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Toxic shock syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146177/clostridium-difficile-and-clostridium-sordellii-toxins-proinflammatory-versus-anti-inflammatory-response
#1
Michel R Popoff
Clostridium difficile and Clostridium sordellii produce related potent toxins (C. difficile toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), C. sordellii lethal toxin (TcsL) and hemorrhagic toxin (TcsH)) which belong to the large clostridial glucosylating toxin (LCGT) family. TcsL is the main C. sordellii toxin as most of toxigenic C. sordellii strains only synthesize this toxin. Intestinal colonization by C. difficile subsequently to unbalanced microbiota is accompanied by release of toxins which induce local tissue destruction and severe inflammatory response...
November 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142545/rapid-screening-of-pyogenic-staphylococcus-aureus-for-confirmation-of-genus-and-species-methicillin-resistance-and-virulence-factors-by-using-two-novel-multiplex-pcr
#2
Abdul Haque, Asma Haque, Muhammad Saeed, Aysha Azhar, Samreen Rasool, Sidra Shan, Beenish Ehsan, Zohaib Nisar
Objectives: Emergence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major medical problem of current era. These bacteria are resistant to most drugs and rapid diagnosis can provide a clear guideline to clinicians. They possess specific virulence factors and relevant information can be very useful. We designed this study to develop multiplex PCRs to provide rapid information. Methods: We studied 60 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and detected methicillin resistance by cefoxitin sensitivity and targeting of mecA gene...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124121/patients-comorbidities-reduce-the-clinical-value-of-emergency-colonoscopy-results-of-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Cristiano Cremone, Anouk Esch, Charlotte Gagniere, Alessandro Fugazza, Faria Mesli, Michael Levy, Aurelien Amiot, Alexis Laurent, Yann LeBaleur, Francois Hemery, Nicolas De'Angelis, Francesco Brunetti, Iradj Sobhani
Background and study aims:  Urgent endoscopy is often used to diagnose and sometimes treat acute upper gastrointestinal syndromes (hemorrhage, toxic ingestion, and occlusion). However, its suitability concerning the management of lower gastrointestinal conditions in emergency circumstances is controversial. Patients and methods:  We studied the role of emergency colonoscopy in diagnosis and treatment of all consecutive patients presenting with acute lower gastrointestinal symptoms referred to our hospital on an emergency basis...
November 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112091/macro-and-microvascular-parameters-following-toxic-shock-syndrome
#4
Katherine Yh Chen, Ling-Jun Li, Tien Y Wong, Carol Y Cheung, Nigel Curtis, Michael Cheung, David P Burgner
Whether individuals who had toxic shock syndrome (TSS) in childhood have differences in macro- and retinal microvascular parameters indicative of increased cardiovascular risk is unknown. We found no evidence of adverse macrovascular changes in 22 TSS participants compared to 60 control participants. Microvascular comparisons showed a reduction in retinal total fractal dimension which has been associated with cardiovascular risk factors in children.
November 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109702/genomic-comparison-among-lethal-invasive-strains-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-serotype-m1
#5
Gabriel R Fernandes, Aulus E A D Barbosa, Renan N Almeida, Fabíola F Dos S Castro, Marina de C P da Ponte, Celio Faria-Junior, Fernanda M P Müller, Antônio A B Viana, Dario Grattapaglia, Octavio L Franco, Sérgio A Alencar, Simoni C Dias
Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), is a human pathogen that causes diverse human diseases including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). A GAS outbreak occurred in Brasilia, Brazil, during the second half of the year 2011, causing 26 deaths. Whole genome sequencing was performed using Illumina platform. The sequences were assembled and genes were predicted for comparative analysis with emm type 1 strains: MGAS5005 and M1 GAS. Genomics comparison revealed one of the invasive strains that differ from others isolates and from emm 1 reference genomes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108905/-maternal-deaths-due-to-infectious-cause-results-from-the-french-confidential-enquiry-into-maternal-deaths-2010-2012
#6
A Rigouzzo, V Tessier, L Zieleskiewicz
Over the period 2010-2012, maternal mortality from infectious causes accounted for 5% of maternal deaths by direct causes and 16% of maternal deaths by indirect causes. Among the 22 deaths caused by infection occurred during this period, 6 deaths were attributed to direct causes from genital tract origin, confirming thus the decrease in direct maternal deaths by infection during the last ten years. On the contrary, indirect maternal deaths by infection, from extragenital origin, doubled during the same period, with 16 deaths in the last triennium, dominated by winter respiratory infections, particularly influenza: the 2009-2010 influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic was the leading cause of indirect maternal mortality by infection during the studied period...
