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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908845/design-response-rates-and-population-characteristics-of-a-cross-sectional-study-in-zanzibar-tanzania
#1
Maria Adam Nyangasa, Soerge Kelm, Mohammed Ali Sheikh, Antje Hebestreit
BACKGROUND: Data on nutritional status and correlates of noncommunicable diseases are scarce for resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan countries. With the scope of a project, "Access to Food and Nutrition Status of the Zanzibari Population," data for investigating public health questions were collected using proven measurement and laboratory standards. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims at providing a descriptive overview of recruitment approaches, standardization, quality control measures, and data collection, with special attention to the design, responses, and participant characteristics of the overall project...
December 1, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908464/effects-of-different-duration-exercise-programs-in-children-with-severe-burns
#2
Robert P Clayton, Paul Wurzer, Clark R Andersen, Ronald P Mlcak, David N Herndon, Oscar E Suman
INTRODUCTION: Burns lead to persistent and detrimental muscle breakdown and weakness. Standard treatment at our institution includes a voluntary 12-week rehabilitative exercise program to limit and reverse the effects of increased muscle catabolism. In the present work, we investigated if different durations of exercise, 6 or 12 weeks, produce comparable improvements in muscle strength, body composition, and cardiopulmonary fitness. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled and randomized patients with ≥30% total body surface area (TBSA) burned to receive 6 or 12 weeks of exercise rehabilitation...
November 28, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901289/the-influence-of-physical-characteristics-on-the-resting-energy-expenditure-of-youth-a-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Stephen D Herrmann, Robert G McMurray, Youngdeok Kim, Erik A Willis, Minsoo Kang, Thomas McCurdy
OBJECTIVE: To examine the literature on resting energy expenditure (REE) of youth and determine the influence of age, sex, BMI, and body composition on REE. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, BIOSIS Previews, NTIS, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Pascal databases for studies with data on resting metabolic rate, REE, resting oxygen uptake (or VO2 ) in healthy children, youth, or adolescents (age = 1-18 years). Over 200 publications were identified; sixty-one publications met criteria and were included in the meta-analyses, resulting in 142 study population estimates (totaling 5,397 youth) of REE...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900177/high-intensity-interval-training-to-improve-fitness-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#4
Reidun Lauglo, Torstein Vik, Torarin Lamvik, Dorthe Stensvold, Ane-Kristine Finbråten, Trine Moholdt
AIM: To evaluate effects of high-intensity interval training (HIT) on aerobic exercise capacity, quality of life, and body composition in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: This was a baseline control trial. Children with CP, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-IV, and age 10-17 years were included. The primary outcome, peak, and submaximum oxygen uptake (VO2peak, VO2submax) were measured at enrolment to the study (T0), after a pretraining period (T1), and after HIT (T2)...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890489/spinal-muscular-atrophy-types-i-and-ii-what-are-the-differences-in%C3%A2-body-composition-and-resting-energy-expenditure
#5
Simona Bertoli, Ramona De Amicis, Chiara Mastella, Giulia Pieri, Ester Giaquinto, Alberto Battezzati, Alessandro Leone, Giovanni Baranello
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Different neuromuscular functional domains in types I and II Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMAI and SMAII) could lead to differences in body composition (BC) and resting energy expenditure (REE). Their identification could provide the key to defining appropriate strategies in clinical dietary management, but data comparing SMAI and SMAII in terms of BC and REE are not yet available. We measured total and regional fat (FM), lean (LBM), mineral (BMC) masses, body water (total, intra- and extra-cellular, TBW, ICW, ECW) and REE in a sample of SMAI and II children, matched for age and sex, and also adjusting for body size to compare these features of the two SMA phenotypes...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890316/is-there-a-dependence-between-children-s-body-weight-and-the-concentration-of-metals-in-deciduous-teeth
#6
Agnieszka Fischer, Danuta Wiechuła
Malnutrition, manifested by both overweight and underweight, can lead to serious health consequences. The subject of the study was to determine the concentration of elements such as chromium (Cr), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) in children's deciduous teeth in relation to their body weight. The calculated body mass index (BMI) values and an application of the growth chart showed that 59% of children among the studied sample had normal weight. In 41% of children, weight disorders were observed including underweight - 28% and overweight - 12%...
September 19, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887752/changes-in-plasma-fatty-acid-composition-are-associated-with-improvements-in-obesity-and-related-metabolic-disorders-a-therapeutic-approach-to-overweight-adolescents
#7
Marcela Guerendiain, Rosa Montes, Gemma López-Belmonte, Miguel Martín-Matillas, Ana I Castellote, Elena Martín-Bautista, Amelia Martí, J Alfredo Martínez, Luis Moreno, Jesús Mª Garagorri, Julia Wärnberg, Javier Caballero, Ascensión Marcos, M Carmen López-Sabater, Cristina Campoy
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In recent years, obesity has reached alarming levels among children and adolescents. The study of plasma fatty acid (FA) composition, as a reflection of diet, and its associations with other parameters, that are closely linked to obesity and the cardiometabolic profile, may be useful for setting nutritional goals for obesity treatment and prevention. This study explored the relationship between plasma FA levels and body fat and cardiometabolic risk markers, in overweight adolescents...
