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Statins AND brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129262/biochemical-risk-markers-and-10-year-incidence-of-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-independent-predictors-improvement-in-pooled-cohort-equation-and-risk-reclassification
#1
Emmanuel Akintoye, Alexandros Briasoulis, Luis Afonso
BACKGROUND: The recommendation for statins in primary atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) prevention begins with risk estimation using the pooled cohort equation (PCE). However, treatment decisions may still remain uncertain after PCE-based assessment. We therefore developed a simple biomarker score that could supplement decision making. METHODS: Using the prospectively collected database of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we identified biochemical risk markers that independently predicted 10-year risk of ASCVD and developed an aggregate biomarker score based on them...
November 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122977/a%C3%AE-inhibits-srebp-2-activation-through-akt-inhibition
#2
Amany Mohamed, Anissa Viveiros, Kathleen Williams, Elena Posse de Chaves
We previously demonstrated that oligomeric Aβ42 (oAβ42 ) inhibits the mevalonate pathway impairing cholesterol synthesis and protein prenylation. Enzymes of the mevalonate pathway are regulated by the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) 2. Here, we show that in several neuronal types challenged with o Aβ42, SREBP-2 activation is reduced. Moreover, SREBP-2 activation is also decreased in brain cortex of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model TgCRND8, suggesting that SREBP-2 may be affected in vivo during disease...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034463/statin-treatment-may-lower-the-risk-of-postradiation-epilepsy-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#3
Xiaoming Rong, Jing Yin, Hongxuan Wang, Xiaoni Zhang, Ying Peng
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to clarify the effect of statins on preventing the risk of postradiation epilepsy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of neurological nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with a history of radiotherapy. Patients with a history of epilepsy before radiation and those who received prophylactically antiepileptic treatment were excluded. The demographic and clinical data of these patients were collected through chart review. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis (log-rank test) to examine the effect of statins on epilepsy-free survival...
October 16, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983441/high-value-care-in-the-evaluation-of-stroke
#4
Prakrity Urja, Eric H Nippoldt, Virginia Barak, Carrie Valenta
Value-based care emphasizes achieving the greatest overall health benefit for every dollar spent. We present an interesting case of stroke, which made us consider how frequently health care providers are utilizing value-based care. A 73-year-old Caucasian, who was initially admitted for a hypertensive emergency, was transferred to our facility for worsening slurring of speech and left-sided weakness. The patient had an extensive chronic cerebrovascular disease, including multiple embolic type strokes, mainly in the distribution of the right temporal-occipital cerebral artery and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs)...
August 1, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948451/a-diagnostic-approach-to-stroke-in-young-adults
#5
REVIEW
Christopher A Stack, John W Cole
Optimal diagnosis and management of stroke in young adults benefit from a multidisciplinary team, including a vascular neurology specialist. In addition to the "standard" vascular risk factors including smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia, one needs to consider alternative etiologies including substance abuse, carotid/vertebral artery dissections, and rare genetic conditions among others. Once a young patient is determined to have had a stroke, the next question a clinician should ask is why did this patient have a stroke? A "heart to head" diagnostic approach is recommended...
September 25, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946820/coenzyme-q10-supplementation-improves-acute-outcomes-of-stroke-in-rats-pretreated-with-atorvastatin
#6
Sanaz Nasoohi, Leila Simani, Fariba Khodagholi, Sara Nikseresht, Mehrdad Faizi, Nima Naderi
OBJECTIVES: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, ubiquinone) stands among the safest supplements in the elderly to protect against cardiovascular disorders. Noteworthy, CoQ10 deficiency is common in many surviving stroke patients as they are mostly prescribed statins for the secondary prevention of stroke incidence lifelong. Accordingly, the current study aims to experimentally examine whether CoQ10 supplementation in animals receiving atorvastatin may affect acute stroke-induced injury. METHODS: Adult rats underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion after atorvastatin pretreatment (5 or 10 mg/ kg/day; po; 30 days) with or without CoQ10 (200 mg/kg/day)...