November 3, 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107650/molecular-characterization-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-subspecies-equisimilis-isolated-from-patients-with-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome
#7
T Ikebe, R Okuno, M Sasaki, Y Kanda, H Otsuka, R Kawahara, H Ohya, M Suzuki, K Uchida, H Nihonmatsu, M Ohnishi
Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a severe invasive infection characterized by the sudden onset of shock, multiorgan failure, and high mortality. Although STSS is mainly caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, group G streptococcus identified as S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) causing STSS has also been reported; however, no study has analyzed >100 isolates of SDSE causing STSS. Therefore, we characterized the emm genotype of 173 SDSE isolates obtained from STSS patients in Japan during 2014-2016 and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the broth microdilution method and emm gene typing...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097247/emerging-group-c-and-group-g-streptococcal-endocarditis-a-canadian-perspective
#8
Sylvain A Lother, Davinder S Jassal, Philippe Lagacé-Wiens, Yoav Keynan
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with bacteremia caused by group C and group G streptococci (GCGS) and to characterize the burden of disease, clinical characteristics, and outcomes through a case series of patients with GCGS IE. METHODS: Individuals with blood cultures growing GCGS in Manitoba, Canada, between January 2012 and December 2015 were included. Clinical and echocardiographic parameters were collected retrospectively...
October 31, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092737/oxalate-nephropathy-following-vitamin-c-intake-within-intensive-care-unit%C3%A2
#9
Eloïse Colliou, Arnaud Mari, Audrey Delas, Antoine Delarche, Stanislas Faguer
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of acute oxalate nephropathy related to vitamin C intake within the intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: ICU and nephrology department of a French university hospital. PATIENT: A 57-year-old woman with septic shock related to Legionella pneumophila pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute kidney injury who required renal replacement therapy for 75 days...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081854/toxic-shock-in-children-with-bone-and-joint-infections-a-review-of-seven-years-of-patients-admitted-to-one-intensive-care-unit
#10
D L Kerr, E K Loraas, A C Links, T V Brogan, G A Schmale
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to compare the frequency of severe systemic, multi-organ involvement and toxic shock syndrome (TSS) in patients with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Group A β-haemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes (GABS) bone and joint infections. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients treated for septic arthritis or osteomyelitis at one children's hospital between 2002 and 2009. The rates of intensive care unit (ICU) admission for methicillin-sensitive SA (MSSA), methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) and GABS infections were compared, as were the lengths of stay, number of surgeries, operative procedures and cases of TSS...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079067/clinical-mimics-an-emergency-medicine-focused-review-of-cellulitis-mimics
#11
Garrett Blumberg, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Cellulitis is a common clinical condition with low rates of morbidity and mortality if treated appropriately. Mimics of cellulitis presenting with erythema, edema, warmth, and pain can be associated with grave morbidity and mortality if misdiagnosed. OBJECTIVE: This review investigates the signs and symptoms of cellulitis, mimics of cellulitis, and an approach to the management of both cellulitis and its mimics. DISCUSSION: The current emergency medicine definition of cellulitis includes erythema, induration, warmth, and swelling...
October 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069651/staphylococcus-aureus-%C3%AE-toxin-induces-inflammatory-cytokines-via-lysosomal-acid-sphingomyelinase-and-ceramides
#12
Jie Ma, Erich Gulbins, Michael J Edwards, Charles C Caldwell, Martin Fraunholz, Katrin Anne Becker
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections are a major clinical problem and range from mild skin and soft-tissue infections to severe and even lethal infections such as pneumonia, endocarditis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, and toxic shock syndrome. Toxins that are released from S. aureus mediate many of these effects. Here, we aimed to identify molecular mechanisms how α-toxin, a major S. aureus toxin, induces inflammation. METHODS: Macrophages were isolated from the bone marrow of wildtype and acid sphingomyelinase-deficient mice, stimulated with S...
