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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808190/cholesterol-crystal-embolization-following-plaque-rupture-a-systemic-disease-with-unusual-features
#1
Firas Ghanem, Deepthi Vodnala, Jagadeesh K Kalavakunta, Sridevi Durga, Noah Thormeier, Prem Subramaniyam, Scott Abela, George S Abela
Cholesterol crystal embolic (CCE) syndrome is often a clinically challenging condition that has a poor prognostic implication. It is a result of plaque rupture with release of cholesterol crystals into the circulation that embolize into various tissue organs. Plaque rupture seems to be triggered by an expanding necrotic core during cholesterol crystallization forming sharp tipped crystals that perforate and tear the fibrous cap. Embolizing cholesterol crystals then initiate both local and systemic inflammation that eventually lead to vascular fibrosis and obstruction causing symptoms that can mimic other vasculitic conditions...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774501/synaptic-vesicle-2c-and-its-synaptic-related-function
#2
REVIEW
Yan-Wei Hu, Lei Xiao, Lei Zheng, Qian Wang
Synaptic vesicle 2 C (SV2C) is a novel isoform belonging to the synaptic vesicle 2 (SV2) protein superfamily; a family of proteins known to have roles in vesicle trafficking, exocytosis and neurotransmission. In humans, SV2C is expressed in evolutionarily older brain regions, and is a known receptor for botulinum neurotoxin/A (BoNT/A), controlling glucose-evoked granule recruitment and regulating dopamine release, thus serving as a potential target molecule in the treatment of psychosis. In addition, recent researches have shown that SV2C regulates hypertension and accelerates venous thromboembolism (VTE) and coagulation pathways and may play roles in several non-nervous system diseases...
July 31, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761832/anticonvulsant-and-antioxidant-effects-of-pitavastatin-against-pentylenetetrazol-induced-kindling-in-mice
#3
Nastaran Faghihi, Mohammad Taghi Mohammadi
Purpose: The pleiotropic effects of statins (antioxidant and anti-inflammation) have been reported by previous studies. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether pitavastatin has protective effects against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling in mice and also whether pitavastatin improves the brain antioxidant capacity and attenuates the oxidative injuries in kindled mice. Methods: Twenty-four mice were randomly divided into four groups (each group n=6); control, PTZ-kindling and PTZ-kindled rats treated with pitavastatin (1&4 mg/kg)...
June 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761671/predictors-and-clinical-implication-of-high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-i-elevation-following-diagnostic-cardiac-catheterisations
#4
Rikuta Hamaya, Taishi Yonetsu, Tadashi Murai, Yoshihisa Kanaji, Eisuke Usui, Junji Matsuda, Masahiro Hoshino, Makoto Araki, Masahiro Hada, Takayuki Niida, Sadamitsu Ichijo, Yoshinori Kanno, Tsunekazu Kakuta
OBJECTIVES: Although diagnostic coronary angiography (CAG) is performed worldwide, procedure-related myocardial necrosis (PMN) following diagnostic catheter-based procedures has not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to determine clinical and procedural factors associated with PMN, using a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay, and to investigate the clinical implications of PMN. METHODS: Among 697 patients undergoing elective CAG and pre- and post-procedural hs-cTnI (pre-TnI, post-TnI, respectively) measurements, a total of 538 patients (124 female) were evaluated, with 2...
2017: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734741/beneficial-effects-of-tqrf-and-tq-nano-and-conventional-emulsions-on-memory-deficit-lipid-peroxidation-total-antioxidant-status-antioxidants-genes-expression-and-soluble-a%C3%AE-levels-in-high-fat-cholesterol-diet-induced-rats
#5
Norsharina Ismail, Maznah Ismail, Nur Hanisah Azmi, Muhammad Firdaus Abu Bakar, Zhang Yida, Johnson Stanslas, Dahiru Sani, Hamidon Basri, Maizaton Atmadini Abdullah
The study determined the effect of thymoquinone rich fraction (TQRF) and thymoquinone (TQ) in the forms of nano- and conventional emulsions on learning and memory, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant status, antioxidants genes expression and soluble β-amyloid (Aβ) levels in rats fed with a high fat-cholesterol diet (HFCD). The TQRF was extracted from Nigella sativa seeds using a supercritical fluid extraction system and prepared into nanoemulsion, which later named as TQRF nanoemulsion (TQRFNE). Meanwhile, TQ was acquired commercially and prepared into thymoquinone nanoemulsion (TQNE)...
