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Statins AND brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738536/statins-impact-primary-embryonic-mouse-neural-stem-cell-survival-cell-death-and-fate-through-distinct-mechanisms
#1
Ross A Carson, Anthony C Rudine, Serena J Tally, Alexis L Franks, Krystle A Frahm, Jacob K Waldman, Neerupma Silswal, Suban Burale, James V Phan, Uma R Chandran, A Paula Monaghan, Donald B DeFranco
Statins inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway (CBP), and are used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The anti-inflammatory effects of statins may also provide therapeutic benefits and have led to their use in clinical trials for preeclampsia, a pregnancy-associated inflammatory condition, despite their current classification as category X (i.e. contraindicated during pregnancy). In the developing neocortex, products of the CBP play essential roles in proliferation and differentiation of neural stem-progenitor cells (NSPCs)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719452/atorvastatin-pretreatment-attenuates-kainic-acid-induced-hippocampal-neuronal-death-via-regulation-of-lipocalin-2-associated-neuroinflammation
#2
Zhen Jin, Yohan Jung, Chin-Ok Yi, Jong Youl Lee, Eun Ae Jeong, Jung Eun Lee, Ki-Jong Park, Oh-Young Kwon, Byeong Hoon Lim, Nack-Cheon Choi, Gu Seob Roh
Statins mediate vascular protection and reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Recent work indicates that statins have anticonvulsive effects in the brain; however, little is known about the precise mechanism for its protective effect in kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures. Here, we investigated the protective effects of atorvastatin pretreatment on KA-induced neuroinflammation and hippocampal cell death. Mice were treated via intragastric administration of atorvastatin for 7 days, injected with KA, and then sacrificed after 24 h...
May 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659380/effect-of-pioglitazone-and-simvastatin-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-amyloidogenesis-and-cognitive-impairment-in-mice-possible-role-of-glutamatergic-pathway-and-oxidative-stress
#3
Sara Thabit, Nesrine S E El Sayed
Neuroinflammation and β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the brain are well known characteristics of neurodegeneration. Diabetes and hypercholesterolemia are the main risk factors leading to memory loss and cognitive impairment. Recently, it was found that statins and thiazolidinediones have promising anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects that could delay neurodegeneration and neuronal loss in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of simvastatin, pioglitazone, and their combination in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis...
April 13, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607441/in-hospital-mortality-following-traumatic-brain-injury-among-older-medicare-beneficiaries-comparing-statin-users-with-nonusers
#4
Bilal Khokhar, Linda Simoni-Wastila, Julia F Slejko, Eleanor Perfetto, Min Zhan, Gordon S Smith
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health concern for older adults. Small-scale human studies have suggested pre-TBI statin use is associated with decreased in-hospital mortality following TBI, highlighting the need for large-scale translational research. Objective: To investigate the relationship between pre-TBI statin use and in-hospital mortality following TBI. Methods: A retrospective study of Medicare beneficiaries 65 and older hospitalized with a TBI during 2006 to 2010 was conducted to assess the impact of pre-TBI statin use on in-hospital mortality following TBI...
December 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Technology: JPT: Official Publication of the Association of Pharmacy Technicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557360/neuroprotective-effects-of-statins-against-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-neurotoxicity
#5
REVIEW
Hsin-Hua Li, Chih-Li Lin, Chien-Ning Huang
A growing body of evidence suggests that disruption of the homeostasis of lipid metabolism affects the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis in the brain has been reported to considerably increase the risk of developing AD. Thus, dysregulation of lipid homeostasis may increase the amyloid β (Aβ) levels by affecting amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage, which is the most important risk factor involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Previous research demonstrated that Aβ can trigger neuronal insulin resistance, which plays an important role in response to Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in AD...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544396/pitavastatin-treatment-induces-neuroprotection-through-the-bdnf-trkb-signalling-pathway-in-cultured-cerebral-neurons-after-oxygen-glucose-deprivation
#6
Xiaoyan Cui, Zhenqiang Fu, Menghan Wang, Xiaofei Nan, Boai Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Along with their lipid-lowering effect, statins have been reported to have neuroprotective function in both in vivo and in vitro models of neurodegenerative diseases. We conducted this study in order to uncover the he neuroprotective effect of the lipophilic statin pitavastatin (PTV) and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms using primary cultured cerebral neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). METHODS: The primary cultured cerebral neurons were randomly assigned into four groups: the control group, the pitavastatin treatment group, the OGD group and the OGD + pitavastatin treatment group...
