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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918358/the-role-of-central-and-medial-amygdala-in-normal-and-abnormal-aggression-a-review-of-classical-approaches
#1
REVIEW
Jozsef Haller
The involvement of the amygdala in aggression is supported by overwhelming evidence. Frequently, however, the amygdala is studied as a whole, despite its complex internal organization. To reveal the role of various subdivisions, here we review the involvement of the central and medial amygdala in male rivalry aggression, maternal aggression, predatory aggression, and models of abnormal aggression where violent behavior is associated with increased or decreased arousal. We conclude that: (1) rivalry aggression is controlled by the medial amygdala; (2) predatory aggression is controlled by the central amygdala; (3) hypoarousal-associated violent aggression recruits both nuclei, (4) a specific upregulation of the medial amygdala was observed in hyperarousal-driven aggression...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914459/testing-a-biopsychosocial-model-of-the-basic-birth-beliefs
#2
Heidi Preis, Rony Chen, Michal Eisner, Joseph Pardo, Yoav Peled, Arnon Wiznitzer, Yael Benyamini
BACKGROUND: Women perceive what birth is even before they are pregnant for the first time. Part of this conceptualization is the basic belief about birth as a medical and natural process. These two separate beliefs are pivotal in the decision-making process about labor and birth. Adapting Engel's biopsychosocial framework, we explored the importance of a wide range of factors which may contribute to these beliefs among first-time mothers. METHOD: This observational study included 413 primiparae ≥24 weeks' gestation, recruited in medical centers and in natural birth communities in Israel...
September 15, 2017: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910302/a-look-back-on-how-far-to-walk-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-physical-access-to-skilled-care-for-childbirth-in-sub-saharan-africa
#3
Kerry L M Wong, Lenka Benova, Oona M R Campbell
OBJECTIVES: To (i) summarize the methods undertaken to measure physical accessibility as the spatial separation between women and health services, and (ii) establish the extent to which distance to skilled care for childbirth affects utilization in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHOD: We defined spatial separation as the distance/travel time between women and skilled care services. The use of skilled care at birth referred to either the location or attendant of childbirth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899653/role-of-autophagy-in-zika-virus-infection-and-pathogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Abhilash I Chiramel, Sonja M Best
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular pathway that culminates in lysosomal degradation of selected substrates. Autophagy can serve dual roles in virus infection with either pro- or antiviral functions depending on the virus and the stage of the viral replication cycle. Recent studies have suggested a role for autophagy in Zika virus (ZIKV) replication by demonstrating the accumulation of autophagic vesicles following ZIKV infection in both in vitro and in vivo models. In human fetal neural stem cells, ZIKV inhibits Akt-mTOR signaling to induce autophagy, increase virus replication and impede neurogenesis...
September 9, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899193/maternal-self-critical-and-dependent-personality-styles-and-mother-infant-communication
#5
Beatrice Beebe, Frank Lachmann
This study investigated mother-infant communication in relation to Blatt's measures of adult personality organization, namely, interpersonal relatedness and self-definition, defining the higher ends of these two measures as dependency and self-criticism, respectively. A nonclinical sample of 126 mother-infant dyads provided the data. An evaluation of maternal self-criticism and dependency was made six weeks postpartum; four months postpartum, mother-infant self- and interactive contingencies during face-to-face play were studied and analyzed in conjunction with the earlier evaluation...
June 2017: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898263/genome-wide-analysis-of-parent-of-origin-interaction-effects-with-environmental-exposure-pooxe-an-application-to-european-and-asian-cleft-palate-trios
#6
Øystein A Haaland, Astanand Jugessur, Miriam Gjerdevik, Julia Romanowska, Min Shi, Terri H Beaty, Mary L Marazita, Jeffrey C Murray, Allen J Wilcox, Rolv T Lie, Håkon K Gjessing
Cleft palate only is a common birth defect with high heritability. Only a small fraction of this heritability is explained by the genetic variants identified so far, underscoring the need to investigate other disease mechanisms, such as gene-environment (GxE) interactions and parent-of-origin (PoO) effects. Furthermore, PoO effects may vary across exposure levels (PoOxE effects). Such variation is the focus of this study. We upgraded the R-package Haplin to enable direct tests of PoOxE effects at the genome-wide level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895873/prenatal-serum-concentrations-of-brominated-flame-retardants-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-intellectual-disability-in-the-early-markers-of-autism-study-a-population-based-case-control-study-in-california
#7
Kristen Lyall, Lisa A Croen, Lauren A Weiss, Martin Kharrazi, Michela Traglia, Gerald N Delorenze, Gayle C Windham
BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest neurodevelopmental impacts of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), but few have examined diagnosed developmental disorders. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to determine whether prenatal exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability without autism (ID). METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study including children with ASD (n=545) and ID (n=181) identified from the California Department of Developmental Services and general population (GP) controls (n=418) from state birth certificates...
