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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107664/safety-and-efficacy-of-cardiopoietic-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-post-infarction-left-ventricular-dysfunction-from-cardioprotection-to-functional-repair-in-a-translational-pig-infarction-model
#1
Maximilian Y Emmert, Petra Wolint, Andras Jakab, Sean P Sheehy, Francesco S Pasqualini, Thi Dan Linh Nguyen, Monika Hilbe, Burkhardt Seifert, Benedikt Weber, Chad E Brokopp, Dominika Macejovska, Etem Caliskan, Arnold von Eckardstein, Ruth Schwartlander, Viola Vogel, Volkmar Falk, Kevin Kit Parker, Mariann Gyöngyösi, Simon P Hoerstrup
To date, clinical success of cardiac cell-therapies remains limited. To enhance the cardioreparative properties of stem cells, the concept of lineage-specification through cardiopoietic-guidance has been recently suggested. However, so far, only results from murine studies and from a clinical pilot-trial in chronic heart-failure (CHF) are available, while systematic evidence of its therapeutic-efficacy is still lacking. Importantly, also no data from large animals or for other indications are available. Therefore, we here investigate the therapeutic-efficacy of human cardiopoietic stem cells in the treatment of post-infarction LV-dysfunction using a translational pig-model...
November 23, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107494/protective-roles-for-rgs2-in-a-mouse-model-of-house-dust-mite-induced-airway-inflammation
#2
Tresa George, Matthew Bell, Mainak Chakraborty, David P Siderovski, Mark A Giembycz, Robert Newton
The GTPase-accelerating protein, regulator of G-protein signalling 2 (RGS2) reduces signalling from G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that signal via Gαq. In humans, RGS2 expression is up-regulated by inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs) such that synergy is produced in combination. This may contribute to the superior clinical efficacy of ICS/LABA therapy in asthma relative to ICS alone. In a murine model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced airways inflammation, three weeks of intranasal HDM (25 μg, 3×/week) reduced lung function and induced granulocytic airways inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107383/effects-of-forced-swimming-stress-on-erk-and-histone-h3-phosphorylation-in-limbic-areas-of-roman-high-and-low-avoidance-rats
#3
Noemi Morello, Ornella Plicato, Maria Antonietta Piludu, Laura Poddighe, Maria Pina Serra, Marina Quartu, Maria Giuseppa Corda, Osvaldo Giorgi, Maurizio Giustetto
Stressful events evoke molecular adaptations of neural circuits through chromatin remodeling and regulation of gene expression. However, the identity of the molecular pathways activated by stress in experimental models of depression is not fully understood. We investigated the effect of acute forced swimming (FS) on the phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 (pERK) and histone H3 (pH3) in limbic brain areas of genetic models of vulnerability (RLA, Roman low-avoidance rats) and resistance (RHA, Roman high-avoidance rats) to stress-induced depression-like behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107345/syk-regulates-neutrophilic-airway-hyper-responsiveness-in-a-chronic-mouse-model-of-allergic-airways-inflammation
#4
Sepehr Salehi, Xiaomin Wang, Stephen Juvet, Jeremy A Scott, Chung-Wai Chow
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airways hyper-responsiveness (AHR), reversible airway obstruction, and airway inflammation and remodeling. We previously showed that Syk modulates methacholine-induced airways contractility in naïve mice and in mice with allergic airways inflammation. We hypothesize that Syk plays a role in the pathogenesis of AHR; this was evaluated in a chronic 8-week mouse model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic airways inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106968/robotic-mitral-repair-with-sliding-leaflet-valvuloplasty-and-remodelling-partial-annuloplasty
#5
Lawrence Wei, Vinay Badhwar, Takashi Murashita, Giuseppe Raffa
Complex pathoanatomy that requires posterior leaflet height reduction can be accomplished robotically with excellent surgical outcomes. We report the technique of robotic sliding leaflet valvuloplasty in cases of severe myxomatous degenerative disease with elevated predictive risk of systolic anterior motion.
September 28, 2016: Multimedia Manual of Cardiothoracic Surgery: MMCTS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106744/oligonucleotide-therapy-for-obstructive-and-restrictive-respiratory-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Wupeng Liao, Jinrui Dong, Hong Yong Peh, Lay Hong Tan, Kah Suan Lim, Li Li, Wai-Shiu Fred Wong
Inhaled oligonucleotide is an emerging therapeutic modality for various common respiratory diseases, including obstructive airway diseases like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and restrictive airway diseases like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The advantage of direct accessibility for oligonucleotide molecules to the lung target sites, bypassing systemic administration, makes this therapeutic approach promising with minimized potential systemic side effects. Asthma, COPD, and IPF are common chronic respiratory diseases, characterized by persistent airway inflammation and dysregulated tissue repair and remodeling, although each individual disease has its unique etiology...
