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Toxic shock syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903001/right-in-front-of-our-eyes-evolution-of-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-with-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#1
Salaheldin M Elhamamsy, Mazen O Al-Qadi, Taro Minami, Marguerite Neill
INTRODUCTION: Toxic shock syndrome occurs from dysregulation of host inflammatory responses. Toxin- producing strains of Group A streptococcus cause TSS. Ischemic optic neuropathy rarely complicates septic shock. We present a rare case of streptococcal pharyngitis complicated by septic arthritis and TSS with reversible blindness due to non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. CASE: A 28-year-old man drove to our ED with exudative pharyngitis. A rapid streptococcal test was positive...
December 1, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902390/virulence-determinants-in-clinical-staphylococcus-aureus-from-monomicrobial-and-polymicrobial-infections-of-diabetic-foot-ulcers
#2
Kavitha Shettigar, Spoorthi Jain, Deepika V Bhat, Raviraj Acharya, Lingadakai Ramachandra, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy, T S Murali
Antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health concern and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus has emerged as an important pathogen. We characterized S. aureus isolates from monomicrobial and polymicrobial wound infections from 200 diabetic individuals with foot ulcers to understand their underlying diversity and pathogenicity. Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec typing was performed and genes coding for production of biofilm, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin, Leukotoxins DE and M were screened...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881530/menstrual-cups-and-sanitary-pads-to-reduce-school-attrition-and-sexually-transmitted-and-reproductive-tract-infections-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-feasibility-study-in-rural-western-kenya
#3
Penelope A Phillips-Howard, Elizabeth Nyothach, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Jackton Omoto, Duolao Wang, Clement Zeh, Clayton Onyango, Linda Mason, Kelly T Alexander, Frank O Odhiambo, Alie Eleveld, Aisha Mohammed, Anna M van Eijk, Rhiannon Tudor Edwards, John Vulule, Brian Faragher, Kayla F Laserson
OBJECTIVES: Conduct a feasibility study on the effect of menstrual hygiene on schoolgirls' school and health (reproductive/sexual) outcomes. DESIGN: 3-arm single-site open cluster randomised controlled pilot study. SETTING: 30 primary schools in rural western Kenya, within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System. PARTICIPANTS: Primary schoolgirls 14-16 years, experienced 3 menses, no precluding disability, and resident in the study area...
November 23, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863161/hla-dr-polymorphisms-influence-in-vivo-responses-to-staphylococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-toxin-1-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model
#4
A Krogman, A Tilahun, C S David, V R Chowdhary, M P Alexander, G Rajagopalan
Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) is a potent superantigen produced by Staphylococcus aureus. In addition to menstrual and nonmenstrual toxic shock syndromes, TSST-1 is also implicated in the immunopathogenesis of pneumonia, infective endocarditis, neonatal exanthematous disease, and atopic dermatitis among others. Superantigens first bind to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and then activate a large proportion of T cells by cross-linking their T cell receptor. As binding to MHC class II molecules is a critical step in the robust activation of the immune system by TSST-1 and other superantigens, polymorphic variations between different HLA-DR alleles could potentially influence the magnitude of immune activation and immunopathology caused by TSST-1...
November 15, 2016: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848904/-a-postpartum-woman-with-toxic-shock-syndrome-group-a-streptococcal-infection-a-much-feared-postpartum-complication
#5
K Abbink, J C Kortekaas, M P Buise, J Dokter, S M I Kuppens, T H M Hasaart
BACKGROUND: The development of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) after an invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infection in the postpartum period is a much feared complication. The mortality rate of TSS with necrotizing fasciitis is 30 to 50%. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present the case of a woman with atypical pelvic pain which was the first symptom of toxic shock syndrome as a consequence of a GAS infection. Clinical deterioration necessitated a hysterectomy. Also a fasciotomy was performed as consequence of lower extremity compartment syndrome...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830834/suilysin-induced-platelet-neutrophil-complexes-formation-is-triggered-by-pore-formation-dependent-calcium-influx
#6
Shengwei Zhang, Yuling Zheng, Shaolong Chen, Shujing Huang, Keke Liu, Qingyu Lv, Yongqiang Jiang, Yuan Yuan
Platelet activation and platelet-neutrophil interactions have been found to be involved in inflammation, organ failure and soft-tissue necrosis in bacterial infections. Streptococcus suis, an emerging human pathogen, can cause streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome (STSS) similarly to Streptococcus pyogenes. Currently, S. suis-platelet interactions are poorly understood. Here, we found that suilysin (SLY), the S. suis cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC), was the sole stimulus of S. suis that induced platelet-neutrophil complexes (PNC) formation...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812635/staphylococcal-superantigen-specific-ige-antibodies-degree-of-sensitization-and-association-with-severity-of-asthma
#7
José Elabras, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz Mello, Omar Lupi, Blanca Elena Rios Gomes Bica, José Angelo de Souza Papi, Alfeu Tavares França
Objective: To determine the presence of staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies and degree of IgE-mediated sensitization, as well as whether or not those are associated with the severity of asthma in adult patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving outpatients with asthma under treatment at a tertiary care university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Consecutive patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of asthma based on the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria: mild asthma (MA), comprising patients with mild intermittent or persistent asthma; and moderate or severe asthma (MSA)...
