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Toxic shock syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632753/mait-cells-launch-a-rapid-robust-and-distinct-hyperinflammatory-response-to-bacterial-superantigens-and-quickly-acquire-an-anergic-phenotype-that-impedes-their-cognate-antimicrobial-function-defining-a-novel-mechanism-of-superantigen-induced-immunopathology
#1
Christopher R Shaler, Joshua Choi, Patrick T Rudak, Arash Memarnejadian, Peter A Szabo, Mauro E Tun-Abraham, Jamie Rossjohn, Alexandra J Corbett, James McCluskey, John K McCormick, Olivier Lantz, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Superantigens (SAgs) are potent exotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. They target a large fraction of T cell pools to set in motion a "cytokine storm" with severe and sometimes life-threatening consequences typically encountered in toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Given the rapidity with which TSS develops, designing timely and truly targeted therapies for this syndrome requires identification of key mediators of the cytokine storm's initial wave. Equally important, early host responses to SAgs can be accompanied or followed by a state of immunosuppression, which in turn jeopardizes the host's ability to combat and clear infections...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629932/systemic-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-in-burn-patients-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Guillermo Enrique Ramos
OBJECTIVE: To review studies of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis in burn patients. METHODS: Human clinical trials during the period 1966-2016 where prophylactic systemic antibiotics were compared with placebo or no intervention were identified in electronic databases. RESULTS: Nineteen trials met the selection criteria. Early post-burn period prophylaxis was assessed in non severe burn patients (6 trials), and in severe burn patients (7 trials)...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600919/group-a-streptococci-infection-a-systematic-clinical-review-exemplified-by-cases-from-an-obstetric-department
#3
REVIEW
Line Winther Gustafson, Jan Blaakær, Rikke Bek Helmig
Group A streptococci infection has re-emerged since the 1980s and onward, despite the awareness of the etiology and the use of penicillin. It now accounts for more than 75,000 deaths worldwide every year. Postpartum women have a 20-fold increased incidence of group A streptococci disease compared to non-pregnant women. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, prevention and treatment of group A streptococcal infection in pregnancy. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the following electronic databases from 1980-March 2016: PubMed-Medline, Embase, SveMed+, Bibliotek...
June 1, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583781/-macrophage-activation-syndrome-and-kawasaki-disease-four-new-cases
#4
B Dumont, P Jeannoel, L Trapes, E Rolland, C Gay, J-L Stephan
Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a rarely reported complication of Kawasaki disease (KD). It must be sought during KD with unusual clinical signs, such as enlargement of the liver or spleen, cytopenia (including thrombocytopenia), and elevated serum triglycerides. Here, we report four cases from a single center. The first is the description of a case of KD occurring in an 11-month-old child 15 days after the occurrence of infectious spondylitis. For the second, acute myocarditis heralded KD in a 5-year-old child...
June 2, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580155/intense-flu-like-symptoms-in-women-using-menstrual-devices-always-think-of-staphylococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome
#5
Marianneta Chatzopoulou, Theocharis Koufakis, Evdokia Ntava, Ioannis Gabranis, Maria Tsiakalou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579798/an-update-on-clinical-burden-diagnostic-tools-and-therapeutic-options-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#6
REVIEW
Prakash Narayana Reddy, Krupanidhi Srirama, Vijaya R Dirisala
Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen responsible for a variety of diseases ranging from mild skin and soft tissue infections, food poisoning to highly serious diseases such as osteomyelitis, endocarditis, and toxic shock syndrome. Proper diagnosis of pathogen and virulence factors is important for providing timely intervention in the therapy. Owing to the invasive nature of infections and the limited treatment options due to rampant spread of antibiotic-resistant strains, the trend for development of vaccines and antibody therapy is increasing at rapid rate than development of new antibiotics...
2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561911/biofilm-formation-and-virulence-factor-analysis-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-collected-from-ovine-mastitis
#7
Elisa Azara, Carla Longheu, Giovanna Sanna, Sebastiana Tola
AIMS: To perform a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of 258 S. aureus isolates from clinical ovine mastitis and used for the preparation of inactivated autogenous vaccines. METHODS AND RESULTS: The potential for biofilm production was determined by phenotypic test of Congo Red Agar (CRA) and by PCR for the detection of icaA/D genes. Isolates were also screened by PCR for the presence of enterotoxins (sea, seb, sec, sed and see), toxic shock syndrome toxin (tsst), leukotoxins (lukD-E, lukM and lukPV83), haemolysins (hly-β and hly-γ), autolysin (atlA) genes and encoding microbial surface components recognized adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs: clfA, clfB, fnbA, fnbB, bbp, cna, eno, fib, epbs, sdrC, sdrD and SdrE)...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536130/toxic-shock-syndrome-tampons-and-laboratory-standard-setting
#8
Sharra Vostral
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515901/experimental-identification-and-computational-characterization-of-a-novel-extracellular-metalloproteinase-produced-by-clostridium-sordellii
#9
Michael J Aldape, Aoxiang Tao, Dustin D Heeney, Eric R McIndoo, John M French, Dong Xu
Clostridium sordellii is a lethal pathogen for both animals and humans. Severe capillary leakage, toxic shock syndrome, and an extreme leukemoid reaction (LR), are hallmark features of C. sordellii infections and contribute to its high mortality rate. Here we report the discovery of a previously unknown and uncharacterized metalloproteinase of C. sordellii (referred as Mcs1) that cleaves human vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in vitro, an adhesion molecule critical to hematopoietic precursor retention and leukocyte diapedesis...
