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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335036/validated-method-for-the-screening-and-quantification-of-baclofen-gabapentin-and-pregabalin-in-human-post-mortem-whole-blood-using-protein-precipitation-and-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#1
Limon Nahar, Amy Smith, Rajan Patel, Rebecca Andrews, Sue Paterson
There has been a rapid increase in the number of prescriptions for baclofen (BLF), gabapentin (GBP) and pregabalin (PGL) in the UK since their introduction to therapy. Recent studies across the European Union and USA have shown the illicit abuse potential of these drugs and deaths have been observed. A simple, reliable and fully validated method was developed for the screening and quantification of BLF, GBP and PGL in human post-mortem (PM) blood. The analytes and their deuterated analogs as internal standard were extracted from blood using a single addition acetonitrile protein precipitation reaction followed by analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) with triggered dynamic multiple reaction monitoring mode for simultaneous confirmation and quantification...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334848/systematic-review-of-surveillance-by-social-media-platforms-for-illicit-drug-use
#2
Donna M Kazemi, Brian Borsari, Maureen J Levine, Beau Dooley
Background: The use of social media (SM) as a surveillance tool of global illicit drug use is limited. To address this limitation, a systematic review of literature focused on the ability of SM to better recognize illicit drug use trends was addressed. Methods: A search was conducted in databases: PubMed, CINAHL via Ebsco, PsychINFO via Ebsco, Medline via Ebsco, ERIC, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, ABI/INFORM Complete and Communication and Mass Media Complete...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334473/history-of-being-in-government-care-associated-with-younger-age-at-injection-initiation-among-a-cohort-of-street-involved-youth
#3
Brittany Barker, Thomas Kerr, Huiru Dong, Evan Wood, Kora DeBeck
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Compared to the general population of youth, health-related disparities experienced by youth exposed to the child welfare system are well documented. Amongst these vulnerabilities are elevated rates of substance use, including injection drug use; however, less is known about when these youth transition to this high-risk behaviour. We sought to assess whether having a history of government care is associated with initiating injection drug use before age 18. DESIGN AND METHODS: Between September 2005 and May 2014, data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study, a cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada...
March 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334467/revisiting-the-paradigm-shift-in-opioid-use-developments-and-implications-10%C3%A2-years-later
#4
Benedikt Fischer, Jürgen Rehm
A decade ago, we queried the unfolding of a 'paradigm shift' in illicit opioid use in North America, specifically involving a shift away from heroin to prescription opioid (PO) use. Today, this situation is more acute than ever, with prescription opioid misuse, morbidity and mortality amounting to one of the most severe substance use-related public health crises ever, now even impacting life expectancy in key population segments. Despite medical system-based PO dispensing and practices being recognised as core drivers of the PO crisis, effective policy measures have been long absent or limited-including those to reduce medical PO use to levels supported by best evidence for pain care...
March 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332945/unevenness-in-health-at-the-intersection-of-gender-and-sexuality-sexual-minority-disparities-in-alcohol-and-drug-use-among-transwomen-in-the-san-francisco-bay-area
#5
Sean Arayasirikul, W Andres Pomart, H Fisher Raymond, Erin C Wilson
Research on the health of transwomen is largely focused on heterosexual HIV risk. Little is known about the health of sexual minority transwomen. We conducted a secondary cross-sectional analysis of data from a HIV risk and resilience study of transwomen aged 16 to 24 years in the San Francisco Bay Area (N = 259). Prevalence and demographic characteristics of sexual minority transwomen was assessed and logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between sexual minority status and alcohol and drug use...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331860/quetiapine-misuse-and-abuse-is-it-an-atypical-paradigm-of-drug-seeking-behavior
#6
REVIEW
Sean Kim, Gayoung Lee, Eric Kim, Hyejin Jung, Jongwha Chang
Recent case reports in medical literatures suggest that more and more second-generation atypical antipsychotics (AAs) have been prescribed for off-label use; quetiapine (Brand name: Seroquel(®)) showed increase in its trend for off-label use. Little is known about the reasons behind this trend, although historical sedative and hypnotic prescription patterns suggest that despite relatively superior safety profiles of quetiapine (especially for movement disorders), it may be used for treating substance abuse disorder...
January 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329741/drugs-violence-and-trauma-in-m%C3%A3-xico-and-united-states
#7
Juan Carlos Puyana, Juan Carlos Jacob Puyana, Andres Mariano Rubiano, Jorge Hernan Montenegro, Glyn O Estebanez, Alvaro Ignacio Sanchez, Felipe Vega-Rivera
The impact of illicit drug markets on the occurrence of violence varies tremendously depending on many factors. Over the last years, Mexico and United States (US) has increased security border issues that included many aspects of drug-related trade and criminal activities. Mexico experienced only a small reduction of trauma deaths after severe crime reinforcement policies. This strategy in the war on drugs is shifting the drug market to other Central American countries. This phenomenon is called the ballooning effect where by pressure to control illicit drug related activities in one particular area forces a shift to other more vulnerable areas that lead to increase crime and violence...
