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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230564/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-aggression-and-illicit-stimulant-use-is-this-self-medication
#1
Annie P Odell, Grace L Reynolds, Dennis G Fisher, Loucine M Huckabay, William C Pedersen, Pamela Xandre, Milica Miočević
This study compares adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on measures of direct and displaced aggression and illicit drug use. Three hundred ninety-six adults were administered the Wender Utah Rating Scale, the Risk Behavior Assessment, the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), and the Displaced Aggression Questionnaire (DAQ). Those with ADHD were higher on all scales of the AQ and DAQ, were younger at first use of amphetamines, and were more likely to have ever used crack and amphetamines...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226337/immunoassay-based-drug-tests-are-inadequately-sensitive-for-medication-compliance-monitoring-in-patients-treated-for-chronic-pain
#2
Marion L Snyder, Corrine R Fantz, Stacy Melanson
BACKGROUND: Enzyme immunoassays (EIA) have notable limitations for monitoring therapeutic compliance in pain management. Chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry provides definitive results and superior sensitivity and specificity over traditional EIA testing. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare the sensitivity of EIA results together with known prescriptions to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for monitoring drug use (and abuse) in patients treated for chronic pain...
February 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226335/repeated-quantitative-urine-toxicology-analysis-may-improve-chronic-pain-patient-compliance-with-opioid-therapy
#3
Nebojsa Nick Knezevic, Omar M Khan, Afsaneh Beiranvand, Kenneth D Candido
BACKGROUND: Even though serious efforts have been undertaken by different medical societies to reduce opioid use for treating chronic benign pain, many Americans continue to seek pain relief through opioid consumption. Assuring compliance of these patients may be a difficult aspect of proper management even with regular behavioral monitoring. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to accurately assess the compliance of chronic opioid-consuming patients in an outpatient setting and evaluate if utilizing repeated urine drug testing (UDT) could improve compliance...
February 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226332/responsible-safe-and-effective-prescription-of-opioids-for-chronic-non-cancer-pain-american-society-of-interventional-pain-physicians-asipp-guidelines
#4
Laxmaiah Manchikanti, Adam M Kaye, Nebojsa Nick Knezevic, Heath McAnally, Konstantin Slavin, Andrea M Trescot, Susan Blank, Vidyasagar Pampati, Salahadin Abdi, Jay S Grider, Alan D Kaye, Kavita N Manchikanti, Harold Cordner, Christopher G Gharibo, Michael E Harned, Sheri L Albers, Sairam Atluri, Steve M Aydin, Sanjay Bakshi, Robert L Barkin, Ramsin M Benyamin, Mark V Boswell, Ricardo M Buenaventura, Aaron K Calodney, David L Cedeno, Sukdeb Datta, Timothy R Deer, Bert Fellows, Vincent Galan, Vahid Grami, Hans Hansen, Standiford Helm Ii, Rafael Justiz, Dhanalakshmi Koyyalagunta, Yogesh Malla, Annu Navani, Kent H Nouri, Ramarao Pasupuleti, Nalini Sehgal, Sanford M Silverman, Thomas T Simopoulos, Vijay Singh, Daneshvari R Solanki, Peter S Staats, Ricardo Vallejo, Bradley W Wargo, Arthur Watanabe, Joshua A Hirsch
BACKGROUND: Opioid use, abuse, and adverse consequences, including death, have escalated at an alarming rate since the 1990s. In an attempt to control opioid abuse, numerous regulations and guidelines for responsible opioid prescribing have been developed by various organizations. However, the US opioid epidemic is continuing and drug dose deaths tripled during 1999 to 2015. Recent data show a continuing increase in deaths due to natural and semisynthetic opioids, a decline in methadone deaths, and an explosive increase in the rates of deaths involving other opioids, specifically heroin and illicit synthetic fentanyl...