October 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056305/exotoxins-and-endotoxins-inducers-of-inflammatory-cytokines
#13
REVIEW
Jean-Marc Cavaillon
Endotoxins and exotoxins are among the most potent bacterial inducers of cytokines. During infectious processes, the production of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), gamma interferon (IFNγ) and chemokines orchestrates the anti-infectious innate immune response. However, an overzealous production, leading up to a cytokine storm, can be deleterious and contributes to mortality consecutive to sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. Endotoxins of Gram-negative bacteria (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) are particularly inflammatory because they generate auto-amplificatory loops after activation of monocytes/macrophages...
October 19, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050863/-intravenous-immunoglobulin-therapy-in-non-menstrual-staphylococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome
#14
M Hureau, P Saint-Léger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041026/-toxic-shock-syndrome-caused-by-fingertip-injury-management-with-semi-occlusive-dressing
#15
Julia Sproedt, Abdul Rahman Jandali, Rotraud Katharina Saurenmann, Franziska Zucol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040243/toxic-shock-syndrome-still-a-timely-diagnosis
#16
Kira L Gossack-Keenan, April J Kam
BACKGROUND: Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is an acute, severe, toxin-mediated disease, characterized by fever, hypotension, and multiorgan system involvement. Toxic shock syndrome has made headlines because of its high associated morbidity and mortality rate in previously healthy young females. Incidence peaked in the early 1980s owing to increased usage of ultra-absorbent tampons. After improved patient education and tampon labeling, the incidence of menstrual TSS has declined. CASE: A previously healthy 14-year-old girl presented to an urgent care center with a 2-day history of fever, erythematous maculopapular rash, vomiting, diarrhea, and malaise...
October 16, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979632/-staphylococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-at-a-chronic-hemodialysis
#17
Hassan Alaoui, Ayoub Belhadj, Younes Aissaoui, Rachid Seddiki, Mohamed Zoubir, Mohamed Bougalem
Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome is an acute and systemic infectious syndrome associated with the super-antigenic activity of staphylococcal toxins. It is a pathology that is rather rare but remains burdened with a considerable mortality despite the therapeutic management. The gateway is usually cutaneous with secondary bacteremic spread could be subject to preventive measures. We report the case of a rapidly fatal staphylococcal toxic shock, developed in a chronic hemodialysis whose entry from the arteriovenous fistula was suspected...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973822/leukocyte-recruitment-and-molecular-fortification-of-keratinocytes-triggered-by-streptococcal-m1-protein
#18
Sandra T Persson, Simon Hauri, Johan Malmström, Heiko Herwald
Streptococcus pyogenes of the M1 serotype is commonly associated with invasive streptococcal infections and development of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The M1 protein is a powerful inducer of inflammatory responses for several human cell types, but the reason why M1 protein-related strains is over-represented in invasive streptococcal diseases is still not understood. The present study was undertaken to investigate if soluble M1 protein can aggravate the severity of streptococcal skin infections in respect to inflammation, leukocyte recruitment, and tissue remodeling as seen in patients with cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis...
October 3, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972153/pharmacochaperoning-in-a-drosophila-model-system-rescues-human-dopamine-transporter-variants-associated-with-infantile-juvenile-parkinsonism
#19
H M Mazhar Asjad, Ameya Kasture, Ali El-Kasaby, Michael Sackel, Thomas Hummel, Michael Freissmuth, Sonja Sucic
Point mutations in the gene encoding the human dopamine transporter (hDAT, SLC6A3) cause a syndrome of infantile/juvenile dystonia and parkinsonism. To unravel the molecular mechanism underlying these disorders and investigate possible pharmacological therapies, here we examined 13 disease-causing DAT mutants that were retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. In three of these mutants - i.e. hDAT-V158F, hDAT-G327R and hDAT-L368Q- the folding deficit was remedied with the pharmacochaperonenoribogaineor the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70)-inhibitor pifithrin-μ such that ER export of and radioligand binding and substrate uptake by these DAT mutants were restored...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954758/rare-presentation-of-necrotising-fasciitis-and-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-by-group-a-streptococcus
#20
Saqib Saeed, Sara Alothman, Leaque Ahmed, Brian Donaldson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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