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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455170/comparison-and-validation-of-screening-tools-for-substance-use-in-pregnancy-a-cross-sectional-study-conducted-in-maryland-prenatal-clinics
#1
Victoria H Coleman-Cowger, Emmanuel A Oga, Erica N Peters, Kathleen Trocin, Bartosz Koszowski, Katrina Mark
INTRODUCTION: Prescription-drug use in the USA has increased by more than 60% in the last three decades. Prevalence of prescription-drug use among pregnant women is currently estimated around 50%. Prevalence of illicit drug use in the USA is 14.6% among pregnant adolescents, 8.6% among pregnant young adults and 3.2% among pregnant adults. The first step in identifying problematic drug use during pregnancy is screening; however, no specific substance-use screener has been universally recommended for use with pregnant women to identify illicit or prescription-drug use...
February 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453006/illicit-and-prescription-drug-misuse-as-reported-to-the-maine-diversion-alert-program
#2
Brian J Piper, Michael J Suarez, John P Piserchio, Dipam T Shah, Olapeju M Simoyan, Kenneth L McCall, Clare E Desrosiers, Stephanie D Nichols
BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic is rapidly evolving and new tools are needed to combat drug abuse. The Maine Diversion Alert Program (DAP) is an informational resource that facilitates communication about drug arrests between the criminal justice and healthcare fields. The objectives of this report were to: (1) describe the illegal and prescription pharmaceuticals reported to the DAP; (2) determine if the drugs implicated in arrests changed from the first to latter half of 2016; (3) identify the demographic and other characteristics of arrestees; and (4) outline the strengths and limitations of the DAP for other areas considering implementing similar programs...
February 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451815/gender-differences-in-substance-use-treatment-and-substance-use-among-adults-on-probation
#3
Jennifer M Reingle Gonzalez, Scott T Walters, Jennifer Lerch, Faye S Taxman
BACKGROUND: Although many formal and informal substance use treatment programs were originally designed for men, no studies have investigated how gender affects the use of substance use treatment modalities, and how gender differences in treatment utilization impact substance use in the unique probation context. OBJECTIVE: To describe gender differences in use and effectiveness of substance use treatment modalities (formal and informal) among probationers. METHODS: Longitudinal data were obtained from 335 individuals (93 women) who participated in the Motivational Assessment Program to Initiate Treatment (MAPIT) study...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450253/drug-nicotine-and-alcohol-use-among-exercisers-does-substance-addiction-co-occur-with-exercise-addiction
#4
Attila Szabo, Mark D Griffiths, Rikke Aarhus Høglid, Zsolt Demetrovics
Background: Scholastic works suggest that those at risk for exercise addiction are also often addicted to illicit drugs, nicotine, and/or alcohol, but empirical evidence is lacking. Aims: The aim of the present work was to examine the co-occurrence of illicit drug, nicotine, and alcohol use frequency (prevalence of users) and severity (level of problem in users) among exercisers classified at three levels of risk for exercise addiction: (i) asymptomatic, (ii) symptomatic, and (iii) at-risk...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450244/characteristics-of-adherence-to-methadone-maintenance-treatment-over-a-15-year-period-among-homeless-adults-experiencing-mental-illness
#5
Milad Parpouchi, Akm Moniruzzaman, Stefanie N Rezansoff, Angela Russolillo, Julian M Somers
Background: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has important protective effects related to reduced illicit opioid use, infectious disease transmission, and overdose mortality. Adherence to MMT has not been examined among homeless people. We measured MMT adherence and reported relevant characteristics among homeless adults experiencing mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Material and methods: Homeless adults living with mental illness who had received MMT prior to the baseline interview of the Vancouver At Home study ( n = 78) were included in analyses...
December 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450230/do-addicts-have-free-will-an-empirical-approach-to-a-vexing-question
#6
Gene M Heyman
Introduction: This paper addresses two overlapping questions: Do addicts have the capacity to voluntarily quit drugs? And do individuals knowingly pursue courses of action that they realize are bad for them, such as excessive drug use? Methods: I propose two testable versions of free will. First, the observation that activities differ in the degree to which they are susceptible to the influence of their consequences (e.g., costs and benefits) has proven a useful criterion for classifying behavior as voluntary or involuntary...
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449106/hair-analysis-in-toxicological-investigation-of-drug-facilitated-crimes-in-denmark-over-a-8-year-period
#7
Xin Wang, Sys Stybe Johansen, Marie Katrine Klose Nielsen, Kristian Linnet
Hair can serve as a specimen for identifying past drug exposure. Segmental hair analysis may differentiate a single exposure from chronic use. Consequently, segmental hair analysis is useful for disclosing a single drug ingestion, as well as for determining repeated exposures in drug-facilitated crimes (DFCs). This paper presents an overview of toxicological investigations that have used hair analysis in DFC cases from 2009 to 2016 in Denmark. Hair concentrations were determined for 24 DFC-related drugs and metabolites, including benzodiazepines and other hypnotics, antihistamines, opioid analgesics, antipsychotics, barbiturates, and illicit drugs from DFC cases...