February 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220762/drug-detection-in-breath-non-invasive-assessment-of-illicit-or-pharmaceutical-drugs
#5
Phillip Trefz, Svend Kamysek, Patricia Fuchs, Pritam Sukul, Jochen Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch
Breath analysis not only holds great potential for the development of new non-invasive diagnostic methods, but also for the identification and follow up of drug levels in breath. This is of interest for both, forensic and medical science. On the one hand, the detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath - similar to the well-known breath alcohol tests - would be highly desirable as an alternative to blood or urine analysis in situations such as police controls for drugged driving. The noninvasive detection of drugs and their metabolites is thus of great interest in forensic science, especially since marijuana is becoming legalized in certain parts of the U...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218773/risk-factors-for-birth-defects
#6
Benjamin S Harris, Katherine C Bishop, Hanna R Kemeny, Jennifer S Walker, Eleanor Rhee, Jeffrey A Kuller
Importance: Major congenital abnormalities, or birth defects, carry significant medical, surgical, cosmetic, or lifestyle consequences. Such abnormalities may be syndromic, involving multiple organ systems, or can be isolated. Overall, 2% to 4% of live births involve congenital abnormalities. Risk factors for birth defects are categorized as modifiable and nonmodifiable. Modifiable risk factors require thorough patient education/counseling. The strongest risk factors, such as age, family history, and a previously affected child, are usually nonmodifiable...
February 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217446/the-dangers-of-sexual-enhancement-supplements-and-counterfeit-drugs-to-treat-erectile-dysfunction
#7
REVIEW
Jason Chiang, Faysal A Yafi, Philip J Dorsey, Wayne J G Hellstrom
Counterfeit phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) are an increasing problem. Already in widespread use, the market for PDE-5i is steadily growing as the population ages. Counterfeiters are taking advantage of this growing market by developing illicit and counterfeit PDE-5i products. Many factors are contributing to the rapid growth of the illicit market, such as the low risk of prosecution, potentially high financial reward, and ease of distribution via Internet pharmacies. Consumers of illicit PDE-5i often do not realize they are using counterfeit products and placing themselves at an unnecessary health risk...
February 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215996/morphological-and-behavioral-responses-of-zebrafish-after-24h-of-ketamine-embryonic-exposure
#8
Luís M Félix, Cindy Serafim, Maria J Martins, Ana M Valentim, Luís M Antunes, Manuela Matos, Ana M Coimbra
Ketamine, one anesthetic used as an illicit drug, has been detected both in freshwater and marine ecosystems. However, knowledge of its impact on aquatic life is still limited. This study aimed to test its effects in zebrafish embryos by analyzing its time- and dose-dependent developmental toxicity and long-term behavioral changes. The 24h-LC50 was calculated from percent survival using probit analysis. Based on the 24h-LC50 (94.4mgL(-1)), embryos (2hour post-fertilization - hpf) were divided into four groups, including control, and exposed for 24h to ketamine concentrations of 50, 70 or 90mgL(-1)...
