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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922256/statins-in-critical-care-to-give-or-not-to-give
#1
Amr S Omar, Samy Hanoura, Haifa M Aljanubi, Ahmed Mahfouz
Owing to statin's immune modulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antithrombotic and endothelial function actions, they are widely used in the critical care settings in diverse disease scenarios. We aim to explore the evidence to globalize the utilization of statins in the intensive care practice for different indications. We carried out a search of the PubMed, Cochrane and EMBASE databases up to January 2016. We included review articles, meta-analyses, and original trials on the effects of statin therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) combining the following MESH terms: 'satins', 'intensive care, 'cardiac surgery', 'sepsis', 'acute respiratory distress syndrome' 'pneumonia', subarachnoid hemorrhage', traumatic brain injury and 'critical illness'...
December 6, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914661/statin-discontinuation-and-mortality-in-an-older-adult-population-with-traumatic-brain-injury-a-four-year-multi-centre-observational-cohort-study
#2
Alessandro Orlando, Christine Thomas, Matthew Carrick, D Sue Slone, Charles W Mains, David Bar-Or
INTRODUCTION: Statin discontinuation has been investigated in a wide range of diseases and injuries, but there is a paucity of data in the older adult population with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of this study was to re-examine the extent to which early discontinuation of pre-injury statin (PIS) therapy increases the risk of poor patient outcomes in older adult patients suffering a TBI. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational cohort study of adult trauma patients with a blunt TBI across three trauma centres over four years...
November 25, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904593/the-role-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-in-transient-ischemic-attack-patients-for-future-cerebrovascular-events
#3
Rokhsareh Meamar, Hamidreza Nikyar, Leila Dehghani, Maedeh Talebi, Marzieh Dehghani, Marzieh Ghasemi, Behnaz Ansari, Mohammad Saadatnia
BACKGROUND: The role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the maintenance of vascularization following ischemic brain after experimental stroke has been established. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the role of circulating EPCs in transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients for future cerebrovascular (CV) events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The level of circulating EPCs (staining markers: CD34, CD309) were determined using flow cytometry at 24 h after TIA in thirty consecutive patients...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892851/lovastatin-fails-to-improve-motor-performance-and-survival-in-methyl-cpg-binding-protein2-null-mice
#4
Claudia Villani, Giuseppina Sacchetti, Renzo Bagnati, Alice Passoni, Federica Fusco, Mirjana Carli, Roberto William Invernizzi
Previous studies provided evidence for the alteration of brain cholesterol homeostasis in 129.Mecp2-null mice, an experimental model of Rett syndrome. The efficacy of statins in improving motor symptoms and prolonging survival of mutant mice suggested a potential role of statins in the therapy of Rett syndrome. In the present study, we show that Mecp2 deletion had no effect on brain and reduced serum cholesterol levels and lovastatin (1.5 mg/kg, twice weekly as in the previous study) had no effects on motor deficits and survival when Mecp2 deletion was expressed on a background strain (C57BL/6J; B6) differing from that used in the earlier study...
November 28, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885885/septic-encephalopathy-and-septic-encephalitis%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#5
Simone C Tauber, Helmut Eiffert, Wolfgang Brück, Roland Nau
During the last two decades, septic encephalopathy (SE) was recognized as a clinically relevant problem with a high prevalence in patients at admission and during their hospital stay. SE is a condition associated with increased mortality and morbidity such as long-term cognitive impairment. Areas covered: This review illustrates the pathophysiology of sepsis-associated encephalopathy and encephalitis involving blood-brain-barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation caused by endothelial and microglial activation by endogenous or pathogen-derived compounds, hypoxia by impaired microvascular regulation and septic shock as well as imbalance of neurotransmitters...