July 20, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730939/drug-delivery-to-the-brain-how-can-nanoencapsulated-statins-be-used-in-the-clinic
#6
Fabio Sonvico, Francesca Zimetti, Adriana Raffin Pohlmann, Sílvia Stanisçuaski Guterres
Statins are used for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease by inhibiting cholesterol synthesis in the liver. Statins have also noncholesterol-related effects, called pleiotropic effects, which arise from statins' anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties. These effects are especially attractive for the treatment of various brain diseases ranging from stroke to neurodegenerative diseases. Still, low brain concentrations after oral drug administration hinder the clinical application of statins in these pathologies...
July 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729418/myc-regulated-mevalonate-metabolism-maintains-brain-tumor-initiating-cells
#7
Xiuxing Wang, Zhi Huang, Qiulian Wu, Briana C Prager, Stephen C Mack, Kailin Yang, Leo J Y Kim, Ryan C Gimple, Yu Shi, Sisi Lai, Qi Xie, Tyler E Miller, Christopher G Hubert, Anne Song, Zhen Dong, Wenchao Zhou, Xiaoguang Fang, Zhe Zhu, Vaidehi Mahadev, Shideng Bao, Jeremy N Rich
Metabolic dysregulation drives tumor initiation in a subset of glioblastomas harboring isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, but metabolic alterations in glioblastomas with wildtype IDH are poorly understood. MYC promotes metabolic reprogramming in cancer, but targeting MYC has proven notoriously challenging. Here, we link metabolic dysregulation in patient-derived brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) to a nexus between MYC and mevalonate signaling, which can be inhibited by statin or 6-fluoromevalonate treatment...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682034/-fabry-s-disease-an-example-of-cardiorenal-syndrome-type-5
#8
Gianluca Villa, Stefano Romagnoli, Aashish Sharma, Claudio Ronco
Fabry's disease (FD) is a severe congenital metabolic disorder characterized by the deficient activity of lysosomal exoglycohydrolase alpha-galactosidase, characterized by glycosphingolipid deposition in several cells, such as capillary endothelial cells, renal, cardiac, and nerve cells. As a systemic disease leading to a contemporaneous myocardial and renal dysfunction, FD might be an example of cardiorenal syndrome type 5 (CRS-5). Kidney damage is commonly characterized by proteinuria, isosthenuria and altered tubular function when occurs at the second-third decade, azotemia and end-stage renal disease in third-fifth decade...
March 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676012/statins-and-the-brain-more-than-lipid-lowering-agents
#9
Anna Fracassi, Martina Marangoni, Pamela Rosso, Valentina Pallottini, Marco Fioramonti, Silvia Siteni, Marco Segatto
BACKGROUND: Statins represent a class of medications widely prescribed to efficiently treat dyslipidemia. These drugs inhibit 3-βhydroxy 3β-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), the rate-limiting enzyme of mevalonate (MVA) pathway. Besides cholesterol, MVA pathway leads to the production of several other compounds, which are essential in the regulation of a plethora of biological activities, including in the central nervous system. For these reasons, statins are able to induce pleiotropic actions, and acquired increased interest as potential and novel modulators in brain processes, especially during pathological conditions...
