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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770645/atoh1-regulation-in-the-cochlea-more-than-just-transcription
#1
REVIEW
Yen-Fu Cheng
More than 80% of all cases of deafness are related to the death or degeneration of cochlear hair cells and the associated spiral ganglion neurons, and a lack of regeneration of these cells leads to permanent hearing loss. Therefore, the regeneration of lost hair cells is an important goal for the treatment of deafness. Atoh1 is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that is critical in both the development and regeneration of cochlear hair cells. Atoh1 is transcriptionally regulated by several signaling pathways, including Notch and Wnt signalings...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769265/reciprocal-negative-regulation-between-lmx1a-and-lmo4-is-required-for-inner-ear-formation
#2
Yanhan Huang, Jennifer Hill, Andrew Yatteau, Loksum Wong, Tao Jiang, Jelena Petrovic, Lin Gan, Lijin Dong, Doris K Wu
LIM-domain containing transcription factors (LIM-TFs) are conserved factors important for embryogenesis. The specificity of these factors in transcriptional regulation is conferred by the complexes they form with other proteins such as LIM-domain-binding (Ldb) proteins and LIM-domain only (LMO) proteins. Unlike LIM-TF, these proteins do not bind DNA directly. LMO are negative regulators of LIM-TF and they function by competing with LIM-TFs for binding to Ldbs. Although the LIM-TF Lmx1a is expressed in the developing mouse hindbrain, which provides many of the extrinsic signals for inner ear formation, conditional knockout embryos of both sexes show that the inner ear source of Lmx1a is the major contributor of ear patterning...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766830/impact-of-sphingolipid-mediators-on-determination-of-cochlear-survival-in-ototoxicity
#3
Keiji Tabuchi, Akira Hara
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Sphingolipid metabolites, including ceramide, sphingosine, and their phosphorylates (ceramide-1-phosphonate [C1P] and sphingosine-1-phosphate [S1P]), regulate diverse cellular processes including apoptosis, the cell cycle, and cellular differentiation. Recent studies have shown that these sphingolipid metabolites are generated in response to ototoxic agents and play important roles in determining the fate of cochlear hair cells in ototoxic injury. METHODS: This review summarizes the current knowledge on the roles of sphingolipid mediators in cochlear ototoxicity...
May 15, 2018: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760098/cochlear-amplification-and-tuning-depend-on-the-cellular-arrangement-within-the-organ-of-corti
#4
Hamid Motallebzadeh, Joris A M Soons, Sunil Puria
The field of cochlear mechanics has been undergoing a revolution due to recent findings made possible by advancements in measurement techniques. While it has long been assumed that basilar-membrane (BM) motion is the most important determinant of sound transduction by the inner hair cells (IHCs), it turns out that other parts of the sensory epithelium closer to the IHCs, such as the reticular lamina (RL), move with significantly greater amplitude for weaker sounds. It has not been established how these findings are related to the complex cytoarchitecture of the organ of Corti between the BM and RL, which is composed of a lattice of asymmetric Y-shaped elements, each consisting of a basally slanted outer hair cell (OHC), an apically slanted phalangeal process (PhP), and a supporting Deiters' cell (DC)...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754876/bone-morphogenetic-protein-4-antagonizes-hair-cell-regeneration-in-the-avian-auditory-epithelium
#5
Rebecca M Lewis, Jesse J Keller, Liangcai Wan, Jennifer S Stone
Permanent hearing loss is often a result of damage to cochlear hair cells, which mammals are unable to regenerate. Non-mammalian vertebrates such as birds replace damaged hair cells and restore hearing function, but mechanisms controlling regeneration are not understood. The secreted protein bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) regulates inner ear morphogenesis and hair cell development. To investigate mechanisms controlling hair cell regeneration in birds, we examined expression and function of BMP4 in the auditory epithelia (basilar papillae) of chickens of either sex after hair cell destruction by ototoxic antibiotics...
May 2, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751043/tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-attenuates-gentamicin-induced-cochlear-hair-cell-death-in-vitro
#6
Zhanwei Jia, Qiang He, Chunguang Shan, Fengyi Li
Gentamycin is one of the most clinically used aminoglycoside antibiotics which induce intrinsic apoptosis of hair cells. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is known as safe cell-protective agent in disorders associated with apoptosis. We aimed to investigate the protective effects of TUDCA against gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1(HEI-OC1) cells and explanted cochlear tissue were treated with gentamicin and TUDCA, followed by serial analyses including cell viability assay, hair cell staining, qPCR, ELISA and western blotting to determine the cell damage by the parameters relevant to cell apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress...
May 8, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744730/persistent-auditory-nerve-damage-following-kainic-acid-excitotoxicity-in-the-budgerigar-melopsittacus-undulatus
#7
Kenneth S Henry, Kristina S Abrams
Permanent loss of auditory nerve (AN) fibers occurs with increasing age and sound overexposure, sometimes without hair cell damage or associated audiometric threshold elevation. Rodent studies suggest effects of AN damage on central processing and behavior, but these species have limited capacity to discriminate low-frequency speech-like sounds. Here, we introduce a new animal model of AN damage in an avian communication specialist, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). The budgerigar is a vocal learner and speech mimic with sensitive low-frequency hearing and human-like behavioral sensitivity to many complex signals including speech components...
