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Dae Woo Park, Andrea Sebastiani, Choon Hwai Yap, Marc A Simon, Kang Kim
Mechanical and structural changes of right ventricular (RV) in response to pulmonary hypertension (PH) are inadequately understood. While current standard biaxial testing provides information on the mechanical behavior of RV tissues using surface markers, it is unable to fully assess structural and mechanical properties across the full tissue thickness. In this study, the mechanical and structural properties of normotensive and pulmonary hypertension right ventricular (PHRV) myocardium through its full thickness were examined using mechanical testing combined with 3D ultrasound speckle tracking (3D-UST)...
2016: PloS One
E Castaldi, G M Cicchini, L Cinelli, L Biagi, S Rizzo, M C Morrone
Retinal prosthesis technologies require that the visual system downstream of the retinal circuitry be capable of transmitting and elaborating visual signals. We studied the capability of plastic remodeling in late blind subjects implanted with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis with psychophysics and functional MRI (fMRI). After surgery, six out of seven retinitis pigmentosa (RP) blind subjects were able to detect high-contrast stimuli using the prosthetic implant. However, direction discrimination to contrast modulated stimuli remained at chance level in all of them...
October 2016: PLoS Biology
Xin Yu Leong, Punniyakoti Veeraveedu Thanikachalam, Manisha Pandey, Srinivasan Ramamurthy
BACKGROUND: Swertiamarin, is a secoiridoid glycoside found in genera of Enicostemma Species (Enicostemma littorale and Enicostemma axillare) belonging to the family of gentianaceae, which has been reported to cure many diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, arthritis, malaria and abdominal ulcers. However, to the best of our knowledge, till date systematic studies to understand the molecular basis of cardiac and metabolic disease preventing properties of swertiamarin has not been reported...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Harcharan K Rooprai, Andrew J Martin, Andrew King, Usha D Appadu, Huw Jones, Richard P Selway, Richard W Gullan, Geoffrey J Pilkington
MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases), ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) and TIMPs (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases) are implicated in invasion and angiogenesis: both are tissue remodeling processes involving regulated proteolysis of the extracellular matrix, growth factors and their receptors. The expression of these three groups and their correlations with clinical behaviour has been reported in gliomas but a similar comprehensive study in meningiomas is lacking. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the patterns of expression of 23 MMPs, 4 TIMPs, 8 ADAMs, selective growth factors and their receptors in 17 benign meningiomas using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Carl Neuerburg, Theresa Loer, Lena Mittlmeier, Christina Polan, Zsuzsanna Farkas, Lesca Miriam Holdt, Sandra Utzschneider, Jens Schwiesau, Thomas M Grupp, Wolfgang Böcker, Attila Aszodi, Christian Wedemeyer, Christian Kammerlander
Aseptic loosening mediated by wear particle-induced osteolysis (PIO) remains the major cause of implant loosening in endoprosthetic surgery. The development of new vitamin E (α-tocopherol)-blended ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (VE-UHMWPE) with increased oxidation resistance and improved mechanical properties has raised hopes. Furthermore, regenerative approaches may be opened, as vitamin E supplementation has shown neuroprotective characteristics mediated via calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which is known to affect bone remodeling in PIO...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Kyung Chul Oh, Woojin Hwang, Young Bum Park, Jae Hoon Lee, Hong Seok Moon, Jee Hwan Kim
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of alendronate on bone remodeling around osseointegrated implants in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The maxillary first molars were extracted from 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats, and replaced with customized implants. They were then administered twice-weekly subcutaneous injections of either alendronate (alendronate group) or saline (control group) after allowing a 4-week period for osseointegration. They were killed at 4, 8, or 12 weeks after the commencement of the injection protocol, and the implant sites were evaluated comprehensively by microcomputed tomographic, histologic, and biochemical assessments...
