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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220642/substance-use-patterns-associated-with-recent-exposure-to-fentanyl-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-vancouver-canada-a-cross-sectional-urine-toxicology-screening-study
#1
Kanna Hayashi, M-J Milloy, Mark Lysyshyn, Kora DeBeck, Ekaterina Nosova, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr
INTRODUCTION: Vancouver, Canada is experiencing an opioid overdose crisis where fentanyl, a potent, synthetic opioid contaminating the illicit drug supply, has been detected in the majority of fatal overdose cases. Despite its growing presence throughout North America, few studies have characterized exposure to fentanyl among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD). We sought to identify the prevalence and correlates of fentanyl exposure among PWUD in Vancouver. METHODS: Data were derived from cohort studies of PWUD in Vancouver...
December 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218823/perspectives-of-cannabis-use-in-the-life-experience-of-men-with-schizophrenia
#2
Chris Wagstaff, Hermine Graham, Derek Farrell, Michael Larkin, Lloyd Tatham
Substance use amongst people with schizophrenia is well-established: up to 50% report using illicit substances. The occurrence of both conditions can also induce people to disengage from mental health services. The research question sought to understand, from the perspective of both service users and clinicians, cannabis use within the experience of people with schizophrenia. The transcripts of the seven participants and the two focus groups were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Service Users and Clinicians were recruited from Assertive outreach community-based teams...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218748/adolescent-non-drinkers-who-are-they-social-relations-school-performance-lifestyle-factors-and-health-behaviours
#3
Peter Larm, Cecilia Åslund, Jonas Raninen, Kent W Nilsson
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Traditionally, non-drinking adults or young adults have been associated with health deficits rather than health benefits. However, as the proportion of Swedish non-drinking adolescents has doubled since 2000, their health profiles are of interest. The aim of the present study is to examine whether social relations, school characteristics, lifestyle factors or health behaviours distinguish adolescent non-drinkers from adolescent drinkers, and if their health profiles have changed from 2004 to 2012...
December 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218644/cardiovascular-complications-of-marijuana-and-related-substances-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Amitoj Singh, Sajeev Saluja, Akshat Kumar, Sahil Agrawal, Munveer Thind, Sudip Nanda, Jamshid Shirani
The recreational use of cannabis has sharply increased in recent years in parallel with its legalization and decriminalization in several countries. Commonly, the traditional cannabis has been replaced by potent synthetic cannabinoids and cannabimimetics in various forms. Despite overwhelming public perception of the safety of these substances, an increasing number of serious cardiovascular adverse events have been reported in temporal relation to recreational cannabis use. These have included sudden cardiac death, vascular (coronary, cerebral and peripheral) events, arrhythmias and stress cardiomyopathy among others...
December 7, 2017: Cardiology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217724/correlation-of-impulsivity-with-self-harm-and-suicidal-attempt-a-community-study-of-adolescents-in-taiwan
#5
Yu-Hsin Huang, Hui-Ching Liu, Fang-Ju Tsai, Fang-Ju Sun, Kuo-Yang Huang, Yu-Ching Chiu, Yen-Hsun Huang, Yo-Ping Huang, Shen-Ing Liu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate differences and similarities in risk factors for deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal attempt (SA), and the role of impulsivity among a group of community adolescents. SETTING: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at high schools in Northern Taiwan. DATA AND PARTICIPANTS: We recruited grade 1 students from 14 high schools. A total of 5879 participants (mean age 16.02 years, female adolescents: 57...
December 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216882/case-report-surgical-removal-of-a-migrated-needle-in-right-ventricle-of-an-intravenous-drug-user
#6
Xianming Fu, Kai Chen, Xiaobo Liao, Kangjun Shen
BACKGROUND: Illicit drug use has become an increasing public health and social concern in the past decades worldwide. Intravenous injection has an elevated risk of infection. Needle embolism is a rare complication of intravenous drug users, Retained broken needles can lead to local complications, such as infection, but they also have the potential to embolize to heart or lung, and lead to serious complications. METHOD: We reported a rare case of an intravenous drug user which a retained broken needle fragments in the inferior wall of the right ventricle...
December 8, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216524/multiple-fatalities-in-the-north-of-england-associated-with-synthetic-fentanyl-analogue-exposure-detection-and-quantitation-a-case-series-from-early-2017
#7
Laura Hikin, Paul R Smith, Eleanor Ringland, Simon Hudson, Stephen R Morley
BACKGROUND: Synthetic fentanyl analogues are highly potent opioid drugs which have no pharmaceutical use in humans. We detected the synthetic fentanyl analogues; carfentanil, butyryl fentanyl, fluorobutyrylfentanyl, furanylfentanyl, and alfentanil as well as fentanyl itself in 25 cases in early 2017. There have been no previous reports of synthetic fentanyl deaths in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: Cases in which the history clearly stated drug use but where a post mortem blood morphine concentration was lower than would be expected to explain the sudden death, were referred for further analysis by high resolution accurate mass (HRAM) mass spectrometry...
