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Statins AND brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933413/the-role-of-the-nrf2-are-antioxidant-system-in-preventing-cardiovascular-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Robert E Smith, Kevin Tran, Cynthia C Smith, Miranda McDonald, Pushkar Shejwalkar, Kenji Hara
It is widely believed that consuming foods and beverages that have high concentrations of antioxidants can prevent cardiovascular diseases and many types of cancer. As a result, many articles have been published that give the total antioxidant capacities of foods in vitro. However, many antioxidants behave quite differently in vivo. Some of them, such as resveratrol (in red wine) and epigallocatechin gallate or EGCG (in green tea) can activate the nuclear erythroid-2 like factor-2 (Nrf2) transcription factor...
November 11, 2016: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925030/drug-repurposing-may-generate-novel-approaches-to-treating-depression
#2
REVIEW
Mohamed Elsaed Ebada
OBJECTIVES: The breakthrough advancements in scientific medical research have greatly improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of depression, encouraging drug discoverers to take a shorter path than ever through drug repurposing to generate new antidepressant medications. In addition to reduced noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the brain, other coincidence features such as glutamate neurotoxicity, inflammation and/or cerebrovascular insufficiency are implicated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder and late-life depression...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915443/cerebral-white-matter-hyperintensity-is-associated-with-intracranial-atherosclerosis-in-a-healthy-population
#3
Ki-Woong Nam, Hyung-Min Kwon, Han-Yeong Jeong, Jin-Ho Park, Sang Hyuck Kim, Su-Min Jeong, Tae Gon Yoo, Shinhye Kim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cerebral white matter hyperintensity (WMH) is commonly found in ischemic stroke patients, especially when accompanied by intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS). However, the relationship between WMH and ICAS in a healthy population has not been evaluated. METHODS: A total of 3159 healthy subjects who underwent health checkups, including brain magnetic resonance imaging and angiography, were enrolled. ICAS was defined as an occlusion or more than 50% stenosis of intracranial vessels on magnetic resonance angiography...
September 7, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912200/development-and-validation-of-electronic-quality-measures-to-assess-care-for-patients-with-transient-ischemic-attack-and-minor-ischemic-stroke
#4
Dawn M Bravata, Laura J Myers, Eric Cheng, Mathew Reeves, Fitsum Baye, Zhangsheng Yu, Teresa Damush, Edward J Miech, Jason Sico, Michael Phipps, Alan Zillich, Jason Johanning, Seemant Chaturvedi, Curt Austin, Jared Ferguson, Bailey Maryfield, Kathy Snow, Susan Ofner, Glenn Graham, Rachel Rhude, Linda S Williams, Greg Arling
BACKGROUND: Despite interest in using electronic health record (EHR) data to assess quality of care, the accuracy of such data is largely unknown. We sought to develop and validate transient ischemic attack and minor ischemic stroke electronic quality measures (eQMs) using EHR data. METHODS AND RESULTS: A random sample of patients with transient ischemic attack or minor ischemic stroke, cared for in Veterans Health Administration facilities (fiscal year 2011), was identified...
September 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864210/inhibition-of-the-mevalonate-pathway-by-simvastatin-interferes-with-mast-cell-degranulation-by-disrupting-the-interaction-between-rab27a-and-double-c2-alpha-proteins
#5
Muhammad Novrizal Abdi Sahid, Shuang Liu, Takeshi Kiyoi, Kazutaka Maeyama
Statins are well-known inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, which block the mevalonate pathway. The activity of statins not only decreases cholesterol levels but also ameliorates inflammation and modulates the immune system. In this study, we investigated the effects of simvastatin on histamine release using rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3) cells, and examined its interaction with proteins involved in the exocytosis process. Treatment with simvastatin for 24h inhibited histamine release in RBL-2H3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner after stimulation with dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA, as an antigen), ionomycin (a calcium ion [Ca(2+)] ionophore), and thapsigargin (an inhibitor of Ca(2+)-ATPase in the endoplasmic reticulum)...
