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Laura Colino, Javier Herranz-Herrer, Elena Gil-Benito, Teresa Ponte-Lopez, Pablo Del Sol-Calderon, Maria Rodrigo-Yanguas, María Gil-Ligero, Antonio J Sánchez-López, Jose de Leon, Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current serotonin-based biological model of suicidal behavior (SB) may be too simplistic. There is emerging evidence that other biomarkers and biological systems may be involved in SB pathophysiology. The literature on the endocannabinoid (EC) systems and SB is limited. The objective of the present article is to review all available information on the relationship between cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 receptors), and SB and/or psychological pain. RECENT FINDINGS: Our review is limited by the small number and heterogeneity of studies identified: (1) an autopsy study describing elevated levels of CB1 receptor activity in the prefrontal cortex and suicide in both depression and alcoholism and (2) studies supporting the involvement of both CB1 and CB2 receptors in the regulation of neuropathic pain and stress-induced analgesia...
March 15, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Nathalie M Berninger, Gill A Ten Hoor, Guy Plasqui
Sedentary behavior (SB) has detrimental consequences and cannot be compensated for through moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA). In order to understand and mitigate SB, tools for measuring and monitoring SB are essential. While current direct-to-customer wearables focus on PA, the VitaBit validated in this study was developed to focus on SB. It was tested in a laboratory and in a free-living condition, comparing it to direct observation and to a current best-practice device, the ActiGraph, on a minute-by-minute basis...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Junjian Zheng, Zhiwei Wang, Jinxing Ma, Shaoping Xu, Zhichao Wu
Inability to remove low molecular weight anthropogenic contaminants is a critical issue in low-pressure membrane filtration processes for water treatment. In this work, a novel electrochemical ceramic membrane filtration (ECMF) system using TiO2@SnO2-Sb anode was developed for removing persistent p-chloroaniline (PCA). Results showed that the ECMF system achieved efficient removal of PCA from contaminated waters. At a charging voltage of 3 V, the PCA removal rate of TiO2@SnO2-Sb ECMF system under flow-through mode was 2...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jinho Park, Jae Hyeong Lee, Gil-Ho Lee, Yositake Takane, Ken-Ichiro Imura, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Hu-Jong Lee
We report on short ballistic (SB) Josephson coupling in junctions embedded in a planar heterostructure of graphene. Ballistic Josephson coupling is confirmed by the Fabry-Perot-type interference of the junction critical current I_{c}. The product of I_{c} and the normal-state junction resistance R_{N}, normalized by the zero-temperature gap energy Δ_{0} of the superconducting electrodes, turns out to be exceptionally large close to 2, an indication of strong Josephson coupling in the SB junction limit. However, I_{c} shows a temperature dependence that is inconsistent with the conventional short-junction-like behavior based on the standard Kulik-Omel'yanchuk prediction...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Wiktor Zierkiewicz, Mariusz Michalczyk, Steve Scheiner
A series of TF4 and ZF5 molecules (T = Si, Ge, Sn and Z = P, As, Sb) were allowed to engage in tetrel and pnicogen bonds, respectively, with NH3 , pyrazine, and HCN. The interaction energies are quite large, approaching 50 kcal mol-1 in some cases. The formation of each complex is accompanied by substantial geometrical deformation of the Lewis acid to accommodate the approaching base. The energy associated with this monomer rearrangement is the largest for the smaller central atoms Si and P, where it exceeds 20 kcal mol-1 ...
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Fanxing Zeng, Jonathon A Nye, Ronald J Voll, Leonard Howell, Mark M Goodman
Nine pyridyloxypyridyl indole carboxamides were synthesized and displayed high affinities for 5-HT2C receptors and high selectivity over 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B . Among them, 6-methyl- N -[6-[(2-methyl-3-pyridinyl)oxy]-3-pyridinyl]1 H -indole-3-carboxamide ( 8 ) exhibits the highest 5-HT2C binding affinity ( K i = 1.3 nM) and high selectivity over 5-HT2A (∼1000 times) and 5-HT2B (∼140 times). [11 C] 8 was synthesized by palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction between pinacolboranate 16 and [11 C]CH3 I with an average radiochemical yield of 27 ± 4% ( n = 8, decay-corrected from end of [11 C]CH3 I synthesis)...
