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Jes M Sanders, Alexandra B Steverson, Anna E Pawlowski, Daniel Schneider, Chad J Achenbach, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Matthew J Feinstein
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected (HIV+) persons have elevated risks for various manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD). No studies to our knowledge have compared atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL) prevalence and associated characteristics for HIV+ persons and matched uninfected controls. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Persons with diagnoses of HIV receiving care at a large urban academic medical center were frequency-matched 1:2 on age, sex, race, zip code, and clinic location with uninfected persons...
2018: PloS One
Luis Jara-Palomares, Remedios Otero, David Jimenez, Juan Manuel Praena-Fernandez, Carme Font, Conxita Falga, Silvia Soler, David Riesco, Peter Verhamme, Manuel Monreal
The usefulness of a diagnostic workup for occult cancer in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) is controversial. We used the RIETE (Registro Informatizado Enfermedad Trombo Embólica) database to perform a nested case-control study to validate a prognostic score that identifies patients with unprovoked VTE at increased risk for cancer. We dichotomized patients as having low- (≤2 points) or high (≥3 points) risk for cancer, and tried to validate the score at 12 and 24 months. From January 2014 to October 2016, 11,695 VTE patients were recruited...
2018: PloS One
Alexej Barg, Clayton C Bettin, Albert H Burstein, Charles L Saltzman, Jeremy Gililland
BACKGROUND: In the last 2 decades, total ankle replacement has gained greater acceptance as a treatment option in patients with end-stage ankle osteoarthritis. However, there is a lack of literature on total ankle replacement using a lateral transfibular approach. Therefore, we sought to report early clinical and radiographic results for a patient cohort treated with total ankle replacement using a lateral transfibular approach, performed by a single surgeon. METHODS: From October 2012 to December 2014, 55 primary total ankle arthroplasties using the Zimmer Trabecular Metal Total Ankle implant were performed in 54 patients (29 male and 25 female; mean age, 67...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Dafang Zhang, Philip Blazar, Brandon E Earp
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the rates and types of complications and secondary surgeries after mini-open carpal tunnel release. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed for 1,328 patients who underwent mini-open carpal tunnel release from August 2008 to July 2013. Patients were excluded for acute trauma, the index procedure being revision surgery, neoplasm, age less than 18 years, incomplete records, and postoperative follow-up less than 1 month, which yielded 904 patients who underwent 1,144 surgeries...
March 1, 2018: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
Sima Afschar-Hamdi, Klaus Schepker
Coercive Measures in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Post-war Germany, Using the Example of the "Pflege- und Beobachtungsstation" in the State Psychiatric Hospital Weissenau (1951-1966) The patient admissions at the children's ward of the State Psychiatric Hospital Weissenau in the years 1951, 1956, 1961 and 1966 were analyzed regarding documented coercive measures. Shortage of staff, mainly inadequately skilled personnel, a mixing of age groups in the patient cohort, neurological and psychiatric disorders and of patients who were in need of nursing and of those who needed treatment constituted the general work environment...
September 2017: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Tatiana M Lanzieri, Winnie Chung, Jessica Leung, A Chantal Caviness, Jason L Baumgardner, Peggy Blum, Stephanie R Bialek, Gail Demmler-Harrison
Objectives To compare hearing trajectories among children with symptomatic and asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection through age 18 years and to identify brain abnormalities associated with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in asymptomatic case patients. Study Design Longitudinal prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary medical center. Subjects and Methods The study included 96 case patients (4 symptomatic and 92 asymptomatic) identified through hospital-based newborn cytomegalovirus screening from 1982 to 1992 and 72 symptomatic case patients identified through referrals from 1993 to 2005...
February 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Alison S Poulton, Bruce Armstrong, Ralph K Nanan
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common and may require treatment in adulthood. We aimed to investigate the treatment patterns and perinatal outcomes of women with any history of stimulant treatment for ADHD. METHODS: We used health records of the New South Wales (NSW, Australia) population to compare perinatal outcomes of women treated with stimulants (dexamphetamine or methylphenidate) for ADHD from 1982 to 2012 who gave birth between 1994 and 2012, with perinatal outcomes of women with no known ADHD or stimulant treatment (comparison cohort)...
