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Toxic shock syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803736/an-aggressive-and-fatal-craniofacial-group-a-streptococcus-infection-resulting-from-a-minimally-displaced-orbital-floor-fracture
#1
R M Uhrich, M Sherban, C Valdez
While sharp, penetrating trauma is often associated with group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections and subsequent necrotizing fasciitis (NF) and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), there are scant reports in the oral and maxillofacial surgery literature regarding blunt, non-penetrating trauma in association with these conditions. With a clinical course that initially appears relatively benign following blunt trauma, NF can progress swiftly through the fascial planes and may quickly become life-threatening if the oral and maxillofacial surgeon fails to recognize some of the critical pathognomonic signs...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794279/nasopharyngeal-infection-by-streptococcus-pyogenes-requires-superantigen-responsive-v%C3%AE-specific-t-cells
#2
Joseph J Zeppa, Katherine J Kasper, Ivor Mohorovic, Delfina M Mazzuca, S M Mansour Haeryfar, John K McCormick
The globally prominent pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes secretes potent immunomodulatory proteins known as superantigens (SAgs), which engage lateral surfaces of major histocompatibility class II molecules and T-cell receptor (TCR) β-chain variable domains (Vβs). These interactions result in the activation of numerous Vβ-specific T cells, which is the defining activity of a SAg. Although streptococcal SAgs are known virulence factors in scarlet fever and toxic shock syndrome, mechanisms by how SAgs contribute to the life cycle of S...
August 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791216/toxic-shock-syndrome-caused-by-suture-abscess-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-with-late-onset-after-caesarean-section
#3
Hiroyasu Komuro, Takaharu Kato, Shinichiro Okada, Kensuke Nakatani, Risa Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Nishida, Hiroyuki Iida, Maki Iida, Shiro Tsujimoto, Toshiyuki Suganuma
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare but life-threatening multisystem disease known to develop in the early postoperative period after various surgery. We report a rare case in which a patient who underwent Caesarean section developed TSS caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on the 39th postoperative day. She was treated with debridement because of the possible diagnosis of necrotizing soft tissue infections. Culture test from the resected specimen was positive for MRSA. She was diagnosed with TSS caused by suture abscess and was treated with intensive care including antimicrobials...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791185/use-of-hemadsorption-in-a-case-of-pediatric-toxic-shock-syndrome
#4
Andrea Berkes, Edit Szikszay, János Kappelmayer, Adrienne Kerényi, Tamás Szabó, László Ujhelyi, Krisztina Bari, György Balla, József Balla
BACKGROUND: Toxic shock syndrome is a potentially fatal toxin-mediated disease. The role of toxins in this clinical entity made us hypothesize that extracorporeal blood purification with CytoSorb® could play a beneficial role in the clinical management of toxic shock syndrome. This case report describes the successful treatment of toxic shock syndrome using a combination of renal replacement therapy and hemadsorption in a pediatric patient. CASE PRESENTATION: A 5-year-old girl with Down's syndrome presented with an inflamed area surrounding an insect bite, signs of systemic inflammation, and multiple organ failure...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790435/emergence-of-a-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-subspecies-equisimilis-stg62647-lineage-associated-with-severe-clinical-manifestations
#5
Oddvar Oppegaard, Haima Mylvaganam, Steinar Skrede, Paul Christoffer Lindemann, Bård Reiakvam Kittang
Increasing incidence rates of invasive Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) infections have been reported worldwide, but the evolutionary mechanisms underlying this development remain elusive. Through prospective surveillance of invasive SDSE infections in western Norway, we observed the emergence of a novel and virulent SDSE genotype, stG62647. This emm-type, rarely encountered as a cause of invasive disease during 1999-2012, emerged in 2013 as the predominant SDSE-genotype. The stG62647-infections were associated with an aggressive clinical course, including the occurrence of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, necrotizing soft-tissue infections and endocarditis...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780098/prevalence-and-characterization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-carrying-meca-or-mecc-and-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-in-dairy-sheep-farms-in-central-italy
#6
G Giacinti, V Carfora, A Caprioli, D Sagrafoli, N Marri, G Giangolini, R Amoruso, M Iurescia, F Stravino, S Dottarelli, F Feltrin, A Franco, S Amatiste, A Battisti
Between January and May 2012, a total of 286 bulk tank milk samples from dairy sheep farms located in central Italy were tested for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. One hundred fifty-three samples were positive for S. aureus (53.5%), with an average count of 2.53 log cfu/mL. A total of 679 S. aureus colonies were screened for methicillin resistance by the cefoxitin disk diffusion test, and 104 selected cefoxitin-susceptible isolates were also tested for their susceptibility to other antimicrobials representative of the most relevant classes active against Staphylococcus spp...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777321/prevalence-and-genetic-characteristics-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-staphylococcus-argenteus-isolates-harboring-panton-valentine-leukocidin-enterotoxins-and-tsst-1-genes-from-food-handlers-in-myanmar
#7
Meiji Soe Aung, Thida San, Mya Mya Aye, San Mya, Win Win Maw, Khin Nyein Zan, Wut Hmone Win Htut, Mitsuyo Kawaguchiya, Noriko Urushibara, Nobumichi Kobayashi
Asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus are potential source of diseases, including food poisoning. Toxigenic potential and genetic traits of colonizing S. aureus were investigated for 563 healthy food handlers in Myanmar. Carriage of S. aureus was found in 110 individuals (19.5%), and a total of 144 S. aureus isolates were recovered from nasal cavities (110 isolates) and hands (34 isolates). Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes (pvl) were detected in 18 isolates (12.5%), among which 11 isolates were classified into coa-VIa, agr type III, and ST1930 (CC96) that had been also detected in pvl-positive clinical isolates in Myanmar...