August 29, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845297/discovery-of-a-rock-inhibitor-fpnd-which-prevents-cerebral-hemorrhage-through-maintaining-vascular-integrity-by-interference-with-ve-cadherin
#6
Shang Li, Nana Ai, Mingyun Shen, Yuanye Dang, Cheong-Meng Chong, Peichen Pan, Yiu Wa Kwan, Shun Wan Chan, George Pak Heng Leung, Maggie Pui Man Hoi, Tingjun Hou, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee
Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a weakened vessel ruptures and bleeds into the surrounding brain, leading to high rates of death and disability worldwide. A series of complex pathophysiological cascades contribute to the risk of hemorrhagic stroke, and no therapies have proven effective to prevent hemorrhagic stroke. Stabilization of vascular integrity has been considered as a potential therapeutic target for hemorrhagic stroke. ROCKs, which belong to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and participate in the organization of actin cytoskeleton, have become attractive targets for the treatment of strokes...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835272/anti-inflammatory-and-immunomodulatory-mechanisms-of-atorvastatin-in-a-murine-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Xin Xu, Weiwei Gao, Shiqi Cheng, Dongpei Yin, Fei Li, Yingang Wu, Dongdong Sun, Shuai Zhou, Dong Wang, Yongqiang Zhang, Rongcai Jiang, Jianning Zhang
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is an important secondary injury mechanism that has dual beneficial and detrimental roles in the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Compelling data indicate that statins, a group of lipid-lowering drugs, also have extensive immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Among statins, atorvastatin has been demonstrated as a neuroprotective agent in experimental TBI; however, there is a lack of evidence regarding its effects on neuroinflammation during the acute phase of TBI...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808190/cholesterol-crystal-embolization-following-plaque-rupture-a-systemic-disease-with-unusual-features
#8
Firas Ghanem, Deepthi Vodnala, Jagadeesh K Kalavakunta, Sridevi Durga, Noah Thormeier, Prem Subramaniyam, Scott Abela, George S Abela
Cholesterol crystal embolic (CCE) syndrome is often a clinically challenging condition that has a poor prognostic implication. It is a result of plaque rupture with release of cholesterol crystals into the circulation that embolize into various tissue organs. Plaque rupture seems to be triggered by an expanding necrotic core during cholesterol crystallization forming sharp tipped crystals that perforate and tear the fibrous cap. Embolizing cholesterol crystals then initiate both local and systemic inflammation that eventually lead to vascular fibrosis and obstruction causing symptoms that can mimic other vasculitic conditions...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774501/synaptic-vesicle-2c-and-its-synaptic-related-function
#9
REVIEW
Yan-Wei Hu, Lei Xiao, Lei Zheng, Qian Wang
Synaptic vesicle 2 C (SV2C) is a novel isoform belonging to the synaptic vesicle 2 (SV2) protein superfamily; a family of proteins known to have roles in vesicle trafficking, exocytosis and neurotransmission. In humans, SV2C is expressed in evolutionarily older brain regions, and is a known receptor for botulinum neurotoxin/A (BoNT/A), controlling glucose-evoked granule recruitment and regulating dopamine release, thus serving as a potential target molecule in the treatment of psychosis. In addition, recent researches have shown that SV2C regulates hypertension and accelerates venous thromboembolism (VTE) and coagulation pathways and may play roles in several non-nervous system diseases...
July 31, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761832/anticonvulsant-and-antioxidant-effects-of-pitavastatin-against-pentylenetetrazol-induced-kindling-in-mice
#10
Nastaran Faghihi, Mohammad Taghi Mohammadi
Purpose: The pleiotropic effects of statins (antioxidant and anti-inflammation) have been reported by previous studies. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether pitavastatin has protective effects against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling in mice and also whether pitavastatin improves the brain antioxidant capacity and attenuates the oxidative injuries in kindled mice. Methods: Twenty-four mice were randomly divided into four groups (each group n=6); control, PTZ-kindling and PTZ-kindled rats treated with pitavastatin (1&4 mg/kg)...
