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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786674/choline-supplementation-prevents-a-hallmark-disturbance-of-kwashiorkor-in-weanling-mice-fed-a-maize-vegetable-diet-hepatic-steatosis-of-undernutrition
#1
Thaddaeus May, Kevin C Klatt, Jacob Smith, Eumenia Castro, Mark Manary, Marie A Caudill, Farook Jahoor, Marta L Fiorotto
Hepatic steatosis is a hallmark feature of kwashiorkor malnutrition. However, the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis in kwashiorkor is uncertain. Our objective was to develop a mouse model of childhood undernutrition in order to test the hypothesis that feeding a maize vegetable diet (MVD), like that consumed by children at risk for kwashiorkor, will cause hepatic steatosis which is prevented by supplementation with choline. A MVD was developed with locally sourced organic ingredients, and fed to weanling mice ( n = 9) for 6 or 13 days...
May 22, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777231/dietary-protein-intake-in-school-age-children-and-detailed-measures-of-body-composition-the-generation-r-study
#2
Vincent Jen, Leonidas G Karagounis, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Oscar H Franco, Trudy Voortman
BACKGROUND: A high-protein diet in infancy increases the risk of obesity, but the effects of dietary protein intake in mid-childhood on body composition are unclear. Therefore, we studied associations of protein intake (total, animal and plant-sourced) at 8 years of age with anthropometric measures and body composition up to age 10 years. METHODS: We included 3991 children of the Generation R Study, a prospective cohort in the Netherlands. Dietary protein intake was assessed at 8 years of age using a food-frequency questionnaire and is expressed in energy percentage (E%)...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770755/body-composition-during-early-infancy-and-developmental-progression-from-1-to-5-years-of-age-the-infant-anthropometry-and-body-composition-iabc-cohort-study-among-ethiopian-children
#3
Mubarek Abera, Markos Tesfaye, Bitiya Admassu, Charlotte Hanlon, Christian Ritz, Rasmus Wibaek, Kim F Michaelsen, Henrik Friis, Jonathan C Wells, Gregers S Andersen, Tsinuel Girma, Pernille Kæstel
Early nutrition and growth have been found to be important early exposures for later development. Studies of crude growth in terms of weight and length/height, however, cannot elucidate how body composition (BC) might mediate associations between nutrition and later development. In this study, we aimed to examine the relation between fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) tissues at birth and their accretion during early infancy, and later developmental progression. In a birth cohort from Ethiopia, 455 children who have BC measurement at birth and 416 who have standardised rate of BC growth during infancy were followed up for outcome variable, and were included in the statistical analysis...
June 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754574/anthropometric-measures-as-fitness-indicators-in-primary-school-children-the-health-oriented-pedagogical-project-hopp
#4
Asgeir Mamen, Per Morten Fredriksen
AIMS: As children's fitness continues to decline, frequent and systematic monitoring of fitness is important. Easy-to-use and low-cost methods with acceptable accuracy are essential in screening situations. This study aimed to investigate how the measurements of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) relate to selected measurements of fitness in children. METHODS: A total of 1731 children from grades 1 to 6 were selected who had a complete set of height, body mass, running performance, handgrip strength and muscle mass measurements...
May 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748655/normalizing-resting-energy-expenditure-across-the-life-course-in-humans-challenges-and-hopes
#5
REVIEW
Manfred J Müller, Corinna Geisler, Mark Hübers, Maryam Pourhassan, Wiebke Braun, Anja Bosy-Westphal
Whole-body daily energy expenditure is primarily due to resting energy expenditure (REE). Since there is a high inter-individual variance in REE, a quantitative and predictive framework is needed to normalize the data. Complementing the assessment of REE with data normalization makes individuals of different sizes, age, and sex comparable. REE is closely correlated with body mass suggesting its near constancy for a given mass and, thus, a linearity of this association. Since body mass and its metabolic active components are the major determinants of REE, they have been implemented into allometric modeling to normalize REE for quantitative differences in body weight and/or body composition...
May 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747957/home-exercise-childhood-obesity-intervention-a-randomized-clinical-trial-comparing-print-versus-web-based-move-it-platforms
#6
Alejandro Bruñó, Patricia Escobar, Ausias Cebolla, Julio Álvarez-Pitti, Jaime Guixeres, Empar Lurbe, Rosa Baños, Juan F Lisón
PURPOSE: To compare the impact of adhering to a Mediterranean diet plus mixed physical exercise program (Move-It) implemented by means of printed instructions or via a web-platform (with or without e-mail support) on body composition, physical fitness, and blood pressure. DESIGN AND METHODS: Randomized clinical trial. Fifty-two overweight or obese Spanish children and adolescents were randomly assigned to the print-based (n = 18), Move-It (n = 18), or Move-It plus support (n = 16) intervention groups...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746309/the-current-state-of-long-acting-growth-hormone-preparations-for-growth-hormone-therapy
#7
Kevin C J Yuen, Bradley S Miller, Beverly M K Biller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the rationale of developing long-acting growth hormone (LAGH) preparations, to describe the technologies designed to prolong GH action, and to address key issues regarding efficacy, safety, and monitoring while on treatment. REVIEW FINDINGS: Recombinant human GH is currently approved for daily use and has been shown to restore longitudinal growth, and improve body composition with relatively few side-effects in children and adults with GH deficiency, respectively...
