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Madushini N Dharmasena, Catherine M Feuille, Carly Elizabeth C Starke, Arvind A Bhagwat, Scott Stibitz, Dennis J Kopecko
The licensed oral, live-attenuated bacterial vaccine for typhoid fever, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a, has also been utilized as a vaccine delivery platform for expression of diverse foreign antigens that stimulate protection against shigellosis, anthrax, plague, or human papilloma virus. However, Ty21a is acid-labile and, for effective oral immunization, stomach acidity has to be either neutralized with buffer or by-passed with Ty21a in an enteric-coated capsule (ECC). Several studies have shown that efficacy is reduced when Ty21a is administered in an ECC versus as a buffered liquid formulation, the former limiting exposure to GI tract lymphoid tissues...
2016: PloS One
Manju Aswath, Lakshmi V Pandit, Karthik Kashyap, Raguram Ramnath
Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a phenomenon, in which afflicted women experience spontaneous genital arousal, unresolved by orgasms and triggered by sexual or nonsexual stimuli, eliciting stress. The current case is a 40-year-old female who experienced such orgasms for about a month. Physical examination, investigations, and psychological testing were noncontributory. Carbamazepine (600 mg) was discontinued due to a lack of response. She improved significantly with supportive therapy. Various neuropsychological conditions, pelvic pathology, medications, etc...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Robyn A Jackowich, Leah Pink, Allan Gordon, Caroline F Pukall
INTRODUCTION: Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a condition characterized by symptoms of physiologic (typically genital) sexual arousal in the absence of perceived subjective sexual arousal. The physiologic arousal can last hours or days, or it can occur constantly, and it does not typically remit after orgasm(s). The symptoms are usually described as distressing, intrusive, and unwanted. AIM: To review the available literature on PGAD. METHODS: A literature review through April 2016 was undertaken using terms persistent genital arousal disorder, persistent sexual arousal syndrome, and restless genital syndrome...
October 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
Masanori Sawamura, Keiichiro Toma, Yuki Unai, Tomoko Sekiya, Kazuhito Nishinaka, Fukashi Udaka
A 62-year-old woman experienced uncomfortable genial sensation in 2010. Her uncomfortable sensation was exacerbated during rest at night and improved by walking. She exhibited short-stepped gait with postural disturbance and was diagnosed as suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) in 2013. Administration of clonazepam and pramipexisole improved her uncomfortable genial sensation. In persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD)/restless genial syndrome (RGS), abnormal genital sensation occurred without sexual desire, which was relieved by clonazepam administration...
2015: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Bradford J Stevenson, Tobias S Köhler
Introduction. Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a newly recognized disorder in women. It is described as unwanted, persistent feelings of genital arousal unrelated to sexual desire and not relieved by orgasm. Its prevalence is estimated to approach 1% of young women. Until now, this has not been described in men. Aim. Here we present a case of a 27-year-old male with symptoms consistent with PGAD and describe successful treatment. Methods. A 27-year-old male presented to urology clinic with the chief complain of persistent feelings of impending orgasm...
2015: Case Reports in Urology
Simone Eibye, Hans Mørch Jensen
We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI scan revealed a Tarlov cyst. Size and placement of the cyst could not explain the patient's symptoms; thus neurosurgical approach would not be helpful. Her depression was treated with antidepressant with little effect...
2014: Case Reports in Psychiatry
Vincenzo Puppo, Giulia Puppo
Sexual medicine experts and sexologists must spread certainties on the biological basis of the female orgasm to all women, not hypotheses or personal opinions. Therefore, they must use scientific anatomical terminology. The anatomy of the clitoris and the female orgasm are described in textbooks, but some researchers have proposed a new anatomical terminology for the sexual response in women. The internal/inner clitoris does not exist: the entire clitoris is an external organ. The clitoris is not composed of two arcs but of the glans, body, and crura or roots...
April 2015: Clinical Anatomy
Myung Chul Yoo, Wan Hee Yoo, Seung Baek Kang, Yong-Wook Park, Sung Soo Kim, Kyoung Ho Moon, Yeong Wook Song, Byung Woo Min, Yoon Je Cho, Seong-Hwan Moon, Seong-Il Bin, Han-Joo Baek, Seung Cheol Shim, Sung Won Lee, Dae Hyun Yoo, Anish Mehta, Aleksandar Skuban, Diane M Cukrow, Kristel Vandormael, Li Yan
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the COX-2 inhibitors, etoricoxib and celecoxib, in Korean patients with osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: This study included patients (≥ 40 years of age) with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of knee OA. Patients were randomized to etoricoxib 30 mg (qd) or celecoxib 200 mg (qd) in a 12 week randomized, controlled, double-blind study. Prior NSAID users were to demonstrate a worsening of symptoms upon withdrawal of medication. Efficacy endpoints included the time-weighted average change from baseline in the WOMAC VA 3...
December 2014: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Leah Pink, Valérie Rancourt, Allan Gordon
OBJECTIVE: Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) has been identified as a condition of often unprovoked genital arousal associated with a significant level of distress. PGAD is not well understood, and no definitive cause has been determined. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the disorder and to seek commonalities between cases of PGAD encountered in a chronic pain management clinic. METHOD: We reviewed a cohort of 15 women with PGAD who presented to a chronic non-cancer pain clinic in a large urban tertiary teaching hospital that provides pelvic and genital pain management...
April 2014: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Gary R Elkins, Derek Ramsey, Yimin Yu
Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is characterized by intrusive sexual arousal that is unresolvable via sexual activity and persists for an extended period of time. PGAD's etiology is unknown, and it has no established treatments. This case study reports on a 71-year-old female patient diagnosed with PGAD who received 9 sessions of hypnotherapy. The following measures were administered at baseline and follow-up: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and visual analogue measurements of quality of life, intensity of symptoms, and marital interference...