July 3, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620871/lipophilic-statins-and-the-risk-of-intracranial-hemorrhage-following-ischemic-stroke-a-population-based-study
#10
Kieran L Quinn, Erin M Macdonald, Muhammad M Mamdani, Christina Diong, David N Juurlink
BACKGROUND: Statins are commonly prescribed for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke, but there is conflicting evidence as to whether they increase the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Lipophilic statins cross the blood-brain barrier more freely than hydrophilic statins and may therefore increase the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether, in older patients following ischemic stroke, receipt of lipophilic statins was associated with differences in the risk of intracranial hemorrhage...
June 15, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534128/cathepsin-l-activity-correlates-with-proteinuria-in-chronic-kidney-disease-in-humans
#11
Yu Cao, Xing Liu, Ying Li, Yao Lu, Hua Zhong, Weihong Jiang, Alex F Chen, Timothy R Billiar, Hong Yuan, Jingjing Cai
BACKGROUND: The presence and severity of proteinuria is considered an important prognostic marker in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with mortality and morbidity. Cathepsin L is highly expressed in the foot processes of podocytes in the kidney, which serves as an ultrafiltration barrier. Cathepsin L is also up-regulated in the setting of inflammation as a feature of CKD. Therefore, we postulated that proteinuria severity in CKD patients might correlate with increased serum levels of cathepsin L...
August 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469499/a-case-of-statin-associated-autoimmune-myopathy
#12
Alexander J Sweidan, Anthony Leung, Cassandra J Kaiser, Sarah J Strube, Andrei N Dokukin, Stephen Romansky, Sassan Farjami
A 70-year-old previously independent man developed progressive proximal leg weakness resulting in a fall at home suffering traumatic brain injury. He was prescribed a statin medication two years prior, but this was discontinued on admission to the hospital due to concern for statin myopathy. His weakness continued to progress while in acute rehabilitation, along with the development of dysphagia requiring placement of gastrostomy tube and respiratory failure requiring tracheostomy. Corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin were administered without response...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450174/atorvastatin-as-a-promising-anticryptococcal-agent
#13
Noelly de Queiroz Ribeiro, Marliete Carvalho Costa, Thaís Furtado Ferreira Magalhães, Hellem Cristina Silva Carneiro, Lorena Vívien Oliveira, Alide Caroline Lima Fontes, Julliana Ribeiro Alves Santos, Gabriela Freitas Ferreira, Glauber Ribeiro de Sousa Araujo, Vinícius Alves, Susana Frases, Tatiane Alves Paixão, Maria Aparecida de Resende Stoianoff, Daniel Assis Santos
Cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus gattii leads to pneumonia and meningoencephalitis, and has a high mortality rate worldwide due to the inadequacy of available therapy and increasing drug resistance. There is a need to develop effective treatments, and drug repositioning is an interesting alternative to achieve new strategies to treat cryptococcosis. Atorvastatin (ATO), a statin currently used to treat hypercholesterolaemia, was tested in this study as an adjuvant to control infections caused by C. gattii...
June 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442937/simultaneous-administration-of-fluoxetine-and-simvastatin-ameliorates-lipid-profile-improves-brain-level-of-neurotransmitters-and-increases-bioavailability-of-simvastatin
#14
Abdulrahman K Al-Asmari, Zabih Ullah, Aqeel Salman Al Masoudi, Ishtiaque Ahmad
Simvastatin (STT), a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, is widely prescribed for dyslipidemia, whereas fluoxetine (FLX) is the first-choice drug for the treatment of depression and anxiety. A recent report suggests that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can interact with the cytochrome P450 3A4 substrate, and another one suggests that STT enhances the antidepressant activity of FLX. However, the data are inconclusive. The present study was designed to explore the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic consequences of coadministration of STT and FLX in experimental animals...
2017: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395917/-compliance-with-recommendations-in-secondary-prevention-of-stroke-in-primary-care
#15
Carmen Tamayo-Ojeda, Neus Parellada-Esquius, Betlem Salvador-González, Pilar Ángeles Oriol-Torón, M Dolores Rodríguez-Garrido, Dolores Muñoz-Segura
OBJECTIVE: Knowing compliance with secondary prevention recommendations of stroke in primary care and to identify factors associated with compliance. DESIGN: Multi-centre cross-sectional. SETTING: Health primary care centres in a metropolitan area (944,280 inhabitants). PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 18years and over with ischemic brain disease diagnosis prior to 6months before the study. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Clinical history records of demographic variables, risk factors and cardiovascular comorbidity, drugs, blood pressure values (BP), LDL-cholesterol and medical visits by doctor and nurses after the event...