March 2, 2017: RSC Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491813/toxic-shock-syndrome-due-to-community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-two-case-reports-and-a-literature-review-in-japan
#10
Ryuichi Sada, Saori Fukuda, Hiroyasu Ishimaru
Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been spreading worldwide, including in Japan. However, few cases of toxic shock syndrome caused by Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have been reported in Japan. We report 2 cases, in middle-aged women, of toxic shock syndrome due to Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus via a vaginal portal of entry. The first patient had used a tampon and the second patient had vaginitis due to a cleft narrowing associated with vulvar lichen sclerosus...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483238/inverse-relationship-between-toxic-shock-syndrome-toxin-1-antibodies-and-interferon-%C3%AE-and-interleukin-6-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-patients-with-pediatric-tonsillitis-caused-by-staphylococcus-aureus
#11
Yinshuang Chen, Yanmei Huang, Bingshao Liang, Hui Dong, Shuwen Yao, Yongqiang Xie, Yan Long, Huamin Zhong, Yiyu Yang, Bing Zhu, Sitang Gong, Zhenwen Zhou
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric tonsillitis is frequently caused by Staphylococcus aureus, which is the most common pathogen that causes serious pyogenic infections in humans and endangers human health. S. aureus produces numerous potent virulence factors that play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the infection caused by this bacterium, and one of the most important toxins produced by S. aureus is toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). The aim of this study is to investigate the first time the levels of IFN-γ and interleukin IL-6 in TSST-1-stimulated PBMCs from pediatric tonsillitis patients and the correlation of these cytokine levels with TSST-1-specific IgG in serum...
June 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473520/examining-the-safety-of-menstrual-cups-among-rural-primary-school-girls-in-western-kenya-observational-studies-nested-in-a-randomised-controlled-feasibility-study
#12
Jane Juma, Elizabeth Nyothach, Kayla F Laserson, Clifford Oduor, Lilian Arita, Caroline Ouma, Kelvin Oruko, Jackton Omoto, Linda Mason, Kelly T Alexander, Barry Fields, Clayton Onyango, Penelope A Phillips-Howard
OBJECTIVE: Examine the safety of menstrual cups against sanitary pads and usual practice in Kenyan schoolgirls. DESIGN: Observational studies nested in a cluster randomised controlled feasibility study. SETTING: 30 primary schools in a health and demographic surveillance system in rural western Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Menstruating primary schoolgirls aged 14-16 years participating in a menstrual feasibility study. INTERVENTIONS: Insertable menstrual cup, monthly sanitary pads or 'usual practice' (controls)...
May 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463666/characterisation-of-clinically-isolated-streptococcus-pyogenes-from-balanoposthitis-patients-with-special-emphasis-on-emm89-isolates
#13
Tadao Hasegawa, Nanako Hata, Hideyuki Matsui, Masanori Isaka, Ichiro Tatsuno
PURPOSE: Streptococcus pyogenes causes a variety of diseases, such as pharyngitis and toxic shock syndrome. In addition, this bacterium is a causative agent of balanoposthitis. To reveal the bacteriological characteristics of the isolates from balanoposthitis patients, we analysed 47 isolates. In addition, novel clade genotype emm89 S. pyogenes isolates have been reported to be spreading worldwide recently. Hence, we further analysed eight emm89 isolates. METHODOLOGY: A drug susceptibility experiment was performed and emm types were determined...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457548/molecular-characterization-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-staphylococcus-spp-isolated-from-cheese-processing-plants
#14
Marjory Xavier Rodrigues, Nathália Cristina Cirone Silva, Júlia Hellmeister Trevilin, Melina Mary Bravo Cruzado, Tsai Siu Mui, Fábio Rodrigo Sanches Duarte, Carmen J Contreras Castillo, Solange Guidolin Canniatti-Brazaca, Ernani Porto
The aim of this research paper was to characterize coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative staphylococci from raw milk, Minas cheese, and production lines of Minas cheese processing. One hundred isolates from 3 different cheese producers were characterized using molecular approaches, such as PCR, molecular typing, and DNA sequencing. Staphylococcus aureus (88% of the isolates) was the most abundant followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hyicus, and Staphylococcus warneri. Among the 22 enterotoxin genes tested, the most frequent was seh (62% of the isolates), followed by selx and ser...