September 26, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933413/the-role-of-the-nrf2-are-antioxidant-system-in-preventing-cardiovascular-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Robert E Smith, Kevin Tran, Cynthia C Smith, Miranda McDonald, Pushkar Shejwalkar, Kenji Hara
It is widely believed that consuming foods and beverages that have high concentrations of antioxidants can prevent cardiovascular diseases and many types of cancer. As a result, many articles have been published that give the total antioxidant capacities of foods in vitro. However, many antioxidants behave quite differently in vivo. Some of them, such as resveratrol (in red wine) and epigallocatechin gallate or EGCG (in green tea) can activate the nuclear erythroid-2 like factor-2 (Nrf2) transcription factor...
November 11, 2016: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925030/drug-repurposing-may-generate-novel-approaches-to-treating-depression
#8
REVIEW
Mohamed Elsaed Ebada
OBJECTIVES: The breakthrough advancements in scientific medical research have greatly improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of depression, encouraging drug discoverers to take a shorter path than ever through drug repurposing to generate new antidepressant medications. In addition to reduced noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the brain, other coincidence features such as glutamate neurotoxicity, inflammation and/or cerebrovascular insufficiency are implicated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder and late-life depression...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915443/cerebral-white-matter-hyperintensity-is-associated-with-intracranial-atherosclerosis-in-a-healthy-population
#9
Ki-Woong Nam, Hyung-Min Kwon, Han-Yeong Jeong, Jin-Ho Park, Sang Hyuck Kim, Su-Min Jeong, Tae Gon Yoo, Shinhye Kim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cerebral white matter hyperintensity (WMH) is commonly found in ischemic stroke patients, especially when accompanied by intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS). However, the relationship between WMH and ICAS in a healthy population has not been evaluated. METHODS: A total of 3159 healthy subjects who underwent health checkups, including brain magnetic resonance imaging and angiography, were enrolled. ICAS was defined as an occlusion or more than 50% stenosis of intracranial vessels on magnetic resonance angiography...
September 7, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912200/development-and-validation-of-electronic-quality-measures-to-assess-care-for-patients-with-transient-ischemic-attack-and-minor-ischemic-stroke
#10
Dawn M Bravata, Laura J Myers, Eric Cheng, Mathew Reeves, Fitsum Baye, Zhangsheng Yu, Teresa Damush, Edward J Miech, Jason Sico, Michael Phipps, Alan Zillich, Jason Johanning, Seemant Chaturvedi, Curt Austin, Jared Ferguson, Bailey Maryfield, Kathy Snow, Susan Ofner, Glenn Graham, Rachel Rhude, Linda S Williams, Greg Arling
BACKGROUND: Despite interest in using electronic health record (EHR) data to assess quality of care, the accuracy of such data is largely unknown. We sought to develop and validate transient ischemic attack and minor ischemic stroke electronic quality measures (eQMs) using EHR data. METHODS AND RESULTS: A random sample of patients with transient ischemic attack or minor ischemic stroke, cared for in Veterans Health Administration facilities (fiscal year 2011), was identified...
September 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864210/inhibition-of-the-mevalonate-pathway-by-simvastatin-interferes-with-mast-cell-degranulation-by-disrupting-the-interaction-between-rab27a-and-double-c2-alpha-proteins
#11
Muhammad Novrizal Abdi Sahid, Shuang Liu, Takeshi Kiyoi, Kazutaka Maeyama
Statins are well-known inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, which block the mevalonate pathway. The activity of statins not only decreases cholesterol levels but also ameliorates inflammation and modulates the immune system. In this study, we investigated the effects of simvastatin on histamine release using rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3) cells, and examined its interaction with proteins involved in the exocytosis process. Treatment with simvastatin for 24h inhibited histamine release in RBL-2H3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner after stimulation with dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA, as an antigen), ionomycin (a calcium ion [Ca(2+)] ionophore), and thapsigargin (an inhibitor of Ca(2+)-ATPase in the endoplasmic reticulum)...