December 5, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879448/rhoa-kinase-inhibition-with-fasudil-versus-simvastatin-in-murine-models-of-cerebral-cavernous-malformations
#6
Robert Shenkar, Changbin Shi, Cecilia Austin, Thomas Moore, Rhonda Lightle, Ying Cao, Lingjiao Zhang, Meijing Wu, Hussein A Zeineddine, Romuald Girard, David A McDonald, Autumn Rorrer, Carol Gallione, Peter Pytel, James K Liao, Douglas A Marchuk, Issam A Awad
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We sought to compare the effect of chronic treatment with commonly tolerated doses of Fasudil, a specific RhoA kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, and simvastatin (with pleiotropic effects including ROCK inhibition) on cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) genesis and maturation in 2 models that recapitulate the human disease. METHODS: Two heterozygous murine models, Ccm1(+/-)Msh2(-)(/-) and Ccm2(+/-)Trp53(-/-), were treated from weaning to 4 to 5 months of age with Fasudil (100 mg/kg per day), simvastatin (40 mg/kg per day) or with placebo...
November 22, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878815/interventions-to-reduce-cognitive-impairments-following-critical-illness-a-topical-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
H K Nedergaard, H I Jensen, P Toft
BACKGROUND: Critical illness is associated with cognitive impairments. Effective treatment or prevention has not been established. The aim of this review was to create a systematic summary of the current evidence concerning clinical interventions during intensive care admission to reduce cognitive impairments after discharge. METHODS: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central, PsycInfo and Cinahl were searched. Inclusion criteria were studies assessing the effect of interventions during intensive care admission on cognitive function in adult patients...
November 22, 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877045/serum-low-density-lipoprotein-levels-statin-use-and-cognition-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#8
Soham Rej, Mahwesh Saleem, Nathan Herrmann, Anthi Stefatos, Allison Rau, Krista L Lanctôt
AIM: Statins have been associated with decreased cognition due to the effects of low concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on brain function. This has remained controversial and is particularly relevant to patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), who have an increased risk of cognitive decline and are frequently prescribed statins. This study hypothesized that low concentration of LDL is associated with poor cognition in CAD patients using statins. It also explored the association between high-dose versus low-dose statins on cognition in this population...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865641/canadian-cardiovascular-society-guidelines-on-perioperative-cardiac-risk-assessment-and-management-for-patients-who-undergo-noncardiac-surgery
#9
Emmanuelle Duceppe, Joel Parlow, Paul MacDonald, Kristin Lyons, Michael McMullen, Sadeesh Srinathan, Michelle Graham, Vikas Tandon, Kim Styles, Amal Bessissow, Daniel I Sessler, Gregory Bryson, P J Devereaux
The Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines Committee and key Canadian opinion leaders believed there was a need for up to date guidelines that used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system of evidence assessment for patients who undergo noncardiac surgery. Strong recommendations included: 1) measuring brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal fragment of proBNP (NT-proBNP) before surgery to enhance perioperative cardiac risk estimation in patients who are 65 years of age or older, are 45-64 years of age with significant cardiovascular disease, or have a Revised Cardiac Risk Index score ≥ 1; 2) against performing preoperative resting echocardiography, coronary computed tomography angiography, exercise or cardiopulmonary exercise testing, or pharmacological stress echocardiography or radionuclide imaging to enhance perioperative cardiac risk estimation; 3) against the initiation or continuation of acetylsalicylic acid for the prevention of perioperative cardiac events, except in patients with a recent coronary artery stent or who will undergo carotid endarterectomy; 4) against α2 agonist or β-blocker initiation within 24 hours before surgery; 5) withholding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker starting 24 hours before surgery; 6) facilitating smoking cessation before surgery; 7) measuring daily troponin for 48 to 72 hours after surgery in patients with an elevated NT-proBNP/BNP measurement before surgery or if there is no NT-proBNP/BNP measurement before surgery, in those who have a Revised Cardiac Risk Index score ≥1, age 45-64 years with significant cardiovascular disease, or age 65 years or older; and 8) initiating of long-term acetylsalicylic acid and statin therapy in patients who suffer myocardial injury/infarction after surgery...