May 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743076/the-daily-mile-makes-primary-school-children-more-active-less-sedentary-and-improves-their-fitness-and-body-composition-a-quasi-experimental-pilot-study
#8
Ross A Chesham, Josephine N Booth, Emma L Sweeney, Gemma C Ryde, Trish Gorely, Naomi E Brooks, Colin N Moran
BACKGROUND: The Daily Mile is a physical activity programme made popular by a school in Stirling, Scotland. It is promoted by the Scottish Government and is growing in popularity nationally and internationally. The aim is that each day, during class time, pupils run or walk outside for 15 min (~1 mile) at a self-selected pace. It is anecdotally reported to have a number of physiological benefits including increased physical activity, reduced sedentary behaviour, increased fitness and improved body composition...
May 10, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741211/phenotypic-heterogeneity-of-obesity-related-brain-vulnerability-one-size-interventions-will-not-fit-all
#9
REVIEW
Andreana P Haley, Stephanie Oleson, Evan Pasha, Alex Birdsill, Sonya Kaur, Janelle Thompson, Hirofumi Tanaka
Intact memory and problem solving are key to functional independence and quality of life in older age. Considering the unprecedented demographic shift toward a greater number of older adults than children in the United States in the next few decades, it is critically important for older adults to maintain work productivity and functional independence for as long as possible. Implementing early interventions focused on modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline at midlife is a strategy with the highest chance of success at present, bearing in mind the current lack of dementia cures...
May 9, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738636/executive-function-as-a-risk-factor-for-incisor-trauma
#10
Jillian M Nyquist, Ceib Phillips, Margot Stein, Lorne D Koroluk
BACKGROUND/AIM: Executive function is the ability to guide behavior to achieve goals or complete tasks. This study explored the relationship between executive function, as assessed by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Parent Form Questionnaire (BRIEF® ) and incisor trauma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study included children in the mixed dentition with recent incisor trauma (n=28) and a control group (n=30) without recent incisor trauma. Subjects' parents completed the BRIEF® , while a clinical examination assessed subjects' occlusal relationships...
May 8, 2018: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731235/assessment-of-nutritional-status-in-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease-using-hand-grip-strength-tool
#11
Ashraf Mohamed Abd El Basset Bakr, Bothina Mohamed Hasaneen, Dina AbdelRasoul Helal Bassiouni
OBJECTIVE: Muscle status assessment is crucial for diagnosis of protein energy wasting PEW/cachexia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. Hand grip strength (HGS) has been used in muscle power assessment in adult CKD. However, no data is available about its usefulness in children with CKD. Hence, we aimed to study the reliability of HGS in reflecting the muscle power and thus, nutritional status in children with CKD. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this Observational cross sectional study we enrolled 73 CKD children; 45 had end stage kidney disease (ESKD) on hemodialysis (HD) and 28 had CKD but not on dialysis yet...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727484/leptin-and-igf-1-in-relation-to-body-composition-and-bone-mineralization-of-preterm-born-children-from-infancy-to-8-years
#12
Charlotte A Ruys, Monique van de Lagemaat, Harrie N Lafeber, Joost Rotteveel, Martijn J J Finken
OBJECTIVE: Preterm birth has been associated with altered body composition, especially increased fat mass (FM) and decreased bone mineralization, and leptin and IGF-1 have been suggested to be involved in the regulation of both. We aimed to study the interplay between leptin, IGF-1, FM, and bone mineralization measured in infancy and childhood of children born preterm. DESIGN: Observational study. PATIENTS/SUBJECTS: Seventy-nine (40 boys) preterm-born children (gestational age ≤32 weeks and/or birth weight ≤1500g) aged 8 years...
May 4, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726691/chronic-health-disparities-among-refugee-and-immigrant-children-in-canada
#13
Ginny Lane, Marwa Farag, Judy White, Christine Nisbet, Hassan Vatanparast
There are knowledge gaps related to understanding the development of chronic disease risks in children, especially with regards to risk differentials experienced by immigrants and refugees. The Healthy Immigrant Children study employed a mixed-methods cross-sectional study design to characterize the health and nutritional status of 300 immigrant and refugee children aged 3-13 who had been in Canada for less than five years. We collected quantitative data on socio-economic status, food security, physical activity, diet, bone and body composition, and anthropometric measurements...