October 20, 2016: Implant Dentistry
Cuncun Chen, Min Wu, Wen Zhang, Wei Lu, Min Zhang, Zhanqing Zhang, Xiaonan Zhang, Zhenghong Yuan
Multi-layered mechanisms of virus host interaction exist for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, which have been typically manifested at the microRNA level. Our previous study suggested that miRNA-939 (miR-939) may play a potential role in regulating HBV replication. Here we further investigated the mechanism by which miR-939 regulates HBV life cycle. We found that miR-939 inhibited the abundance of viral RNAs without direct miRNA-mRNA base pairing, but via host factors. Expression profiling and functional validation identified Jmjd3 as a target responsible for miR-939 induced anti-HBV effect...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kunlakanya Jitobaom, Natthida Tongluan, Duncan R Smith
During infection, dengue virus (DENV) proteins interact with host cellular constituents promoting the remodeling of the cell to facilitate virus production. While a number of interacting proteins have been identified for DENV non-structural proteins, far fewer interacting partners have been identified for the DENV structural proteins. One protein that has been identified as a DENV E protein interacting protein is the cellular chaperone GRP78. GRP78 has been shown to have a number of cellular interacting partners including the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hai-Ming Huang, Xiao-Lin Li, Shu-Qiang Tu, Xiao-Feng Chen, Chang-Chun Lu, Liang-Hua Jiang
BACKGROUND: Roughly focused extracorporeal shock waves therapy (ESWT) is characterized by a wide focal area, a large therapy zone, easy positioning, and less pain during treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of roughly focused ESWT on the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in osteoporotic fractures in rats. METHODS: Seventy-two female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, 3 months old, were divided into sham-operated group (n = 6) and an ovariectomized (OVX) group (n = 66)...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Ke Yu, Yuanyuan Ma, Xianxian Li, Xiangnan Wu, Wenjia Liu, Xiaoyu Li, Jiefei Shen, Hang Wang
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays an important role in bone resorption, which involves numerous cytokines through various signaling pathways. RANKL and interleukin (IL)-6 are two important cytokines that are involved in bone remodeling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LPS on RANKL and IL-6 gene expression, the relationship of RANKL and IL-6, and the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) on IL-6 secretion induced by LPS in MLO-Y4 cells. The cells were stimulated by LPS at different concentrations (1, 10, 100, 500 and 1000 ng/ml) for different durations (0...
October 24, 2016: Cell Biology International
Magali Hernandez, Bérengère Phulpin, Ludovic Mansuy, Dominique Droz
New targeted cancer therapies such as bisphosphonates, denosumab and bevacizumab are routinely used in adult for the past decades. Their introduction into pediatric medicine is more recent that means there is a paucity of data on long-term effects on dental development and on the risk of osteonecrosis of jaw. This paper aims to outline adverse effects of new targeted cancer therapies on oral cavity including dental abnormalities observed in pediatric population treated with these molecules and the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
Inge A E W van Loosdregt, Sylvia Dekker, Patrick W Alford, Cees W J Oomens, Sandra Loerakker, Carlijn V C Bouten
Understanding cell contractility is of fundamental importance for cardiovascular tissue engineering, due to its major impact on the tissue's mechanical properties as well as the development of permanent dimensional changes, e.g., by contraction or dilatation of the tissue. Previous attempts to quantify contractile cellular stresses mostly used strongly aligned monolayers of cells, which might not represent the actual organization in engineered cardiovascular tissues such as heart valves. In the present study, therefore, we investigated whether differences in organization affect the magnitude of intrinsic stress generated by individual myofibroblasts, a frequently used cell source for in vitro engineered heart valves...
October 24, 2016: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Laurette Prely, Theo Klein, Paul P Geurink, Krisztina Paal, Herman S Overkleeft, Rainer Bischoff
Metalloproteases, notably members of the matrix metalloprotease (MMP) and A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease (ADAM) families play crucial roles in tissue remodeling, the liberation of growth factors and cytokines from cell membranes (shedding) and cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. Activity of MMPs or ADAMs must therefore be tightly controlled in time and space by activation of pro-enzymes upon appropriate stimuli and inhibition by endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs) or α2-macroglobulin to prevent irreversible tissue damage due to excessive degradation or uncontrolled release of potent inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
W Asher Wolf, Nicholas A Piazza, Jessica H Gebhart, Spencer Rusin, Shannon Covey, Leana L Higgins, RoseMary Beitia, Olga Speck, Kimberly Woodward, Cary C Cotton, Thomas M Runge, Swathi Eluri, John T Woosley, Nicholas J Shaheen, Evan S Dellon
BACKGROUND: Because eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) causes dysphagia, esophageal narrowing, and strictures, it could result in low body mass index (BMI), but there are few data assessing this. AIM: To determine whether EoE is associated with decreased BMI. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study at the University of North Carolina from 2009 to 2013 enrolling consecutive adults undergoing outpatient EGD. BMI and endoscopic findings were recorded...
