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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734939/public-health-acetaminophen-apap-hepatotoxicity-isn-t-it-time-for-apap-to-go-away
#1
REVIEW
William M Lee
Acetaminophen (APAP) is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of pain and fever around the world. At the same time, APAP is capable of causing dose-related hepatocellular necrosis, responsible for nearly 500 deaths annually in the U.S. alone, as well as 100,000 calls to US Poison Control Centers, 50,000 emergency room visits and 10,000 hospitalizations per year. As an over-the-counter and prescription product (with opioids), APAP toxicity dwarfs all other prescription drugs as a cause for acute liver failure in the United States and Europe, but is not regulated in any significant way...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724785/orthodontic-treatment-induced-temporal-alteration-of-jaw-opening-reflex-excitability
#2
Au Sasaki, Naoya Hasegawa, Kazunori Adachi, Hiroshi Sakagami, Naoto Suda
The impairment of orofacial motor function during orthodontic treatment is need to be addressed, since most of orthodontic patients experience pain and motor excitability would be affected by pain. In the present study, the temporal alteration of the jaw-opening reflex excitability was investigated to determine if orthodontic treatment affects orofacial motor function. The excitability of jaw-opening reflex evoked by electrical stimulation on the gingiva and recorded bilaterally in the anterior digastric muscles was evaluated at one (D1), three (D3) and seven (D7) days after orthodontic force application to the teeth of right side, morphological features (e...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720398/perinatal-and-neonatal-use-of-paracetamol-for-pain-relief
#3
REVIEW
Karel Allegaert, John N van den Anker
Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most widely used drug to treat pain or fever in pregnant women or neonates, but its pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) warrant a focused analysis. During pregnancy, there is an important increase in paracetamol clearance. Consequently, it is reasonable to anticipate that the analgesic effect of paracetamol will decrease faster, whereas higher doses may result in even higher oxidative toxic metabolites. Therefore, most peripartal PD data relate to multimodal analgesia strategies...
July 15, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717379/hepatoprotective-effect-of-citral-on-acetaminophen-induced-liver-toxicity-in-mice
#4
Nancy Sayuri Uchida, Saulo Euclides Silva-Filho, Gabriel Fernando Esteves Cardia, Edivaldo Cremer, Francielli Maria de Souza Silva-Comar, Expedito Leite Silva, Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado, Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman
High doses of acetaminophen (APAP) lead to acute liver damage. In this study, we evaluated the effects of citral in a murine model of hepatotoxicity induced by APAP. The liver function markers alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (γGT) were determined to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of citral. The livers were used to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production and in histological analysis...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710607/evaluation-of-a-food-and-drug-administration-mandate-to-limit-acetaminophen-in-prescription-combination-products
#5
David Goldberger, David Vearrier
INTRODUCTION: In 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration limited the production of prescription acetaminophen-opioid combination products to 325 mg per dose unit. The goal of this mandate was to decrease the likelihood of unintentional acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. This study was designed to determine if this federal regulation has succeeded in reducing unintentional acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity from opioid combination products. METHODS: Using data from the National Poison Data System (NPDS), we analyzed all calls to US Poison Control Centers in the years 2013 and 2015 for acetaminophen-opioid combination product exposures...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707421/safer-and-more-appropriate-opioid-prescribing-a-large-healthcare-system-s-comprehensive-approach
#6
Jan L Losby, Joel D Hyatt, Michael H Kanter, Grant Baldwin, Denis Matsuoka
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: The United States is in the midst of a public health epidemic with more than 40 people dying each day from prescription opioid overdoses. Health care systems are taking steps to address the opioid overdose epidemic by implementing policy and practice interventions to mitigate the risks of long-term opioid therapy. Kaiser Permanente Southern California launched a comprehensive initiative to transform the way that chronic pain is viewed and treated. Kaiser Permanente Southern California created prescribing and dispensing policies, monitoring and follow-up processes, and clinical coordination through electronic health record integration...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705543/oral-multimodal-analgesia-for-total-joint-arthroplasty
#7
Gregory J Golladay, Karl R Balch, David F Dalury, Jibanananda Satpathy, William A Jiranek
BACKGROUND: Oral multimodal analgesia for hip and knee arthroplasty is increasingly used as part of enhanced recovery protocols designed to minimize early postoperative pain and to facilitate early discharge, while minimizing undesirable side effects related to single-agent opioid administration. METHODS: This article is a review of previously published data evaluating the use of various oral medications in the management of postoperative pain after lower extremity arthroplasty and was presented as part of a symposium at the November 2016 AAHKS Annual Meeting...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700092/oral-paracetamol-acetaminophen-for-cancer-pain
#8
REVIEW
Philip J Wiffen, Sheena Derry, R Andrew Moore, Ewan D McNicol, Rae F Bell, Daniel B Carr, Mairead McIntyre, Bee Wee
BACKGROUND: Pain is a common symptom with cancer, and 30% to 50% of all people with cancer will experience moderate to severe pain that can have a major negative impact on their quality of life. Non-opioid drugs are commonly used to treat mild to moderate cancer pain, and are recommended for this purpose in the WHO cancer pain treatment ladder, either alone or in combination with opioids.A previous Cochrane review that examined the evidence for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or paracetamol, alone or combined with opioids, for cancer pain was withdrawn in 2015 because it was out of date; the date of the last search was 2005...
