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new psychoactive substances (NPS)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333902/patterns-of-nps-use-and-risk-reduction-in-slovenia
#1
Matej Sande, Mina Paš, Klara Nahtigal, Simona Šabić
BACKGROUND: The following study presents factors influencing the decision to use/not to use new psychoactive substances (NPS), various patterns of NPS use, the problems experienced by users, and the methods for reducing the risks associated with NPS use. OBJECTIVES: The study seeks to provide an in-depth look into the characteristics of NPS use and support the planning of targeted interventions in the field of NPS. METHODS: The study involved 19 in-depth interviews carried out with 25 individuals divided into three subsamples in order to gain insight into the various experiences of NPS users...
January 15, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314750/phase-i-metabolism-of-the-recently-emerged-synthetic-cannabinoid-cumyl-pegaclone-and-detection-in-human-urine-samples
#2
Lukas Mogler, Maurice Wilde, Laura M Huppertz, Georg Weinfurtner, Florian Franz, Volker Auwärter
Indole, indazole or azaindole based synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), bearing a cumyl substituent are a widespread, recreationally used subgroup of new psychoactive substances (NPS). The latest cumyl-derivative, CUMYL-PEGACLONE, emerged in December 2016 on the German drug market. The substance features a novel γ-carboline core structure, which is most likely synthesized to bypass generic legislative approaches to control SCs by prohibiting distinct core structures. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry techniques, the main in vivo phase I metabolites of this new substance were detected...
January 3, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314710/different-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-tools-for-elucidating-the-human-metabolism-of-alpha-cathinone-derived-drugs-of-abuse
#3
Sascha K Manier, Lilian H J Richter, Jan Schäper, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer
In vitro and in vivo experiments are widely used for studying the metabolism of new psychoactive substances (NPS). The availability of such data is required for toxicological risk assessments and development of urine screening approaches. This study investigated the in vitro metabolism of the five pyrrolidinophenone-derived NPS alpha-pyrrolidinobutyrophenone (alpha-PBP), alpha-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone (alpha-PVT), alpha-pyrrolidinohexanophenone (alpha-PHP), alpha-pyrrolidinoenanthophenone (alpha-PEP, PV8), and alpha-pyrrolidinooctanophenone (alpha-POP, PV9)...
January 4, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311050/detecting-novel-and-emerging-drug-terms-using-natural-language-processing-a-social-media-corpus-study
#4
Sean S Simpson, Nikki Adams, Claudia M Brugman, Thomas J Conners
BACKGROUND: With the rapid development of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and changes in the use of more traditional drugs, it is increasingly difficult for researchers and public health practitioners to keep up with emerging drugs and drug terms. Substance use surveys and diagnostic tools need to be able to ask about substances using the terms that drug users themselves are likely to be using. Analyses of social media may offer new ways for researchers to uncover and track changes in drug terms in near real time...
January 8, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306167/wastewater-based-epidemiology-and-enantiomeric-profiling-for-drugs-of-abuse-in-south-african-wastewaters
#5
E Archer, E Castrignanò, B Kasprzyk-Hordern, G M Wolfaardt
The current study is aimed to introduce a wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) approach for the first time on the African continent where substance abuse data is limited. The study included the quantification of several drugs of abuse (DOA) in raw wastewater samples. Quantification of urinary metabolites as drug target residues (DTR), as well as enantiomeric profiling of chiral DOA was performed to distinguish between consumption and direct disposal into sewage. Monitoring campaigns were undertaken at two South African wastewater treatment works (WWTWs) located within two provinces of the country...
January 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285812/are-government-approved-products-containing-new-psychoactive-substances-perceived-to-be-safer-and-more-socially-acceptable-than-alcohol-tobacco-and-illegal-drugs-findings-from-a-survey-of-police-arrestees-in-new-zealand
#6
Marta Rychert, Chris Wilkins, Karl Parker, Karen Witten
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: In July 2013, New Zealand passed the Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA), which established a legal regulated market for government-approved products containing new psychoactive substances (NPS). One of the aims of the PSA was to separate the market for approved NPS products from unapproved products and illegal drugs. The aim of this study was to explore perceived health risks and social acceptability of government-approved NPS compared to unapproved NPS and other drugs...
December 29, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284546/medical-emergencies-related-to-ethanol-and-illicit-drugs-at-an-annual-nocturnal-indoor-electronic-dance-music-event
#7
Paul Calle, Nora Sundahl, Kristof Maudens, Sarah Mr Wille, Diederik Van Sassenbroeck, Koen De Graeve, Stefan Gogaert, Peter De Paepe, Dieter Devriese, Geert Arno, Peter Blanckaert
Introduction Medical problems are frequently encountered during electronic dance music (EDM) events. Problem There are uncertainties about the frequencies and severity of intoxications with different types of recreational drugs: ethanol, "classical" illicit party drugs, and new psychoactive substances (NPS). METHODS: Statistical data on the medical problems encountered during two editions of an indoor electronic dance event with around 30,000 attendants were retrieved from the Belgian Red Cross (Mechelen, Belgium) database...