April 7, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295777/can-ldl-cholesterol-be-too-low-possible-risks-of-extremely-low-levels
#16
REVIEW
A G Olsson, B Angelin, G Assmann, C J Binder, I Björkhem, A Cedazo-Minguez, J Cohen, A von Eckardstein, E Farinaro, D Müller-Wieland, K G Parhofer, P Parini, R S Rosenson, J Starup-Linde, M J Tikkanen, L Yvan-Charvet
Following the continuous accumulation of evidence supporting the beneficial role of reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and its complications, therapeutic possibilities now exist to lower LDL-C to very low levels, similar to or even lower than those seen in newborns and nonhuman species. In addition to the important task of evaluating potential side effects of such treatments, the question arises whether extremely low LDL-C levels per se may provoke adverse effects in humans...
June 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281972/a-randomized-controlled-open-label-pilot-study-of-simvastatin-addition-to-whole-brain-radiation-therapy-in-patients-with-brain-metastases
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Manal El-Hamamsy, Hesham Elwakil, Amr S Saad, May A Shawki
Statins have been reported to have a potential radiosensitizing effect that has not been evaluated in clinical trials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of simvastatin in addition to whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in patients with brain metastases (BM). A prospective randomized, controlled, open-label pilot study was conducted on 50 Egyptian patients with BM who were randomly assigned to receive 30-Gy WBRT (control group: 25 patients) or 30 Gy WBRT + simvastatin 80 mg/day for the WBRT period (simvastatin group: 25 patients)...
October 27, 2016: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187744/medication-use-by-middle-aged-and-older-participants-of-an-exercise-study-results-from-the-brain-in-motion-study
#18
Tania Pannu, Sarah Sharkey, Grazyna Burek, Daniela Cretu, Michael D Hill, David B Hogan, Marc J Poulin
BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years, there has been an increase in the utilization of prescribed, over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and natural health products. Although it is known that medication use is common among older persons, accurate data on the patterns of use, including the quantity and type of medications consumed in a generally healthy older population from a Canadian perspective are lacking. In this study, we study the pattern of medication use in a sedentary but otherwise healthy older persons use and determined if there was an association between medication use and aerobic fitness level...
February 10, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179050/cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-in-stroke-medicine
#19
Frank Block, Manuel Dafotakis
BACKGROUND: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a degenerative vasculopathy that is classically associated with lobar intracerebral or sulcal hemorrhage. Its prevalence is estimated at 30% in the seventh decade and 50% in the eighth and ninth decades. In this review, we summarize the risks linked to CAA with respect to the treatment and prevention of stroke. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search employing the terms "amyloid cerebral angiopathy," "stroke," "intra - cerebral bleeding," and "acute stroke therapy...
January 20, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164772/clinical-and-environmental-correlates-of-serum-bdnf-a-descriptive-study-with-plausible-implications-for-ad-research
#20
Galit Weinstein, Sarah R Preis, Alexa S Beiser, Bernhard Kaess, Tai C Chen, Claudia Satizabal, Faisal Rahman, Emelia J Benjamin, Vasan S Ramachandran, Sudha Seshadri
BACKGROUND: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) through neurotrophic effects on basal cholinergic neurons. Reduced serum levels of BDND are observed among AD patients and may predict AD risk. Nevertheless, knowledge about factors associated with its levels in blood is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical and demographic correlated of serum BDNF levels . METHODS: BDNF was measured from serum collected between 1992-1996 and 1998-2001 in participants from the Original and Offspring cohorts of the Framingham Study, respectively...
February 2, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
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