July 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691871/non-health-care-facility-medication-errors-resulting-in-serious-medical-outcomes
#9
Nichole L Hodges, Henry A Spiller, Marcel J Casavant, Thiphalak Chounthirath, Gary A Smith
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to provide an epidemiologic analysis of medication errors occurring outside of health care facilities that result in serious medical outcomes (defined by the National Poison Database System as "moderate effect," "major effect," "death," or "death, indirect report"). METHODS: National Poison Database System data from 2000 through 2012 were used for this retrospective analysis of non-health care facility medication errors...
July 10, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690122/hepatoprotective-effects-of-ethanol-extracts-from-folium-syringae-against-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#10
Chen-Xi Shi, Yue-Xia Lin, Fang-Ping Liu, Yi-Cong Chang, Rui Li, Chang-Wen Li, Ying Li, Jing-Shan He, Xin Ma, Zhi Li
BACKGROUND: The leaves of Folium Syringae (FS) have been long used as a traditional Chinese folk medicine for their anti-inflammatory effect, utilized as an antibacterial and antiviral treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential hepatoprotective effects of FS on acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury in primary hepatocytes and mice. METHODS: Hepatocytes obtained by the inverse perfusion method were divided randomly into five groups. Prior to acetaminophen exposure, 3 different doses of FS ethanol extracts were given to hepatocytes and mice, respectively...
July 6, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689395/prognostic-factor-analysis-for-management-of-chronic-neck-pain-can-we-predict-the-severity-of-neck-pain-with-lateral-cervical-curvature
#11
Han Yu Seong, Moon Kyu Lee, Sang Ryong Jeon, Sung Woo Roh, Seung Chul Rhim, Jin Hoon Park
OBJECTIVE: Although little is known about its origins, neck pain may be related to several associated anatomical pathologies. We aimed to characterize the incidence and features of chronic neck pain and analyze the relationship between neck pain severity and its affecting factors. METHODS: Between March 2012 and July 2013, we studied 216 patients with chronic neck pain. Initially, combined tramadol (37.5 mg) plus acetaminophen (325 mg) was administered orally twice daily (b...
July 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675812/pre-emptive-effect-of-dexamethasone-and-diclofenac-sodium-associated-with-codeine-on-pain-swelling-and-trismus-after-third-molar-surgery-a-split-mouth-randomized-triple-blind-controlled-clinical-trial
#12
Thiago César Lima, Elizabete Bagordakis, Saulo Gabriel Moreira Falci, Cássio Roberto Rocha Dos Santos, Marcos Luciano Pimenta Pinheiro
PURPOSE: We aimed to compare the effect of dexamethasone, 8 mg, and diclofenac sodium, 50 mg, associated with codeine, 50 mg, on the control of pain, swelling, and trismus after extraction of impacted third molars. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen healthy patients with a mean age of 22.8 years (SD, 12.62 years) received a single oral dose of either drug 1 hour before each surgical procedure (left and right teeth). At 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery, swelling was determined by use of linear measurements on the face and trismus was determined by maximal mouth opening...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668488/glycyrrhetinic-acid-prevents-acetaminophen-induced-acute-liver-injury-via-the-inhibition-of-cyp2e1-expression-and-hmgb1-tlr4-signal-activation-in-mice
#13
Genling Yang, Li Zhang, Li Ma, Rong Jiang, Ge Kuang, Ke Li, Hongtao Tie, Bin Wang, Xinyu Chen, Tianjun Xie, Xia Gong, Jingyuan Wan
Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used antipyretic and analgesic drug, which is safe and effective at the therapeutic dose. Unfortunately, excessive dosage of APAP could cause severe liver injury due to lack of effective therapy. Successful therapeutic strategies are urgently requested in clinic. Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), derived from a traditional medicine licorice, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions. In this study, the effect and the underlying mechanism of GA on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity were explored...