May 9, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744729/supra-threshold-hearing-and-fluctuation-profiles-implications-for-sensorineural-and-hidden-hearing-loss
#8
REVIEW
Laurel H Carney
An important topic in contemporary auditory science is supra-threshold hearing. Difficulty hearing at conversational speech levels in background noise has long been recognized as a problem of sensorineural hearing loss, including that associated with aging (presbyacusis). Such difficulty in listeners with normal thresholds has received more attention recently, especially associated with descriptions of synaptopathy, the loss of auditory nerve (AN) fibers as a result of noise exposure or aging. Synaptopathy has been reported to cause a disproportionate loss of low- and medium-spontaneous rate (L/MSR) AN fibers...
May 9, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735658/osmotic-stabilization-prevents-cochlear-synaptopathy-after-blast-trauma
#9
Jinkyung Kim, Anping Xia, Nicolas Grillet, Brian E Applegate, John S Oghalai
Traumatic noise causes hearing loss by damaging sensory hair cells and their auditory synapses. There are no treatments. Here, we investigated mice exposed to a blast wave approximating a roadside bomb. In vivo cochlear imaging revealed an increase in the volume of endolymph, the fluid within scala media, termed endolymphatic hydrops. Endolymphatic hydrops, hair cell loss, and cochlear synaptopathy were initiated by trauma to the mechanosensitive hair cell stereocilia and were K+ -dependent. Increasing the osmolality of the adjacent perilymph treated endolymphatic hydrops and prevented synaptopathy, but did not prevent hair cell loss...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733894/cochlear-hair-cell-regeneration-an-emerging-opportunity-to-cure-noise-induced-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#10
REVIEW
Ibrahima Youm, Wei Li
In mammals, cochlear hair cells have a pivotal role in transducing mechanical energy into electrical signals. Cochlear hair cells are sensitive to acoustic trauma, drug insults, aging, and environmental or genetic influences that can cause permanent hearing loss. Currently, much research is focusing on noise-induced sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Noise-induced SNHL is primarily caused by damage to hair cells of the cochlear sensory epithelium. Here, we summarize progress in restoring the sensory epithelium after SNHL resulting from noise exposure...
May 4, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717571/cochlear-damage-caused-by-the-striking-noise-of-titanium-head-golf-driver
#11
Yong-Ho Park, Juyong Chung, Min Young Lee, Doh Young Lee, Young Ho Kim
Objectives: To investigate how mouse cochleae are affected by the striking noise of titanium head golf driver. Methods: Thirty-two BALB/c mice (20-22 g) with normal hearing were used. The impact acoustic stimulus generated by the striking of titanium golf driver head was centered around 4.5 kHz with 120.5 dB sound pressure level. The recorded impact noise was provided to mice in two ways with the same exposure time of 288 seconds: 1,440 repetitions and an impact duration of 0...
May 3, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706463/characterizing-a-novel-vglut3-p2a-icreer-knockin-mouse-strain-in-cochlea
#12
Chao Li, Yilai Shu, Guangqin Wang, He Zhang, Ying Lu, Xiang Li, Gen Li, Lei Song, Zhiyong Liu
Precise mouse genetic studies rely on specific tools that can label specific cell types. In mouse cochlea, previous studies suggest that vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (vGlut3), also known as Slc17a8, is specifically expressed in inner hair cells (IHCs) and loss of vGlut3 causes deafness. To take advantage of its unique expression pattern, here we generate a novel vGlut3-P2A-iCreER knockin mouse strain. The P2A-iCreER cassette is precisely inserted before stop codon of vGlut3, by which the endogenous vGlut3 is intact and paired with iCreER as well...
April 17, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699020/-construction-of-cochlear-progenitor-cells-with-recombinant-short-hairpin-rna-lentiviral-vector-inhibiting-the-expression-of-the-%C3%AE-catenin-gene
#13
P Xu, M Zhang, L Sun, L Fan, B Cui, X J Yu, Q Zeng, Q Gu
Objective: To construct a recombinant short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviral vector targeting the β-catenin gene in cochlear precursor cells (CPCs) in mice, and to investigate its inhibitory effect. Methods: PCR was used for the multiplication of the β-catenin gene, and shRNA oligo was designed based on the β-catenin gene to construct an interference vector. Gateway Technology was used to construct shRNA lentiviral vector which carried the β-catenin gene, and then 293FT cells were transfected with the constructed lentiviral vector and helper plasmids pLV/helper-SL3, pLV/helper-SL4, and pLV/helper-SL5...