February 5, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449105/comparing-cryptomarkets-for-drugs-a-characterisation-of-sellers-and-buyers-over-time
#8
Meropi Tzanetakis
INTRODUCTION: Cryptomarkets operating on the darknet are a recent phenomenon that has gained importance only over the last couple of years (Barratt, 2012). However, they now constitute an evolving part of illicit drug markets. Although selling and buying a variety of psychoactive substances on the Internet has a long history, new technological developments enable systematic drug trading on the net.These technological innovations on the Internet allow users to proceed with (illicit) drug transactions with almost completely anonymous identities and locations...
February 12, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448243/impact-of-health-authority-control-measures-aimed-at-reducing-the-illicit-use-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroids
#9
Raquel Vázquez-Mourelle, Eduardo Carracedo-Martinez, Adolfo Figueiras
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate two interventions on anabolic-androgenic-steroids (AAS) dispensation in retail pharmacies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in a north-western region of Spain. Data were the AAS supplied by wholesale drug distributors to retail pharmacies over a period of 102 months. It is designed as an ecological time-series study; the dependent variables were daily defined doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day of each drug. The two interventions evaluated were: (1) an inspection program intended for those retail pharmacies where there was an irregular dispensation and (2) a regulation put forth forcing these pharmacies to carry out additional registers...
February 15, 2018: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445049/prevalence-and-predictors-of-internet-addiction-among-college-students-in-sousse-tunisia
#10
Menel Mellouli, Nawel Zammit, Manel Limam, Meriam Elghardallou, Ali Mtiraoui, Thouraya Ajmi, Chekib Zedini
BACKGROUND: Internet represents a revolution in the world of technology and communication all over the world including Tunisia. However, this technology has also introduced problematic use, especially among students. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction among college students and its predictors in the region of Sousse, Tunisia. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: The current study was conducted in the colleges of Sousse, Tunisia in 2012-2013...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435795/illicit-drug-users-in-the-tanzanian-hinterland-population-size-estimation-through-key-informant-driven-hot-spot-mapping
#11
Joel Ndayongeje, Amani Msami, Yovin Ivo Laurent, Syangu Mwankemwa, Moza Makumbuli, Alois M Ngonyani, Jenny Tiberio, Susie Welty, Christen Said, Meghan D Morris, Willi McFarland
We mapped hot spots and estimated the numbers of people who use drugs (PWUD) and who inject drugs (PWID) in 12 regions of Tanzania. Primary (ie, current and past PWUD) and secondary (eg, police, service providers) key informants identified potential hot spots, which we visited to verify and count the number of PWUD and PWID present. Adjustments to counts and extrapolation to regional estimates were done by local experts through iterative rounds of discussion. Drug use, specifically cocaine and heroin, occurred in all regions...
February 12, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434450/incidence-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-with-chronic-liver-disease-due-to-hepatitis-b-or-c-and-coinfected-with-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#12
Patrícia Dos Santos Marcon, Cristiane Valle Tovo, Dimas Alexandre Kliemann, Patrícia Fisch, Angelo Alves de Mattos
AIM: To assess the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed, including patients with chronic liver disease due to HBV or HCV, with and without HIV coinfection. Patients were selected in the largest tertiary public hospital complex in southern Brazil between January 2007 and June 2014...
February 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433788/gender-differences-in-trends-for-heroin-use-and-nonmedical-prescription-opioid-use-2007-2014
#13
Jeanne C Marsh, Keunhye Park, Yu-An Lin, Cliff Bersamira
BACKGROUND: Trends in the current opioid epidemic in the United States show that use of heroin is increasing while nonmedical use of prescription opioids is slowing. Understanding gender differences in these trends is essential to efforts to address the opioid epidemic. This study compared gender difference in trends in heroin and nonmedical prescription opioid use in the U.S. between 2007 and 2014. METHODS: Data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were used to trace prevalence and to estimate risk for heroin and nonmedical prescription opioid use in the last year for women and men...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432758/paper-spray-mass-spectrometry-for-the-direct-semi-quantitative-measurement-of-fentanyl-and-norfentanyl-in-complex-matrices
#14
Gregory W Vandergrift, Arden J Hessels, Jan Palaty, Erik T Krogh, Chris G Gill
BACKGROUND: Fentanyl is a potent, synthetic opioid at the centre of an international health crisis that has seen thousands of fatal overdoses. Most analytical methods focus on the detection of fentanyl in blood and/or urine (i.e., post-drug use). Harm reduction (including pre-screening before drug use) may be an effective strategy against fentanyl overdoses. METHOD: Paper spray-mass spectrometry (PS-MS) is an inexpensive, direct sampling strategy where a small volume of sample (<10 μL) is spotted onto a piece of paper that is then wetted and connected to high voltage...