June 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761671/predictors-and-clinical-implication-of-high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-i-elevation-following-diagnostic-cardiac-catheterisations
#11
Rikuta Hamaya, Taishi Yonetsu, Tadashi Murai, Yoshihisa Kanaji, Eisuke Usui, Junji Matsuda, Masahiro Hoshino, Makoto Araki, Masahiro Hada, Takayuki Niida, Sadamitsu Ichijo, Yoshinori Kanno, Tsunekazu Kakuta
OBJECTIVES: Although diagnostic coronary angiography (CAG) is performed worldwide, procedure-related myocardial necrosis (PMN) following diagnostic catheter-based procedures has not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to determine clinical and procedural factors associated with PMN, using a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay, and to investigate the clinical implications of PMN. METHODS: Among 697 patients undergoing elective CAG and pre- and post-procedural hs-cTnI (pre-TnI, post-TnI, respectively) measurements, a total of 538 patients (124 female) were evaluated, with 2...
2017: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734741/beneficial-effects-of-tqrf-and-tq-nano-and-conventional-emulsions-on-memory-deficit-lipid-peroxidation-total-antioxidant-status-antioxidants-genes-expression-and-soluble-a%C3%AE-levels-in-high-fat-cholesterol-diet-induced-rats
#12
Norsharina Ismail, Maznah Ismail, Nur Hanisah Azmi, Muhammad Firdaus Abu Bakar, Zhang Yida, Johnson Stanslas, Dahiru Sani, Hamidon Basri, Maizaton Atmadini Abdullah
The study determined the effect of thymoquinone rich fraction (TQRF) and thymoquinone (TQ) in the forms of nano- and conventional emulsions on learning and memory, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant status, antioxidants genes expression and soluble β-amyloid (Aβ) levels in rats fed with a high fat-cholesterol diet (HFCD). The TQRF was extracted from Nigella sativa seeds using a supercritical fluid extraction system and prepared into nanoemulsion, which later named as TQRF nanoemulsion (TQRFNE). Meanwhile, TQ was acquired commercially and prepared into thymoquinone nanoemulsion (TQNE)...
July 20, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730939/drug-delivery-to-the-brain-how-can-nanoencapsulated-statins-be-used-in-the-clinic
#13
Fabio Sonvico, Francesca Zimetti, Adriana Raffin Pohlmann, Sílvia Stanisçuaski Guterres
Statins are used for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease by inhibiting cholesterol synthesis in the liver. Statins have also noncholesterol-related effects, called pleiotropic effects, which arise from statins' anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties. These effects are especially attractive for the treatment of various brain diseases ranging from stroke to neurodegenerative diseases. Still, low brain concentrations after oral drug administration hinder the clinical application of statins in these pathologies...
July 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729418/myc-regulated-mevalonate-metabolism-maintains-brain-tumor-initiating-cells
#14
Xiuxing Wang, Zhi Huang, Qiulian Wu, Briana C Prager, Stephen C Mack, Kailin Yang, Leo J Y Kim, Ryan C Gimple, Yu Shi, Sisi Lai, Qi Xie, Tyler E Miller, Christopher G Hubert, Anne Song, Zhen Dong, Wenchao Zhou, Xiaoguang Fang, Zhe Zhu, Vaidehi Mahadev, Shideng Bao, Jeremy N Rich
Metabolic dysregulation drives tumor initiation in a subset of glioblastomas harboring isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, but metabolic alterations in glioblastomas with wild-type IDH are poorly understood. MYC promotes metabolic reprogramming in cancer, but targeting MYC has proven notoriously challenging. Here, we link metabolic dysregulation in patient-derived brain tumor-initiating cells (BTIC) to a nexus between MYC and mevalonate signaling, which can be inhibited by statin or 6-fluoromevalonate treatment...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682034/-fabry-s-disease-an-example-of-cardiorenal-syndrome-type-5
#15
Gianluca Villa, Stefano Romagnoli, Aashish Sharma, Claudio Ronco
Fabry's disease (FD) is a severe congenital metabolic disorder characterized by the deficient activity of lysosomal exoglycohydrolase alpha-galactosidase, characterized by glycosphingolipid deposition in several cells, such as capillary endothelial cells, renal, cardiac, and nerve cells. As a systemic disease leading to a contemporaneous myocardial and renal dysfunction, FD might be an example of cardiorenal syndrome type 5 (CRS-5). Kidney damage is commonly characterized by proteinuria, isosthenuria and altered tubular function when occurs at the second-third decade, azotemia and end-stage renal disease in third-fifth decade...