October 24, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Lisa R Young, Peter M Gulleman, Chelsi W Short, Harikrishna Tanjore, Taylor Sherrill, Aidong Qi, Andrew P McBride, Rinat Zaynagetdinov, John T Benjamin, William E Lawson, Sergey V Novitskiy, Timothy S Blackwell
Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) dysfunction underlies the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) and other genetic syndromes associated with interstitial lung disease; however, mechanisms linking AEC dysfunction and fibrotic remodeling are incompletely understood. Since increased macrophage recruitment precedes pulmonary fibrosis in HPS, we investigated whether crosstalk between AECs and macrophages determines fibrotic susceptibility. We found that AECs from HPS mice produce excessive MCP-1, which was associated with increased macrophages in the lungs of unchallenged HPS mice...
October 20, 2016: JCI Insight
Brie Sorrenson, Emmanuelle Cognard, Kathryn L Lee, Waruni C Dissanayake, Yanyun Fu, Weiping Han, William E Hughes, Peter R Shepherd
The processes regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and its modulation by incretins in pancreatic β-cells are only partly understood. Here we investigate the involvement of β-catenin in these processes. Reducing β-catenin levels using siRNA knockdown attenuated GSIS in a range of β-cell models and blocked the ability of GLP-1 agonists and the depolarizing agent KCl to potentiate this. This could be mimicked in both β-cell models and isolated islets by short-term exposure to the β-catenin inhibitory drug pyrvinium...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
S Ram Kumar, Grace Kung, Nathan Noh, Novel Castillo, Brian Fagan, Winfield J Wells, Vaughn A Starnes
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that neonates in profound cardiogenic shock caused by a severe Ebstein anomaly can be successfully salvaged with fenestrated right ventricular exclusion and systemic to pulmonary shunt (modified Starnes procedure). The long-term outcome of single-ventricle management in these patients is not known. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent neonatal Starnes procedure between 1989 and 2015. Patient demographics, clinical variables, and outcome data were collected...
October 25, 2016: Circulation
Mi Hye Kim, Hye Ji Lee, Jung-Chul Park, Jongki Hong, Woong Mo Yang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Zanthoxylum piperitum (ZP) has been used to prevent toothache in East Asia. AIM OF STUDY: In this study, we investigated the effects of ZP on periodontitis along with alveolar bone loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into 4 groups; non-ligated (NOR), ligated and treated vehicle (CTR), ligated and treated 1mg/mL ZP (ZP1), and ligated and treated 100mg/mL ZP (ZP100)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Naroa Lozano-Carrascal, Marta Satorres-Nieto, Rafael Delgado-Ruiz, José Eduardo Maté-Sánchez de Val, Sergio Alexandre Gehrke, Jorge Gargallo-Albiol, José Luis Calvo-Guirado
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of SEM and EDX microanalysis on evaluating the effect of porcine xenografts (MP3(®)) supplemented with pamidronate during socket healing. Mandibular second premolars (P2) and first molars (M1) were extracted from six Beagle dogs. P2 were categorized as small defects (SD) and M1 as large defects (LD). Four random groups were created: SC (small control defects with MP3(®)), ST (small test defects MP3(®)+pamidronate), LC (large control defects with MP3(®)), and LT (large test defects MP3(®)+pamidronate)...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
M A Sotomayor-Sobrino, A Ochoa-Aguilar, L A Méndez-Cuesta, C Gómez-Acevedo
INTRODUCTION: Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in the world; its incidence is increasing due to increased life expectancy. However, treatment options for these patients are limited since no clinically effective drugs have been developed to date. DEVELOPMENT: According to clinical evidence, a number of neurochemical changes take place after stroke, including energy depletion, increased free radical synthesis, calcium accumulation, neurotransmitter imbalance, excitotoxicity, and, at a later stage, immune system activation leading to inflammation...
October 21, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
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