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new psychoactive substances (NPS)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128711/polysubstance-use-profiles-among-electronic-dance-music-party-attendees-in-new-york-city-and-their-relation-to-use-of-new-psychoactive-substances
#1
Fermín Fernández-Calderón, Charles M Cleland, Joseph J Palamar
BACKGROUND: Electronic Dance Music (EDM) party attendees are often polysubstance users and are at high risk for use of new psychoactive substances (NPS). We sought to identify patterns of use of common illegal drugs among EDM party attendees, sociodemographic correlates, and use of NPS as a function of patterns of use of more common drugs to inform prevention and harm reduction. METHOD: Using time-space-sampling, 1045 individuals aged 18-40 were surveyed entering EDM parties in New York City...
November 4, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097307/effect-fingerprinting-of-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-what-can-we-learn-from-in-vitro-data
#2
REVIEW
Laura Hondebrink, Anne Zwartsen, Remco H S Westerink
The use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is increasing and currently >600 NPS have been reported. However, limited information on neuropharmacological and toxicological effects of NPS is available, hampering risk characterization. We reviewed the literature on the in vitro neuronal modes of action to obtain effect fingerprints of different classes of illicit drugs and NPS. The most frequently reported NPS were selected for review: cathinones (MDPV, α-PVP, mephedrone, 4-MEC, pentedrone, methylone), cannabinoids (JWH-018), (hallucinogenic) phenethylamines (4-fluoroamphetamine, benzofurans (5-APB, 6-APB), 2C-B, NBOMes (25B-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe, 25I-NBOMe)), arylcyclohexylamines (methoxetamine) and piperazine derivatives (mCCP, TFMPP, BZP)...
October 30, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078252/analysis-of-new-psychoactive-substances-in-oral-fluids-by-means-of-microextraction-by-packed-sorbent-followed-by-uhplc-ms-ms
#3
Rachele Rocchi, Maria Chiara Simeoni, Camilla Montesano, Gabriele Vannutelli, Roberta Curini, Manuel Sergi, Dario Compagnone
In recent years, new drugs, commonly known as "new psychoactive substances" (NPS), appeared on the market, which include, among others, synthetic cannabinoids, cathinones and tryptamine analogs of psilocin. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a new method for simultaneous screening and quantification of 31 NPS in oral fluid by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The chosen target analytes represented different chemical and toxicological NPS classes, such as synthetic cathinones, piperazines, phenethylamines, synthetic cannabinoids and their metabolites...
October 27, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045066/fatality-involving-ocfentanil-documented-by-identification-of-metabolites
#4
Nathalie Allibe, Camille Richeval, Mélodie Phanithavong, Amandine Faure, Delphine Allorge, François Paysant, Françoise Stanke-Labesque, Hélène Eysseric-Guerin, Jean-Michel Gaulier
New psychoactive substances (NPS) use has rapidly increased over the last decade, and in the last 4 years producers increasingly appear to be targeting non-controlled synthetic opioids, involving fentanyl derivatives such as ocfentanil (OcF). Identification of metabolites is of major importance in the context of NPS use as it could improve detection window in biological matrices in clinical and forensic intoxication cases. Hence, this work aims to report a fatality involving OcF documented by the identification of metabolites...
October 16, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025078/a-cloud-on-the-horizon-a-survey-into-the-use-of-electronic-vaping-devices-for-recreational-drug-and-new-psychoactive-substance-nps-administration
#5
M S Blundell, P I Dargan, D M Wood
Background: There is limited published scientific data on vaping recreational drugs other than cannabis. A recent review suggested that 15% of people vaping cannabis have also vaped a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist (SCRA) and identified over 300 Internet reports of e-liquid manufacture of recreational drugs and/or new psychoactive substances (NPS). Aim: To determine the prevalence of use of electronic vaping devices for recreational drug and NPS delivery in the UK...