November 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845297/discovery-of-a-rock-inhibitor-fpnd-which-prevents-cerebral-hemorrhage-through-maintaining-vascular-integrity-by-interference-with-ve-cadherin
#12
Shang Li, Nana Ai, Mingyun Shen, Yuanye Dang, Cheong-Meng Chong, Peichen Pan, Yiu Wa Kwan, Shun Wan Chan, George Pak Heng Leung, Maggie Pui Man Hoi, Tingjun Hou, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee
Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a weakened vessel ruptures and bleeds into the surrounding brain, leading to high rates of death and disability worldwide. A series of complex pathophysiological cascades contribute to the risk of hemorrhagic stroke, and no therapies have proven effective to prevent hemorrhagic stroke. Stabilization of vascular integrity has been considered as a potential therapeutic target for hemorrhagic stroke. ROCKs, which belong to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and participate in the organization of actin cytoskeleton, have become attractive targets for the treatment of strokes...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835272/anti-inflammatory-and-immunomodulatory-mechanisms-of-atorvastatin-in-a-murine-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Xin Xu, Weiwei Gao, Shiqi Cheng, Dongpei Yin, Fei Li, Yingang Wu, Dongdong Sun, Shuai Zhou, Dong Wang, Yongqiang Zhang, Rongcai Jiang, Jianning Zhang
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is an important secondary injury mechanism that has dual beneficial and detrimental roles in the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Compelling data indicate that statins, a group of lipid-lowering drugs, also have extensive immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Among statins, atorvastatin has been demonstrated as a neuroprotective agent in experimental TBI; however, there is a lack of evidence regarding its effects on neuroinflammation during the acute phase of TBI...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808190/cholesterol-crystal-embolization-following-plaque-rupture-a-systemic-disease-with-unusual-features
#14
Firas Ghanem, Deepthi Vodnala, Jagadeesh K Kalavakunta, Sridevi Durga, Noah Thormeier, Prem Subramaniyam, Scott Abela, George S Abela
Cholesterol crystal embolic (CCE) syndrome is often a clinically challenging condition that has a poor prognostic implication. It is a result of plaque rupture with release of cholesterol crystals into the circulation that embolize into various tissue organs. Plaque rupture seems to be triggered by an expanding necrotic core during cholesterol crystallization forming sharp tipped crystals that perforate and tear the fibrous cap. Embolizing cholesterol crystals then initiate both local and systemic inflammation that eventually lead to vascular fibrosis and obstruction causing symptoms that can mimic other vasculitic conditions...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774501/synaptic-vesicle-2c-and-its-synaptic-related-function
#15
REVIEW
Yan-Wei Hu, Lei Xiao, Lei Zheng, Qian Wang
Synaptic vesicle 2 C (SV2C) is a novel isoform belonging to the synaptic vesicle 2 (SV2) protein superfamily; a family of proteins known to have roles in vesicle trafficking, exocytosis and neurotransmission. In humans, SV2C is expressed in evolutionarily older brain regions, and is a known receptor for botulinum neurotoxin/A (BoNT/A), controlling glucose-evoked granule recruitment and regulating dopamine release, thus serving as a potential target molecule in the treatment of psychosis. In addition, recent researches have shown that SV2C regulates hypertension and accelerates venous thromboembolism (VTE) and coagulation pathways and may play roles in several non-nervous system diseases...
July 31, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761832/anticonvulsant-and-antioxidant-effects-of-pitavastatin-against-pentylenetetrazol-induced-kindling-in-mice
#16
Nastaran Faghihi, Mohammad Taghi Mohammadi
Purpose: The pleiotropic effects of statins (antioxidant and anti-inflammation) have been reported by previous studies. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether pitavastatin has protective effects against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling in mice and also whether pitavastatin improves the brain antioxidant capacity and attenuates the oxidative injuries in kindled mice. Methods: Twenty-four mice were randomly divided into four groups (each group n=6); control, PTZ-kindling and PTZ-kindled rats treated with pitavastatin (1&4 mg/kg)...