March 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676012/statins-and-the-brain-more-than-lipid-lowering-agents
#16
Anna Fracassi, Martina Marangoni, Pamela Rosso, Valentina Pallottini, Marco Fioramonti, Silvia Siteni, Marco Segatto
BACKGROUND: Statins represent a class of medications widely prescribed to efficiently treat dyslipidemia. These drugs inhibit 3-βhydroxy 3β-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), the rate-limiting enzyme of mevalonate (MVA) pathway. Besides cholesterol, MVA pathway leads to the production of several other compounds, which are essential in the regulation of a plethora of biological activities, including in the central nervous system. For these reasons, statins are able to induce pleiotropic actions, and acquired increased interest as potential and novel modulators in brain processes, especially during pathological conditions...
July 3, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620871/lipophilic-statins-and-the-risk-of-intracranial-hemorrhage-following-ischemic-stroke-a-population-based-study
#17
Kieran L Quinn, Erin M Macdonald, Muhammad M Mamdani, Christina Diong, David N Juurlink
BACKGROUND: Statins are commonly prescribed for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke, but there is conflicting evidence as to whether they increase the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Lipophilic statins cross the blood-brain barrier more freely than hydrophilic statins and may therefore increase the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether, in older patients following ischemic stroke, receipt of lipophilic statins was associated with differences in the risk of intracranial hemorrhage...
June 15, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534128/cathepsin-l-activity-correlates-with-proteinuria-in-chronic-kidney-disease-in-humans
#18
Yu Cao, Xing Liu, Ying Li, Yao Lu, Hua Zhong, Weihong Jiang, Alex F Chen, Timothy R Billiar, Hong Yuan, Jingjing Cai
BACKGROUND: The presence and severity of proteinuria is considered an important prognostic marker in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with mortality and morbidity. Cathepsin L is highly expressed in the foot processes of podocytes in the kidney, which serves as an ultrafiltration barrier. Cathepsin L is also up-regulated in the setting of inflammation as a feature of CKD. Therefore, we postulated that proteinuria severity in CKD patients might correlate with increased serum levels of cathepsin L...
August 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469499/a-case-of-statin-associated-autoimmune-myopathy
#19
Alexander J Sweidan, Anthony Leung, Cassandra J Kaiser, Sarah J Strube, Andrei N Dokukin, Stephen Romansky, Sassan Farjami
A 70-year-old previously independent man developed progressive proximal leg weakness resulting in a fall at home suffering traumatic brain injury. He was prescribed a statin medication two years prior, but this was discontinued on admission to the hospital due to concern for statin myopathy. His weakness continued to progress while in acute rehabilitation, along with the development of dysphagia requiring placement of gastrostomy tube and respiratory failure requiring tracheostomy. Corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin were administered without response...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450174/atorvastatin-as-a-promising-anticryptococcal-agent
#20
Noelly de Queiroz Ribeiro, Marliete Carvalho Costa, Thaís Furtado Ferreira Magalhães, Hellem Cristina Silva Carneiro, Lorena Vívien Oliveira, Alide Caroline Lima Fontes, Julliana Ribeiro Alves Santos, Gabriela Freitas Ferreira, Glauber Ribeiro de Sousa Araujo, Vinícius Alves, Susana Frases, Tatiane Alves Paixão, Maria Aparecida de Resende Stoianoff, Daniel Assis Santos
Cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus gattii leads to pneumonia and meningoencephalitis, and has a high mortality rate worldwide due to the inadequacy of available therapy and increasing drug resistance. There is a need to develop effective treatments, and drug repositioning is an interesting alternative to achieve new strategies to treat cryptococcosis. Atorvastatin (ATO), a statin currently used to treat hypercholesterolaemia, was tested in this study as an adjuvant to control infections caused by C. gattii...
June 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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