September 14, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988906/fluorinated-phenmetrazine-legal-highs-act-as-substrates-for-high-affinity-monoamine-transporters-of-the-slc6-family
#6
Felix P Mayer, Nadine V Burchardt, Ann M Decker, John S Partilla, Yang Li, Gavin McLaughlin, Pierce V Kavanagh, Walter Sandtner, Bruce E Blough, Simon D Brandt, Michael H Baumann, Harald H Sitte
A variety of new psychoactive substances (NPS) are appearing in recreational drug markets worldwide. NPS are compounds that target various receptors and transporters in the central nervous system to achieve their psychoactive effects. Chemical modifications of existing drugs can generate NPS that are not controlled by current legislation, thereby providing legal alternatives to controlled substances such as cocaine or amphetamine. Recently, 3-fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM), a derivative of the anorectic compound phenmetrazine, appeared on the recreational drug market and adverse clinical effects have been reported...
October 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922649/determination-of-74-new-psychoactive-substances-in-serum-using-automated-in-line-solid-phase-extraction-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#7
Sabrina Lehmann, Tobias Kieliba, Justus Beike, Mario Thevis, Katja Mercer-Chalmers-Bender
A detailed description is given of the development and validation of a fully automated in-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) method capable of detecting 90 central-stimulating new psychoactive substances (NPS) and 5 conventional amphetamine-type stimulants (amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethyl-amphetamine (MDEA), methamphetamine) in serum. The aim was to apply the validated method to forensic samples...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917801/development-of-a-quantitative-approach-in-blood-plasma-for-low-dosed-hallucinogens-and-opioids-using-lc-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#8
Achim T Caspar, Andreas B Kollas, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer
The WHO annually reports an increasing abuse of new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are a heterogeneous group of synthetic drugs and are consumed as substitute for controlled drugs of abuse. In this work, we focused on highly potent derivatives such those of phenethylamine (2C), N-2-methoxybenzyl phenethylamine (NBOMes), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and fentanyl. Severe to fatal intoxications were described due to their high potency. Therefore, they have to be taken at very low doses resulting in low blood concentration in the low ng/mL range, which is a challenge for reliable analytical detection and quantification...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911631/new-psychoactive-substances-of-natural-origin-a%C3%A2-brief-review
#9
REVIEW
Ling-Yi Feng, Altansuvd Battulga, Eunyoung Han, Heesun Chung, Jih-Heng Li
Plant-based drugs of abuse are as old as recorded human history. Although traditional addictive substances, such as opium, cannabis and coca, have been controlled by the United Nations anti-drug conventions, many, if not most, natural plants with addictive or abuse liability remain elusive. Therefore, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has warned the emerging threat from new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are mostly derived or modified from the constituents of natural origin. For example, synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones are derived from the cannabis and khat plant, respectively...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895757/intoxications-in-the-strida-project-involving-a-panorama-of-psychostimulant-pyrovalerone-derivatives-mdpv-copycats
#10
Olof Beck, Matilda Bäckberg, Patrick Signell, Anders Helander
CONTEXT: An increasing number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) of different chemical classes have become available through marketing and sale over the Internet. This report from the Swedish STRIDA project presents the prevalence, laboratory results, and clinical features in intoxications involving 11 stimulant pyrovalerone NPS derivatives over a 5-year period. STUDY DESIGN: Case series of consecutive patients with admitted or suspected intake of NPS presenting to Swedish hospitals for emergency treatment from January 2011 to March 2016...
September 12, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885007/stereoselective-differences-between-the-reinforcing-and-motivational-effects-of-cathinone-derived-4-methylmethcathinone-mephedrone-in-self-administering-rats
#11
Helene L Philogene-Khalid, Steven J Simmons, Sunil Nayak, Rose M Martorana, Shu H Su, Yohanka Caro, Brona Ranieri, Kathryn DiFurio, Lili Mo, Taylor A Gentile, Ali Murad, Allen B Reitz, John W Muschamp, Scott M Rawls
Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC)) (MEPH) is a new psychoactive substance (NPS) of the synthetic cathinone class. MEPH has a chiral center and exists as two enantiomers (R-,S-MEPH), yet stereospecific effects of MEPH have not been extensively investigated in preclinical assays. Because significant behavioral and neurochemical differences can exist between enantiomers, probing effects of stereochemistry on biological activity enables separation of adverse and therapeutic effects. Our prior work showed that R-MEPH, relative to S-MEPH, produced greater locomotor activation, place preference, and facilitation of brain reward thresholds in rodents...