October 4, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836464/apoptotic-effect-of-atorvastatin-in-glioblastoma-spheroids-tumor-cultured-in-fibrin-gel
#10
Neda Bayat, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Abbas Norouzi-Javidan, Hooshang Saberi, Roksana Tajerian, Mohammad Mehdi Mokhtari Ardakan, Sadegh Shirian, Arman Ai, Jafar Ai
OBJECTIVE: Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is one of the most common and highly aggressive primary brain tumors that thought to be of glial cells origin. The new available therapy for glioblastoma is based on better understanding of molecular malignant progression in this tumor. It is better to identify key molecular targets stimulating signaling pathways that lead to initiation of apoptosis for treatment of glioblastoma. Tumorigenesis broadly is controlled by tumor microenvironment and design of best biomimetic culture systems dependency on these conditions allow for in vitro and in vivo tumor modeling for studies of cancer cells behavior to drugs...
November 8, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833044/statins-prevent-cognitive-impairment-after-sepsis-by-reverting-neuroinflammation-and-microcirculatory-endothelial-dysfunction
#11
Patricia A Reis, Pedro C B Alexandre, Joana C D'Avila, Luciana D Siqueira, Barbara Antunes, Vanessa Estato, Eduardo V Tibiriça, Franck Verdonk, Tarek Sharshar, Fabrice Chrétien, Hugo C Castro-Faria-Neto, Fernando A Bozza
Acute brain dysfunction is a frequent condition in sepsis patients and is associated with increased mortality and long-term neurocognitive consequences. Impaired memory and executive function are common findings in sepsis survivors. Although neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier dysfunction have been associated with acute brain dysfunction and its consequences, no specific treatments are available that prevent cognitive impairment after sepsis. Experimental sepsis was induced in Swiss Webster mice by intraperitoneal injection of cecal material (5 mg/kg, 500 μL)...
November 7, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829351/recent-updates-in-imperative-natural-compounds-for-healthy-brain-and-nerve-function-a-systematic-review-of-implications-for-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Nima Sanadgol, Shahram Shahraki Zahedani, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Roghayeh Khalseh, Gullam Reza Barbari, Mohammad Abdollahi
BACKGROUND: The evolution of the 'Green' movement in western society has changed attitudes in the general population who now perceive natural compounds as being inherently harmless and more desirable than artificial chemical products. OBJECTIVE: Considering the growing interest towards introducing naturally emerged medicines, the purpose of this review was to overview the ongoing research into prevention and treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. METHOD: This review was carried out by searching bibliographic databases such as PubMed and Scopus for studies reported between 1th January 2008 to 30rd January 2016 on MS patients or animal models of MS, investigating the beneficial effects of natural compounds in MS treatment...
November 8, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823556/apoptosis-and-acute-brain-ischemia-in-ischemic-stroke
#13
Djordje Radak, Niki Katsiki, Ivana Resanovic, Aleksandra Jovanovic, Emina Sudar-Milovanovic, Sonja Zafirovic, Shaker A Mousa, Esma R Isenovic
Apoptosis may contribute to a significant proportion of neuron death following acute brain ischemia (ABI), but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Brain ischemia may lead to stroke, which is one of the main causes of long-term morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Therefore, stroke prevention and treatment is clinically important. There are two important separate areas of the brain during ABI: the ischemic core and the ischemic penumbra. The ischemic core of the brain experiences a sudden reduction of blood flow, just minutes after ischemic attack with irreversible injury and subsequent cell death...
November 3, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814594/cardiac-allograft-vasculopathy-microvascular-arteriolar-capillaries-capioles-and-survival
#14
Carlos A Labarrere, Beate R Jaeger, Ghassan S Kassab
Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a serious complication of heart transplantation in adults and children. Risk factors include human leukocyte antigen mismatches, number and duration of rejection episodes, type of immunosuppression, antibody-mediated rejection, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, smoking, diabetes, cytomegalovirus infection, mode of donor brain death, donor age and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Endothelial injury and dysfunction in CAV are characterized by changes in adhesion molecules and up-regulation of major histocompatibility class II antigens followed by endothelial activation of complement C4d...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796742/brain-oxidative-stress-during-experimental-sepsis-is-attenuated-by-simvastatin-administration
#15
Carlos Henrique Rocha Catalão, Nilton Nascimento Santos-Júnior, Luís Henrique Angenendt da Costa, Anderson Oliveira Souza, Luciane Carla Alberici, Maria José Alves Rocha
During sepsis, brain damage is associated with oxidative stress due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although there are recent reports about the benefits of statins in experimental sepsis and endotoxemia in peripheral organs, little is known about their effects in the CNS. Here, we investigated the antioxidant properties of simvastatin and its possible neuroprotective role during experimental sepsis. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were submitted to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP, n = 34) or remained as non-manipulated (naive, n = 34)...
