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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712975/fto-genotype-and-weight-status-among-preadolescents-assessing-the-mediating-effects-of-obesogenic-appetitive-traits
#1
Jennifer A Emond, Alison Tovar, Zhigang Li, Reina K Lansigan, Diane Gilbert-Diamond
Polymorphisms in the Fat Mass and Obesity Associated (FTO) gene are robustly associated with overweight and obesity among children, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We tested if appetitive traits partially mediated the association between FTO genotype and increased BMI among a sample of US preadolescents. Data were from 178 unrelated 9-10 year olds who participated in an experimental study between 2013 and 2015. Children's DNA was isolated from buccal swabs, and the rs9939609 SNP in the FTO gene was genotyped...
July 13, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710942/parental-psychopathology-and-offspring-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-a-nationwide-sample
#2
Petteri Joelsson, Roshan Chudal, Jaakko Uotila, Auli Suominen, Dan Sucksdorff, David Gyllenberg, Andre Sourander
OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between a wide range of parental psychiatric disorders and offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: This study is based on a nested case-control design. The association between parental registered psychiatric diagnoses and offspring ADHD was examined adjusting for socioeconomic and prenatal factors. Data was linked from Finnish nationwide registers. The cases (n = 10,409) were all the children born between years 1991 and 2005 in Finland and diagnosed with ADHD by the end of 2011...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708523/timing-of-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-changes-in-the-bovine-placentome-after-parturition
#3
Anthony K McNeel, Jeff D Ondrak, Olivia L Amundson, Tara H Fountain, Elane C Wright, Katherine J Whitman, Carol G Chitko-McKown, Shuna A Jones, Chadwick C Chase, Robert A Cushman
Proper post-partum reproductive performance is important for reproductive efficiency in beef cows, and dystocia decreases post-partum fertility. Crossbred beef cows (n = 1676) were evaluated for lifetime performance based on degree of dystocia at presentation of the first calf. Cows that experienced moderate or severe dystocia produced fewer calves during their productive life (P < 0.01). The exact mechanism is unclear, but may be due to the contributions of dystocia to abnormal placental separation...
May 27, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707738/prenatal-exposure-to-dexamethasone-in-the-mouse-induces-sex-specific-differences-in-placental-gene-expression
#4
Ji-Yeon Lee, Hyo Jung Yun, Clara Yuri Kim, Yong Woo Cho, Yongmin Lee, Myoung Hee Kim
Prenatal stress during pregnancy leads to sex-specific effects on fetal development and disease susceptibility over the life span; however, the origin of sex differences has not been identified. The placenta not only plays a key role in fetal growth and development throughout pregnancy, but also affects the fetal programming underlying subsequent adult health and accounts. Therefore, sex-specific adaptation of the placenta may be central to the sex differences in fetal growth and survival. Here, we analyzed the effects of prenatal dexamethasone (Dex) on sex-specific changes in placental gene expression using RNA-Seq...
July 14, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705190/low-dose-aspirin-in-the-prevention-of-recurrent-spontaneous-preterm-labour-the-april-study-a-multicenter-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#5
Laura Visser, Marjon A de Boer, Christianne J M de Groot, Tobias A J Nijman, Marieke A C Hemels, Kitty W M Bloemenkamp, Judith E Bosmans, Marjolein Kok, Judith O van Laar, Marieke Sueters, Hubertina Scheepers, Joris van Drongelen, Maureen T M Franssen, J Marko Sikkema, Hans J J Duvekot, Mireille N Bekker, Joris A M van der Post, Christiana Naaktgeboren, Ben W J Mol, Martijn A Oudijk
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (birth before 37 weeks of gestation) is a major problem in obstetrics and affects an estimated 15 million pregnancies worldwide annually. A history of previous preterm birth is the strongest risk factor for preterm birth, and recurrent spontaneous preterm birth affects more than 2.5 million pregnancies each year. A recent meta-analysis showed possible benefits of the use of low dose aspirin in the prevention of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth. We will assess the (cost-)effectiveness of low dose aspirin in comparison with placebo in the prevention of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth in a randomized clinical trial...