March 19, 2018: CNS Drugs
Daisy Sanchez, Derek Dubay, Baliga Prabhakar, David J Taber
INTRODUCTION: To improve kidney transplant allocation equitability, a new Kidney Allocation System (KAS) was implemented December 4, 2014. The purpose of this study was to determine if the impact of KAS on peri-operative outcomes differed by recipient race/ethnicity. METHODS: This was a time series analysis using data aggregated in monthly intervals from October 2012 through September 2015 using the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC). This includes national data aggregated at the center level of all US kidney transplant centers that participate in the UHC (416 centers)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Carmen Pheiffer, Stephanie Dias, Paul Rheeder, Sumaiya Adam
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In recent years circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted interest as biomarkers of metabolic disease. MiRNA expression varies across population groups; thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether serum miRNAs that have previously been shown to be associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in other populations, are similarly regulated in South African women with GDM. METHODS: In this case-control study, women (n = 81) were selected from a prospective cohort study in which pregnant women were recruited at their first clinic visit and requested to return for fasting blood glucose concentration measurements and serum collection (median 27 weeks; range 13-31 weeks)...
March 19, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Kathrin Thöne, Anja Rudolph, Nadia Obi, Jenny Chang-Claude, Dieter Flesch-Janys
PURPOSE: Recent cohort studies demonstrated better overall survival (OS) or breast cancer-specific survival (BCS) for breast-conserving therapy (BCT) followed by radiation (RT) compared to mastectomy alone (MT). This is the first observational study in which adjustments for a comprehensive set of prognostic factors, adjuvant therapies, mode of detection, and comorbidities were possible to investigate OS, BCS, as well as recurrence risk of patients undergoing BCT + RT, MT + RT, or MT...
March 19, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Tali Sinai, Shely Ben-Avraham, Inbal Guelmann-Mizrahi, Michael R Goldberg, Larisa Naugolni, Galia Askapa, Yitzhak Katz, Marianna Rachmiel
PURPOSE: The use of soy products is common in young children with cow milk allergy (CMA). The aim was to examine prospectively the association between infantile consumption of soy-based formula, growth parameters and early pubertal signs, in comparison to cow milk-based formula. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted, selected from a cohort of infants prospectively followed from birth until the age of 3 years for eating habits and the development of IgE-mediated CMA...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Hessa S Alsaif, Arif O Khan, Nisha Patel, Hisham Alkuraya, Mais Hashem, Firdous Abdulwahab, Niema Ibrahim, Mohammed A Aldahmesh, Fowzan S Alkuraya
Primary congenital glaucoma is a trabecular meshwork dysgenesis with resultant increased intraocular pressure and ocular damage. CYP1B1 mutations remain the most common identifiable genetic cause. However, important questions about the penetrance of CYP1B1-related congenital glaucoma remain unanswered. Furthermore, mutations in other genes have been described although their exact contribution and potential genetic interaction, if any, with CYP1B1 mutations are not fully explored. In this study, we employed modern genomic approaches to re-examine CYP1B1-related congenital glaucoma...
March 19, 2018: Human Genetics
Gesa Cohrs, Monika Huhndorf, Nils Niemczyk, Lukas J Volz, Alexander Bernsmeier, Ash Singhal, Naomi Larsen, Michael Synowitz, Friederike Knerlich-Lukoschus
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive imaging tool which lacks the burden of ionizing radiation. It is not established as primary diagnostic tool in traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MRI as initial imaging modality in the emergency management of mild pediatric TBI. METHODS: Children (0-18 years, sub-divided in four age-groups) with mild TBI who received MRI in the emergency department were identified...
March 19, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Hakeem Ayinde, Marin L Schweizer, Victoria Crabb, Adedayo Ayinde, Ashraf Abugroun, James Hopson
Background: The relationship between competitive sports and atrial fibrillation (AF) is controversial. We aimed to systematically evaluate and summarize all published observational data on the association between competitive sports and AF. Methods and results: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and SportDiskus for all observational studies that assessed the risk of AF among athletes involved in competitive sports. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) were calculated using random effects models...