March 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Chaiane Emilia Dalazen, Rafael Aiello Bomfim, Alessandro Diogo De-Carli
The scope of this study was to identify individual and contextual factors associated with the self-perceived need for dental treatment and for prostheses among elderly Brazilians. An analysis was performed with data from the SB Brazil 2010 epidemiological survey conducted by the Ministry of Health with a sample of 7,619 elderly individuals. Multilevel logistic regression models of mixed random and fixed effects were used to the estimate odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) between the dependent variables and individual and contextual factors...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
José Mansano Bauman, João Gabriel Silva Souza, Claudiana Donato Bauman, Flávia Martão Flório
The scope of this study was to characterize malocclusion in 12-year-old Brazilian children and identify associated socio-demographic aspects. It is a cross-sectional and analytical study based on an Oral Health Survey (SB Brasil 2010). A sample of 5,539 was included, among which 41% had some degree of malocclusion according to the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Descriptive, bivariate and multiple multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted. Defined malocclusion was greater among those who rated their oral health as neither satisfied/nor dissatisfied (OR 1...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Mariusz Papp, Piotr Gruca, Magdalena Lason-Tyburkiewicz, Ewa Litwa, Monika Niemczyk, Katarzyna Tota-Glowczyk, Agata Faron-Gorecka, Maciej Kusmider, Joanna Solich, Marta Szlachta, Paul Willner
We have previously reported the effects of intracranial injections of dopamine D1, D2 and D3 ligands in animals subjected to the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) test following exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS) and chronic treatment with risperidone (RSP). Here, we present some molecular biological data from the same animals. It was predicted that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) would reflect behavioural performance, implying an increase following acute administration of a D2 agonist or a D3 antagonist, blockade of this effect by CMS and its restoration by chronic RSP...
March 13, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Sang-Ho Lee, Heechul Choi, Kyoung-Woong Kim
To develop a novel granular adsorbent to remove arsenic and antimony from water, calcined Mg/Al-layered double-hydroxide (CLDH)-incorporated polyethersulfone (PES) granular adsorbents (PES-LDH) were prepared using a core-shell method having 25% PES in an N,N-dimethylformamide solution. The PES-LDH displayed a spherical hollow shape having a rough surface and the average particle size of 1-2 mm. On the PES-LDH surface, nanosized CLDH (100-150 nm) was successfully immobilized by consolidation between PES and CLDH...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Lige Huang, Yuanyuan Li, Man Zhao, Yuanqing Chao, Rongliang Qiu, Yanhua Yang, Shizhong Wang
To explore the effect of different biochars on Cassia alata L. growth and heavy metal immobilization in multi-metal mine tailings, a 100-day pot experiment was conducted. Three biochars derived from Hibiscus cannabinus core (HB), sewage sludge (SB) and chicken manure (MB), were added to mine tailings at rates of 0.4%, 1% and 3% ( w / w ). The results showed that the root biomass, shoot biomass, plant height and root length were 1.2-2.8, 1.7-3.2, 1-1.5 and 1.6-3.3 times of those in the control group, respectively...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Antonio Tursi, Amerigo Beneduci, Francesco Chidichimo, Nicoletta De Vietro, Giuseppe Chidichimo
Remediation of water bodies from petroleum hydrocarbons is of the utmost importance due to health risks related to the high toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of the hydrocarbons components that may enter into the food chain. Though several methods were proposed to face up this challenge, they are generally not easily feasible at a contaminated site and quite costly. Here we propose a green, cost-effective technology based on hydrophobized Spanish Broom (SB) cellulose fiber. The natural cellulose fiber was extracted by alkaline digestion of the raw vegetable...
March 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Mireia Felez-Nobrega, Charles H Hillman, Kieran P Dowd, Eva Cirera, Anna Puig-Ribera
The aim of this study was to examine relationships between activPAL™-determined sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) with academic achievement. A total of 120 undergraduates (N = 57 female; 20.6 ± 2.3 years) participated in the study. Academic achievement was measured as the grade point average obtained from all completed courses. Participants wore on the right tight an activPAL™ for 7 days to determine total sedentary time, total number of sedentary breaks, sedentary bouts, standing time, light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Debo Wu, Sheng-Peng Sun, Minghe He, Zhangxiong Wu, Jie Xiao, Xiao Dong Chen, Winston Duo Wu
Competitive adsorption of As(V) and Sb(V) at environmentally relevant concentrations onto ferrihydrite was investigated. Batch experiments and XPS analyses confirmed that in a binary system, the presence of Sb(V) exhibited a slight synergistic effect on As(V) adsorption. XPS analyses showed that As(V) and Sb(V) adsorption led to obvious diminishment of Fe-O-Fe and Fe-O-H bonds respectively. At pH of 9, a more significant decrease of Fe-O-Fe was observed in the binary system than that in a single system, indicating that As(V) displayed an even stronger interaction with lattice oxygen atoms under competitive conditions...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
J L Clausen, T Georgian, K H Gardner, T A Douglas
Military ranges are unlike many waste sites because the contaminants, both energetics and metals, are heterogeneously distributed in soil during explosive detonation or ballistic impact and cannot be readily characterized using conventional grab sampling. The Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM) has been successful for characterization of energetic contamination in soils, but no published ISM processing studies for soils with small arms range metals such as Pb, Cu, Sb, and Zn exists. This study evaluated several ISM sample-processing steps: (1) field splitting to reduce the sample mass shipped to the analytical laboratory, (2) necessity of milling, and (3) processing a larger subsample mass for digestion in lieu of milling...