July 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426384/a-2-year-old-boy-with-circulatory-failure-owing-to-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-case-report
#15
Werner Keenswijk, Johan Vande Walle
A 2-year-old boy presented with severe hypotension and acute kidney injury after a prodrome of non-bloody diarrhoea and fever in the preceding 3 days. He had a mild Ebstein cardiac anomaly but otherwise a normal past history and growth. On examination, he looked ill, his temperature was 37.5 °C, circulation was poor, and there were several purpuric lesions on the face, hands and scrotum. Haemoglobin was 7.8 g/dL (11-14), total white cell count 27 × 10(9)/L, platelets 62 × 10(9)/L, blood urea nitrogen 20...
April 20, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409124/hospital-dissemination-of-tst-1-positive-clonal-complex-5-cc5-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#16
Min Wang, Yi Zheng, Jose R Mediavilla, Liang Chen, Barry N Kreiswirth, Yajun Song, Ruifu Yang, Hong Du
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is one of the most prevalent clinical pathogens isolated from hospital settings, and has increasingly identified in community settings. In China, the SCCmecIII-ST239 strains are disseminated in different geographic regions, accounting for >75% of all MRSA isolates in some national studies. Here we characterized 150 non-duplicate MRSA isolates collected from February 2012 to May 2013 in a tertiary hospital in Suzhou, Eastern China, to explore the molecular epidemiology...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400021/east-and-west-african-milk-products-are-reservoirs-for-human-and-livestock-associated-staphylococcus-aureus
#17
Christoph Jans, Axel Merz, Sophia Johler, Mario Younan, Sabine A Tanner, Dasel Wambua Mulwa Kaindi, John Wangoh, Bassirou Bonfoh, Leo Meile, Taurai Tasara
Staphylococcus aureus frequently isolated from milk products in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is a major pathogen responsible for food intoxication, human and animal diseases. SSA hospital-derived strains are well studied but data on the population structure of foodborne S. aureus required to identify possible staphylococcal food poisoning sources is lacking. Therefore, the aim was to assess the population genetic structure, virulence and antibiotic resistance genes associated with milk-derived S. aureus isolates from Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya and Somalia through spa-typing, MLST, and DNA microarray analysis...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387490/-an-rare-complication-of-scarlet-fever-invasive-group-a-streptococcal-infection-with-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome
#18
H Warnier, Z Depuis, K Nyamugabo, B Desprechins, M-C Seghaye
Invasive Group A Streptococcus infections and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome are rare complications of common diseases in children such as scarlet fever or impetigo. These invasive diseases are particulary challenging because of their rapid progression and the lack of predisposing factors in most cases. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are mandatory to reduce the mortality associated with these severe diseases. We report the case of an 8- year-old girl who developped an invasive group A streptococcal disease with osteomyelitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome in the course of a classical scarlet fever...
March 2017: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384859/evaluation-of-hiaureus-tm-coagulase-confirmation-kit-in-identification-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Arunagiri Subramanian, Vidushi K Chitalia, Kushminda Bangera, Shashikant P Vaidya, Rajas Warke, Abhay Chowdhary, Ranjana A Deshmukh
INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative anaerobic Gram positive coccal bacterium whose incidence ranges to different infections. It is a cause of various uncomplicated skin infections, abscesses, septicaemia/bacteraemia, gastroenteritis, endocarditis, toxic shock syndrome and food intoxications. Various methods with varied time, sensitivities, specificities and costs are available, but may not be used as a reliable test for the identification and differentiation of S. aureus...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367302/the-frequency-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-endocervix-of-infertile-women-in-northwest-iran
#20
Mohammad Taghi Akhi, Aylin Esmailkhani, Javid Sadeghi, Behrooz Niknafs, Laya Farzadi, Aydin Akhi, Elmira Najafi Nasab
BACKGROUND: Infertility is one of the major social issues. Due to the asymptomatic cervical infection associated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), the majority of patients remain undiagnosed. The present study intended to assess the frequency of S. aureus isolated from infertile women's endocervix in northwest Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a descriptive cross sectional study, specimens were randomly collected during vagina examination using a sterile speculum and swabbing...
April 2017: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
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