July 14, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704274/maternal-separation-induces-long-term-effects-on-monoamines-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-on-the-frontal-cortex-amygdala-and-hippocampus-differential-effects-after-a-stress-challenge
#6
Soledad Récamier-Carballo, Erika Estrada-Camarena, Carolina López-Rubalcava
The maternal separation (MS) paradigm is a well-known animal model that resembles the stress of early adverse life experiences and produces structural and functional abnormalities when animals are adults. The present study analyzed the effect of MS, in adult mice, on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA) levels, and the turnover rate in the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and amygdala, and brain regions that are associated with emotion. Also, the effects of MS in depression-like responses in adult mice were studied...
July 12, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701953/astrocyte-activation-in-locus-coeruleus-is-involved-in-neuropathic-pain-exacerbation-mediated-by-maternal-separation-and-social-isolation-stress
#7
Kazuo Nakamoto, Fuka Aizawa, Megumi Kinoshita, Yutaka Koyama, Shogo Tokuyama
Our previous studies demonstrated that emotional dysfunction associated with early life stress exacerbated nerve injury-induced mechanical allodynia. Sex differences were observed in several anxiety tests, but not in mechanical allodynia. To elucidate the mechanism underlying these findings, we have now investigated the involvement of astrocytes in emotional dysfunction and enhancement of nerve injury-induced mechanical allodynia in mice subjected to maternal separation combined with social isolation (MSSI) as an early life stress...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700949/two-sets-of-piwi-proteins-are-involved-in-distinct-srna-pathways-leading-to-elimination-of-germline-specific-dna
#8
Dominique I Furrer, Estienne C Swart, Matthias F Kraft, Pamela Y Sandoval, Mariusz Nowacki
Piwi proteins and piRNAs protect eukaryotic germlines against the spread of transposons. During development in the ciliate Paramecium, two Piwi-dependent sRNA classes are involved in the elimination of transposons and transposon-derived DNA: scan RNAs (scnRNAs), associated with Ptiwi01 and Ptiwi09, and iesRNAs, whose binding partners we now identify as Ptiwi10 and Ptiwi11. scnRNAs derive from the maternal genome and initiate DNA elimination during development, whereas iesRNAs continue DNA targeting until the removal process is complete...
July 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699276/y-chromosome-and-mtdna-variation-confirms-independent-domestications-and-directional-hybridization-in-south-american-camelids
#9
J C Marín, K Romero, R Rivera, W E Johnson, B A González
Investigations of genetic diversity and domestication in South American camelids (SAC) have relied on autosomal microsatellite and maternally-inherited mitochondrial data. We present the first integrated analysis of domestic and wild SAC combining male and female sex-specific markers (male specific Y-chromosome and female-specific mtDNA sequence variation) to assess: (i) hypotheses about the origin of domestic camelids, (ii) directionality of introgression among domestic and/or wild taxa as evidence of hybridization and (iii) currently recognized subspecies patterns...
July 11, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699093/evaluating-facility-based-decision-making-in-women-with-a-prior-cesarean-delivery-and-association-with-maternal-and-perinatal-outcomes
#10
Adeline Adwoa Boatin, Kwame Adu-Bonsaffoh, Blair Johnson Wylie, Samuel A Obed
Objective To describe facility-based decision-making for women with one prior cesarean delivery (CD) in a resource-limited setting and to characterize maternal and perinatal outcomes in these groups. Methods One year retrospective study of women with one prior CD delivering at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH), Ghana. Women were categorized into three groups based on initial plan of management on admission [trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC), emergency repeat CD (EMCD) or non-emergent repeat CD (RCD)]. Characteristics and outcomes across these groups were then compared...