November 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216523/use-of-synthetic-stimulants-and-hallucinogens-in-a-cohort-of-electronic-dance-music-festival-attendees
#8
Amanda L A Mohr, Melissa Friscia, Jillian K Yeakel, Barry K Logan
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS), often characterized as unregulated psychoactive compounds designed to circumvent existing legislation, have become mainstream on the illicit drug market. Because of their physical and mind-altering properties, NPS may be deliberately or inadvertently ingested at electronic dance music (EDM) festivals to enhance the attendees' appreciation of the music and overall experience. Their widespread use at EDM festivals have been well documented and several adverse events and fatalities associated with NPS ingestion have been reported in the United States...
November 21, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216482/enantiomeric-profiling-of-chiral-illicit-drugs-in-a-pan-european-study
#9
Erika Castrignanò, Zhugen Yang, Richard Bade, Jose A Baz-Lomba, Sara Castiglioni, Ana Causanilles, Adrian Covaci, Emma Gracia-Lor, Felix Hernandez, Juliet Kinyua, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Christoph Ort, Benedek G Plósz, Pedram Ramin, Nikolaos I Rousis, Yeonsuk Ryu, Kevin V Thomas, Pim de Voogt, Ettore Zuccato, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern
The aim of this paper is to present the first study on spatial and temporal variation in the enantiomeric profile of chiral drugs in eight European cities. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) and enantioselective analysis were combined to evaluate trends in illicit drug use in the context of their consumption vs direct disposal as well as their synthetic production routes. Spatial variations in amphetamine loads were observed with higher use in Northern European cities. Enantioselective analysis showed a general enrichment of amphetamine with the R-(-)-enantiomer in wastewater indicating its abuse...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214532/qualitative-and-quantitative-temporal-analysis-of-licit-and-illicit-drugs-in-wastewater-in-australia-using-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-mass-spectrometry
#10
Richard Bade, Jason M White, Cobus Gerber
The combination of qualitative and quantitative bimonthly analysis of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry is presented. A liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight instrument equipped with Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) was used to qualitatively screen 346 compounds in influent wastewater from two wastewater treatment plants in South Australia over a 14-month period. A total of 100 compounds were confirmed and/or detected using this strategy, with 61 confirmed in all samples including antidepressants (amitriptyline, dothiepin, doxepin), antipsychotics (amisulpride, clozapine), illicit drugs (cocaine, methamphetamine, amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)), and known drug adulterants (lidocaine and tetramisole)...
December 6, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207922/effect-of-steady-state-methadone-on-high-fructose-corn-syrup-consumption-in-rats
#11
Stephen Daniels, Mick Pratt, Yan Zhou, Francesco Leri
Patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment self-report enhanced preferences for, and excessive consumption of, foods rich in sugar. However, it is unclear whether these are direct pharmacological effects of methadone or the consequences of metabolic dysfunctions induced by addiction to illicit opiates. Hence, the current study in drug-naïve male Sprague-Dawley rats explored the effects of steady-state methadone delivered by osmotic mini-pumps (13 days; 0, 10, 30 mg/kg/day) on consumption of rat chow and a palatable, sweet, liquid high fructose corn syrup solution...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206984/rational-urine-drug-monitoring-in-patients-receiving-opioids-for-chronic-pain-consensus-recommendations
#12
Charles E Argoff, Daniel P Alford, Jeffrey Fudin, Jeremy A Adler, Matthew J Bair, Richard C Dart, Roy Gandolfi, Bill H McCarberg, Steven P Stanos, Jeffrey A Gudin, Rosemary C Polomano, Lynn R Webster
Objective: To develop consensus recommendations on urine drug monitoring (UDM) in patients with chronic pain who are prescribed opioids. Methods: An interdisciplinary group of clinicians with expertise in pain, substance use disorders, and primary care conducted virtual meetings to review relevant literature and existing guidelines and share their clinical experience in UDM before reaching consensus recommendations. Results: Definitive (e...
December 1, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204843/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-illicit-drug-users-in-italy
#13
Enea Spada, Giovanni Rezza, Anna Rosa Garbuglia, Flavia Lucia Lombardo, Ornella Zuccaro, Francesca Menniti Ippolito, Elisabetta Cupellaro, Stefania Capone, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Alfredo Nicosia, Riccardo Cortese, Antonella Folgori, Alfonso Mele
So far, only three small outdated studies have investigated hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence and risk factors among illicit drug users (DUs) in Italy. Thus, during 2007-2010, we conducted a prospective cohort study among DUs attending 17 Italian rehabilitation centers serving urban areas. Two hundred eighty-four HCV-uninfected DUs were prospectively followed by interview and anti-HCV antibody and RNA testing every 6 months. Incidence was calculated using the person-years method. Infection predictors were assessed by time-dependent Cox analysis...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204023/trend-of-neuropsychiatric-morbidity-in-sub-himalayan-region-an-audit-of-retrospective-data-mining
#14
Manoj Kumar Gandhi, Piyush Sharma, Mitasha Singh, Sunil Kumar Raina, Ranabir Pal
Background: There is a paradigm shift in health loss due to premature mortality and disability from neuropsychiatric disorders with major burden in low- and middle-income countries. Objective: To study the trend of admissions with neuropsychiatric and substance-use disorders in 3 years in psychiatry and medicine wards of tertiary care hospital in rural Himachal Pradesh. Methodology: A retrospective data mining was done from records of Inpatient wards of Dr...