March 16, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512264/small-dense-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-is-a-promising-biomarker-for-secondary-prevention-in-older-men-with-stable-coronary-artery-disease
#7
Koshiro Sakai, Shinji Koba, Yuya Nakamura, Yuya Yokota, Fumiyoshi Tsunoda, Makoto Shoji, Yasuki Itoh, Yuji Hamazaki, Youichi Kobayashi
AIM: The study objective was to investigate whether small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) is superior to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other biomarkers to predict future cardiovascular events (CE) in secondary prevention. METHODS: sdLDL-C measured by a homogeneous assay, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL particle diameter and other biomarkers were compared in 345 men aged ≥65 years with stable coronary artery disease...
March 7, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497063/lack-of-effects-of-simvastatin-on-smoking-cessation-in-humans-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-study
#8
Isabelle Ingrand, Marcello Solinas, Pierre Ingrand, Emilie Dugast, Pierre-Jean Saulnier, Marie-Christine Pérault-Pochat, Claire Lafay-Chebassier
A recent pre-clinical study has shown that brain-penetrating statins can reduce risks of relapse to cocaine and nicotine addiction in rats. Based on this information, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept trial to assess the efficacy of simvastatin in smoking cessation. After informed consent, 118 participants received behavioral cessation support and were randomly assigned to a 3-month treatment with simvastatin or placebo. The primary outcome was biochemically verified abstinence or smoking reduction at 3-month post-target quit date (TQD)...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496592/tocotrienols-the-promising-analogues-of-vitamin-e-for-cancer-therapeutics
#9
REVIEW
Bethsebie Lalduhsaki Sailo, Kishore Banik, Ganesan Padmavathi, Monisha Javadi, Devivasha Bordoloi, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara
Despite the significant advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, it still remains one of the most fatal diseases in the world due to the lack of sensitive diagnosis methods and effective drugs. Therefore, discovering novel therapies that are safe, efficacious and affordable are required for the better management of this disease. Tocotrienols, analogues of vitamin E have gained increased attention due to their safety and efficacy. Extensive research over the past several years has strongly indicated that tocotrienols can efficiently prevent/inhibit the growth of different cancers such as cancers of blood, brain, breast, cervical, colon, liver, lung, pancreas, prostate, skin, stomach etc...
April 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484149/randomised-controlled-trial-of-simvastatin-treatment-for-autism-in-young-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-santa
#10
Stavros Stivaros, Shruti Garg, Maria Tziraki, Ying Cai, Owen Thomas, Joseph Mellor, Andrew A Morris, Carly Jim, Karolina Szumanska-Ryt, Laura M Parkes, Hamied A Haroon, Daniela Montaldi, Nicholas Webb, John Keane, Francisco X Castellanos, Alcino J Silva, Sue Huson, Stephen Williams, D Gareth Evans, Richard Emsley, Jonathan Green
Background: Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a monogenic model for syndromic autism. Statins rescue the social and cognitive phenotype in animal knockout models, but translational trials with subjects > 8 years using cognition/behaviour outcomes have shown mixed results. This trial breaks new ground by studying statin effects for the first time in younger children with NF1 and co-morbid autism and by using multiparametric imaging outcomes. Methods: A single-site triple-blind RCT of simvastatin vs...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477945/subtle-improvement-of-seizure-susceptibility-by-atorvastatin-treatment-during-epileptogenesis
#11
Clarissa Vasconcelos de Oliveira, Viviane Nogueira Zorzi, Michele Rechia Fighera, Luiz Fernando Freire Royes, Ana Flávia Furian, Mauro Schneider Oliveira
BACKGROUND: The process by which a brain insult elicits epilepsy is termed epileptogenesis and it is characterized by numerous molecular and functional alterations. Statins are first-line drugs for hypercholesterolemia and related diseases, and display neuroprotective properties in clinical and experimental studies. Considering the importance in developing therapeutic strategies to prevent or modify epileptogenesis, we aimed the present study to test the hypothesis that atorvastatin modifies seizure susceptibility of mice after status epilepticus (SE)...