September 22, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868040/novel-psychoactive-substances-recent-progress-on-neuropharmacological-mechanisms-of-action-for-selected-drugs
#12
REVIEW
Zurina Hassan, Oliver G Bosch, Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan, B Vicknasingam Kasinather, Erich Seifritz, Johannes Kornhuber, Boris B Quednow, Christian P Müller
A feature of human culture is that we can learn to consume chemical compounds, derived from natural plants or synthetic fabrication, for their psychoactive effects. These drugs change the mental state and/or the behavioral performance of an individual and can be instrumentalized for various purposes. After the emergence of a novel psychoactive substance (NPS) and a period of experimental consumption, personal and medical benefits and harm potential of the NPS can be estimated on evidence base. This may lead to a legal classification of the NPS, which may range from limited medical use, controlled availability up to a complete ban of the drug form publically accepted use...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862050/synthetic-cannabinoid-black-mamba-infidelity-in-patients-presenting-for-emergency-stabilization-in-colorado-a-p-scan-cohort
#13
Nicklaus Brandehoff, Axel Adams, Kyle McDaniel, Samuel D Banister, Roy Gerona, Andrew A Monte
BACKGROUND: Use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has increased over the last decade. During this period, variability of both clinical presentations and chemical compositions of these compounds has increased. Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are the most commonly used NPS and there are more than 100 documented unique molecules in this class. "Black Mamba", often associated to ADB-FUBINACA, is the most commonly used SC in Colorado. It has been linked to kidney injury, myocardial toxicity, seizures, and death...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828742/a-synthetic-cannabinoid-jwh-210-reduces-lymphoid-organ-weights-and-t-cell-activator-levels-in-mice-via-cb2-receptors
#14
Sun Mi Gu, Hyun Jin Lee, Tac-Hyung Lee, Yun Jeong Song, Young-Hoon Kim, Kyoung-Moon Han, Jisoon Shin, Hye-Kyung Park, Hyung Soo Kim, Hye Jin Cha, Jaesuk Yun
The problem of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is emerging globally. However, the immunotoxicity of synthetic cannabinoids is not evaluated extensively yet. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether synthetic cannabinoids (JWH-210 and JWH-030) induce adverse effects on lymphoid organs, viability of splenocytes and thymocytes, and immune cell activator and cytokines in mice. JWH-210 (10 mg/kg, 3 days, i.p.) is more likely to have cytotoxicity and reduce lymphoid organ weight than JWH-030 of ICR mice in vivo...
December 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814125/recreational-drug-use-at-a-major-music-festival-trend-analysis-of-anonymised-pooled-urine
#15
Lotte Christine Groth Hoegberg, Cecilie Christiansen, Jesper Soe, Rasmus Telving, Mette Findal Andreasen, Dan Staerk, Lona Louring Christrup, Kenneth Thermann Kongstad
OBJECTIVE: The spread of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has expanded rapidly in the last decade. The complexity of the pharmacological effects of NPS challenges the traditional treatment guidelines, and information of the emergence of new arrivals is valuable. Our knowledge on the actual range of recreational drugs used and NPS available in Denmark is limited as identification is possible only when consumers become patients in the healthcare system or through drug seizures. We aimed to detect classical recreational drugs and NPS in the urine of music festival attendees and evaluate if the use of NPS could have been predicted by comparing study data with drug seizure data from the previous year published by European and Danish health authorities...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810159/hair-testing-to-assess-both-known-and-unknown-use-of-drugs-amongst-ecstasy-users-in-the-electronic-dance-music-scene
#16
Joseph J Palamar, Alberto Salomone, Enrico Gerace, Daniele Di Corcia, Marco Vincenti, Charles M Cleland
BACKGROUND: Data on both known and unknown drug use in the electronic dance music (EDM) scene is important to inform prevention and harm reduction. While surveys are the most common method of querying drug use, additional biological data can help validate use and detect unknown/unintentional use of drugs such as new psychoactive substances (NPS). We sought to determine the extent of both known and unknown use of various substances in this high-risk scene. METHODS: We hair-tested 90 self-reported past-year ecstasy/MDMA/Molly users attending EDM parties in New York City during the summer of 2016 using UHPLC-MS/MS...