March 12, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Artur Nemeth, Daniel Agardh, Gabriele Wurm Johansson, Henrik Thorlacius, Ervin Toth
Background: Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a noninvasive method enabling excellent visualization of the small bowel (SB) mucosa. The aim of this study was to examine the impact and safety of VCE performed in children and adolescents with suspected or established Crohn's disease (CD). Methods: A total of 180 VCE examinations in 169 consecutive patients conducted in 2003-14 in a single center were retrospectively analyzed. The median age was 13 years (range 3-17 years) and indications for VCE were suspected (125 cases, 69%) and established (55 cases, 31%) CD...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
Aaron B Klassen, S Brent Core, Christine M Lohse, Matthew D Sztajnkrycer
Study Objectives Law enforcement is increasingly viewed as a key component in the out-of-hospital chain of survival, with expanded roles in cardiac arrest, narcotic overdose, and traumatic bleeding. Little is known about the nature of care provided by law enforcement prior to the arrival of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) assets. The purpose of the current study was to perform a descriptive analysis of events reported to a national EMS database. METHODS: This study was a descriptive analysis of the 2014 National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) public release research data set, containing EMS emergency response data from 41 states...
March 13, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Dae-Myeong Geum, SangHyeon Kim, SooSeok Kang, Hosung Kim, Hwanyeol Park, Il Pyo Rho, Seung Yeop Ahn, Jindong Song, Won Jun Choi, Euijoon Yoon
In this paper, InAs0.81 Sb0.19 -based hetero-junction photovoltaic detector (HJPD) with an In0.2 Al0.8 Sb barrier layer was grown on GaAs substrates. By using technology computer aided design (TCAD), a design of a barrier layer that can achieve nearly zero valance band offsets was accomplished. A high quality InAs0.81 Sb0.19 epitaxial layer was obtained with relatively low threading dislocation density (TDD), calculated from a high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement. This layer showed a Hall mobility of 15,000 cm2 /V⋅s, which is the highest mobility among InAsSb layers with an Sb composition of around 20% grown on GaAs substrates...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Erik A Wu, Christopher S Kompella, Zhuoying Zhu, Jungwoo Z Lee, Steven C Lee, Iek-Heng Chu, Han Nguyen, Shyue Ping Ong, Abhik Banerjee, Ying Shirley Meng
In this work we investigated the interface between the sodium anode and the sulfide based solid electrolytes Na3 SbS4 (NAS), Na3 PS4 (NPS), and Cl-doped NPS (NPSC) in all-solid-state-batteries (ASSB). Even though these electrolytes have demonstrated high ionic conductivities in the range of 1 mS cm-1 at ambient temperatures, sulfide sold-state electrolytes (SSEs) are known to be unstable with Na metal, though the exact reaction mechanism and kinetics of the reaction remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that a chemical reaction (instead of an electrochemical process) between the Na anode and the SSEs is the primary cause of capacity fade and cell failure...
March 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Peter Werner Roesky, Christoph Schoo, Sebastian Bestgen, Alexander Egeberg, Svetlana Klementieva, Claus Feldmann, Sergey N Konchenko
Zintl-ions in molecular compounds are of fundamental interest for basic research and application. However, in contrast to the lighter group 15 elements, elemental antimony has never been applied as reagent for the preparation of molecular polystibides. Herein, we report for the first time two reactive antimony sources, which allow the direct access to molecular polystibide compounds. These are Sb amalgam (Sb/Hg) and ultrasmall Sb0 nanoparticles (d = 6.6±0.8 nm), which were used independently as precursors for the synthe-sis of the largest f-element polystibide, [(Cp*2Sm)4Sb8]...
March 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
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