January 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106549/the-multimerization-state-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-amyloid-%C3%AE-42-amyloid-peptide-governs-its-interaction-network-with%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-extracellular-matrix
#7
Romain Salza, Claire Lethias, Sylvie Ricard-Blum
The goals of this work were i) to identify the interactions of amyloid-β (Aβ)42 under monomeric, oligomeric, and fibrillar forms with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and receptors, ii) to determine the influence of Aβ42 supramolecular organization on these interactions, and iii) to identify the molecular functions, biological processes, and pathways targeted by Aβ42 in the ECM. The ECM and cell surface partners of Aβ42 and its supramolecular forms were identified with protein and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) arrays (81 molecules in triplicate) probed by surface plasmon resonance imaging...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106317/changes-in-vascular-reactivity-and-endothelial-ca-2-dynamics-with-chronic-low-flow
#8
Mark S Taylor, Chung-Sik Choi, Leith Bayazid, Katherine E Glosemeyer, Calvin C P Baker, David S Weber
Disruption of blood flow promotes endothelial dysfunction and predisposes vessels to remodeling and atherosclerosis. Recent findings suggest spatial and temporal tuning of local Ca(2+) signals along the endothelium is vital to vascular function. In the current study, we examined whether chronic flow disruption causes alteration of dynamic endothelial Ca(2+) signal patterning associated with changes in vascular structure and function. For these studies, we performed surgical partial-ligation (PL) of the left carotid arteries of mice to establish chronic low flow for 2 weeks; right carotid arteries remained open and served as controls (C)...
January 20, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106309/transposable-elements-tes-contribute-to-stress-related-long-intergenic-noncoding-rnas-in-plants
#9
Dong Wang, Zhipeng Qu, Lan Yang, Qingzhu Zhang, Zhi-Hong Liu, Trung Do, David L Adelson, Zhen-Yu Wang, Iain Searle, Jian-Kang Zhu
Noncoding RNAs have been extensively described in plant and animal transcriptomes by using high-throughput sequencing technology. Of these non-coding RNAs, a growing number of long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been described in multicellular organisms, however the origins and functions of many lincRNAs remain to be explored. In many eukaryotic genomes, transposable elements (TEs) are widely distributed and often account for large fractions of plant and animal genomes yet the contribution of TEs to lincRNAs is largely unknown...
January 20, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106295/macrophage-polarization-anti-cancer-strategies-to-target-tumor-associated-macrophage-in-breast-cancer
#10
Muhammad Tariq, Jieqiong Zhang, Guikai Liang, Ling Ding, Qiaojun He, Bo Yang
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the most abundant inflammatory cells and orchestrate different stages of breast cancer development. TAMs participate in the tumor angiogenesis, matrix remodeling, invasion, immunosuppression, metastasis, and chemoresistance in breast cancer. Several clinical studies indicate the association between the high influx of TAMs in tumor with poor prognosis in hepatocellular, ovarian, cervical, and breast cancer. Previously developed hypotheses have proposed that TAMs participate in antitumor responses of the body, while recently many clinical and experimental studies have revealed that TAMs in tumor microenvironment predominantly resemble with M2-like polarized macrophages and produce a high amount of anti-inflammatory factors which are directly responsible for the development of tumor...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106169/inhibition-of-nucks-facilitates-corneal-recovery-following-alkali-burn
#11
Ming-Wai Poon, Dan Jiang, Peng Qin, Yuelin Zhang, Beiying Qiu, Sumit Chanda, Vinay Tergaonkar, Qing Li, Ian Y Wong, Zhendong Yu, Hung-Fat Tse, David S H Wong, Qizhou Lian
Corneal wound healing involves a complex cascade of cytokine-controlled cellular events, including inflammatory and angiogenesis responses that are regulated by transcriptional chromatin remodeling. Nuclear Ubiquitous Casein and cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate (NUCKS) is a key chromatin modifier and transcriptional regulator of metabolic signaling. In this study, we investigated the role of NUCKS in corneal wound healing by comparing its effects on corneal alkali burn in NUCKS knockout (NKO) and NUCKS wild-type (NWT) mice...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106155/secreted-mir-27a-induced-by-cyclic-stretch-modulates-the-proliferation-of-endothelial-cells-in-hypertension-via-grk6
#12
Lu Wang, Han Bao, Kai-Xuan Wang, Ping Zhang, Qing-Ping Yao, Xiao-Hu Chen, Kai Huang, Ying-Xin Qi, Zong-Lai Jiang
Abnormal proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs) is important in vascular remodeling during hypertension, but the mechanisms are still unclear. In hypertensive rats caused by abdominal aortic coarctation, the expression of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6) in ECs at common carotid artery was repressed in vivo, and EC proliferation was increased. 15% cyclic stretch in vitro, which mimics the pathologically increased stretch in hypertension, repressed EC GRK6 expression via paracrine control by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105746/mitochondrial-energetics-and-calcium-coupling-in-the-heart
#13
Michael Kohlhaas, Alexander G Nickel, Christoph Maack