October 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792725/pharmacology-of-cumyl-carboxamide-synthetic-cannabinoid-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-cumyl-bica-cumyl-pica-cumyl-5f-pica-cumyl-5f-pinaca-and-their-analogues
#17
Mitchell Longworth, Samuel D Banister, Rochelle Boyd, Richard C Kevin, Mark Connor, Iain S McGregor, Michael Kassiou
Synthetic cannabinoids (SC) are the largest class of new psychoactive substances (NPS), and are increasingly associated with serious adverse effects. The majority of SC NPS are 1,3-disubstituted indoles and indazoles featuring a diversity of subunits at the 1- and 3-positions. Most recently, cumyl-derived indole- and indazole-3-carboxamides have been detected by law enforcement agencies and by emergency departments. Herein we describe the synthesis, characterization, and pharmacology of SCs CUMYL-BICA, CUMYL-PICA, CUMYL-5F-PICA, CUMYL-PINACA, CUMYL-5F-PINACA, and related analogues...
August 11, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782580/new-psychoactive-substances-studies-on-the-metabolism-of-xlr-11-ab-pinaca-fub-pb-22-4-methoxy-%C3%AE-pvp-25-i-nbome-and-meclonazepam-using-human-liver-preparations-in-comparison-to-primary-human-hepatocytes-and-human-urine
#18
Lilian H J Richter, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer
New psychoactive substances (NPS) are an increasing problem in clinical and forensic toxicology. The knowledge of their metabolism is important for toxicological risk assessment and for developing toxicological urine screenings. Considering the huge numbers of NPS annually appearing on the market, metabolism studies should be realized in a fast, simple, cost efficient, and reliable way. Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) were recommended to be the gold standard for in vitro metabolism studies as they are expected to contain natural enzyme clusters, co-substrates, and drug transporters...
October 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777688/attitudes-and-beliefs-about-new-psychoactive-substance-use-among-electronic-dance-music-party-attendees
#19
Joseph J Palamar, Patricia Acosta, Charles M Cleland
BACKGROUND: Attitudes and beliefs about drug use have been shown to be robust correlates of use of drugs such as alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine; however, little is known regarding attitudes or beliefs about new psychoactive substances (NPS). We sought to examine attitudes and beliefs about NPS and how they relate to self-reported use in a high-risk population-electronic dance music (EDM) party attendees. METHOD: 1,048 individuals (age 18-40) were surveyed entering EDM parties in New York City in 2016...
August 4, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771321/activity-based-detection-of-consumption-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-authentic-urine-samples-using-a-stable-cannabinoid-reporter-system
#20
Annelies Cannaert, Florian Franz, Volker Auwärter, Christophe P Stove
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) continue to be the largest group of new psychoactive substances (NPS) monitored by the European Monitoring Center of Drugs and Drugs of Abuse (EMCDDA). The identification and subsequent prohibition of single SCs has driven clandestine chemists to produce analogues of increasing structural diversity, intended to evade legislation. That structural diversity, combined with the mostly unknown metabolic profiles of these new SCs, poses a big challenge for the conventional targeted analytical assays, as it is difficult to screen for "unknown" compounds...
September 5, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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