November 11, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885339/establishing-waist-to-height-ratio-standards-from-criterion-referenced-bmi-using-roc-curves-in-low-income-children
#8
Ryan D Burns, Timothy A Brusseau, Yi Fang, You Fu, James C Hannon
The purpose of this study was to establish health-related waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) cut-points associating with FITNESSGRAM's body mass index (BMI) criterion-referenced standards in low-income children. A secondary aim was to examine the classification agreement between the derived WHtR cut-points and various cardiometabolic blood markers using current recommendations. Participants were 219 children from low-income schools (mean age = 10.5 ± 0.6 years). Waist circumference, height, weight, and cardiometabolic blood markers were collected in a fasting state before school hours...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882443/gut-microbiota-and-autism-key-concepts-and-findings
#9
Helen T Ding, Ying Taur, John T Walkup
There is an emerging body of evidence linking the intestinal microbiota with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Studies have demonstrated differences in the composition of gut bacteria between children with ASD and controls. Certain intestinal bacteria have been observed in abundance and may be involved in the pathogenesis of ASD; including members of the Clostridium and Sutterella genus. Evidence from animal models suggest that certain microbial shifts in the gut may produce changes consistent with the clinical picture of autism, with proposed mechanisms including toxin production, aberrations in fermentation processes/products, and immunological and metabolic abnormalities...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881116/concurrent-agreement-between-an-anthropometric-model-to-predict-thigh-volume-and-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-assessment-in-female-volleyball-players-aged-14-18-years
#10
Óscar M Tavares, João Valente-Dos-Santos, João P Duarte, Susana C Póvoas, Luís A Gobbo, Rômulo A Fernandes, Daniel A Marinho, José M Casanova, Lauren B Sherar, Daniel Courteix, Manuel J Coelho-E-Silva
BACKGROUND: A variety of performance outputs are strongly determined by lower limbs volume and composition in children and adolescents. The current study aimed to examine the validity of thigh volume (TV) estimated by anthropometry in late adolescent female volleyball players. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures were used as the reference method. METHODS: Total and regional body composition was assessed with a Lunar DPX NT/Pro/MD+/Duo/Bravo scanner in a cross-sectional sample of 42 Portuguese female volleyball players aged 14-18 years (165...
November 24, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866387/school-context-matters-the-impacts-of-concentrated-poverty-and-racial-segregation-on-childhood-obesity
#11
Joy Rayanne Piontak, Michael D Schulman
BACKGROUND: Schools are important sites for interventions to prevent childhood obesity. This study examines how variables measuring the socioeconomic and racial composition of schools and counties affect the likelihood of obesity among third to fifth grade children. METHODS: Body mass index data were collected from third to fifth grade public school students by teachers from 317 urban and rural North Carolina schools in 38 counties. Multilevel models are used to examine county-, school-, and individual-level effects...
December 2016: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865992/in-6-to-8-year-old-children-hair-cortisol-is-associated-with-body-mass-index-and-somatic-complaints-but-not-with-stress-health-related-quality-of-life-blood-pressure-retinal-vessel-diameters-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness
#12
Markus Gerber, Katharina Endes, Serge Brand, Christian Herrmann, Flora Colledge, Lars Donath, Oliver Faude, Uwe Pühse, Henner Hanssen, Lukas Zahner
OBJECTIVES: Hair cortisol measurement has become an increasingly accepted approach in endocrinology and biopsychology. However, while in adult research hair cortisol has been proposed as a relevant biomarker for chronic stress (and its adverse consequences), studies with children are scarce. Therefore, the goal of the present exploratory study was to examine the associations between hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs), stress, and a series of health-related outcomes in a sample of Swiss first grade schoolchildren...
November 9, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865444/the-prospective-association-of-organized-sports-participation-with-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-children-the-champs-study-dk
#13
Jeffrey J Hebert, Heidi Klakk, Niels Christian Møller, Anders Grøntved, Lars Bo Andersen, Niels Wedderkopp
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prospective association of organized leisure-time sports participation with cardiovascular risk in children. METHODS: Students were recruited from 10 public primary schools. From July 2009 to October 2010, parents reported children's weekly organized leisure-time sports participation via text messaging. Clustered cardiovascular risk was estimated with a composite score comprising fasting serum triglyceride levels, homeostasis assessment model-estimated insulin resistance, total to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, and systolic blood pressure...
