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Toxic shock syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127437/effect-of-extracorporeal-cytokine-removal-on-vascular-barrier-function-in-a-septic-shock-patient
#1
Sascha David, Kristina Thamm, Bernhard M W Schmidt, Christine S Falk, Jan T Kielstein
BACKGROUND: Sepsis and septic shock are major healthcare problems, affecting millions of individuals around the world each year. Pathophysiologically, septic multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) is a life-threatening condition caused by an overwhelming systemic inflammatory response of the host's organism to an infection. We experimentally tested if high circulating cytokine levels might increase vascular permeability-a critical hallmark of the disease-and if this phenomenon can be reversed by therapeutic cytokine removal (CytoSorb®) in an exemplary patient...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122962/staphylococcus-aureus-downregulates-ip-10-production-and-prevents-th1-cell-recruitment
#2
Zhigang Li, Benoît Levast, Joaquín Madrenas
Staphylococcal superantigens cause toxic shock syndrome, which is characterized by massive T cell activation and a predominant Th1 profile of cytokine production. However, superantigen-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains are often part of the human nasal microbiome, and this carrier state has often been associated with some type 2 immune responses such as chronic sinusitis with polyps and atopic dermatitis. We have previously reported that the S. aureus cell wall downregulates the human T cell response to superantigens through a TLR2-dependent, IL-10-mediated mechanism...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121169/development-of-a-dna-aptamer-that-binds-specifically-to-group-a-streptococcus-serotype-m3
#3
Hanif Alfavian, Seyed Latif Mousavi Gargari, Samaneh Rasoulinejad, Arvin Medhat
Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important Gram-positive pathogen that causes various human diseases ranging from peripheral lesions to invasive infections. The M protein is one of the main virulence factors present on the cell surface and is associated with invasive GAS infections. Compared with other M types, serotype M3 has a predominant role in lethal infections and demonstrates epidemic behaviors, including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, bacteremia, and necrotizing fasciitis. Traditional methods for M typing are time-consuming, tedious, contradictory, and generally restricted to reference laboratories...
February 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116552/characterisation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-bloodstream-infections-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#4
S Vandendriessche, H De Boeck, A Deplano, M-F Phoba, O Lunguya, D Falay, N Dauly, J Verhaegen, O Denis, J Jacobs
Staphylococcus aureus is known worldwide as an invasive pathogen, but information on S. aureus from bloodstream infections in Central Africa remains scarce. A collection of S. aureus blood culture isolates recovered from hospitals in four provinces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2009-2013) was assessed. A total of 27/108 isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), of which >70% were co-resistant to aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, macrolides and lincosamides. For MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S...
January 23, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108132/-toxic-shock-syndrome-in-a-paediatric-intensive-care-unit-over-the-last-15-years
#5
Laura Butragueño Laiseca, Marina García Morín, Estíbaliz Barredo Valderrama, Andrés J Alcaraz Romero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107412/nasal-carriage-of-staphylococcus-aureus-among-children-in-the-ashanti-region-of-ghana
#6
Daniel Eibach, Michael Nagel, Benedikt Hogan, Clinton Azuure, Ralf Krumkamp, Denise Dekker, Mike Gajdiss, Melanie Brunke, Nimako Sarpong, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Jürgen May
BACKGROUND: Nasal carriage with Staphylococcus aureus is a common risk factor for invasive infections, indicating the necessity to monitor prevalent strains, particularly in the vulnerable paediatric population. This surveillance study aims to identify carriage rates, subtypes, antimicrobial susceptibilities and virulence markers of nasal S. aureus isolates collected from children living in the Ashanti region of Ghana. METHODS: Nasal swabs were obtained from children < 15 years of age on admission to the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital between April 2014 and January 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092693/pathogenic-streptococcus-strains-employ-novel-escape-strategy-to-inhibit-bacteriostatic-effect-mediated-by-mammalian-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein
#7
Jing Wang, Youjun Feng, Changjun Wang, Swaminath Srinivas, Chen Chen, Hui Liao, Elaine He, Shibo Jiang, Jiaqi Tang
Pathogenic streptococcal species are responsible for some of the most lethal and prevalent animal and human infections. Previous reports have identified a candidate pathogenicity island (PAI) in two highly virulent clinical isolates of Streptococcus suis type 2 (SS2), a causative agent of high-mortality streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). This PAI contains a Type-IVC secretion system C subgroup (Type-IVC secretion system) that is involved in the secretion of unknown pathogenic effectors that are responsible for STSS caused by highly virulent strains of SS2...