March 21, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328312/adolescent-substance-use-assessing-the-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-a-school-based-health-center-workforce
#8
Mary M Ramos, Rachel A Sebastian, Mary Murphy, Kristin Oreskovich, Timothy P Condon
BACKGROUND: Recent attention has focused on the potential for school-based health centers (SBHCs) to provide access points for adolescent substance use care. In 2015, the University of New Mexico began screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) training for providers at New Mexico Department of Health (NMDOH)-funded SBHCs across the state. This study assesses baseline knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the New Mexico SBHC provider workforce regarding adolescent substance use and provision of services...
February 8, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327789/prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-a-group-of-patients-newly-diagnosed-with-active-tuberculosis-in-porto-alegre-southern-brazil
#9
Cintia Costi, Tarciana Grandi, Maria Laura Halon, Márcia Susana Nunes Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles da Silva, Tatiana Schäffer Gregianini, Lia Gonçalves Possuelo, Carla Adriane Jarczewski, Christian Niel, Maria Lucia Rosa Rossetti
BACKGROUND: Porto Alegre is the Brazilian state capital with second highest incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and the highest proportion of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among patients with TB. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increases the risk of anti-TB drug-induced hepatotoxicity, which may result in discontinuation of the therapy. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was (i) to estimate prevalence of HCV and HIV in a group of patients newly diagnosed with active TB in a public reference hospital in Porto Alegre and (ii) to compare demographic, behavioural, and clinical characteristics of patients in relation to their HCV infection status...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324770/a-non-fatal-intoxication-and-seven-deaths-involving-the-dissociative-drug-3-meo-pcp
#10
Anna Johansson, Daniel Lindstedt, Markus Roman, Gunilla Thelander, Elisabet I Nielsen, Ulrica Lennborn, Håkan Sandler, Sten Rubertsson, Johan Ahlner, Robert Kronstrand, Fredrik C Kugelberg
INTRODUCTION: 3-methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP) appeared on the illicit drug market in 2011 and is an analogue of phencyclidine, which exhibits anesthetic, analgesic and hallucinogenic properties. In this paper, we report data from a non-fatal intoxication and seven deaths involving 3-MeO-PCP in Sweden during the period March 2014 until June 2016. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: The non-fatal intoxication case, a 19-year-old male with drug problems and a medical history of depression, was found awake but tachycardic, hypertensive, tachypnoeic and catatonic at home...
March 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317290/the-effect-of-engagement-in-an-hiv-aids-integrated-health-programme-on-plasma-hiv-1-rna-suppression-among-hiv-positive-people-who-use-illicit-drugs-a-marginal-structural-modelling-analysis
#11
L Ti, H Dong, T Kerr, R B Turje, S Parashar, J E Min, J Montaner, E Wood, M-J Milloy
OBJECTIVES: HIV treatment-as-prevention campaigns emphasize early diagnosis and immediate access to care and antiretroviral therapy for HIV-positive individuals in order to increase levels of plasma HIV RNA viral load (VL) suppression. However, the possible role of harm reduction-based programmes in this objective has not yet been well evaluated. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between being a client of the Dr. Peter Centre (DPC; an HIV/AIDS-focused adult integrated health programme) and VL suppression among highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-exposed HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) in Vancouver, Canada...
March 19, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317259/a-prospective-study-of-the-substance-use-and-mental-health-outcomes-of-young-adult-former-and-current-cannabis-users
#12
Edmund Silins, Wendy Swift, Tim Slade, Barbara Toson, Bryan Rodgers, Delyse M Hutchinson
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The extent to which young adult former cannabis users fare better than infrequent users is unclear. We investigated the association between cannabis use status at age 23 and substance use and mental health outcomes at age 27. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were from the 20+ year cohort of the PATH Through Life Study. Lifetime cannabis users (n = 1410) at age 23 were classified as former/occasional/regular users. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between cannabis use status at age 23 and six outcomes assessed at age 27...
March 20, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315082/caregivers-support-network-characteristics-associated-with-viral-suppression-among-hiv-care-recipients
#13
Julie A Denison, Mary M Mitchell, Allysha C Maragh-Bass, Amy R Knowlton
Informal care receipt is associated with health outcomes among people living with HIV. Less is known about how caregivers' own social support may affect their care recipient's health. We examined associations between network characteristics of informal caregivers and HIV viral suppression among former or current drug using care recipients. We analyzed data from 258 caregiver-recipient dyads from the Beacon study, of whom 89% of caregivers were African American and 59% were female. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, care recipients had lower odds of being virally suppressed if their caregiver was female, was caring for youth involved in the criminal justice system, and had network members who used illicit drugs...