February 20, 2018: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696047/comparison-of-cochlear-microphonics-magnitude-with-broad-and-narrow-band-stimuli-in-healthy-adult-wistar-rats
#14
Fatemeh Heidari Phd, Akram Pourbakht, Seyed Kamran Kamrava, Mohammad Kamali, Abbas Yousefi
Objective: Cochlear microphonic (CM) is a cochlear AC electric field, recorded within, around, and remote from its sources. Nowadays it can contribute to the differential diagnosis of different auditory pathologies such as auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). This study compared CM waveforms (CMWs) and amplitudes with broad and narrow band stimuli in 25 healthy male young adults Wistar rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was accomplished in the School of Rehabilitation Sciences of Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (April, 2016)...
2018: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692700/a-fpga-implementation-of-the-car-fac-cochlear-model
#15
Ying Xu, Chetan S Thakur, Ram K Singh, Tara Julia Hamilton, Runchun M Wang, André van Schaik
This paper presents a digital implementation of the Cascade of Asymmetric Resonators with Fast-Acting Compression (CAR-FAC) cochlear model. The CAR part simulates the basilar membrane's (BM) response to sound. The FAC part models the outer hair cell (OHC), the inner hair cell (IHC), and the medial olivocochlear efferent system functions. The FAC feeds back to the CAR by moving the poles and zeros of the CAR resonators automatically. We have implemented a 70-section, 44.1 kHz sampling rate CAR-FAC system on an Altera Cyclone V Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with 18% ALM utilization by using time-multiplexing and pipeline parallelizing techniques and present measurement results here...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688099/no-evidence-for-enhanced-processing-of-speech-that-is-low-pass-filtered-near-the-edge-frequency-of-cochlear-dead-regions-in-children
#16
Alicja N Malicka, Wayne J Wilson, Thomas Baer, Kevin J Munro, Richard J Baker, Deanna Miluzzi, Brian C J Moore
OBJECTIVES: Cochlear dead regions (DRs) are regions in the cochlea where the inner hair cells and/or neurons are not functioning. Adults with extensive high-frequency DRs have enhanced abilities in processing sounds with frequencies just below the edge frequency, fedge , of the DR. It was assessed whether the same is true for children. DESIGN: Performance was compared for children aged 8 to 13 years with: DRs (group DR), hearing impairment but without DRs (group NODR), and normal hearing (group NH)...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687008/secondary-degeneration-of-auditory-neurons-after-topical-aminoglycoside-administration-in-a-gerbil-model
#17
Jae-Hun Lee, Min Young Lee, Phil-Sang Chung, Jae Yun Jung
Hair cells in the cochlea can be damaged by various causes. Damaged hair cells can lead to additional destruction of parts of the auditory afferent pathway sequentially, which is called secondary degeneration. Recently, researches regarding cochlear implants have been actively carried out for clinical purposes; secondary degeneration in animals is a much more practical model for identifying the prognosis of cochlear implants. However, an appropriate model for this research is not established yet. Thus, we developed a secondary degeneration model using an ototoxic drug...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680697/regeneration-of-cochlear-hair-cells-and-hearing-recovery-through-hes1-modulation-with-sirna-nanoparticles-in-adult-guinea-pigs
#18
Xiaoping Du, Qunfeng Cai, Matthew B West, Ibrahima Youm, Xiangping Huang, Wei Li, Weihua Cheng, Don Nakmali, Donald L Ewert, Richard D Kopke
Deafness is commonly caused by the irreversible loss of mammalian cochlear hair cells (HCs) due to noise trauma, toxins, or infections. We previously demonstrated that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) directed against the Notch pathway gene, hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes1), encapsulated within biocompatible poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) could regenerate HCs within ototoxin-ablated murine organotypic cultures. In the present study, we delivered this sustained-release formulation of Hes1 siRNA (siHes1) into the cochleae of noise-injured adult guinea pigs...
May 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680183/impaired-speech-perception-in-noise-with-a-normal-audiogram-no-evidence-for-cochlear-synaptopathy-and-no-relation-to-lifetime-noise-exposure
#19
Hannah Guest, Kevin J Munro, Garreth Prendergast, Rebecca E Millman, Christopher J Plack
In rodents, noise exposure can destroy synapses between inner hair cells and auditory nerve fibers ("cochlear synaptopathy") without causing hair cell loss. Noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy usually leaves cochlear thresholds unaltered, but is associated with long-term reductions in auditory brainstem response (ABR) amplitudes at medium-to-high sound levels. This pathophysiology has been suggested to degrade speech perception in noise (SPiN), perhaps explaining why SPiN ability varies so widely among audiometrically normal humans...
March 9, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676295/effects-of-parenteral-papaverine-and-piracetam-administration-on-cochlea-following-acoustic-trauma
#20
Nurcan Yurtsever Kum, Yavuz F Yilmaz, Seren G Gurgen, Rauf O Kum, Muge Ozcan, Adnan Unal
Introduction: Noise exposure, the main cause of hearing loss in countries with lot of industries, may result both in temporary or permanent hearing loss. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of parenteral papaverine and piracetam administration following an acoustic trauma on hearing function with histopathologic correlation. Materials and Methods: Eighteen Wistar albino rats exposed to noise for 8 h in a free environment were included. We divided the study population into three groups, and performed daily intraperitoneal injections of papaverine, piracetam, and saline, respectively, throughout the study...
March 2018: Noise & Health
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