January 16, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065855/tyrosine-kinase-phosphatase-inhibitors-decrease-dengue-virus-production-in-hepg2-cells
#8
Thawornchai Limjindaporn, Jutatip Panaampon, Shilu Malakar, Sansanee Noisakran, Pa-Thai Yenchitsomanus
Dengue virus is the causative agent of dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. High rates of dengue virus replication and virion production are related to disease severity. To identify anti-DENV compounds, we performed cell-based ELISA testing to detect the level of DENV E protein expression. Among a total of 83 inhibitors, eight were identified as inhibitors with antiviral activity. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor II (EGFR/ErbB-2/ErbB-4 inhibitor II) and protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor IV (PTP inhibitor IV) significantly inhibited dengue virus production and demonstrated low toxicity in hepatocyte cell lines...
January 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057904/a-serine-threonine-phosphatase-1-of-streptococcus-suis-type-2-is-an-important-virulence-factor
#9
Lihua Fang, Pengcheng Fan, Yunkai Yang, Jingjing Zhou, Hongxia Shen, Weihuan Fang
Streptococcus suis is regarded as one of the major pathogens of pigs while S. suis type 2 (SS2) is considered to be a zoonotic bacterium for its ability to cause meningitis and streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome in humans. Many bacterial species contain genes encoding serine/threonine protein phosphatases (STP) responsible for dephosphorylation of their substrates in a single reaction step. This study was aimed to investigate the role of stp1 in pathogenesis of SS2. An isogenic stp1 mutant (Δstp1) was constructed from the SS2 strain ZJ081101...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035011/invariant-nkt-cells-are-pathogenic-in-the-hla-dr4-transgenic-humanized-mouse-model-of-toxic-shock-syndrome-and-can-be-targeted-to-reduce-morbidity
#10
Peter A Szabo, Patrick T Rudak, Joshua Choi, Stacey X Xu, Robert Schaub, Bhagirath Singh, John K McCormick, S M Mansour Haeryfar
During toxic shock syndrome (TSS), bacterial superantigens trigger a polyclonal T cell response leading to a potentially catastrophic 'cytokine storm'. Whether innate-like invariant natural killer T(iNKT) cells, with remarkable immunomodulatory properties, participate in TSS is unclear. Using genetic and cell depletion approaches, we generated iNKT cell-deficient, superantigen-sensitive HLA-DR4-transgenic (DR4tg) mice, which were compared with their iNKT-sufficient counterparts for responsiveness to staphylococcal enterotoxin B(SEB)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034881/impact-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-on-survival-in-necrotizing-fasciitis-with-vasopressor-dependent-shock-a-propensity-score-matched-analysis-from-130-us-hospitals
#11
Sameer S Kadri, Bruce J Swihart, Stephanie L Bonne, Samuel F Hohmann, Laura V Hennessy, Peter Louras, Heather L Evans, Chanu Rhee, Anthony F Suffredini, David C Hooper, Dean A Follmann, Eileen Bulger, Robert L Danner
BACKGROUND: Shock frequently complicates necrotizing fasciitis (NF) caused by group A streptococcus (GAS) or Staphylococcus aureus (SA). Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is sometimes administered for presumptive toxic shock syndrome (TSS), but its frequency of use and efficacy are unclear. METHODS: Adult patients with NF and vasopressor-dependent shock undergoing surgical debridement from 2010 to 2014 were identified at 130 U.S. hospitals. IVIG cases were propensity-matched and risk-adjusted...
December 29, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025502/role-of-p38alpha-beta-map-kinase-in-cell-susceptibility-to-clostridium-sordellii-lethal-toxin-and-clostridium-difficile-toxin-b
#12
Ilona Schelle, Janina Bruening, Mareike Buetepage, Harald Genth
Lethal Toxin from Clostridium sordellii (TcsL), which is casually involved in the toxic shock syndrome and in gas gangrene, enters its target cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Inside the cell, TcsL mono-O-glucosylates and thereby inactivates Rac/Cdc42 and Ras subtype GTPases, resulting in actin reorganization and an activation of p38 MAP kinase. While a role of p38 MAP kinase in TcsL-induced cell death is well established, data on a role of p38 MAP kinase in TcsL-induced actin reorganization are not available...