April 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451153/effects-of-plasma-lipids-and-statins-on-cognitive-function
#12
REVIEW
Rui Li, Tian-Jun Wang, Pei-Yuan Lyu, Yang Liu, Wei-Hong Chen, Ming-Yue Fan, Jing Xu
Objective: Dementia is the fourth most common cause of death in developed countries. The relationship between plasma lipids and cognitive function is complex and controversial. Due to the increasing life expectancy of the population, there is an urgent need to control vascular risk factors and to identify therapies to prevent and treat both cognitive impairment and dementia. Here, we reviewed the effects of plasma lipids and statins on cognitive function. Data Sources: We searched the PubMed database for research articles published through November 2017 with key words including "plasma lipids," "hyperlipidemia," "hypercholesterolemia," "statins," and "cognition function...
February 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447778/the-effect-of-high-dose-atorvastatin-on-neural-activity-and-cognitive-function
#13
Beth A Taylor, Alecia D Dager, Gregory A Panza, Amanda L Zaleski, Shashwath Meda, Gregory Book, Michael C Stevens, Sarah Tartar, C Michael White, Donna M Polk, Godfrey D Pearlson, Paul D Thompson
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has not been used to assess the effects of statins on the brain. We assessed the effect of statins on cognition using standard neuropsychological assessments and brain neural activation with fMRI on two tasks. METHODS: Healthy statin-naïve men and women (48±15 years) were randomized to 80 mg/day atorvastatin (n=66; 27 men) or placebo (n=84; 48 men) for 6 months. Participants completed cognitive testing while on study drug and 2 months after treatment cessation using alternative test and task versions...
March 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434767/simvastatin-inhibits-the-apoptosis-of-hippocampal-cells-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Xiaoqin Hu, Chengwei Song, Ming Fang, Chengyan Li
Alzheimer's disease is associated with cognitive impairments that affect memory and executive functions. Simvastatin is a cholesterol-lowering statin drug that is used to control levels of cholesterol in the blood, particularly in cases of hypercholesterolemia, and may be used in the treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Previous results have indicated that the apoptosis of hippocampal cells may serve a critical role in the progression of Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, it was determined whether Simvastatin inhibited the apoptosis of hippocampal cells in vitro and in vivo ...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423540/do-statins-ace-inhibitors-or-sartans-improve-outcome-in-primary-glioblastoma
#15
Caroline Happold, Thierry Gorlia, L Burt Nabors, Sara C Erridge, David A Reardon, Christine Hicking, Martin Picard, Roger Stupp, Michael Weller
Glioblastomas are malignant brain tumors with poor prognosis. Lately, data from clinical studies assessing the role of co-medications in different cancer types suggested reduced mortality and potential anti-tumor activity for statins, angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (sartans). Here, we analysed the association of co-treatment with statins, ACEI or sartans with outcome in a cohort of 810 patients enrolled in the phase III CENTRIC and phase II CORE trials on the role of the integrin antagonist, cilengitide, in newly diagnosed glioblastoma with or without O6 -methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation...