August 4, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771160/staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-tunisia-occurrence-of-human-and-animal-associated-lineages
#8
Meriam Ben Said, Mohamed Salah Abbassi, Paula Gómez, Laura Ruiz-Ripa, Senda Sghaier, Chourouk Ibrahim, Carmen Torres, Abdennaceur Hassen
The objective was to characterize Staphylococcus aureus isolated from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in Tunis City (Tunisia), during the period 2014-2015. Genetic lineages, antibiotic resistance mechanisms and virulence factors were determined for the recovered isolates. S. aureus isolates were recovered from 12 of the 62 wastewater samples tested (19.35%), and one isolate/sample was characterized, all of them being methicillin-susceptible (MSSA). Six spa types (t587, t674, t224, t127, t701 and t1534) were found among the 12 isolates, and the spa-t587, associated with the new sequence type ST3245, was the most predominant one (7 isolates)...
August 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769806/a-red-blood-cell-membrane-camouflaged-nanoparticle-counteracts-streptolysin-o-mediated-virulence-phenotypes-of-invasive-group-a-streptococcus
#9
Tamara Escajadillo, Joshua Olson, Brian T Luk, Liangfang Zhang, Victor Nizet
Group A Streptococcus (GAS), an important human-specific Gram-positive bacterial pathogen, is associated with a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from mild superficial infections such as pharyngitis and impetigo, to serious invasive infections including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The GAS pore-forming streptolysin O (SLO) is a well characterized virulence factor produced by nearly all GAS clinical isolates. High level expression of SLO is epidemiologically linked to intercontinental dissemination of hypervirulent clonotypes and poor clinical outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762570/streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-occurring-in-the-third-trimester-of-pregnancy-a-case-report
#10
Mohamad Irani, Rodney McLaren, Richard H Savel, Oksana Bogatyryova, Fady Khoury-Collado
Group A streptococcal (GAS) toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare life-threatening illness. Most reported cases have occurred in the post-partum period. Here, we report a rare case of a primigravid who developed GAS TSS in the third trimester. We also review the potential preventive measures and treatment modalities for this syndrome. A 29-year-old primigravid presented at 36 weeks' gestation with diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and fetal bradycardia. She underwent an emergency cesarean section and was subsequently diagnosed with GAS TSS...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742082/bacterial-deception-of-mait-cells-in-a-cloud-of-superantigen-and-cytokines
#11
Johan K Sandberg, Anna Norrby-Teglund, Edwin Leeansyah
The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of the life-threatening condition toxic shock syndrome in humans. Bacterial toxins known as superantigens (SAgs) generate this illness by acting as broad activators of a substantial fraction of all T lymphocytes, bypassing the normally highly stringent T-cell receptor antigen specificity to cause a systemic inflammatory cytokine storm in the host. In a new study, Shaler et al. found that immune cells called mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells make an unexpectedly large contribution to the SAg response in a largely T-cell receptor-independent, cytokine-driven manner...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734577/characterization-of-a-pvl-negative-community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-strain-of-sequence-type-88-in-china
#12
Lu Sun, Dandan Wu, Yan Chen, Qian Wang, Haiping Wang, Yunsong Yu
Sequence type 88 community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strain SR434, isolated from an outpatient with skin and soft tissue infection, was subjected to whole genome sequencing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, mouse skin infection model and hemolysis analysis to identify its virulence and resistance determinants. MRSA strain SR434 is resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin and fosfomycin. Four plasmids with resistance genes were identified in this strain, including a 20,658bp blaZ-carrying plasmid, a 2473bp ermC-carrying plasmid, a 2622bp fosB7-carrying plasmid (86% identity with plasmid in a ST2590 MRSA strain) and a 4817bp lnuA-carrying plasmid (99% identity with pLNU4 from bovine coagulase-nagetive Staphylococci)...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725564/post-partum-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-associated-with-necrotizing-fasciitis
#13
Wei Chuan Chua, Mohd Zulfakar Mazlan, Saedah Ali, Sanihah Che Omar, Wan Mohd Nazaruddin Wan Hassan, S Praveena Seevaunnantum, Rhendra Hardy Mohd Zaini, Mohd Hasyizan Hassan, Alwi Muhd Besari, Zaidah Abd Rahman, Zeti Norfidiyati Salmuna Ayub, Sabrina Abd Ghani, Normalinda Yaacob, Wan Rosilawati Wan Rosli
We report a fatal case of post-partum streptococcal toxic shock syndrome in a patient who was previously healthy and had presented to the emergency department with an extensive blistering ecchymotic lesions over her right buttock and thigh associated with severe pain. The pregnancy had been uncomplicated, and the mode of delivery had been spontaneous vaginal delivery with an episiotomy. She was found to have septicemic shock requiring high inotropic support. Subsequently, she was treated for necrotizing fasciitis, complicated by septicemic shock and multiple organ failures...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725562/pleural-empyema-and-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-due-to-streptococcus-pyogenes-in-a-healthy-spanish-traveler-in-japan