September 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804246/polymyxin-b-immobilized-column-direct-hemoperfusion-for-adolescent-toxic-shock-syndrome
#8
Etsuro Nanishi, Yuichirou Hirata, Sooyoung Lee, Noriyuki Kaku, Kenta Momii, Kensuke Kubota, Hisanori Nishio, Yoshihiko Maehara, Toshiro Hara
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a critical illness associated with toxin from Staphylococcus aureus. Despite recent advances in critical care, mortality remains high and additional effective therapy is required. We report an adolescent case of TSS successfully treated with direct hemoperfusion using polymyxin-B immobilized fiber (PMX-DHP). The patient with spina bifida also had ischial pressure ulcer, and developed TSS associated with methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Despite conventional treatment, the patient developed refractory shock, which was immediately improved with PMX-DHP...
October 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803422/recurrent-streptococcus-agalactiae-toxic-shock-syndrome-triggered-by-a-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-inhibitor
#9
Masataka Yoshida, Takahiro Takazono, Masato Tashiro, Tomomi Saijo, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Kazuko Yamamoto, Shigeki Nakamura, Yoshifumi Imamura, Taiga Miyazaki, Toyomitsu Sawai, Tomoya Nishino, Koichi Izumikawa, Katsunori Yanagihara, Hiroshi Mukae, Shigeru Kohno
Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by group B streptococcus (GBS) is a rare, but lethal disease. We experienced a 45-year-old woman with pustular psoriasis who developed toxic shock-like syndrome during infliximab treatment. Surprisingly, similar episodes recurred three times in one year with restarting of infliximab treatments. In the third episode, GBS were detected in blood, urine, and vaginal secretion cultures. These episodes of shock syndrome were possibly due to GBS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of recurrent streptococcal toxic shock syndrome possibly caused by GBS which was induced by anti-TNF-α inhibitor therapy...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803183/a-two-component-regulatory-system-impacts-extracellular-membrane-derived-vesicle-production-in-group-a-streptococcus
#10
Ulrike Resch, James Anthony Tsatsaronis, Anaïs Le Rhun, Gerald Stübiger, Manfred Rohde, Sergo Kasvandik, Susanne Holzmeister, Philip Tinnefeld, Sun Nyunt Wai, Emmanuelle Charpentier
: Export of macromolecules via extracellular membrane-derived vesicles (MVs) plays an important role in the biology of Gram-negative bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria have also recently been reported to produce MVs; however, the composition and mechanisms governing vesiculogenesis in Gram-positive bacteria remain undefined. Here, we describe MV production in the Gram-positive human pathogen group A streptococcus (GAS), the etiological agent of necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome...
November 1, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800304/effects-of-suilysin-on-streptococcus-suis-induced-platelet-aggregation
#11
Shengwei Zhang, Junping Wang, Shaolong Chen, Jiye Yin, Zhiyuan Pan, Keke Liu, Lin Li, Yuling Zheng, Yuan Yuan, Yongqiang Jiang
Blood platelets play important roles during pathological thrombocytopenia in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). Streptococcus suis (S. suis) an emerging human pathogen, can cause STSS similarly to S. pyogenes. However, S. suis interactions with platelets are poorly understood. Here, we found that suilysin (SLY), different from other bacterial cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs), was the sole stimulus that induced platelet aggregation. Furthermore, the inside-out activation of GPIIb/IIIa of platelets mediated SLY-induced platelet aggregation...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798538/compartment-syndrome-secondary-to-group-a-streptococcus-infection-in-the-presence-of-a-congenital-hemangioma
#12
Sharon L Kracoff
OBJECTIVES: Nontraumatic compartment syndrome is frequently difficult to diagnose but this is especially troublesome in infants. Pain is the most sensitive sign and is characteristically severe and refractory to routine analgesia. Failure to diagnose and treat can lead to disability, multiorgan failure, and death. Surgical intervention is crucial and includes emergent fasciotomy, debridement, nerve decompression, and later skin grafting. Streptococcal myositis causing compartment syndrome is more likely in the immunocompromised patient...
