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body composition children

Alexia J Murphy-Alford, Melinda White, Liane Lockwood, Andrew Hallahan, Peter S W Davies
AIM: To describe the body composition, dietary intake and physical activity and of paediatric, adolescent and young adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and examine the factors that impact body composition after treatment. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study involved 74 subjects who were at least three years post treatment. Measurements included anthropometry, whole body potassium counting, air displacement plethysmography, and three day physical activity and diet diaries...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Daniela Metro, Mattia Papa, Luigi Manasseri, Teresa Gervasi, Luca Campone, Vito Pellizzeri, Roberta Tardugno, Giacomo Dugo
Breakfast habits affect the nutritional status and health of people, in particular children and adolescents. This is the second part a previous study about the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in a Sicilian (Italy) student population. The investigation analysed both normal weight and overweight subjects in order to understand how eating habits, number of meals and daily calorie intakes could affect their body mass indexes (BMI). The aim of this second part was to analyse the breakfast nutritional profiles of this student population...
March 19, 2018: Natural Product Research
Emine Çamtosun, Zeynep Şıklar, Merih Berberoğlu
OBJECTIVES: Continuation of GH treatment in adolescents with severe childhood onset Idiopathic Growth Hormone Deficiency (IGHD) during the transition period, irrespective of achievement of final height is still debatable.We aimed to investigate the metabolic profile, BMD and body composition of the patients with isolated childhood onset GHD in whom GH treatments were terminated after they reached their final height, prospectively six months after the cessation of therapy. METHODS: Twelve patients, 6 of which with peak GH <5 ng/mL (Permanent GHD, Group 1), and 6 of which with peak GH >5 ng/mL (Transient GHD, Group 2) after insulin stimulation test were evaluated for anthropometric and laboratory parameters including fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FI), lipid profile, BMD, body composition measurements, and 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring before (baseline) and at six months after discontinuation of GH...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Jane Hardy, Hayley Kuter, Malcolm Campbell, Dexter Canoy
OBJECTIVE: To determine the reliability of anthropometric and body composition measurements in children with special needs. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Specialist support schools (primary and secondary) in Manchester, UK. PARTICIPANTS: 53 children with moderate-to-severe learning disability; 30 non-standers (14 boys) and 23 standers (15 boys). Mean ages were 11 years (range 3-20) for non-standers and 12.4 years (range 8-19) for standers...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Jessica G Woo, Heidi Sucharew, Weiji Su, Philip R Khoury, Stephen R Daniels, Heidi J Kalkwarf
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how infant weigh and length growth trajectories associate with body composition at 3 and 7 years because previous studies have noted that rapid infant weight gain increases risk for high body mass index (BMI) in children. STUDY DESIGN: There were 322 children enrolled at 3 years of age with dual x-ray absorptiometry body composition data and pediatrician growth data for 0-2 years of age who were included in analysis. Superimposition by translation and rotation modeling was used to characterize infant weight and length trajectories in terms of size, tempo and velocity measures...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Calista M Harbaugh, Peng Zhang, Brianna Henderson, Brian A Derstine, Sven A Holcombe, Stewart C Wang, Carla Kohoyda-Inglis, Peter F Ehrlich
BACKGROUND: The "Cushion Effect," the phenomenon in which obesity protects against abdominal injury in adults in motor vehicle accidents, has not been evaluated among pediatric patients. This work evaluates the association between subcutaneous fat cross-sectional area, quantified using analytic morphomic techniques and abdominal injury. METHODS: This retrospective study includes 119 patients aged 1 to 18years involved in frontal impact motor vehicle accidents (2003-2015) with computed tomography scans...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Lin Zhang, Ran Chen, Rong Li, Meng-Ying Chen, Rong Huang, Xiao-Nan Li
BACKGROUND: To study the predictive factors of resting energy expenditure (REE) and evaluate the accuracy of predicted equations with indirect calorimeter (IC) in Chinese school-age children, particularly for the obese population. METHODS: Recruited children were from the department of child healthcare in Nanjing children's hospital during July 2014-September 2015. Anthropometric parameters and body composition were measured by bioelectrical impedance. Measured REE was assessed by IC...