#14
Tetsuya Sakai, Daisuke Taniyama, Saeko Takahashi, Morio Nakamura, Takashi Takahashi
Group A Streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) causes invasive infections including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and local infections. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of an invasive GAS infection with pneumonia and pleural empyema (PE) followed by STSS (disseminated intravascular coagulation [DIC] and acute renal insufficiency) in a healthy male adult. He received combined supportive therapies of PE drainage, anti-DIC agent, hemodialysis, and antimicrobials and eventually made a clinical recovery...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721327/two-catastrophes-in-one-patient-drug-reaction-with-eosinophilia-and-systemic-symptoms-and-toxic-shock-syndrome
#15
Moayed Ibrahim, Diana L Nunley
A 70-year-old, immunocompromised patient presented to the emergency room (ER) five weeks after she was started on clopidogrel. She complained of skin eruption, mouth ulcers, fatigue, and myalgia over the past two weeks. Labs showed severe hyponatremia, acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalemia, and elevated liver enzymes. She was treated with steroids and discharged after her condition improved. However, a month later, she returned to the ER, complaining of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, chills, and shortness of breath over the past two days...
June 15, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721224/erratum-intense-flu-like-symptoms-in-women-using-menstrual-devices-always-think-of-staphylococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome
#16
Marianneta Chatzopoulou, Theocharis Koufakis, Evdokia Ntava, Ioannis Gabranis, Maria Tsiakalou
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/omcr/omx020.].
July 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716175/are-prophylactic-systemic-antibiotics-necessary-with-nasal-packing-a-systematic-review
#17
Jessica L Lange, Erin H Peeden, Scott P Stringer
BACKGROUND: The use of prophylactic systemic antibiotics with nasal packing has been a controversial topic. There are few evidence-based studies to determine the need for prophylactic systemic antibiotics. We performed a systematic literature review to determine the role of prophylactic systemic antibiotics with nasal packing in the prevention of toxic shock syndrome and local nasal infections. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic literature review to determine the role of prophylactic systemic antibiotics with nasal packing in the prevention of toxic shock syndrome and local nasal infections...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708463/epidemiological-trends-observed-from-molecular-characterization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-blood-cultures-at-a-japanese-university-hospital-2012-2015
#18
Yuri Miura, Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Itaru Nakamura, Shinobu Koyama, Kiyoko Tamai, Takashi Okanda, Tetsuya Matsumoto
Despite increasing reports of skin and soft tissue infections caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in Japan, the extent to which these strains cause nosocomial infections remains unknown, and this is especially true for bloodstream infections. In this study, we molecularly characterized MRSA isolates from Japanese blood samples. Among the 151 MRSA isolates collected from 53 medical facilities in 2011, 115 (76%) and 30 (20%) were classified as staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types II and IV, respectively, while the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene was detected in only two isolates...
July 14, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706411/toxic-shock-syndrome-within-24-h-of-an-office-hysteroscopy
#19
Nanak Bhagat, Akilandeshwari Karthikeyan, Sanjaya Kalkur
Office hysteroscopy is now a common procedure performed to look at the endometrial cavity and is relatively free of serious complications. A 68-year-old lady, previously fit and well, presented with abdominal pain, rigors, sweats, and vomiting within 24 h of an outpatient hysteroscopy for postmenopausal bleeding. She was diagnosed with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) due to Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. She was managed in the Intensive Care Unit, with inotropic and antibiotic support. She recovered eventually and was discharged home with oral antibiotics...
April 2017: Journal of Mid-life Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705427/invasive-disease-by-streptococcus-pyogenes-patients-hospitalized-for-6-years
#20
Vanessa Arias-Constantí, Victoria Trenchs-Sainz de la Maza, Nuria Elvira Sanz-Marcos, Carmina Guitart-Pardellans, Amadeu Gené-Giralt, Carles Luaces-Cubells
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The last years an increase of severe cases of invasive disease (ID) due to Streptococcus pyogenes or streptococcus b-hemolytic group A (SGA) had been detected. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiology and the clinical features of ID due to SGA in a tertiary Pediatric Hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study in a Pediatric hospital, of all in-patients with final diagnosis of ID due to SGA during 6 years (2009-2014)...
July 10, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
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