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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684941/opioid-deaths-in-milwaukee-county-wisconsin-2013-2017-the-primacy-of-heroin-and-fentanyl
#1
Brian L Peterson, Sara Schreiber, Nicole Fumo, E Brooke Lerner
Heroin and fentanyl are the overwhelming and increasing cause of opioid deaths in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin. We reviewed all drug and opioid deaths from 2013 to 2017 to delineate the specific opioid drugs involved and changes in their incidence. From 2013 to 2017, 980 deaths were due to opioids, rising from 184 in 2013 to 337 in 2017. In 2017, opioid deaths exceeded combined non-natural deaths from homicide and suicide. Illicit heroin and fentanyl/analogs caused 84% of opioid deaths and 80% of drug deaths, with no increase in deaths due to oral prescription drugs such as oxycodone and hydrocodone...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680493/teens-drugs-vegas-toxicological-surveillance-of-illicit-prescription-and-illegal-drug-abuse-in-adolescents-12-17-years-using-post-mortem-data-in-clark-county-nevada-from-2005-to-2015
#2
Anthea B Mahesan Paul, Lary Simms, Andrew A Mahesan, Eric Charles Belanger
Illegal drug abuse, particularly prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the United States. Research on adolescent drug abuse is based on national self-reported data. Using local coroner data, quantitative prevalence of illegal substance toxicology and trends can be assessed to aid directed outreach and community-based prevention initiatives. Retrospective analysis was conducted on all cases aged 12-17 years referred to the Office of the Medical Examiner, Clark County from 2005 to 2015 (n = 526)...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678561/distribution-of-take-home-opioid-antagonist-kits-during-a-synthetic-opioid-epidemic-in-british-columbia-canada-a-modelling-study
#3
Michael A Irvine, Jane A Buxton, Michael Otterstatter, Robert Balshaw, Reka Gustafson, Mark Tyndall, Perry Kendall, Thomas Kerr, Mark Gilbert, Daniel Coombs
BACKGROUND: Illicit use of high-potency synthetic opioids has become a global issue over the past decade. This misuse is particularly pronounced in British Columbia, Canada, where a rapid increase in availability of fentanyl and other synthetic opioids in the local illicit drug supply during 2016 led to a substantial increase in overdoses and deaths. In response, distribution of take-home naloxone (THN) overdose prevention kits was scaled up (6·4-fold increase) throughout the province...
April 17, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674084/development-of-a-plug-type-ims-ms-instrument-and-its-applications-in-resolving-problems-existing-in-in-situ-detection-of-illicit-drugs-and-explosives-by-ims
#4
Zhenxia Du, Tangqiang Sun, Jianan Zhao, Di Wang, Zhongxia Zhang, Wenlian Yu
Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) which acts as a rapid analysis technique is widely used in the field detection of illicit drugs and explosives. Due to limited separation abilities of the pint-sized IMS challenges and problems still exist regarding high false positive and false negative responses due to the interference of the matrix. In addition, the gas-phase ion chemistry and special phenomena in the IMS spectra, such one substance showing two peaks, were not identified unambiguously. In order to explain or resolve these questions, in this paper, an ion mobility spectrometry was coupled to a mass spectrometry (IMS-MS)...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671582/dark-side-of-amphetamine-and-analogues-pharmacology-syndromic-manifestation-and-management-of-amphetamine-addiction
#5
Abdul Mannan Baig
The threat imposed by the use of psychoactive, illicit drugs on human health and the cost of rehabilitation of the affected individuals is nothing less than billions of dollars per year. Of the psychoactive substance abuse drugs are amphetamine and its analogues like methamphetamine. This Viewpoint intends to draw the attention of readers toward the neurological basis of "falling a prey" to methamphetamine. Attention has been paid toward a rapid desensitizing attribute that develops shortly after the repetitive use of drugs belonging to sympathomimetic agents of this group...
April 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670072/a-highly-selective-and-strong-anti-interference-host-guest-complex-as-fluorescent-probe-for-detection-of-amantadine-by-indicator-displacement-assay
#6
Linzhao Zhu, Zhiyong Zhao, Xiongzhi Zhang, Haijun Zhang, Feng Liang, Simin Liu
Amantadine (AMA) and its derivatives are illicit veterinary drugs that are hard to detect at very low concentrations. Developing a fast, simple and highly sensitive method for the detection of AMA is highly in demand. Here, we designed an anthracyclic compound (ABAM) that binds to a cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) host with a high association constant of up to 8.7 × 10⁸ M−1 . The host-guest complex was then used as a fluorescent probe for the detection of AMA. Competition by AMA for occupying the cavity of CB[7] allows ABAM to release from the CB[7]-ABAM complex, causing significant fluorescence quenching of ABAM (indicator displacement assay, IDA)...