March 7, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Eugènia Moix Gil, Olga Giménez-Palop, Assumpta Caixàs
INTRODUCTION: The Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by absence of expression of the paternal alleles in región 15q11.2-q13. Obesity and hormonal deficiencies, especially of growth hormone (GH), are the most important signs from the therapeutic viewpoint. Recombinant GH (rGH) is effective in children and represents the mainstay in treatment; by contrast, little evidence in available in adult patients. OBJECTIVE: To review the reported evidence on the beneficial and adverse effects of treatment with rGH in children and adults...
March 3, 2018: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
Lara Gomes Suhett, Brenda Kelly Souza Silveira, Mariana De Santis Filgueiras, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Juliana Farias de Novaes
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate Ca intake and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors during childhood. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study with a representative sample. Food consumption was assessed through three 24 h dietary recalls. Anthropometry, body composition and biochemical measurements were also conducted. SETTING: Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. SUBJECTS: Children between 8 and 9 years old (n 350) enrolled in public and private schools in the urban area of the municipality of Viçosa...
March 6, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
E Verduci, F Moretti, G Bassanini, G Banderali, V Rovelli, M C Casiraghi, G Morace, F Borgo, E Borghi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Phenylalanine (Phe) restricted diet, combined with Phe-free l-amino acid supplementation, is the mainstay of treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU). Being the diet a key factor modulating gut microbiota composition, the aim of the present paper was to compare dietary intakes, gut microbiota biodiversity and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production in children with PKU, on low-Phe diet, and in children with mild hyperphenylalaninemia (MHP), on unrestricted diet. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 21 PKU and 21 MHP children matched for gender, age and body mass index z-score...
January 31, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Maria-Raquel G Silva, Hugo-Henrique Silva, Teresa Paiva
Sleep, body composition and dietary intake are crucial for athletes' health and performance but have never been investigated in acrobatic gymnasts. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate sleep, body composition, dietary intake and eating behaviours of acrobatic gymnasts. Using a cross-sectional study, 82 Portuguese acrobatic gymnasts (12.8 ± 3.1 years, 61 females and 21 males) were evaluated during the competitive period to collect training data, sleep duration, body composition, dietary intake and eating behaviours before, during and after practices...
March 3, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Dorothea Dumuid, Tyman E Stanford, Željko Pedišić, Carol Maher, Lucy K Lewis, Josep-Antoni Martín-Fernández, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Mikael Fogelholm, Martyn Standage, Mark S Tremblay, Timothy Olds
BACKGROUND: Daily activity data are by nature compositional data. Accordingly, they occupy a specific geometry with unique properties that is different to standard Euclidean geometry. This study aimed to estimate the difference in adiposity associated with isotemporal reallocation between daily activity behaviours, and to compare the findings from compositional isotemporal subsitution to those obtained from traditional isotemporal substitution. METHODS: We estimated the differences in adiposity (body fat%) associated with reallocating fixed durations of time (isotemporal substitution) between accelerometer-measured daily activity behaviours (sleep, sedentary time and light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) among 1728 children aged 9-11 years from Australia, Canada, Finland and the UK (International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment, 2011-2013)...
March 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
Mary Adjepong, C Austin Pickens, Raghav Jain, William S Harris, Reginald A Annan, Jenifer I Fenton
In Northern Ghana, 33% of children are stunted due to economic disparities. Dietary fatty acids (FA) are critical for growth, but whether blood FA levels are adequate in Ghanaian children is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the association between whole blood FAs and growth parameters in Northern Ghanaian children 2-6 years of age. A drop of blood was collected on an antioxidant treated card and analyzed for FA composition. Weight and height were measured and z-scores were calculated. Relationships between FAs and growth parameters were analyzed by Spearman correlations, linear regressions, and factor analysis...
2018: PloS One
Yasemin Ertaş Öztürk, Rukiye Bozbulut, Esra Döğer, Aysun Bideci, Eda Köksal
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity and its complications are serious health problems and diet/lifestyle changes can be beneficial for the prevention of diseases. Adaptation of the Healthy Lifestyle-Diet (HLD) Index in accordance with the dietary guidelines for Turkey (TR) and determination of the relationship between metabolic syndrome risk factors in obese children were the aims of this study. METHODS: This study was conducted on 164 overweight or obese children (87 male, 77 female) aged 9-13 years...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
S W Yau, B E Harcourt, K-T Kao, E J Alexander, V C Russo, G A Werther, M A Sabin
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) may represent a critical link between body composition and insulin sensitivity. We investigated the relationship between circulating IGFBP-2 levels, body composition, insulin sensitivity, energy intake and physical activity in children with obesity. Children were recruited via the Weight Management Service at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, as part of the Childhood Overweight BioRepository of Australia (COBRA). Comprehensive anthropometric, biochemical and environmental data were collected and compared to serum IGFBP-2 levels (measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)...