May 4, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718224/the-association-of-diet-and-exercise-with-body-composition-in-pediatric-crohn-s-disease
#14
Dale Lee, James D Lewis, Justine Shults, Robert N Baldassano, Jin Long, Rita Herskovitz, Babette Zemel, Mary B Leonard
Background: In pediatric Crohn's disease, fat mass improves over time with treatment, but lean mass deficits persist. This observational study of the associations of physical activity and dietary intake with lean mass and muscle strength in children with Crohn's disease was ancillary to a previously reported randomized clinical trial of an intervention to improve bone health. Methods: In this study, 138 participants were followed at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 months with evaluation of lean and fat mass using DXA, muscle strength (peak torque), Crohn's characteristics, dietary intake, time in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)...
April 27, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717271/physical-activity-and-inactivity-trajectories-associated-with-body-composition-in-pre-schoolers
#15
Kim Meredith-Jones, Jillian Haszard, Chris Moir, Anne-Louise Heath, Julie Lawrence, Barbara Galland, Barry Taylor, Andrew Gray, Rachel Sayers, Rachael Taylor
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Early childhood is characterised by rapid development and is a critical period for the establishment of activity behaviours. We aim to examine how physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) track during the first 5 years of life, and to investigate associations between trajectories and body composition at 5 years of age. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 438 participants (50% male) wore an Actical accelerometer for 5 days at at least two of 1, 2, 3...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715228/cervical-facet-orientation-varies-with-age-in-children-an-mri-study
#16
Sebastien Pesenti, Renaud Lafage, Virginie Lafage, Michel Panuel, Benjamin Blondel, Jean-Luc Jouve
BACKGROUND: Within the spine, mobility and stability are principles that drive anatomic morphology. Based on radiographic measurements, the orientation of cervical facet joints has been proven to change throughout child growth. However, because of the mainly cartilaginous composition of the vertebrae in the young child, the lack of osseous landmarks makes radiograph-based measurements unreliable. The aims of our study were to evaluate the change in the sagittal orientation of the cervical facet joints with age based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of asymptomatic children and to compare it to the changes in vertebral body dimensions...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713797/whole-egg-consumption-and-cortical-bone-in-healthy-children
#17
L M Coheley, J M Kindler, E M Laing, A Oshri, K M Hill Gallant, S J Warden, M Peacock, C M Weaver, R D Lewis
Eggs contain bioactive compounds thought to benefit pediatric bone. This cross-sectional study shows a positive link between childhood egg intake and radius cortical bone. If randomized trials confirm our findings, incorporating eggs into children's diets could have a significant impact in preventing childhood fractures and reducing the risk of osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: This study examined the relationships between egg consumption and cortical bone in children. METHODS: The cross-sectional study design included 294 9-13-year-old black and white males and females...
April 30, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705883/systematic-review-of-physical-education-based-physical-activity-interventions-among-elementary-school-children
#18
REVIEW
V L Errisuriz, N M Golaszewski, K Born, J B Bartholomew
Physical education (PE)-based interventions are a popular method to target children's physical activity (PA) and fitness; however, little is known about their effectiveness or what factors lead to successful interventions. This paper: (1) systematically reviews studies examining PE interventions designed to impact PA, fitness, and/or body composition; and (2) makes recommendations for new research directions based upon these findings. Our systematic review was limited to experimental and quasi-experimental studies conducted in elementary schools...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701008/evaluating-the-contribution-of-differences-in-lean-mass-compartments-for-resting-energy-expenditure-in-african-american-and-caucasian-american-children
#19
M M Broadney, F Shareef, S E Marwitz, S M Brady, S Z Yanovski, J P DeLany, J A Yanovski
BACKGROUND: Resting energy expenditure (REE), adjusted for total lean mass (LM), is lower in African American (AA) than Caucasian American (CA) children. Some adult studies suggest that AA-CA differences in lean mass compartments explain this REE difference. Similar data are limited in children. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in compartment-specific lean mass between AA and CA children and examine the individual contributions of high-metabolic rate-at-rest trunk lean mass (TrLM) and low-metabolic-rate-at-rest appendicular lean mass (AppLM) for AA-CA differences in REE...
April 26, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699814/dxa-measured-visceral-fat-mass-and-lean-body-mass-reflect-abnormal-metabolic-phenotypes-among-some-obese-and-nonobese-chinese-children-and-adolescents
#20
W Q Ding, J T Liu, Y X Shang, B Gao, X Y Zhao, H P Zhao, W J Wu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The exact constellation of body composition characteristics among metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) and nonobese (MUNO) children and adolescents remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify the major body composition determinants of metabolically unhealthy phenotypes among Chinese children and adolescents. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used data from a cross-sectional survey in 2015 that included 1983 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years...
March 10, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
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