April 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669042/p-glycoprotein-on-blood-brain-barrier-plays-a-vital-role-in-fentanyl-brain-exposure-and-respiratory-toxicity-in-rats
#7
ChenChen Yu, Mei Yuan, HaiYing Yang, XiaoMei Zhuang, Hua Li
Fentanyl is a rapid-acting, short duration opioid analgesic agent. In recent years, increased prescription and illicit use of fentanyl drugs have led to major safety concerns and a growing death toll. However, the causes of fentanyl induced fatal adverse effects have not been thoroughly researched. The current study investigated P-glycoprotein (P-gp) modulated brain blood barrier (BBB) penetration of fentanyl and its resulting toxicity in vitro and in vivo. ATPase assays were performed together with bi-directional transport assays using Caco-2 cells in the presence and absence of tariquidar, a P-gp inhibitor, to confirm the P-gp substrate property of fentanyl...
April 14, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665492/sex-and-orientation-identity-matter-in-the-substance-use-behaviors-of-sexual-minority-adolescents-in-the-united-states
#8
Theodore L Caputi
BACKGROUND: Health sciences researchers are beginning to understand the differing experiences and health risks among sexual minority subgroups (i.e., those who describe themselves as homosexual/gay/lesbian, bisexual, or unsure/questioning). Such research can promote the allocation of resources to high-risk groups and the development of interventions tailored to their needs. The present study extends this line of research to substance use among adolescents. METHODS: The lifetime and/or past 30-day alcohol, tobacco, cigarette, e-cigarette, marijuana, prescription drug, and illicit drug use of sexual minority and heterosexual adolescents was analyzed using data from the 2015 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey...
March 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660697/relapse-to-smoking-following-release-from-smoke-free-correctional-facilities-in-queensland-australia
#9
Cheneal Puljević, Dominique de Andrade, Ross Coomber, Stuart A Kinner
BACKGROUND: Smoke-free prison policies are increasingly common, but few studies have investigated relapse to smoking after release from prison. This study investigated return to tobacco smoking and correlates of smoking at reduced levels after release among adults recently released from smoke-free prisons in Queensland, Australia. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 114 people at parole offices within two months of release from prison was used. The survey measured health, social, and criminological factors related to tobacco smoking...
April 11, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659506/in-vitro-inhibitory-effects-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-eam-2201-on-cytochrome-p450-and-udp-glucuronosyltransferase-enzyme-activities-in-human-liver-microsomes
#10
Tae Yeon Kong, Soon-Sang Kwon, Jae Chul Cheong, Hee Seung Kim, Jin Young Kim, Hye Suk Lee
EAM-2201, a synthetic cannabinoid, is a potent agonist of the cannabinoid receptors that is widely abused as an illicit recreational drug in combination with other drugs. To evaluate the potential of EAM-2201 as a perpetrator of drug–drug interactions, the inhibitory effects of EAM-2201 on major drug-metabolizing enzymes, cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) were evaluated in pooled human liver microsomes using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
April 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656911/healthcare-empowerment-and-hiv-viral-control-mediating-roles-of-adherence-and-retention-in-care
#11
Tracey E Wilson, Emma Sophia Kay, Bulent Turan, Mallory O Johnson, Mirjam-Colette Kempf, Janet M Turan, Mardge H Cohen, Adaora A Adimora, Margaret Pereyra, Elizabeth T Golub, Lakshmi Goparaju, Lynn Murchison, Gina M Wingood, Lisa R Metsch
INTRODUCTION: This study assessed longitudinal relationships between patient healthcare empowerment, engagement in care, and viral control in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a prospective cohort study of U.S. women living with HIV. METHODS: From April 2014 to March 2016, four consecutive 6-month visits were analyzed among 973 women to assess the impact of Time 1 healthcare empowerment variables (Tolerance for Uncertainty and the state of Informed Collaboration Committed Engagement) on Time 2 reports of ≥95% HIV medication adherence and not missing an HIV primary care appointment since last visit; and on HIV RNA viral control across Times 3 and 4, controlling for illicit drug use, heavy drinking, depression symptoms, age, and income...
April 12, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652872/medical-management-of-transgender-children-and-adolescents
#12
María Fernanda Castilla-Peón
Transgender or gender nonconforming (GN) persons identify themselves with a gender which is different from that correspondent to their birth sex. The demand for health services by families with transgender children or adolescents tends to increase. The prevalence of GN in children is unknown; however, it has been estimated to be > 1% in adolescents. Transgender persons are at increased risk of depression, suicide, illicit drug abuse, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and non-accidental injury. The most accepted model for the care of transgender persons assumes that these adverse outcomes are the consequence of social margination rather than the GI condition itself...