2014: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Shiao-Ming Chang, Tsong-Rong Yan
The shuttle vector, pUL6erm, was constructed by using a replicon from pL2, a multiple cloning site, colE1 ori, the ori of Gram-negative bacteria from vector pUC19, and the erythromycin resistance gene from pVA838 as a selection marker. pUL6erm could be transformed easily and maintained stably in Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei. Transformation assays of pUL6erm indicated that it had a narrow host range. β-Glucuronidase was induced in the presence of 0...
February 2014: Biotechnology Letters
Abdelali Daddaoua, Tino Krell, Juan-Luis Ramos
The PtxS and PtxR regulators control the expression of the glucose dehydrogenase genes from the Pgad promoter in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These regulators bind to their cognate operators, that are separated by ∼50 nt, within the promoter region and interact with each other creating a DNA-loop that prevents RNA polymerase promoter access. Binding of the 2-ketogluconate effector to PtxS caused PtxS/PtxR complex dissociation and led to the dissolution of the repression loop facilitating the entry of the RNA polymerase and enabling the transcription of the gad gene...
December 2013: Nucleic Acids Research
Sarah Bedell, Andrew Todd Goldstein, Lara Burrows
INTRODUCTION: Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is an intrusive and unremitting disorder for which several possible etiologies and treatments have been suggested. AIM: To describe a woman who developed PGAD in association with a periclitoral mass, a potential physical cause of the disorder that has not been previously described in the medical literature. METHODS: A postmenopausal woman presented with 6 months of persistent, unrelenting genital arousal and clitoral pain that was unrelated to sexual stimuli...
January 2014: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Joana Carvalho, Ana Veríssimo, Pedro J Nobre
INTRODUCTION: Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a relatively unknown clinical condition affecting several women. Moral standards, as well as conservative beliefs regarding sexuality, are believed to be involved in the etiology and maintenance of this syndrome. Nevertheless, there are no consistent data on the content of the beliefs system presented by these women. AIM: The aim of this study was to characterize the cognitive and emotional style of women reporting PGAD...
June 2013: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Samuel Steiner, Christian Lori, Alex Boehm, Urs Jenal
In many bacterial pathogens, the second messenger c-di-GMP stimulates the production of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) matrix to shield bacteria from assaults of the immune system. How c-di-GMP induces EPS biogenesis is largely unknown. Here, we show that c-di-GMP allosterically activates the synthesis of poly-β-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine (poly-GlcNAc), a major extracellular matrix component of Escherichia coli biofilms. C-di-GMP binds directly to both PgaC and PgaD, the two inner membrane components of the poly-GlcNAc synthesis machinery to stimulate their glycosyltransferase activity...
February 6, 2013: EMBO Journal
T Thubert, M Brondel, M Jousse, F Le Breton, P Lacroix, X Deffieux, G Amarenco
PURPOSE: Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a newly recognized condition rarely reported. Its recognition is useful to avoid labelling women suffering from PGAD as "mad". METHODS: A comprehensive literature review using Pubmed, Medline, Embase and Cochrane: "persistant genital arousal", "restless genital syndrome", "persitant genital arousal syndrome" and "persistant sexual arousal syndrome". In the 300 articles, 37 really dealt with PGAD. RESULTS: PGAD prevalence seemed to be more common than suspected (1%)...
December 2012: Progrès en Urologie
Thomas M Facelle, Hossein Sadeghi-Nejad, David Goldmeier
INTRODUCTION: Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a potentially debilitating disorder of unwanted genital sensation and arousal that is generally spontaneous and unrelenting. Since its first description in 2001, many potential etiologies and management strategies have been suggested. AIM: To review the literature on PGAD, identify possible causes of the disorder, and provide approaches to the assessment and treatment of the disorder based on the authors' experience and recent literature...
February 2013: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Annamaria Giraldi, Alessandra H Rellini, James Pfaus, Ellen Laan
INTRODUCTION: Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined in one entity. Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a new entity which is suggested to be defined as Restless Genital Syndrome. Aims.  The aims of this brief review are to give definitions of the different types of FSAD, describe their aetiology, prevalence and comorbidity with somatic and psychological disorders, as well as to discuss different medical and psychological assessment and treatment modalities...
January 2013: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Barry R Komisaruk, Huey-Jen Lee
INTRODUCTION: Neither consistent etiology nor treatment have been established for Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder (PGAD), which is characterized by uninvited, unwelcome, and distressing genital sensation. Sacral (Tarlov) cysts, which form on dorsal (sensory) roots, most commonly of S2 and S3 in the sacral spine, are reported to produce genital symptoms that bear similarities to those described for PGAD. AIMS: The present study ascertained the incidence of Tarlov cysts in the sacral spine of women with PGAD symptoms...
August 2012: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Wb Stam, Jp Jansen, Sd Taylor
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of etoricoxib, lumiracoxib, celecoxib, non-selective (ns) NSAIDs and acetaminophen in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) METHODS: Randomized placebo controlled trials investigating the effects of acetaminophen 4000mg, diclofenac 150mg, naproxen 1000mg, ibuprofen 2400mg, celecoxib 100-400mg, lumiracoxib 100-400mg, and etoricoxib 30-60mg with treatment duration of at least two weeks were identified with a systematic literature search. The endpoints of interest were pain, physical function and patient global assessment of disease status (PGADS)...
2012: Open Rheumatology Journal
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