March 17, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299558/body-pushing-prescription-drugs-and-hospital-admission
#14
Roger W Byard, Michaela Kenneally
A 39-year-old man died of multi-organ failure complicating mixed drug toxicity that included methadone, oxazepam, oxycodone and nitrazepam. His past medical history involved alcohol and poly-substance abuse with chronic self-harm and suicidal ideation. There had been multiple hospital admissions for drug overdoses. At autopsy the most unusual finding was of two packages of 10 tablets each, wrapped in thin plastic film within the rectum. The insertion of drugs into body orifices and cavities has been termed body pushing to distinguish it from body packing where illicit drugs are wrapped and swallowed for transport and smuggling, and body stuffing where small amounts of loosely wrapped or unwrapped drugs are swallowed to conceal evidence from police...
March 15, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296623/medicalizing-the-opioid-epidemic-in-the-u-s-in-the-era-of-health-care-reform
#15
David E Smith
The medicalization of the current opioid epidemic in the era of health care reform and parity, and its possible dismantling, poses many challenges. Between 2002 and 2013, drug overdose rates quadrupled. Parallel to an increase in prescription opioid overdose, heroin overdose deaths are increasing as patients shift to cheaper and more accessible heroin from the prescription opioids which physicians are prescribing less often due to increasing regulatory restrictions, as well as enhanced education and awareness...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296533/polypharmacy-infectious-diseases-sexual-behavior-and-psychophysical-health-among-anabolic-steroid-using-homosexual-and-heterosexual-gym-patrons-in-san-francisco-s-castro-district
#16
Eric J Ip, Michael A Yadao, Bijal M Shah, Shadi Doroudgar, Paul J Perry, Michael J Tenerowicz, Lindsay Newsom, Amber A Mann, Hermine Mkrtchyan, Harrison G Pope
BACKGROUND: Limited studies based in England and Australia reported misuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) among homosexual men to enhance body image. Anecdotally, AAS are also being misused by homosexual men in the United States. Since many AAS and certain performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) are administered via injection, this poses a potential vector for the spread of infectious disease in an already at-risk population. OBJECTIVES: This study compared and contrasted homosexual and heterosexual male gym clients regarding use of AAS and PEDs, use of alcohol and illicit drugs, seroprevalence of infectious disease, engagement in risky injection practices and sexual behaviors, and presence of psychiatric conditions...
March 15, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294492/high-prevalence-of-willingness-to-use-direct-acting-antiviral-based-regimens-for-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-infection-among-hiv-hcv-coinfected-people-who-use-drugs
#17
M E Socías, L Ti, H Dong, J Shoveller, T Kerr, J Montaner, M-J Milloy
OBJECTIVES: Despite the high burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related morbidity and mortality among HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs (PWUD), uptake of interferon-based treatments for HCV infection has been negligible among this group. Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies offer an opportunity to expand treatment access among this population. The aim of this study was to explore willingness to use DAA-based regimens among HIV/HCV-coinfected PWUD in Vancouver, Canada. METHODS: Data were drawn from the AIDS Care Cohort to evaluate Exposure to Survival Services (ACCESS), a prospective cohort of HIV-positive PWUD...
March 13, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294105/breath-acetone-as-a-potential-marker-in-clinical-practice
#18
Vera Ruzsanyi, Miklós Kalapos
In recent decades, two facts have changed the opinion of researchers about the function of acetone in humans. Firstly, it has turned out that acetone cannot be regarded as simply a waste product of metabolism, because there are several pathways in which acetone is produced or broken down. Secondly, methods have emerged making possible its detection in exhaled breath, thereby offering an attractive alternative to investigation of blood and urine samples. From a clinical point of view the measurement of breath acetone levels are important, but there are limitations to its wide application...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292561/dried-blood-spots-combined-to-an-uplc-ms-ms-method-for-the-simultaneous-determination-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-forensic-toxicology
#19
Susana Sadler Simões, Antonio Castañera Ajenjo, Mário João Dias
A method for the simultaneous determination of 11 illicit drugs, using the dried blood spot (DBS) sampling technique combined with the UPLC-MS/MS technology was developed to study its applicability within the forensic toxicology. The DBS samples, prepared from a blood volume of 50μL and using the Whatman® BFC 180 bloodstain cards, were extracted with a methanol/acetonitrile mixture. The chromatographic separation was performed using an Acquity UPLC(®) HSS T3 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.8μm) and an acetonitrile/2mM ammonium formate (0...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290934/health-related-coping-behaviors-and-mental-health-in-military-personnel
#20
Jessica Kelley Morgan, Laurel Hourani, Stephen Tueller
BACKGROUND: Our previous research has highlighted the important link between coping behaviors and mental health symptoms in military personnel. This study seeks to extend these findings by examining each coping behavior and mental health issue individually. This study has four specific aims: (1) test cross-sectional relationships between coping and mental health at baseline and follow-up, (2) examine stability of each variable over time, (3) determine the predictive nature of baseline mental health and coping on subsequent mental health and coping, (4) assess the magnitude of each effect to evaluate the differential predictive value of coping behaviors and mental health symptoms...
March 2017: Military Medicine
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