2018: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652552/do-classes-of-polysubstance-use-in-adolescence-differentiate-growth-in-substances-used-in-the-transition-to-young-adulthood
#13
Gabriel J Merrin, Bonnie Leadbeater
BACKGROUND: Past studies have differentiated classes of polysubstance use in adolescence, however, the associations of adolescent polysubstance use classes with longitudinal substance use trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood have not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The current study examined substance use classes during adolescence and longitudinal trajectories of each substance used across the transition to young adulthood. METHOD: Data were collected biennially from 662 youth and followed 10 years across six measurement assessments...
April 13, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651922/prior-exposure-to-intimate-partner-violence-associated-with-less-hiv-testing-among-young-women
#14
Yukiko Washio, Elizabeth Novack Wright, Annet Davis-Vogel, Jesse Chittams, Claire Anagnostopulos, Linda M Kilby, Anne M Teitelman
Low-income minority women are disproportionately represented among those living with HIV in the United States. They are also at risk for the SAVA (substance abuse, violence, and HIV/AIDS) syndemic issues. Women who have recently given birth are at high risk for substance use and intimate partner violence (IPV), and HIV testing is not routinely administered during the postpartum visit. We explored the relationship between substance use, IPV, and HIV testing among low-income young adult women attending Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), a federally supported nutrition program...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651200/return-to-illicit-drug-use-post-incarceration-among-formerly-incarcerated-black-americans
#15
Tawandra L Rowell-Cunsolo, Betsy Szeto, Charlotte McDonald, Nabila El-Bassel
Aims: The number of drug dependent individuals incarcerated in the U.S. is exceptionally high, and reportedly 60 percent of incarcerated Black Americans have a substance abuse disorder. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with return to illicit drug use post-incarceration. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 121 formerly incarcerated Black Americans in New York City to examine predictors of return to illicit drug use. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated on the outcome of time-to-drug use for various predictors and compared using the log-rank test...
2018: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649771/systematic-forensic-toxicological-analysis-by-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-in-serum-and-comparison-to-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#16
Marcel Grapp, Christoph Kaufmann, Frank Streit, Lutz Binder
Comprehensive screening procedures for psychoactive agents in body fluids are an essential task in clinical and forensic toxicology. With the continuous emergence and adaption of new psychoactive substances (NPS) keeping a screening method up to date is challenging. To meet these demands, hyphenated high-resolution mass spectrometry has gained interest as extensive and expandable screening approach. Here we present a comprehensive method for systematic toxicological analysis of serum by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) with data independent acquisition...
April 3, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630030/hiv-serostatus-and-having-access-to-a-physician-for-regular-hepatitis-c-virus-care-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#17
Tara Beaulieu, Kanna Hayashi, Michael J Milloy, Ekaterina Nosova, Kora DeBeck, Julio Montaner, Thomas Kerr, Lianping Ti
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWIDs) and who are living with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are vulnerable to a range of health-related harms, including liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. There is limited evidence describing how HIV serostatus shapes access to a physician for regular HCV care among PWID. SETTING: Data were collected through the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (VIDUS), the AIDS Care Cohort to evaluate Exposure to Survival Services (ACCESS), and the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), 3 prospective cohorts involving people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada, between 2005 and 2015...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630016/opioid-detoxification-during-pregnancy-a-systematic-review
#18
Mishka Terplan, Hollis J Laird, Dennis J Hand, Tricia E Wright, Ashish Premkumar, Caitlin E Martin, Marjorie C Meyer, Hendrée E Jones, Elizabeth E Krans
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with opioid detoxification during pregnancy. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched from January 1, 1966, to September 1, 2016. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: English-language studies that reported outcomes associated with opioid detoxification among pregnant women with opioid use disorder were included. Nonoriginal research articles (case reports, editorials, reviews) and studies that failed to report outcomes for detoxification participants were excluded...
April 6, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628175/syndemics-a-theory-in-search-of-data-or-data-in-search-of-a-theory
#19
Alexander C Tsai
The concept of a syndemic was proposed more than two decades ago to explain how large-scale social forces might give rise to co-occurring epidemics that synergistically interact to undermine health in vulnerable populations. This conceptual instrument has the potential to help policymakers and program implementers in their endeavors to improve population health. Accordingly, it has become an increasingly popular heuristic for advocacy, most notably in the field of HIV treatment and prevention. However, most empirical studies purporting to validate the theory of syndemics actually do no such thing...
March 30, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627821/global-scientific-production-on-illicit-drug-addiction-a-two-decade-analysis
#20
Malahat Khalili, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Behrang Shadloo, Ramin Mojtabai, Karl Mann, Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili
AIMS: Addiction science has made great progress in the past decades. We conducted a scientometric study in order to quantify the number of publications and the growth rate globally, regionally, and at country levels. METHODS: In October 2015, we searched the Scopus database using the general keywords of addiction or drug-use disorders combined with specific terms regarding 4 groups of illicit drugs - cannabis, opioids, cocaine, and other stimulants or hallucinogens...
April 6, 2018: European Addiction Research
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