Contraction and relaxation of the heart consume large amounts of energy that need to be replenished by oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, and matching energy supply to demand involves the complimentary control of respiration through ADP and Ca(2+) . In heart failure, an imbalance between ADP and Ca(2+) oxidizes mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides, where NADH oxidation may limit ATP production and contractile function, while NADPH oxidation can induce oxidative stress with consecutive maladaptive remodeling...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105734/calcium-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-mediates-the-intracellular-signaling-pathways-of-cardiac-apoptosis-in-mice-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance
#14
Marilen Federico, Enrique L Portiansky, Leandro Sommese, Francisco J Alvarado, Paula G Blanco, Carolina N Zanuzzi, John Dedman, Marcia Kaetzel, Xander H T Wehrens, Alicia Mattiazzi, Julieta Palomeque
Background The impact of cardiac apoptosis in pre-diabetic stages of diabetic cardiomyopathy is unknown. We described that myocytes from fructose-rich diet (FRD) animals exhibit arrhythmias produced by exacerbated Ca(2+) /calmodulin-protein kinase (CaMKII) activity, ryanodine receptors (RyR2) phosphorylation and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak. We tested the hypothesis that this mechanism also underlies cardiac apoptosis in pre-diabetes. Methods and Results We generated a pre-diabetic model in mice fed with FRD...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105491/the-multi-faceted-role-of-retinoid-x-receptor-in-bone-remodeling
#15
REVIEW
María P Menéndez-Gutiérrez, Mercedes Ricote
Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) form a unique subclass within the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors. RXRs are obligatory partners for a number of other NRs, placing RXRs in a coordinating role at the crossroads of multiple signaling pathways. In addition, RXRs can function as self-sufficient homodimers. Recent advances have revealed RXRs as novel regulators of osteoclastogenesis and bone remodeling. This review outlines the versatility of RXR action in the control of transcription of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts, both through heterodimerization with other NRs and through RXR homodimerization...
January 19, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105480/-cardiac-remodeling-after-myocardial-infarction-clinical-practice-update
#16
G Ertl, S Brenner, C E Angermann
Heart failure remains a frequent cause of death and is the leading reason for hospitalization in Germany although therapeutic options have significantly increased over the past years particularly in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Clinical symptoms are usually preceded by cardiac remodeling, which was originally defined only by left ventricular dilatation and depressed function but is also associated with typical cellular and molecular processes. Healing after acute myocardial infarction is characterized by inflammation, cellular migration and scar formation...
January 19, 2017: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104838/distortion-of-histone-octamer-core-promotes-nucleosome-mobilization-by-a-chromatin-remodeler
#17
Kalyan K Sinha, John D Gross, Geeta J Narlikar
Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes play essential biological roles by mobilizing nucleosomal DNA. Yet, how DNA is mobilized despite the steric constraints placed by the histone octamer remains unknown. Using methyl transverse relaxation-optimized nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on a 450-kilodalton complex, we show that the chromatin remodeler, SNF2h, distorts the histone octamer. Binding of SNF2h in an activated ATP state changes the dynamics of buried histone residues...
January 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104764/long-noncoding-rnas-in-pathological-cardiac-remodeling
#18
Janika Viereck, Thomas Thum
A novel long noncoding RNA Chaer acts as noncoding epigenetic regulator at the onset of cardiac hypertrophy and enables an improved understanding about the complex mechanisms in cardiovascular disease.
January 20, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104715/detailed-echocardiographic-phenotyping-in-breast-cancer-patients-associations-with-ejection-fraction-decline-recovery-and-heart-failure-symptoms-over-3-years-of-followup
#19
Hari K Narayan, Brian S Finkelman, Benjamin French, Theodore Plappert, David Hyman, Amanda M Smith, Kenneth B Margulies, Bonnie Ky
BACKGROUND: -Cardiovascular disease in breast cancer patients is of growing concern. The longitudinal effects of commonly used therapies, including doxorubicin and trastuzumab, on cardiac remodeling and function remain unknown in this population. We sought to define the changes in echocardiographic parameters of structure, function, and ventricular-arterial (VA) coupling, and their associations with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and heart failure (HF) symptoms. METHODS: -In a longitudinal prospective cohort study of 277 breast cancer participants receiving doxorubicin (Dox), trastuzumab (Tras), or both (Dox+Tras), we obtained 1,249 echocardiograms over a median followup of 2...
January 19, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104100/pathophysiologic-mechanisms-in-heart-failure-role-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system
#20
Steve Antoine, Gaurang Vaidya, Haider Imam, Daniel Villarreal
The syndrome of heart failure involves complex pathophysiologic mechanisms and is associated with extremely high-morbidity, mortality and economic costs. This growing global epidemic has diverse etiologies and is fundamentally characterized by dyshomeostasis between heart and kidneys, leading to development and progression of the cardiorenal syndrome. Excessive and sustained sympathoexcitation has emerged as a single prominent factor involved in the structural and functional dysfunction of multiple organ systems during this disease...
January 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
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