August 30, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893758/antiretroviral-therapy-for-pregnant-women-living-with-hiv-or-hepatitis-b-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Reed A Siemieniuk, Farid Foroutan, Reza Mirza, Jinell Mah Ming, Paul E Alexander, Arnav Agarwal, Olufunmilayo Lesi, Arnaud Merglen, Yaping Chang, Yuan Zhang, Hassan Mir, Elliot Hepworth, Yung Lee, Dena Zeraatkar, Gordon H Guyatt
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of various antiretroviral/antiviral regimens in pregnant women living with HIV or hepatitis B virus (HBV). DESIGN: We performed random effects meta-analysis for HIV-related outcomes and network meta-analysis for HBV outcomes, and used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework to assess quality separately for each outcome. DATA SOURCES: Embase and Medline to February 2017...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893662/spatial-memory-related-brain-activity-in-normally-reared-and-different-maternal-separation-models-in-rats
#9
María Banqueri, Marta Méndez, Jorge L Arias
Early life stress comprises a wide range of adverse events that can occur in the subject's early developmental stages: from child abuse to rodent repeated maternal separation models. This study used young adult male Wistar rats that were maternally raised (AFR), maternally separated from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND10 (MS10), or maternally separated from PND1 to PND21 (MS21), to assess the effects of maternal separation on spatial learning and memory using the Morris Water Maze (MWM). We also performed quantitative cytochrome oxidase (COx) histochemistry on some selected brain areas in order to find out whether maternal separation affects brain energy metabolism...
September 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891361/risk-factors-and-complications-of-manual-placental-removal-after-vaginal-delivery-how-common-are-additional-invasive-procedures
#10
Matan Anteby, Ariel Many, Eran Ashwal, Yariv Yogev, Shiri Shinar
PURPOSE: To assess risk factors and complications of manual placental removal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An historical prospective study of all parturients undergoing manual placental removal between 2012-2014. Parturients were matched by time of delivery with parturients delivering vaginally with spontaneous placental separation. Multiple gestations, preterm deliveries, incomplete placental separation and uterine malformations were excluded. Delivery characteristics and short term complications were studied...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890000/maternal-drd2-slc6a3-and-oxtr-genotypes-as-potential-moderators-of-the-relation-between-maternal-history-of-care-and-maternal-cortisol-secretion-in-the-context-of-mother-infant-separation
#11
Jaclyn A Ludmer, Brittany Jamieson, Andrea Gonzalez, Robert Levitan, James Kennedy, Vanessa Villani, Mario Masellis, Vincenzo S Basile, Leslie Atkinson
A mother's cortisol secretion is importantly associated with her own mental health and her infant's cortisol secretion. This study investigated the influences of maternal history of care and maternal DRD2, SLC6A3, and OXTR genotypes on maternal cortisol in the context of infant stress. A community sample of 296 mother-infant dyads completed a maternal separation at infant age 17 months. Maternal salivary cortisol, buccal cells, and self-reported history of care were collected. Multilevel models revealed that history of care had a greater influence on maternal baseline cortisol (but not cortisol trajectory) for mothers with more plasticity alleles of SLC6A3 (10R) and OXTR (G), relative to mothers with fewer or no plasticity alleles...
September 7, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889814/distinguishing-postpartum-and-antepartum-depressive-trajectories-in-a-large-population-based-cohort-the-impact-of-exposure-to-adversity-and-offspring-gender
#12
C A Denckla, A D Mancini, N S Consedine, S M Milanovic, A Basu, S Seedat, G Spies, D C Henderson, G A Bonanno, K C Koenen
BACKGROUND: Distinguishing temporal patterns of depressive symptoms during pregnancy and after childbirth has important clinical implications for diagnosis, treatment, and maternal and child outcomes. The primary aim of the present study was to distinguish patterns of chronically elevated levels of depressive symptoms v. trajectories that are either elevated during pregnancy but then remit after childbirth, v. patterns that increase after childbirth. METHODS: The report uses latent growth mixture modeling in a large, population-based cohort (N = 12 121) to investigate temporal patterns of depressive symptoms...
September 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885783/uterine-balloon-tamponade-for-the-management-of-postpartum-haemorrhage-a-challenge-and-an-opportunity-for-better-evidence
#13
O A Viteri, B M Sibai
Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide.The most common cause of PPH is uterine atony (80%) of cases, resulting from suboptimal uterine involution and poor contraction of spiral arteries following placental separation. The goal of therapy is timely intervention to prevent haemorrhagic hypovolemic shock, intravascular disseminated coagulopathy, reduced tissue perfusion, and metabolic acidosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 8, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884117/the-role-of-mirnas-as-biomarkers-for-pregnancy-outcomes-a-comprehensive-review
#14
REVIEW
Martina Barchitta, Andrea Maugeri, Annalisa Quattrocchi, Ottavia Agrifoglio, Antonella Agodi
Several studies showed that altered expression of the miRNA-ome in maternal circulation or in placental tissue may reflect not only gestational disorders, such as preeclampsia, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, low birth weight, or macrosomia, but also prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants. Generally, the relationships between environmental exposure, changes in miRNA expression, and gestational disorders are explored separately, producing conflicting findings. However, validation of tissue-accessible biomarkers for the monitoring of adverse pregnancy outcomes needs a systematic methodological approach that takes also into account early-life environmental exposure...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881546/-effect-of-breastfeeding-on-the-behavioral-development-of-infants-and-children-a-birth-cohort-study-in-ma-anshan
#15
A X Ye, X Y Tao, S Q Yan, A Z Zuo, W J Pan, K Huang, F B Tao
Objective: To discuss the relationship between breastfeeding and the behavioral development of infants and children. Methods: Based on the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study, there were 3 474 pregnant women recruited from Ma'anshan Maternal and Child Care Center between May 2013 and September 2014, including 3 273 singleton live births. Follow up the infants to the age of 18 months old. Excluded the infants with incomplete information of breastfeeding and who did not finish the ASQ-3 evaluation in 6 months old and 18 months old, 2 404 valid subjects were included in the study...