July 11, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693435/data-cleaning-and-management-protocols-for-linked-perinatal-research-data-a-good-practice-example-from-the-smoking-mums-maternal-use-of-medications-and-safety-study
#11
Duong Thuy Tran, Alys Havard, Louisa R Jorm
BACKGROUND: Data cleaning is an important quality assurance in data linkage research studies. This paper presents the data cleaning and preparation process for a large-scale cross-jurisdictional Australian study (the Smoking MUMS Study) to evaluate the utilisation and safety of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies during pregnancy. METHODS: Perinatal records for all deliveries (2003-2012) in the States of New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia were linked to State-based data collections including hospital separation, emergency department and death data (mothers and babies) and congenital defect notifications (babies in NSW) by State-based data linkage units...
July 11, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691735/prenatal-maternal-cortisol-measures-predict-learning-and-short-term-memory-performance-in-3-but-not-5-month-old-infants
#12
Laura A Thompson, Gin Morgan, Cynthia A Unger, LeeAnna A Covey
Little is known about relations between maternal prenatal stress and specific cognitive processes-learning and memory-in infants. A modified crib-mobile task was employed in a longitudinal design to test relations between maternal prenatal cortisol, prenatal subjective stress and anxiety, psychosocial variables, and learning and memory in 3- and 5-month-old infants. Results revealed that maternal prenatal cortisol was affected by particular psychosocial variables (e.g., maternal age, whether or not the infant's grandmother provided childcare, financial status), but was unrelated to measures of maternal depression, anxiety, and stress...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688011/separation-anxiety-among-birth-assigned-male-children-in-a-specialty-gender-identity-service
#13
Doug P VanderLaan, Alanna Santarossa, A Natisha Nabbijohn, Hayley Wood, Allison Owen-Anderson, Kenneth J Zucker
Previous research suggested that separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is overrepresented among birth-assigned male children clinic-referred for gender dysphoria (GD). The present study examined maternally reported separation anxiety of birth-assigned male children assessed in a specialty gender identity service (N = 360). SAD was determined in relation to DSM-III and DSM-IV criteria, respectively. A dimensional metric of separation anxiety was examined in relation to several additional factors: age, ethnicity, parental marital status and social class, IQ, gender nonconformity, behavioral and emotional problems, and poor peer relations...
July 7, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687638/behavioral-risk-assessment-from-newborn-to-preschool-the-value-of-older-siblings
#14
Michelle Rodrigues, Noam Binnoon-Erez, Andre Plamondon, Jennifer M Jenkins
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the plausibility of a risk prediction tool in infancy for school-entry emotional and behavioral problems. Familial aggregation has been operationalized previously as maternal psychopathology. The hypothesis was tested that older sibling (OS) psychopathology, as an indicator of familial aggregation, would enable a fair level of risk prediction compared with previous research, when combined with traditional risk factors. METHODS: By using a longitudinal design, data on child and family risk factors were collected on 323 infants (M = 2...