May 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404930/comparative-efficacy-of-pharmacological-interventions-for-contrast-induced-nephropathy-prevention-after-coronary-angiography-a-network-meta-analysis-from-randomized-trials
#16
REVIEW
Wen-Qi Ma, Yu Zhao, Ying Wang, Xi-Qiong Han, Yi Zhu, Nai-Feng Liu
BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is the major complication related to contrast media administration in patients after coronary angiography (CAG). However, inconsistent results have been published in the literature regarding the effects of pharmacological drugs on CIN prevention. We conducted a network meta-analysis to evaluate the relative efficacy of pharmacological interventions for the prevention of CIN. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials...
February 5, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404578/quality-of-care-for-veterans-with-transient-ischemic-attack-and-minor-stroke
#17
Dawn M Bravata, Laura J Myers, Greg Arling, Edward J Miech, Teresa Damush, Jason J Sico, Michael S Phipps, Alan J Zillich, Zhangsheng Yu, Mathew Reeves, Linda S Williams, Jason Johanning, Seemant Chaturvedi, Fitsum Baye, Susan Ofner, Curt Austin, Jared Ferguson, Glenn D Graham, Rachel Rhude, Chad S Kessler, Donald S Higgins, Eric Cheng
Importance: The timely delivery of guideline-concordant care may reduce the risk of recurrent vascular events for patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and minor stroke. Although many health care organizations measure stroke care quality, few evaluate performance for patients with TIA or minor stroke, and most include only a limited subset of guideline-recommended processes. Objective: To assess the quality of guideline-recommended TIA and minor stroke care across the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system nationwide...
April 1, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385012/mortality-and-associated-morbidities-following-traumatic-brain-injury-in-older-medicare-statin-users
#18
Bilal Khokhar, Linda Simoni-Wastila, Julia F Slejko, Eleanor Perfetto, Min Zhan, Gordon S Smith
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between posttraumatic brain injury statin use and (1) mortality and (2) the incidence of associated morbidities, including stroke, depression, and Alzheimer's disease and related dementias following injury. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Nested cohort of all Medicare beneficiaries 65 years of age and older who survived a traumatic brain injury (TBI) hospitalization during 2006 through 2010. The final sample comprised 100 515 beneficiaries...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366795/documented-coronary-atherothrombosis-as-the-cause-of-death-in-post-discharge-patients-after-coronary-revascularization
#19
Hirotoshi Watanabe, Takeshi Morimoto, Hiroki Shiomi, Kyohei Yamaji, Satoshi Shizuta, Yutaka Furukawa, Yoshihisa Nakagawa, Kazushige Kadota, Kenji Ando, Ryuzo Sakata, Michiya Hanyu, Noboru Nishiwaki, Tatsuhiko Komiya, Takeshi Kimura
BACKGROUND: The contemporary medications for secondary prevention like statins and antithrombotic agents are targeting to delay the progression of atherothrombosis. However, there is limited data on the relation between death and progressive coronary atherothrombosis. This study sought to evaluate what proportion of death after coronary revascularization is related to documented progressive coronary atherothrombosis. METHODS: We reviewed the detailed causes of death among 15,231 patients receiving their first coronary revascularization enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG registry cohort-2, dividing into two groups; 13,839 patients with clinical success and without major complication (uncomplicated) and the other 1392 patients (complicated)...
December 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186698/effect-of-atorvastatin-on-behavioral-alterations-and-neuroinflammation-during-epileptogenesis
#20
Clarissa Vasconcelos de Oliveira, Jéssica Grigoletto, Julia Marion Canzian, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Thiago Duarte, Ana Flávia Furian, Mauro Schneider Oliveira
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most frequent and medically refractory type of epilepsy in humans. In addition to seizures, patients with TLE suffer from behavioral alterations and cognitive deficits. Poststatus epilepticus model of TLE induced by pilocarpine in rodents has enhanced the understanding of the processes leading to epilepsy and thus, of potential targets for antiepileptogenic therapies. Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the brain may critically contribute to epileptogenesis...
January 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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