September 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878722/prenatal-internal-locus-of-control-is-positively-associated-with-offspring-iq-mediated-through-parenting-behavior-prenatal-lifestyle-and-social-circumstances
#16
Jean Golding, Steven Gregory, Genette L Ellis, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Stephen Nowicki
Locus of control (LOC) is a measure that identifies the likelihood as to whether an individual considers what happens to him is largely a matter of luck or fate (known as externally oriented) or whether it is something that the individual can influence (internality). Here we have used data collected as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to determine the associations between the mothers' LOC orientation before the birth of the child and her child's cognition measured at age 8...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878298/upregulation-of-cathepsin-c-expression-contributes-to-endothelial-chymase-activation-in-preeclampsia
#17
Yang Gu, David F Lewis, J Steven Alexander, Yuping Wang
Chymase is an ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme)-independent angiotensin II-forming enzyme whose expression is increased in the maternal vascular endothelium in preeclampsia. However, mechanisms underlying chymase activation in preeclampsia remain unclear. Cathepsin C is a key enzyme in the activation of several serine proteases including chymase. In this study, we determined whether increased cathepsin C expression/activity might be responsible for the upregulation of chymase expression in preeclampsia. Maternal vascular cathepsin C, chymase and ACE expression were examined through immunohistochemical staining of subcutaneous fat tissue sections of normal and preeclamptic pregnant women...
September 7, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877872/insulin-sensitivity-leptin-adiponectin-resistin-and-testosterone-in-adult-male-and-female-rats-after-maternal-neonatal-separation-and-environmental-stress
#18
Hershel Raff, Brian Hoeynck, Mack Jablonski, Cole Leonovicz, Jonathan M Phillips, Ashley L Gehrand
Care of premature infants often requires parental and caregiver separation particularly during hypoxic and hypothermic episodes. We have established a neonatal rat model of human prematurity involving maternal-neonatal separation and hypoxia with spontaneous hypothermia prevented with external heat. Adults previously exposed to these neonatal stressors show a sex difference in the insulin and glucose response to arginine stimulation suggesting a state of insulin resistance. The current study used this cohort of adult rats to evaluate insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance [HOMA-IR]), plasma adipokines (reflecting insulin resistance states), and testosterone...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877059/choriocarcinoma-in-women-analysis-of-a-case-series-with-genotyping
#19
Johanna Savage, Emily Adams, Emanuela Veras, Kathleen M Murphy, Brigitte M Ronnett
Choriocarcinoma is an uncommon malignant neoplasm, which can be either gestational or nongestational in origin. Distinction of these subtypes has prognostic and therapeutic implications. Twenty-two tumors were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction amplification of 15 short tandem repeat loci and the amelogenin locus (XY determination). DNA patterns from tumor and maternal tissue, as well as villous tissue from any available prior or concurrent gestation, were compared, to determine gestational versus nongestational nature (containing vs...
September 4, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870155/pessary-or-progesterone-to-prevent-preterm-delivery-in-women-with-short-cervical-length-the-quadruple-p-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Maud D van Zijl, Bouchra Koullali, Christiana A Naaktgeboren, Ewoud Schuit, Dick J Bekedam, Etelka Moll, Martijn A Oudijk, Wilhelmina M van Baal, Marjon A de Boer, Henricus Visser, Joris van Drongelen, Flip W van de Made, Karlijn C Vollebregt, Moira A Muller, Mireille N Bekker, Jozien T J Brons, Marieke Sueters, Josje Langenveld, Maureen T Franssen, Nico W Schuitemaker, Erik van Beek, Hubertina C J Scheepers, Karin de Boer, Eveline M Tepe, Anjoke J M Huisjes, Angelo B Hooker, Evelyn C J Verheijen, Dimitri N Papatsonis, Ben Willem J Mol, Brenda M Kazemier, Eva Pajkrt
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is in quantity and in severity the most important topic in obstetric care in the developed world. Progestogens and cervical pessaries have been studied as potential preventive treatments with conflicting results. So far, no study has compared both treatments. METHODS/DESIGN: The Quadruple P study aims to compare the efficacy of vaginal progesterone and cervical pessary in the prevention of adverse perinatal outcome associated with preterm birth in asymptomatic women with a short cervix, in singleton and multiple pregnancies separately...
September 4, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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