December 29, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277574/human-cytochrome-p450-kinetic-studies-on-six-n-2-methoxybenzyl-nbome-derived-new-psychoactive-substances-using-the-substrate-depletion-approach
#8
Achim T Caspar, Markus R Meyer, Hans H Maurer
A huge number of new chemical derivatives of known drugs of abuse, so-called new psychoactive substances (NPS), are sold and consumed without prior preclinical and clinical testing. For assessing the elimination behaviors, determination of the kinetic constants Km and Vmax of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms involved in the hepatic metabolism of NPS could help to predict their contributions to hepatic clearance, drug-drug interactions and polymorphisms. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to determine the Km and Vmax values for CYP isoforms using the substrate depletion approach for the six N-2-methoxybenzyl (NBOMe)-derived NPS 25B-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe, 25I-NBOMe, 3,4-DMA-NBOMe, 4-EA-NBOMe, and 4-MMA-NBOMe...
December 22, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209235/the-endless-trip-among-the-nps-users-psychopathology-and-psychopharmacology-in-the-hallucinogen-persisting-perception-disorder-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Laura Orsolini, Gabriele Duccio Papanti, Domenico De Berardis, Amira Guirguis, John Martin Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano
Hallucinogen-persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a syndrome characterized by prolonged or reoccurring perceptual symptoms, reminiscent of acute hallucinogen effects. HPPD was associated with a broader range of LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)-like substances, cannabis, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), psilocybin, mescaline, and psychostimulants. The recent emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) posed a critical concern regarding the new onset of psychiatric symptoms/syndromes, including cases of HPPD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189143/retrospective-demonstration-of-25i-nbome-acute-poisoning-using-hair-analysis
#10
Alice Ameline, Audrey Farrugia, Jean-Sebastien Raul, Pascal Kintz
BACKGROUND: The abuse of new psychoactive substances or NPS has been dramatically increasing all around the world since the late 2000s and has become a serious public health problem. NPS are a challenge for the worldwide forensic community due to the difficulties to accurately document the cases. The N-benzylmethoxy (NBOMe) group is a new class of hallucinogenic designer drugs and has gained importance in the recent years. 25I-NBOMe (2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine) is an analog of the 2C series of psychedelic phenethylamine drugs that contain an N-methoxybenzyl substituent, which significantly affects their pharmacological activities...
November 29, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186585/fatality-following-ingestion-of-tetrahydrofuranylfentanyl-u-49900-and-methoxy-phencyclidine
#11
Alex J Krotulski, Donna M Papsun, Melissa Friscia, Jennifer L Swartz, Brian D Holsey, Barry K Logan
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS), and specifically novel opioids, continue to cause adverse events, including death, within drug-using populations. As the number of opioid-related overdoses continues to increase, laboratories have identified the emergence of new fentanyl analogues and other synthetic opioid-related drugs. Tetrahydrofuranylfentanyl (THFF) has been identified in Europe and the United States as an emerging novel opioid, causing death in at least 15 drug-using individuals to date. THFF is structurally similar to furanylfentanyl, a previously characterized novel opioid responsible for numerous adverse events, including death...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175556/rapid-and-simple-procedure-for-the-determination-of-cathinones-amphetamine-like-stimulants-and-other-new-psychoactive-substances-in-blood-and-urine-by-gc-ms
#12
Gilbert Mercieca, Sara Odoardi, Marisa Cassar, Sabina Strano Rossi
In the last few years an increasing number of new psychoactive substances (NPS), with different chemical structures (of which 37% are stimulants), have been released into the illicit drug market. Their detection and identification in biological samples is hence of great concern. The aim of this work was to develop a high-throughput and rapid method for the determination of different classes of stimulants (amphetamine-type stimulants, cathinones, phenethylamines and ketamine analogues) from blood and urine samples using GC-MS...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173782/new-psychoactive-substances-in-pediatric-patients
#13
REVIEW
Brandon J Warrick, Anita Paula Tataru, Roy Gerona
New psychoactive substances (NPS), namely cannabinoids, cathinones, and opioids, have surged in popularity among school-age children, resulting in serious morbidity and mortality globally. In the last decade, there has been a rapid evolution of NPS resulting in hundreds of new compounds. Little to no evidence for humans is available on most compounds. The clinical presentations of patients intoxicated with cannabinoids and cathinones are highly variable but most commonly present with a sympathomimetic toxidrome, for example, agitation, delirium, and tachycardia...
December 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173161/analytical-strategies-to-disclose-chronic-consumption-of-new-psychoactive-substances-by-hair-analysis
#14
Julia Klein, Maria Concetta Rotolo, Emilia Marchei
New psychoactive substances (NPS) are a heterogenic group of substances with different chemical structures and psychotropic effects. Many pharmacotoxicological laboratories performing drug testing in conventional and non-conventional biological matrices for clinical and forensic purposes do not include screening procedures for NPS in their routine protocols. This is mainly due to the continued entry in the market of newly synthesized products, the low availability of reference standards, in particular of their metabolites, the low availability of immunochemical kits, etc...