March 2018: IJC Heart & Vasculature
Hellen Namusoke, Maria Musoke Nannyonga, Robert Ssebunya, Victoria Kirabira Nakibuuka, Edison Mworozi
Background: Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy carries high case fatality rates ranging between 10-60%, with 25% of survivors have an adverse long-term neurodevelopment outcome. Despite the above, there is paucity of data regarding its magnitude and short term outcomes in a low resource setting like Uganda. Therefore we set out to determine the incidence and short term outcomes of Newborns with Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy at St.Francis Hospital, Nsambya. Methods: This was a Prospective Cohort study conducted between October 2015 and January 2016 at St...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Françoise Bernaudin, Cécile Arnaud, Annie Kamdem, Isabelle Hau, Françoise Lelong, Ralph Epaud, Corinne Pondarré, Serge Pissard
Sickle cell anemia (SCA), albeit monogenic, has heterogeneous phenotypic expression, mainly related to the level of hemoglobin F (HbF). No large cohort studies have ever compared biological parameters in patients with major β-globin haplotypes; ie, Senegal (SEN), Benin (BEN), and Bantu/Central African Republic (CAR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological impact of α genes, β haplotypes, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity at baseline and with hydroxyurea (HU). Homozygous HbS patients from the Créteil pediatric cohort with available α-gene and β-haplotype data were included (n = 580; 301 females and 279 males) in this retrospective study...
March 27, 2018: Blood Advances
R Siboni, P Beaufils, P Boisrenoult, C Steltzlen, N Pujol
INTRODUCTION: Using locking plates in opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) via a medial opening theoretically allows early weight-bearing without need for bone or bone-substitute grafting. It incurs a risk of non-consolidation in case of large correction (> 10°), although rates and risk factors of non-union are not known. The present retrospective study compared OWHTO with correction <10° versus >10°, with a view to determining: 1) complications rates (non-union) according to degree of correction, and 2) risk factors for such complications...
March 16, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Joan M O'Brien, Rebecca J Salowe, Raymond Fertig, Julia Salinas, Maxwell Pistilli, Prithvi S Sankar, Eydie Miller-Ellis, Amanda Lehman, Windell Murphy, Melissa Homsher, Katelyn Gordon, Gui-Shuang Ying
PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between positive family history (FH) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) diagnosis and clinical presentation in the Primary Open-Angle African American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) cohort. METHODS: FH of POAG in first-degree relatives was assessed in 2365 subjects in the POAAGG cohort. A standardized interview was used to assess FH of glaucoma, demographic characteristics, lifestyle choices, and medical and ocular comorbidities...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Jingyuan Xie, Jicheng Lv, Weiming Wang, Guisen Li, Zhangsuo Liu, Hongyu Chen, Feifei Xu, Jing Sun, Yan Ouyang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Meng Yang, Manman Shi, Wen Zhang, Hong Ren, Krzysztof Kiryluk, Hong Zhang, Nan Chen
BACKGROUND: The clinical course of immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) is highly variable, making it difficult to predict which patients are at risk for rapid progression. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a kidney failure risk prediction equation for adults with IgAN. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort study of 2,155 Chinese patients with IgAN. CANDIDATE PREDICTORS: Clinical and histology variables. OUTCOMES: Time to end-stage renal disease (ESRD)...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Robert R Recker, Mohammed K Akhter, Joan M Lappe, Patrice Watson
Investigators and clinicians use bone histomorphometry data from iliac bone biopsies to study bone abnormalities in diseased patients, and to understand the safety and effectiveness of pharmaceutical interventions. This requires access to a high quality normal data-set to be used for comparisons, a resource that has not been adequate to date. The objective of this work is to present static and dynamic bone histomorphometry data from transilial bone biopsies performed on 48 healthy males, evenly distributed between ages 45 and 75...
March 16, 2018: Bone
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