February 16, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215580/deviant-peers-as-a-mediator-of-pubertal-timing-substance-use-associations-the-moderating-role-of-parental-knowledge
#9
Kristine Marceau, Kristina Jackson
PURPOSE: Early perceived pubertal timing and faster maturation have been linked to increased risk of adolescent substance use (SU), particularly for girls, but the mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. We sought to replicate and extend findings from Westling et al. (2008) showing that peer deviance mediates the link between early puberty and SU with stronger pathways in the context of low parental knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts and activities. METHODS: Participants (n = 1,023; 52% female, 24% nonwhite, and 12% Hispanic) were recruited through middle schools...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214739/characterizing-users-of-new-psychoactive-substances-using-psychometric-scales-for-risk-related-behavior
#10
Annabel Vreeker, Babette G van der Burg, Margriet van Laar, Tibor M Brunt
INTRODUCTION: Studies investigating risk-related behavior in relation to new psychoactive substance (NPS) use are sparse. The current study investigated characteristics of NPS users by comparing risk-related behavior of NPS users to that of illicit drugs (ID) users and licit substances users and non-users (NLC) users. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we included 528 individuals across an age range of 18-72years. Using a web-based questionnaire we collected self-report data on substance use, sensation seeking, impulsivity, peer substance use and risk perception of substance use...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214449/-they-treated-me-like-crap-and-i-know-it-was-because-i-was-native-the-healthcare-experiences-of-aboriginal-peoples-living-in-vancouver-s-inner-city
#11
Ashley Goodman, Kim Fleming, Nicole Markwick, Tracey Morrison, Louise Lagimodiere, Thomas Kerr
There is growing evidence that Aboriginal peoples often experience healthcare inequalities due to racism. However, research exploring the healthcare experiences of Aboriginal peoples who use illicit substances is limited, and research rarely accounts for how multiple accounts of stigma intersect and contribute to the experiences of marginalized populations. Our research aimed to explore the healthcare experiences of Aboriginal peoples who use illicit drugs and or illicit alcohol (APWUID/A) living in Vancouver's inner city...
January 26, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212938/the-combined-effects-of-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-mdma-and-selected-substituted-methcathinones-on-measures-of-neurotoxicity
#12
Nicholas B Miner, James P O'Callaghan, Tamara J Phillips, Aaron Janowsky
The rise in popularity of substituted methcathinones (aka "bath salts") has increased the focus on their neurotoxic effects. Two commonly abused methcathinones, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone, MDMC) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), are often concomitantly ingested with the illicit drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). To examine potential neurotoxic effects of these drug combinations, C57BL/6J mice were administered 4 i.p. injection of the drugs, at 2h intervals, either singularly: MDMA 15 or 30mg/kg, methylone 20mg/kg, MDPV 1mg/kg; or in combination: methylone/MDMA 20/15mg/kg, MDPV/MDMA 1/15mg/kg...
February 14, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212619/brain-and-liver-pathology-amyloid-deposition-and-interferon-responses-among-older-hiv-positive-patients-in-the-late-haart-era
#13
Isaac H Solomon, Umberto De Girolami, Sukrutha Chettimada, Vikas Misra, Elyse J Singer, Dana Gabuzda
BACKGROUND: HIV+ patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with suppressed viral loads have a low incidence of HIV-associated dementia, but increased prevalence of milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). These milder forms of HAND are often associated with minimal histological abnormalities, and their pathophysiology is unclear. Comorbidities, altered amyloid metabolism, accelerated brain aging, and activated interferon responses are suspected to play a role in HAND pathogenesis in HAART-treated persons...
February 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211962/smoking-prevalence-among-lesbian-bisexual-and-queer-women-in-sydney-remains-high-analysis-of-trends-and-correlates
#14
Rachel M Deacon, Julie Mooney-Somers
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: To investigate smoking prevalence trends and correlates among lesbian, bisexual and queer-identifying (LBQ) women in Sydney, Australia. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data from 5007 respondents to a repeated cross-sectional community survey were used to examine smoking trends between 2004 and 2014. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine smoking correlates. RESULTS: Thirty percent of respondents were current smokers, including 48% of 16 to 24-year-olds...
February 17, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209683/evaluation-of-6-remote-first-nations-community-based-buprenorphine-programs-in-northwestern-ontario-retrospective-study
#15
Solomon Mamakwa, Meldon Kahan, Dinah Kanate, Mike Kirlew, David Folk, Sharon Cirone, Sara Rea, Pierre Parsons, Craig Edwards, Janet Gordon, Fiona Main, Len Kelly
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate established opioid addiction treatment programs that use traditional healing in combination with buprenorphine-naloxone maintenance treatment in 6 First Nations communities in the Sioux Lookout region of northwestern Ontario. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Six First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 526 First Nations participants in opioid-dependence treatment programs...