October 28, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788932/causes-and-predictors-of-death-in-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease-from-the-heart-and-soul-study
#16
Elizabeth Y Wang, Jeffrey Dixson, Nelson B Schiller, Mary A Whooley
Although the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in the United States has increased during the past 25 years, cardiovascular mortality has decreased due to advances in CHD therapy and prevention. We sought to determine the proportion of patients with CHD who die from cardiovascular versus noncardiovascular causes and the causes and predictors of death, in a cohort of patients with CHD. The Heart and Soul Study enrolled 1,024 participants with stable CHD from 2000 to 2002 and followed them for 10 years...
September 29, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766700/use-of-statins-offsets-insulin-related-cancer-risk
#17
A Kautzky-Willer, S Thurner, P Klimek
AIM: There is firm evidence of a relation between type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and increased risks of cancer at various sites, but it is still unclear how different antihyperglycaemic therapies modify site-specific cancer risks. The aim of this study was to provide a complete characterization of all possible associations between individual T2DM therapies, statin use and site-specific cancers in the Austrian population. METHODS: Medical claims data of 1 847 051 patients with hospital stays during 2006-2007 were used to estimate age- and sex-dependent co-occurrences of site-specific cancer diagnoses and treatment with specific glucose-lowering drugs and statins...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739121/protective-effects-of-connexins-in-atheromatous-plaques-in-patients-of-carotid-artery-stenosis
#18
Taizen Nakase, Tatsuya Ishikawa, Hajime Miyata
Fragility of atheromatous plaque in the internal carotid artery can be a risk of brain infarction. The activation of macrophages by oxidative stress and the vulnerability of vascular endothelial cells have been reported to participate in the fragility of atheromatous plaque. Therefore, from the view point of prevention of brain infarction, we investigated the pathological factors which may influence the stabilization of atheromatous plaque. Patients undertaking carotid endoarterectomy (CEA) were continuously screened...
October 13, 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709490/atorvastatin-protects-from-a%C3%AE-1-40-induced-cell-damage-and-depressive-like-behavior-via-probdnf-cleavage
#19
Fabiana K Ludka, Maurício P Cunha, Tharine Dal-Cim, Luisa Bandeira Binder, Leandra C Constantino, Caio M Massari, Wagner C Martins, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues, Carla I Tasca
Intracerebroventricular (icv) amyloid-beta (Aβ)1-40 infusion to mice has been demonstrated to cause neurotoxicty and depressive-like behavior and it can be used to evaluate antidepressant and neuroprotective effect of drugs. Atorvastatin is a widely used statin that has demonstrated antidepressant-like effect in predictable animal behavioral models and neuroprotective effect against Aβ1-40 infusion. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of in vivo atorvastatin treatment against Aβ1-40-induced changes in mood-related behaviors and biochemical parameters in ex vivo hippocampal slices from mice...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694473/simvastatin-prevents-and-reverses-chronic-pulmonary-hypertension-in-newborn-rats-via-pleiotropic-inhibition-of-rhoa-signaling
#20
Mathew J Wong, Crystal Kantores, Julijana Ivanovska, Amish Jain, Robert P Jankov
Chronic neonatal pulmonary hypertension (PHT) frequently results in early death. Systemically administered Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitors prevent and reverse chronic PHT in neonatal rats, but at the cost of severe adverse effects, including systemic hypotension and growth restriction. Simvastatin has pleiotropic inhibitory effects on isoprenoid intermediates that may limit activity of RhoA, which signals upstream of ROCK. We therefore hypothesized that statin treatment would safely limit pulmonary vascular RhoA activity and prevent and reverse experimental chronic neonatal PHT via downstream inhibitory effects on pathological ROCK activity...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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