October 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199906/racial-ethnic-differences-in-prevalence-and-correlates-of-blunt-smoking-among-adolescents
#15
LaTrice Montgomery, Dale Mantey
Blunt use is pervasive among adolescents. The study uses cross-sectional data from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health to examine sociodemographic, health, and other substance use correlates of current and lifetime blunt use among 12,036 African American, White, and Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Findings revealed that 5.3% of African American, 4.3% of Hispanic/Latino, and 3.8% of White adolescents reported past-30-day blunt use. Age and substance use other than marijuana were consistent correlates of current and lifetime blunt use across all racial/ethnic groups...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199807/health-risks-of-drugs-in-finland-can-the-risks-be-managed
#16
Jussi Kauhanen, Jari Tiihonen
In the HUUTI consortium research project, the illicit use of drugs and consequences thereof among Finnish people were studied, also seeking possible new pharmacological therapies for dependency problems. The epidemiological part included 4,817 persons, who attended the services for drug users at Helsinki Deaconess Institute between 1997 and 2008. The majority were below 35 years of age. The average level of education was low and the proportion of employed was small. On the average, 3.5 different substances were being used, of which buprenorphine and amphetamine were the most common primary drugs, cannabis being the most common secondary drug...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199501/older-adults-driving-under-the-influence-associations-with-marijuana-use-marijuana-use-disorder-and-risk-perceptions
#17
Namkee G Choi, Diana M DiNitto, C Nathan Marti
Despite increasing marijuana use among the 50+ age group, little research has been done on marijuana's impact on older adults' driving under the influence (DUI). Using the 2013 to 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, this study examined the association of older adults' self-reported DUI with marijuana use, marijuana abuse/dependence, and marijuana risk perception. The findings show that one third of past-year marijuana users aged 50+ reported past-year DUI, two thirds of which involved drugs. Those with marijuana abuse/dependence were 2...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197242/alcohol-and-illicit-drugs-in-drivers-involved-in-road-traffic-crashes-in-the-milan-area-a-comparison-with-normal-traffic-reveals-the-possible-inadequacy-of-current-cut-off-limits
#18
Davide Ferrari, Monica Manca, Giuseppe Banfi, Massimo Locatelli
BACKGROUND: Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs in Italy is regulated by the articles 186 and 187 of the National Street Code. Epidemiological studies on drivers involved in road traffic crashes (RTC) provide useful information about the use/abuse of these substances in the general population. Comparison with case control studies may reveal important information like the cut-off limits adequacy. METHODS: Data from 1587 blood tests for alcohol and 1258 blood tests for illicit drugs on drivers involved in RTC around Milan between 2012 and 2016, were analyzed and compared with a published random survey (DRUID) from the European Community...
November 22, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195593/gender-and-ethnic-differences-in-primary-care-patients-response-to-computerized-vs-in-person-brief-intervention-for-illicit-drug-misuse
#19
Jan Gryczynski, Steven B Carswell, Kevin E O'Grady, Shannon Gwin Mitchell, Robert P Schwartz
This study is a secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial of computerized vs. in-person brief intervention (BI) for illicit drug misuse among adult primary care patients (N=359; 45% Female; 47% Hispanic) with moderate-risk illicit drug misuse as measured by the World Health Organization's Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). This study examined differences in response to the two brief intervention strategies (both based on motivational interviewing) on the basis of gender and ethnicity, comparing non-Hispanic males, non-Hispanic females, Hispanic males, and Hispanic females...
January 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190175/going-beyond-prescription-pain-relievers-to-understand-the-opioid-epidemic-the-role-of-illicit-fentanyl-new-psychoactive-substances-and-street-heroin
#20
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Jo Ann LeQuang, Robert Taylor, Robert B Raffa
The opioid epidemic is associated with morbidity and mortality, and it has taken a vast toll on American society. While prescription opioid abuse is part of the opioid problem, it is by no means the entirety of it. Opioid abuse appears to have entered a technology-driven new world of clandestine labs all over the globe and many new synthetic analog, counterfeit, and adulterated drugs that arrive via the internet faster than the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) can catalog and outlaw them. To deal with opioid abuse, it must be recognized that it is more - far more - than a subset of chronic pain patients who become addicted...
November 30, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
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