February 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207331/a-systematic-review-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-sexual-minorities
#16
Billy A Caceres, Abraham Brody, Rachel E Luscombe, Jillian E Primiano, Peter Marusca, Edward M Sitts, Deborah Chyun
BACKGROUND: Mental health and HIV disparities are well documented among sexual minorities, but there is a dearth of research on other chronic conditions. Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Although sexual minorities have high rates of several modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (including stress, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption), there is a paucity of research in this area. OBJECTIVES: In this systematic review, we synthesized and critiqued the existing evidence on cardiovascular disease among sexual minority adults...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207330/parent-centered-prevention-of-risky-behaviors-among-hispanic-youths-in-florida
#17
Yannine Estrada, Tae Kyoung Lee, Shi Huang, Maria I Tapia, Maria-Rosa Velázquez, Marcos J Martinez, Hilda Pantin, Manuel A Ocasio, Denise C Vidot, Lourdes Molleda, Juan Villamar, Bryan A Stepanenko, C Hendricks Brown, Guillermo Prado
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of an evidence-based, parent-centered intervention, Familias Unidas, delivered by nonresearch personnel, in preventing substance use (alcohol, illicit drugs) and sex without a condom among Hispanic adolescents. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial (n = 746) evaluated the effectiveness of Familias Unidas among Hispanic eighth graders (age range = 12-16 years), relative to prevention as usual, within a public school system...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199405/co-financing-for-viral-load-monitoring-during-the-course-of-antiretroviral-therapy-among-patients-with-hiv-aids-in-vietnam-a-contingent-valuation-survey
#18
Quyen Le Thi Nguyen, Long Hoang Nguyen, Bach Xuan Tran, Huong Thi Thu Phan, Huong Thi Le, Hinh Duc Nguyen, Tho Dinh Tran, Cuong Duy Do, Cuong Manh Nguyen, Vu Thi Minh Thuc, Carl Latkin, Melvyn W B Zhang, Roger C M Ho
BACKGROUND: Viral load testing is considered the gold standard for monitoring HIV treatment; however, given its high cost, some patients cannot afford viral load testing if this testing is not subsidized. Since foreign aid for HIV/AIDS in Vietnam is rapidly decreasing, we sought to assess willingness to pay (WTP) for viral load and CD4 cell count tests among HIV-positive patients, and identified factors that might inform future co-payment schemes. METHODS: A multi-site cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1133 HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Hanoi and Nam Dinh...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196428/the-association-of-psychedelic-use-and-opioid-use-disorders-among-illicit-users-in-the-united-states
#19
Vincent D Pisano, Nathaniel P Putnam, Hannah M Kramer, Kevin J Franciotti, John H Halpern, Selma C Holden
BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies show psychedelic compounds administered with psychotherapy are potentially effective and durable substance misuse interventions. However, little is known about the association between psychedelic use and substance misuse in the general population. This study investigated the association between psychedelic use and past year opioid use disorders within illicit opioid users. METHODS: While controlling for socio-demographic covariates and the use of other substances, the relationship between classic psychedelic use and past year opioid use disorders was analyzed within 44,000 illicit opioid users who completed the National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2008 to 2013...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194688/emergency-department-initiated-buprenorphine-for-opioid-dependence-with-continuation-in-primary-care-outcomes-during-and-after-intervention
#20
Gail D'Onofrio, Marek C Chawarski, Patrick G O'Connor, Michael V Pantalon, Susan H Busch, Patricia H Owens, Kathryn Hawk, Steven L Bernstein, David A Fiellin
BACKGROUND: Emergency department (ED)-initiated buprenorphine/naloxone with continuation in primary care was found to increase engagement in addiction treatment and reduce illicit opioid use at 30 days compared to referral only or a brief intervention with referral. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term outcomes at 2, 6 and 12 months following ED interventions. DESIGN: Evaluation of treatment engagement, drug use, and HIV risk among a cohort of patients from a randomized trial who completed at least one long-term follow-up assessment...
February 13, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
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