate transporters, on chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced depressive-like behaviors and astrocytic dysfunctions. Results showed that harmine treatment (10, 20mg/kg) protected the mice against the CUS-induced increases in the immobile time in the tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST), and also reversed the reduction in sucrose intake in the sucrose preference experiment...
June 15, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623724/sub-lethal-pharmaceutical-hazard-tracking-in-adult-zebrafish-using-untargeted-lc-ms-environmental-metabolomics
#18
Ryan B De Sotto, Carl D Medriano, Yunchul Cho, Hyuk Kim, In-Young Chung, Kwang-Seol Seok, Kyung Guen Song, Seok Won Hong, Youngja Park, Sungpyo Kim
Antibiotics in the aquatic environment are dispersed through anthropogenic activities at low concentrations. Despite their sub lethal concentration, these biologically active compounds may still have adverse effects to non-target species. This study examined the response of adult zebrafish to 0.1mg/L concentration of clarithromycin, florfenicol, sulfamethazine, and their mixture using environmental metabolomics. Embryo and larvae of the fish were also used to assess fish embryo acute toxicity and behavior tests respectively...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623664/mechanosensory-neurons-control-the-timing-of-spinal-microcircuit-selection-during-locomotion
#19
Claire Wyart, Steven Knafo, Kevin Fidelin, Andrew Prendergast, Po-En Brian Tseng, Alexandre Parrin, Charles William Dickey, Urs Lucas Böhm, Sophie Nunes FIgueiredo, Olivier Thouvenin, Hugues Pascal-Moussellard
Despite numerous physiological studies about reflexes in the spinal cord, the contribution of mechanosensory feedback to active locomotion and the nature of underlying spinal circuits remains elusive. Here we investigate how mechanosensory feedback shapes active locomotion in a genetic model organism exhibiting simple locomotion-the zebrafish larva. We show that mechanosensory feedback enhances the recruitment of motor pools during active locomotion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that inputs from mechanosensory neurons increase locomotor speed by prolonging fast swimming at the expense of slow swimming during stereotyped acoustic escape responses...
June 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623605/cathepsin-c-aggravates-neuroinflammation-involved-in-disturbances-of-behaviour-and-neurochemistry-in-acute-and-chronic-stress-induced-murine-model-of-depression
#20
Yanli Zhang, Kai Fan, Yanna Liu, Gang Liu, Xiaohan Yang, Jianmei Ma
Major depression has been interpreted as an inflammatory disease characterized by cell-mediated immune activation, which is generally triggered by various stresses. Microglia has been thought to be the cellular link between inflammation and depression-like behavioural alterations. The expression of cathepsin C (Cat C), a lysosomal proteinase, is predominantly induced in microglia in neuroinflammation. However, little is known about the role of Cat C in pathophysiology of depression. In the present study, Cat C transgenic mice and wild type mice were subjected to an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (0...
June 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
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