February 28, 2018: Clinical Obesity
Paula Smith-Brown, Mark Morrison, Lutz Krause, Ruth Newby, Peter Sw Davies
AIM: The reduction of infant protein intake and associated growth velocity is a recommended public health strategy for reducing the risk of childhood obesity. This study tests the hypothesis that infants' growth and protein-rich food (dairy, meat, fish and egg) intake influences childhood body size and composition at 2-3 years of age. METHODS: Thirty-six children were studied from the Feeding Queensland Babies Study Cohort, which prospectively collected data on infant growth and diet...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Nor Baizura Md Yusop, Zalilah Mohd Shariff, Ting Tzer Hwu, Ruzita Abd Talib, Nicola Spurrier
BACKGROUND: Interventions that encompass behavioural modifications of dietary intake and physical activity are essential for the management of obesity in children. This study assessed the effectiveness of a stage-based lifestyle modification intervention for obese children. METHODS: A total of 50 obese children (7-11 years old) were randomized to the intervention group (IG, n = 25) or the control group (CG, n = 25). Data were collected at baseline, at follow-up (every month) and at six months after the end of the intervention...
March 1, 2018: BMC Public Health
Senem Simsek, Deniz Inal-Ince, Aslihan Cakmak, Nagehan Emiralioglu, Ebru Calik-Kutukcu, Melda Saglam, Naciye Vardar-Yagli, Hayriye Ugur Ozcelik, Hazal Sonbahar-Ulu, Cemile Bozdemir-Ozel, Nural Kiper, Hulya Arikan
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) restricts lifestyle and increases morbidity. The aim of the study was to investigate anaerobic and aerobic performance in children with PCD and their healthy counterparts. Thirty-one children with PCD and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were studied. Pulmonary function, hand grip strength (HGS), quadriceps strength (QMS), physical activity, anaerobic capacity (muscle power sprint test), and aerobic performance (modified shuttle walk test (MSWT)) were determined. Pulmonary function, HGS, QMS, mean anaerobic power (MAP), and MSWT distance in PCD were significantly lower than those of healthy subjects (p < 0...
February 27, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Gudmundur Johannsson, Martin Bidlingmaier, Beverly Biller, Margaret Boguszewski, Felipe F Casanueva, Philippe Chanson, Catherine S Choong, Peter E Clayton, David Clemmons, Mehul Dattani, Jan Frystyk, Ken K Y Ho, Andrew Hoffman, Reiko Horikawa, Anders Juul, John Kopchick, Xiaoping Luo, Sebastian Neggers, Irène Netchine, Daniel S Olsson, Sally Radovick, Ron G Rosenfeld, Richard J Ross, Katharina Schilbach, Paulo Ferrez Collett-Solberg, Christian J Strasburger, Peter J Trainer, Kerstin Wickstrom, Kevin Cj Yuen, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen
OBJECTIVE: The Growth Hormone Research Society (GRS) convened a Workshop in 2017 to evaluate clinical endpoints, surrogate endpoints and biomarkers during GH treatment of children and adults, and in patients with acromegaly. PARTICIPANTS: GRS invited 34 international experts including clinicians, basic scientists, a regulatory scientist and physicians from the pharmaceutical industry. EVIDENCE: Current literature was reviewed and expert opinion was utilized to establish the state of the art, and identify current gaps and unmet needs...
February 26, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Sara King-Dowling, Christine Rodriguez, Cheryl Missiuna, Brian W Timmons, John Cairney
PURPOSE: School-age children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have poor health-related fitness (HRF), but little is known about when these deficits emerge. The purpose of this study was to determine if 4- and 5-year old children who meet the criteria for DCD exhibit poorer HRF than typically developing (TD) children, and if this relationship is mediated by vigorous physical activity (VPA) engagement. METHODS: Five-hundred and ninety-two children participated (age 5...
February 23, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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