December 22, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017539/staphylococcus-aureus-from-the-german-general-population-is-highly-diverse
#13
Karsten Becker, Frieder Schaumburg, Christian Fegeler, Alexander W Friedrich, Robin Köck
OBJECTIVES: This prospective cohort study evaluates colonization dynamics and molecular characteristics of methicillin-susceptible and - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA/MRSA) in a German general population. METHODS: Nasal swabs of 1878 non-hospitalized adults were screened for S. aureus. Participants were screened thrice in intervals of 6-8 months. Isolates were characterized by spa and agr typing, mecA and mecC possession, respectively, and PCRs targeting virulence factors...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005800/microbiological-and-histopathological-effects-of-nasal-packing-containing-probiotics-on-nasal-mucosa
#14
Ozan Gokdogan, Yusuf Kizil, Ilker Akyildiz, Ozan Ahlat, Ayse Kalkanci, Sabri Uslu, Fikret Ileri
BACKGROUND: Nasal packing is frequently used after surgical interventions to prevent bleeding and synecchia formation and for the treatment of diseases such as epistaxis. One of the most morbid complications of nasal packing applications is the toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Owing to the microbiological structure of nasal mucosa, antibiotics are administered to all patients who are applied nasal packages for prevention of TSS. AIM: The aim of this study is the evaluation of microbiological and histopathological changes taking place in nasal mucosa with nasal packing containing probiotics...
November 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005689/epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-hospitalized-children-with-necrotizing-soft-tissue-infections
#15
Balagangadhar R Totapally
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology and outcome of hospitalized children with a diagnosis of necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs). METHODS: Demographic and outcome data of children 1 month to 18 years of age with a diagnosis of NSTI (ICD-9 diagnosis codes 728.86 and 729.4) were extracted from the Kids' Inpatient Database 2009 and 2012. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done to determine the factors affecting the mortality...
December 21, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005521/characterisation-of-nasal-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-international-human-and-veterinary-surgeons
#16
Virginia Post, Llinos Harris, Mario Morgenstern, R Geoff Richards, Samuel K Sheppard, Fintan Moriarty
Nasal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is poorly described for surgeons, despite the increased exposure to nosocomial pathogens and at-risk patients. This study investigated the molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of 26 MRSA isolates cultured from the nares of an international cross-sectional study of 1,166 human and 60 veterinary surgeons. All isolates were subjected to agr-, spa- and MLST typing and the presence of 22 virulence factors were screened for by PCR...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995095/roles-of-the-putative-type-iv-like-secretion-system-key-component-vird4-and-prsa-in-pathogenesis-of-streptococcus-suis-type-2
#17
Xiaowu Jiang, Yunkai Yang, Jingjing Zhou, Lexin Zhu, Yuanxing Gu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Xiaoliang Li, Weihuan Fang
Streptococcus suis type 2 (SS2) is a zoonotic pathogen causing septic infection, meningitis and pneumonia in pigs and humans. SS2 may cause streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) probably due to excessive release of inflammatory cytokines. A previous study indicated that the virD4 gene in the putative type IV-like secretion system (T4SS) within the 89K pathogenicity island specific for recent epidemic strains contributed to the development of STSS. However, the functional basis of VirD4 in STSS remains unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983491/streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-caused-by-group-g-streptococcus-united-kingdom
#18
Melissa Baxter, Marina Morgan
We describe successful management of 3 patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) attributable to group G Streptococcus infection. This small series supports recognition of group G Streptococcus in the etiology of STSS. We propose intravenous immunoglobulin be used in treatment as it is for STSS caused by group A Streptococcus.
January 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981233/temporal-and-racial-differences-associated-with-atopic-dermatitis-staphylococcusaureus-and-encoded-virulence-factors
#19
Joseph A Merriman, Elizabeth A Mueller, Michael P Cahill, Lisa A Beck, Amy S Paller, Jon M Hanifin, Peck Y Ong, Lynda Schneider, Denise C Babineau, Gloria David, Alexandre Lockhart, Keli Artis, Donald Y M Leung, Patrick M Schlievert
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin condition strongly associated with Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection. S. aureus strains shift in populations in ~10-year intervals depending on virulence factors. Shifts in S. aureus virulence factors may in part explain the racial differences observed in the levels of prevalence and severity of AD. AD S. aureus isolates collected from 2011 to 2014 (103 isolates) and in 2008 (100 isolates) were examined for the prevalence of genes encoding superantigens (SAgs)...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974390/subinhibitory-concentrations-of-punicalagin-reduces-expression-of-virulence-related-exoproteins-by-staphylococcus-aureus
#20
Su-Hyun Mun, Ryong Kong, Yun-Soo Seo, Tian Zhou, Ok-Hwa Kang, Dong-Won Shin, Dong-Yeul Kwon
Staphylococcus aureus produces a number of virulence factors. The major virulence factors exhibited by S aureus include various antigens, enzymes, cytotoxins and exotoxins (e.g. hemolysins, enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin). In this report, we show the influence of punicalagin on the secretion of exoprotein from S aureus by western blotting, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) release assay and quantitative RT-PCR. When added to S aureus cultures at an OD600 of 0.9, graded subinhibitory concentrations of punicalagin reduced the production of α-toxin, SEA and SEB in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a dose-dependent manner...
November 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
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