October 28, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770520/changes-of-endothelin-1-content-and-blood-rheological-properties-in-crush-syndrome
#13
N Gamkrelidze, N Pavliashvili, R Otarashvili
This study describes hematocrit values and quantitative changes in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels according to the severity of crush syndrome (CS) compression and decompression periods. The experiments were carried out on 50 randomly selected 200-250 gr mass Wistar rats with the use of the standard crush syndrome modeling method. The plasma level of ET-1 was determined by the immuneenzyme method with the use of ELISA REDEAR URIT 660. Hematocrit was determined using the standard method and measured according to tube column divisions...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764189/human-serum-albumin-hsa-suppresses-the-effects-of-glycerol-monolaurate-gml-on-human-t-cell-activation-and-function
#14
Michael S Zhang, Jon C D Houtman
Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a monoglyceride with well characterized anti-microbial properties. Because of these properties, GML is widely used in food, cosmetics, and personal care products and currently being tested as a therapeutic for menstrual associated toxic shock syndrome, superficial wound infections, and HIV transmission. Recently, we have described that GML potently suppresses select T cell receptor (TCR)-induced signaling events, leading to reduced human T cell effector functions. However, how soluble host factors present in the blood and at sites of infection affect GML-mediated human T cell suppression is unknown...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760897/a-term-infant-of-neonatal-toxic-shock-syndrome-like-exanthematous-disease-complicated-with-hemophagocytic-syndrome
#15
Akimune Kaga, Hiroshi Watanabe, Hiroki Miyabayashi, Takaya Metoki, Setsuko Kitaoka, Satoru Kumaki
Neonatal toxic shock syndrome-like exanthematous disease (NTED) is a newly recognized neonatal infectious disease, caused by the superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). TSST-1 is mainly produced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and the immune responses to TSST-1 are known to cause toxic shock syndrome, a life-threatening infectious disease. The clinical symptoms of NTED are skin rash, fever, and thrombocytopenia, but severe thrombocytopenia is rare in term infants with NTED. Although the cause of NTED is the same as that of toxic shock syndrome, the clinical symptoms of NTED are milder than toxic shock syndrome...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760184/production-of-a-locus-and-allele-specific-monoclonal-antibody-for-the-characterization-of-sla-1-0401-mrna-and-protein-expression-levels-in-mhc-defined-microminipigs
#16
Yoshie Kametani, Shino Ohshima, Asuka Miyamoto, Atsuko Shigenari, Masaki Takasu, Noriaki Imaeda, Tatsuya Matsubara, Masafumi Tanaka, Takashi Shiina, Hiroshi Kamiguchi, Ryuji Suzuki, Hitoshi Kitagawa, Jerzy K Kulski, Noriaki Hirayama, Hidetoshi Inoko, Asako Ando
The class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presents self-developed peptides to specific T cells to induce cytotoxity against infection. The MHC proteins are encoded by multiple loci that express numerous alleles to preserve the variability of the antigen-presenting ability in each species. The mechanism regulating MHC mRNA and protein expression at each locus is difficult to analyze because of the structural and sequence similarities between alleles. In this study, we examined the correlation between the mRNA and surface protein expression of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA)-1*0401 after the stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by Staphylococcus aureus superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741558/the-group-a-streptococcus-serotype-m2-pilus-plays-a-role-in-host-cell-adhesion-and-immune-evasion
#17
Jia-Yun C Tsai, Jacelyn M S Loh, Fiona Clow, Natalie Lorenz, Thomas Proft
Group A Streptococcus (GAS), or Streptococcus pyogenes, is a human pathogen that causes diseases ranging from skin and soft tissue infections to severe invasive diseases, such as toxic shock syndrome. Each GAS strain carries a particular pilus type encoded in the variable fibronectin-binding, collagen-binding, T antigen (FCT) genomic region. Here, we describe the functional analysis of the serotype M2 pilus encoded in the FCT-6 region. We found that, in contrast to other investigated GAS pili, the ancillary pilin 1 lacks adhesive properties...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741135/fatal-endocarditis-with-methicilin-sensible-staphylococcus-aureus-and-major-complications-rhabdomyolysis-pericarditis-and-intracerebral-hematoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Anca Meda Georgescu, Leonard Azamfirei, Krisztina Szalman, Edit Szekely
BACKGROUND: Over the last decades Staphylococcus aureus (SA) has become the dominant etiology of native valve infective endocarditis, with the community-acquired methicillin-sensible Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MSSA) strains being the prevailing type. CASE: We report here a case of extremely severe CA-MSSA aortic valve acute endocarditis associated with persistent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in a previously healthy man and include a literature review.The patient developed severe and rare complications (purpura, purulent pericarditis, intracerebral hematoma, and rhabdomyolysis) through systemic embolism; they required drainage of pericardial empyema and cerebral hematoma, the latter eventually caused a fatal outcome...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699456/diagnosis-and-management-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-review
#19
Jason P Burnham, John P Kirby, Marin H Kollef
PURPOSE: To review the salient features of the diagnosis and management of the most common skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). This review focuses on severe SSTIs that require care in an intensive care unit (ICU), including toxic shock syndrome, myonecrosis/gas gangrene, and necrotizing fasciitis. METHODS: Guidelines, expert opinion, and local institutional policies were reviewed. RESULTS: Severe SSTIs are common and their management complex due to regional variation in predominant pathogens and antimicrobial resistance patterns, as well as variations in host immune responses...
October 3, 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694813/characterization-of-toxin-genes-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-in-fishery-products-in-iran
#20
Noushin Arfatahery, Abolfazl Davoodabadi, Taranehpeimaneh Abedimohtasab
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of seafood-borne diseases worldwide, which are attributable to the contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. In this study, a total of 206 (34.3%) Staphylococcus aureus strains were obtained from 600 fish and shrimp samples and were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility. We assessed the prevalence of the genes responsible for the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA, SEB) and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) genes. The results indicated that 34% of aqua food samples were contaminated with S...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
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