February 9, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430845/peer-counselling-versus-standard-of-care-on-reducing-high-risk-behaviours-among-newly-diagnosed-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-beijing-china-a-randomized-intervention-study
#15
Yu Liu, Sten H Vermund, Yuhua Ruan, Hongjie Liu, K Rivet Amico, Jane M Simoni, Bryan E Shepherd, Yiming Shao, Han-Zhu Qian
INTRODUCTION: Reducing high-risk behaviours (i.e. multiple partnership, condomless anal/vaginal sex, alcohol use before sex, illicit drug use) after HIV diagnosis is critical for curtailing HIV transmission. We designed an intervention to explore peer- counselling in reducing high-risk behaviours among newly diagnosed HIV-positive Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: We randomized 367 newly diagnosed HIV-positive men to either standard-of-care (SOC; n = 183) or peer-counselling intervention (n = 184), and followed them for 12 months (visit at 0-, 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-month)...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430806/cannabis-use-is-associated-with-lower-rates-of-initiation-of-injection-drug-use-among-street-involved-youth-a-longitudinal-analysis
#16
Hudson Reddon, Kora DeBeck, Maria Eugenia Socias, Huiru Dong, Evan Wood, Julio Montaner, Thomas Kerr, Michael-John Milloy
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Street-involved youth are known to be at elevated risk of initiating injection drug use. However, the impact of so-called 'gateway' drugs, such as cannabis, on injection initiation is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the association between cannabis use and initiation of injection drug use among a prospective cohort of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data for this study were collected from the At-Risk Youth Study...
February 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429865/mental-health-drug-use-and-sexual-risk-behavior-among-gay-and-bisexual-men
#17
Garrett Prestage, Mohamed Hammoud, Fengyi Jin, Louisa Degenhardt, Adam Bourne, Lisa Maher
BACKGROUND: Compared to the general population, among gay and bisexual men (GBM) prevalence rates of anxiety and depression, and of drug use, are high. OBJECTIVE: This paper explores the relationship between mental health, sexual risk behavior, and drug use among Australian GBM. We identify factors associated with indicators of poor mental health. METHODS: Between September 2014 and July 2017, 3017 GBM responded to measures of anxiety and depression in an online cohort study of drug use...
February 8, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429864/prevalence-and-correlates-of-recent-injecting-drug-use-among-gay-and-bisexual-men-in-australia-results-from-the-flux-study
#18
H Bui, I Zablotska-Manos, M Hammoud, F Jin, T Lea, A Bourne, J Iversen, N Bath, J Grierson, L Degenhardt, G Prestage, L Maher
BACKGROUND: While illicit drug use is prevalent among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Australia, little is known about the factors associated with injecting drug use among GBM. METHODS: The Following Lives Undergoing Change (FLUX) study is a national, online prospective observational cohort investigating drug use among Australian GBM. Eligible participants were men living in Australia who were aged 16.5 years or older, identified as gay or bisexual or had sex with at least one man in the last year...
February 8, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428641/interpreting-interaction-effects-in-estimates-of-the-risk-of-traffic-injury-associated-with-the-use-of-illicit-drugs
#19
Rune Elvik
Interactions characterise the relationship between use of amphetamines, cannabis and opiates as a driver and the risk of traffic injury associated with the use of these drugs. Inverse risk curves have been found for these drugs, meaning that the higher the proportion of drivers in normal traffic testing positive for the drugs, the lower is the increase in risk associated with them. The inverse risk curves can arise in many ways. The paper discusses ten different interpretations of the curves; seven of these are methodological and claim that the risk curves are statistical artefacts...
February 8, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428297/improving-drug-policy-the-potential-of-broader-democratic-participation
#20
Alison Ritter, Kari Lancaster, Rosalyn Diprose
Policies concerned with illicit drugs vex governments. While the 'evidence-based policy' paradigm argues that governments should be informed by 'what works', in practice policy makers rarely operate this way. Moreover the evidence-based policy paradigm fails to account for democratic participatory processes, particularly how community members and people who use drugs might be included. The aim of this paper is to explore the political science thinking about democratic participation and the potential afforded in 'deliberative democracy' approaches, such as Citizens Juries and other mini-publics for improved drug policy processes...
February 8, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
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