June 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761671/predictors-and-clinical-implication-of-high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-i-elevation-following-diagnostic-cardiac-catheterisations
#17
Rikuta Hamaya, Taishi Yonetsu, Tadashi Murai, Yoshihisa Kanaji, Eisuke Usui, Junji Matsuda, Masahiro Hoshino, Makoto Araki, Masahiro Hada, Takayuki Niida, Sadamitsu Ichijo, Yoshinori Kanno, Tsunekazu Kakuta
OBJECTIVES: Although diagnostic coronary angiography (CAG) is performed worldwide, procedure-related myocardial necrosis (PMN) following diagnostic catheter-based procedures has not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to determine clinical and procedural factors associated with PMN, using a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay, and to investigate the clinical implications of PMN. METHODS: Among 697 patients undergoing elective CAG and pre- and post-procedural hs-cTnI (pre-TnI, post-TnI, respectively) measurements, a total of 538 patients (124 female) were evaluated, with 2...
2017: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734741/beneficial-effects-of-tqrf-and-tq-nano-and-conventional-emulsions-on-memory-deficit-lipid-peroxidation-total-antioxidant-status-antioxidants-genes-expression-and-soluble-a%C3%AE-levels-in-high-fat-cholesterol-diet-induced-rats
#18
Norsharina Ismail, Maznah Ismail, Nur Hanisah Azmi, Muhammad Firdaus Abu Bakar, Zhang Yida, Johnson Stanslas, Dahiru Sani, Hamidon Basri, Maizaton Atmadini Abdullah
The study determined the effect of thymoquinone rich fraction (TQRF) and thymoquinone (TQ) in the forms of nano- and conventional emulsions on learning and memory, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant status, antioxidants genes expression and soluble β-amyloid (Aβ) levels in rats fed with a high fat-cholesterol diet (HFCD). The TQRF was extracted from Nigella sativa seeds using a supercritical fluid extraction system and prepared into nanoemulsion, which later named as TQRF nanoemulsion (TQRFNE). Meanwhile, TQ was acquired commercially and prepared into thymoquinone nanoemulsion (TQNE)...
September 25, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730939/drug-delivery-to-the-brain-how-can-nanoencapsulated-statins-be-used-in-the-clinic
#19
Fabio Sonvico, Francesca Zimetti, Adriana Raffin Pohlmann, Sílvia Stanisçuaski Guterres
Statins are used for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease by inhibiting cholesterol synthesis in the liver. Statins have also noncholesterol-related effects, called pleiotropic effects, which arise from statins' anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties. These effects are especially attractive for the treatment of various brain diseases ranging from stroke to neurodegenerative diseases. Still, low brain concentrations after oral drug administration hinder the clinical application of statins in these pathologies...
July 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729418/myc-regulated-mevalonate-metabolism-maintains-brain-tumor-initiating-cells
#20
Xiuxing Wang, Zhi Huang, Qiulian Wu, Briana C Prager, Stephen C Mack, Kailin Yang, Leo J Y Kim, Ryan C Gimple, Yu Shi, Sisi Lai, Qi Xie, Tyler E Miller, Christopher G Hubert, Anne Song, Zhen Dong, Wenchao Zhou, Xiaoguang Fang, Zhe Zhu, Vaidehi Mahadev, Shideng Bao, Jeremy N Rich
Metabolic dysregulation drives tumor initiation in a subset of glioblastomas harboring isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, but metabolic alterations in glioblastomas with wild-type IDH are poorly understood. MYC promotes metabolic reprogramming in cancer, but targeting MYC has proven notoriously challenging. Here, we link metabolic dysregulation in patient-derived brain tumor-initiating cells (BTIC) to a nexus between MYC and mevalonate signaling, which can be inhibited by statin or 6-fluoromevalonate treatment...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Research
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