June 29, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663312/race-gender-and-genetic-polymorphism-contribute-to-variability-in-acetaminophen-pharmacokinetics-metabolism-and-protein-adduct-concentrations-in-healthy-african-american-and-european-american-volunteers
#14
Michael H Court, Zhaohui Zhu, Gina Masse, Su X Duan, Laura P James, Jerold S Harmatz, David J Greenblatt
Over 30 years ago, black Africans from Kenya and Ghana were shown to metabolize acetaminophen faster by glucuronidation and slower by oxidation compared with white Scottish Europeans. The objectives of this study were to determine whether similar differences exist between African-Americans and European-Americans, and to identify genetic polymorphisms that could explain these potential differences. Acetaminophen plasma pharmacokinetics and partial urinary metabolite clearances via glucuronidation, sulfation, and oxidation were determined in healthy African-Americans (18 men, 23 women) and European-Americans (34 men, 20 women) following a one-gram oral dose...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653915/protective-role-of-sargassum-species-in-liver-and-kidney-dysfunctions-and-associated-disorders-in-rats-intoxicated-with-carbon-tetrachloride-and-acetaminophen
#15
Khan Hira, Viqar Sultana, Jehan Ara, Syed Ehteshamul Haque
Hepatoprotective and reno-potective effect of Sargassum species was investigated in rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and acetaminophen (AAP) intoxication. The rats were given ethanol extracts of Sargassum ilicifolium, S. lanceolatum and S.swartzii orally at dose of 200mg/kg b.w. (body weight) daily for 14 days. These seaweed treated rats were then intoxicated with single intra-peritoneal dose of CCl4 or AAP on14th day. The administration of CCl4 and AAP caused significant (p<0.05) elevation in liver enzymes; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and other biochemical parameters, bilirubin, glucose, triglyceride and kidney function markers: urea and creatinine...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624597/suppressive-effect-of-kamebakaurin-on-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-by-inhibiting-lipid-peroxidation-and-inflammatory-response-in-mice
#16
Hiroki Yoshioka, Yutaka Aoyagi, Nobuyuki Fukuishi, Ming-Yu Gui, Yong-Ri Jin, Xu-Wen Li, Yoshiyuki Adachi, Naohito Ohno, Koichi Takeya, Yukio Hitotsuyanagi, Nobuhiko Miura, Tsunemasa Nonogaki
BACKGROUND: Kamebakaurin (KA) is an ent-kaurane diterpenoid known to have anti-inflammatory potential. In the current study, we investigated whether pretreatment with KA could ameliorate acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity by inhibiting the anti-inflammatory response in mice. METHODS: Seven-week-old C57BL/6J mice were orally administered KA or olive oil emulsion for seven days. Twenty-four hours after the last KA or olive oil administration, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 400mg/kg APAP or saline under feed deprived condition...
April 12, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612711/alleviative-effects-from-boswellic-acid-on-acetaminophen-induced-hepatic-injury-corrected-and-republished-from-biomedicine-taipei-2016-jun-6-2-9-doi-10-7603-s40681-016-0009-1pmcid-pmc4864770
#17
Lung-Che Chen, Li-Hong Hu, Mei-Chin Yin
Protective effects of boswellic acid (BA) against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in Balb/ cA mice were examined. BA, at 0.05 or 0.1%, was supplied for 4 weeks. Acute liver injury was induced by APAP treatment. Results showed that BA intake increased hepatic BA bioavailability. APAP treatment decreased glutathione (GSH) level, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) production; and lowered activity and protein expression of glutathione reductase (GR) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in liver...
June 2017: BioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608722/comparative-analysis-of-inpatient-costs-for-obstetrics-and-gynecology-surgery-patients-treated-with-iv-acetaminophen-and-iv-opioids-versus-iv-opioid-only-analgesia-for-postoperative-pain
#18
Ryan N Hansen, An T Pham, Belinda Lovelace, Stela Balaban, George J Wan
BACKGROUND: Recovery from obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) surgery, including hysterectomy and cesarean section delivery, aims to restore function while minimizing hospital length of stay (LOS) and medical expenditures. OBJECTIVE: Our analyses compare OB/GYN surgery patients who received combination intravenous (IV) acetaminophen and IV opioid analgesia with those who received IV opioid-only analgesia and estimate differences in LOS, hospitalization costs, and opioid consumption...
June 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603351/the-effect-of-balance-taping-for-prevention-of-menstrual-pain-in-female-middle-school-students
#19
Keun-Sang Yum, Sung-Goo Kang, Hyun-Jin Han
[Purpose] The age at menarche in Korean women has been declining sharply. However, for the students who are just beginning to menstruate, taking pain medication might become a long-term habit continuing until adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated whether balance taping would be more helpful than medication in relieving the pain. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects of this study included 125 female students. The participants were assigned to the balance taping group, the control group, and the medication group...
May 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601204/battlefield-analgesia-in-tactical-combat-casualty-care
#20
REVIEW
Ian S Wedmore, Frank K Butler
At the start of the Afghanistan conflict, battlefield analgesia for US military casualties was achieved primarily through the use of intramuscular (IM) morphine. This is a suboptimal choice, since IM morphine is slow-acting, leading to delays in effective pain relief and the risk of overdose and death when dosing is repeated in order to hasten the onset of analgesia. Advances in battlefield analgesia, pioneered initially by Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC), and the Army's 75th Ranger Regiment, have now been incorporated into the Triple-Option Analgesia approach...
June 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
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