November 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173157/in-vitro-characterization-of-nps-metabolites-produced-by-human-liver-microsomes-and-the-heparg-cell-line-using-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-lc-hrms-analysis-application-to-furanyl-fentanyl
#15
Jean-Michel Gaulier, Camille Richeval, Thomas Gicquel, Chloe Hugbart, Brendan Le Dare, Delphine Allorge, Isabelle Morel
BACKGROUND: Identification of metabolites is of importance in the challenge of new psychoactive substances (NPS) as it could improve detection window in biological matrices in clinical and forensic cases of intoxication. Considering the numerous and diverse NPS reported each year, producers increasingly appear today to be targeting non-controlled synthetic opioids, involving fentanyl derivatives such as furanyl fentanyl (Fu-F). OBJECTIVE: This work aims to investigate and compare metabolites of Fu-F using two in vitro experimental approaches...
November 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128711/polysubstance-use-profiles-among-electronic-dance-music-party-attendees-in-new-york-city-and-their-relation-to-use-of-new-psychoactive-substances
#16
Fermín Fernández-Calderón, Charles M Cleland, Joseph J Palamar
BACKGROUND: Electronic Dance Music (EDM) party attendees are often polysubstance users and are at high risk for use of new psychoactive substances (NPS). We sought to identify patterns of use of common illegal drugs among EDM party attendees, sociodemographic correlates, and use of NPS as a function of patterns of use of more common drugs to inform prevention and harm reduction. METHOD: Using time-space-sampling, 1045 individuals aged 18-40 were surveyed entering EDM parties in New York City...
November 4, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097307/effect-fingerprinting-of-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-what-can-we-learn-from-in-vitro-data
#17
REVIEW
Laura Hondebrink, Anne Zwartsen, Remco H S Westerink
The use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is increasing and currently >600 NPS have been reported. However, limited information on neuropharmacological and toxicological effects of NPS is available, hampering risk characterization. We reviewed the literature on the in vitro neuronal modes of action to obtain effect fingerprints of different classes of illicit drugs and NPS. The most frequently reported NPS were selected for review: cathinones (MDPV, α-PVP, mephedrone, 4-MEC, pentedrone, methylone), cannabinoids (JWH-018), (hallucinogenic) phenethylamines (4-fluoroamphetamine, benzofurans (5-APB, 6-APB), 2C-B, NBOMes (25B-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe, 25I-NBOMe)), arylcyclohexylamines (methoxetamine) and piperazine derivatives (mCCP, TFMPP, BZP)...
October 30, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078252/analysis-of-new-psychoactive-substances-in-oral-fluids-by-means-of-microextraction-by-packed-sorbent-followed-by-uhplc-ms-ms
#18
Rachele Rocchi, Maria Chiara Simeoni, Camilla Montesano, Gabriele Vannutelli, Roberta Curini, Manuel Sergi, Dario Compagnone
In recent years, new drugs, commonly known as "new psychoactive substances" (NPS), appeared on the market, which include, among others, synthetic cannabinoids, cathinones and tryptamine analogs of psilocin. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a new method for simultaneous screening and quantification of 31 NPS in oral fluid by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The chosen target analytes represented different chemical and toxicological NPS classes, such as synthetic cathinones, piperazines, phenethylamines, synthetic cannabinoids and their metabolites...
October 27, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045066/fatality-involving-ocfentanil-documented-by-identification-of-metabolites
#19
Nathalie Allibe, Camille Richeval, Mélodie Phanithavong, Amandine Faure, Delphine Allorge, François Paysant, Françoise Stanke-Labesque, Hélène Eysseric-Guerin, Jean-Michel Gaulier
New psychoactive substances (NPS) use has rapidly increased over the last decade, and in the last 4 years producers increasingly appear to be targeting non-controlled synthetic opioids, involving fentanyl derivatives such as ocfentanil (OcF). Identification of metabolites is of major importance in the context of NPS use as it could improve detection window in biological matrices in clinical and forensic intoxication cases. Hence, this work aims to report a fatality involving OcF documented by the identification of metabolites...
October 16, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025078/a-cloud-on-the-horizon-a-survey-into-the-use-of-electronic-vaping-devices-for-recreational-drug-and-new-psychoactive-substance-nps-administration
#20
M S Blundell, P I Dargan, D M Wood
Background: There is limited published scientific data on vaping recreational drugs other than cannabis. A recent review suggested that 15% of people vaping cannabis have also vaped a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist (SCRA) and identified over 300 Internet reports of e-liquid manufacture of recreational drugs and/or new psychoactive substances (NPS). Aim: To determine the prevalence of use of electronic vaping devices for recreational drug and NPS delivery in the UK...
September 14, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
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