July 7, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686808/integrating-a-nurse-midwife-led-oral-health-intervention-into-centeringpregnancy-prenatal-care-results-of-a-pilot-study
#15
Sally H Adams, Steven E Gregorich, Sharon S Rising, Margaret Hutchison, Lisa H Chung
INTRODUCTION: National and professional organizations recommend oral health promotion in prenatal care to improve women's oral health. However, few prenatal programs include education about oral health promotion. The objective of this study was to determine if women receiving a brief, low-cost, and sustainable educational intervention entitled CenteringPregnancy Oral Health Promotion had clinically improved oral health compared to women receiving standard CenteringPregnancy care. METHODS: Women attending CenteringPregnancy, a group prenatal care model, at 4 health centers in the San Francisco Bay Area, participated in this nonrandomized controlled pilot study in 2010 to 2011...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686601/maternal-and-neonatal-vitamin-d-status-genotype-and-childhood-celiac-disease
#16
Karl Mårild, German Tapia, Margareta Haugen, Sandra R Dahl, Arieh S Cohen, Marika Lundqvist, Benedicte A Lie, Lars C Stene, Ketil Størdal
BACKGROUND: Low concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D during pregnancy may be associated with offspring autoimmune disorders. Little is known about environmental triggers except gluten for celiac disease, a common immune-mediated disorder where seasonality of birth has been reported as a risk factor. We therefore aimed to test whether low maternal and neonatal 25-hydroxyvitamin D predicted higher risk of childhood celiac disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this Norwegian nationwide pregnancy cohort (n = 113,053) and nested case-control study, we analyzed 25-hydroxyvitamin D in maternal blood from mid-pregnancy, postpartum and cord plasma of 416 children who developed celiac disease and 570 randomly selected controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686282/early-maternal-separation-induces-preference-for-sucrose-and-aspartame-associated-with-increased-blood-glucose-and-hyperactivity
#17
L Aya-Ramos, C Contreras-Vargas, J L Rico, Z Dueñas
Early life stress and exposure to sweeteners lead to physiological and behavioral alterations in adulthood. Nevertheless, many genetic and environmental factors as well as the neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the development of these disorders are not fully understood. Similarly, evidence about the long-term metabolic effects of exposure to sweeteners in early life is limited and inconsistent. This study used an animal model of maternal separation during breastfeeding (MS) to analyze the effects of early life stress on consumption of sweeteners, weight gain, blood glucose and locomotion...
July 7, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685042/comprehensive-review-of-the-evidence-regarding-the-effectiveness-of-community-based-primary-health-care-in-improving-maternal-neonatal-and-child-health-4-child-health-findings
#18
Paul A Freeman, Meike Schleiff, Emma Sacks, Bahie M Rassekh, Sundeep Gupta, Henry B Perry
BACKGROUND: This paper assesses the effectiveness of community-based primary health care (CBPHC) in improving child health beyond the neonatal period. Although there has been an accelerated decline in global under-5 mortality since 2000, mortality rates remain high in much of sub-Saharan Africa and in some south Asian countries where under-5 mortality is also decreasing more slowly. Essential interventions for child health at the community level have been identified. Our review aims to contribute further to this knowledge by examining how strong the evidence is and exploring in greater detail what specific interventions and implementation strategies appear to be effective...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683663/using-fathers-as-a-negative-control-exposure-to-test-the-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease-hypothesis-a-case-study-on-maternal-distress-and-offspring-asthma-using-swedish-register-data
#19
Bronwyn K Brew, Tong Gong, Dylan M Williams, Henrik Larsson, Catarina Almqvist
BACKGROUND: Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Hypothesis (DOHaD) studies are often observational in nature and are therefore prone to biases from loss to follow-up and unmeasured confounding. Register-based studies can reduce these issues since they allow almost complete follow-up and provide information on fathers that can be used in a negative control analysis to assess the impact of unmeasured confounding. AIM: The aim of this study was to propose a causal model for testing DOHaD using paternal exposure as a negative control, and its application to maternal distress in pregnancy and offspring asthma...
July 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676682/obesity-during-pregnancy-affects-sex-steroid-concentrations-depending-on-fetal-gender
#20
M Maliqueo, G Cruz, C Espina, I Contreras, M García, B Echiburú, N Crisosto
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: It is not clear whether maternal obesity along with fetal gender affect sex steroid metabolism during pregnancy. Therefore, we compared sex steroid concentrations and placental expression of steroidogenic enzymes between non-obese and obese pregnant women with non-pathological pregnancies, and investigated the influence of fetal gender on these parameters. METHODS: In 35 normal-weight (BMI 20-24.9 kg/m(2)) (Controls) and 36 obese women (BMI 30-36 kg/m(2)) (Obese), a fasting blood sample was obtained at first and at third trimester of gestation to measure progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, testosterone and estradiol by LC-MS/MS and estrone by RIA...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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