November 15, 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863153/the-relationship-between-breast-milk-leptin-and-adiponectin-with-child-body-composition-from-3-to-5%C3%A2-years-a-follow-up-study
#14
D M Meyer, C Brei, L Stecher, D Much, S Brunner, H Hauner
BACKGROUND: Research indicates that breast milk contains bioactive components that influence metabolism in infancy and may play a role in the prevention of obesity in early childhood. In our initial study, 147 breastfeeding mother/child pairs were followed from birth to 2 years of age to examine the relationship between breast milk leptin and total adiponectin (collected at 6 weeks and 4 months postpartum) and infant body composition. Higher breast milk total adiponectin was related to greater fat mass and weight gain in children at 1 and 2 years of age, whereas leptin showed no association...
November 10, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855265/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-school-based-active-videogame-intervention-on-chinese-children-s-aerobic-fitness-physical-activity-level-and-psychological-correlates
#15
Patrick Wing Chung Lau, Jing Jing Wang, Ralph Maddison
OBJECTIVE: Active videogames (AVGs) that require body movements to play offer a novel opportunity to turn a traditionally sedentary behavior into a physically active one. We sought to determine the effect of a school-based AVG intervention on Chinese children's aerobic fitness, physical activity (PA) level, and PA-related psychological correlates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty 8-11-year-old Chinese children (55 males) were recruited from one Hong Kong primary school and were allocated at random to either an AVG intervention or control group...
November 17, 2016: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848752/results-from-venezuela-s-2016-report-card-on-physical-activity-for-children-and-youth
#16
Marianella Herrera-Cuenca, Betty Méndez-Perez, Vanessa Castro Morales, Joana Martín-Rojo, Bianca Tristan, Amilid Torín Bandy, Maritza Landaeta-Jiménez, Coromoto Macías-Tomei, Mercedes López-Blanco
BACKGROUND: The Venezuelan Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is the first assessment of information related to physical activity in Venezuela. It provides a compilation of existing information throughout the country and assesses how well it is doing at promoting opportunities for children and youth. The aim of this article is to summarize the information available. METHODS: Thirteen physical activity indicators were graded by a committee of experts using letters A to F (A, the highest, to F, the lowest) based on national surveys, peer review studies, and policy documents...
November 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837349/comparison-of-body-composition-and-nutrients-deficiencies-between-portuguese-rink-hockey-players
#17
Maria-Raquel G Silva, Hugo-Henrique Silva
: We evaluated dietary intake and body composition of child and adolescent rink-hockey players and controls. Seventy-two male rink-hockey players (38 children and 34 adolescents) and 79 male controls (43 children and 36 adolescents) were evaluated in order to collect training data, detailed dietary intake and body composition. Rink-hockey players presented significantly lower body fat (BF) and higher fat-free mass (FFM) than controls. Mean intakes of carbohydrate and protein were considered to be adequate, but mean intakes of fat were above the recommended levels in athletes...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837268/effect-of-high-dose-cholecalciferol-vitamin-d3-on-bone-and-body-composition-in-children-and-young-adults-with-hiv-infection-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#18
A J Rovner, V A Stallings, R Rutstein, J I Schall, M B Leonard, B S Zemel
: It is unknown whether vitamin D supplementation positively impacts body composition and bone outcomes in children and young adults with HIV. This RCT found that despite increasing 25(OH)D concentrations, high dose vitamin D3 supplementation did not impact bone or body composition in children and young adults with HIV infection. INTRODUCTION: The objective of this paper was to determine the impact of high-dose daily cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) supplementation on body composition and bone density, structure, and strength in children and young adults with perinatally acquired (PHIV) or behaviorally acquired (BHIV) HIV infection...
November 11, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827398/factors-associated-with-sugar-intake-and-sugar-sources-in-european-children-from-1-to-8-years-of-age
#19
I Pawellek, V Grote, M Theurich, R Closa-Monasterolo, A Stolarczyk, E Verduci, A Xhonneux, B Koletzko
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The World Health Organization recommends to limit intake of free sugars to 5% of total energy per day because of the great impact of high sugar intake on body fat deposition, adiposity and dental caries. However, little data exist about total intake and sources of sugar in European children. Therefore, this paper aims to describe sugar intake and dietary sugar sources and associated factors. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Three-day weighed dietary records were obtained at eight time points from children 1 to 8 years of age (n=995) in five European countries...
November 9, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825943/perceptions-of-food-intake-and-weight-status-among-parents-of-picky-eating-infants-and-toddlers-in-china-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Ziyi Li, Klazine van der Horst, Lisa R Edelson-Fries, Kai Yu, Lili You, Yumei Zhang, Gerard Vinyes-Pares, Peiyu Wang, Defu Ma, Xiaoguang Yang, Liqiang Qin, Jiaji Wang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that children that are picky eaters may have a different and less varied diet than non-picky children, but the literature on picky eating in Chinese children is limited. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of picky eating in 6-35 month-old Chinese children, and to explore how parents' perceptions of picky eating relate to children's intake and body composition. METHODS: 1414 6-35 month-old infants and toddlers from 8 Chinese cities were included in this study...
November 4, 2016: Appetite
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