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Toxic shock syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773639/draft-genome-sequence-of-streptococcus-suis-strain-ssrc-1-a-human-isolate-from-a-fatal-case-of-toxic-shock-syndrome
#1
Silvia Fillo, Fabiola Mancini, Anna Anselmo, Antonella Fortunato, Giovanni Rezza, Florigio Lista, Alessandra Ciervo
Streptococcus suis is an economically important pathogen in the pig industry and is also an emerging zoonotic agent responsible for severe infections in humans. Here, we report the genome sequence of S. suis strain SsRC-1. Specifically, this strain was a serotype 2 and was isolated from a human fatal case of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) in Italy.
May 17, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768710/improving-the-safety-of-high-dose-methotrexate-for-children-with-hematologic-cancers-in-settings-without-access-to-mtx-levels-using-extended-hydration-and-additional-leucovorin
#2
Kalthi Vaishnavi, Deepak Bansal, Amita Trehan, Richa Jain, Savita Verma Attri
BACKGROUND: A lack of access to methotrexate levels is common in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), relevant for 80% of children with cancer worldwide. We evaluated whether high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) can be administered safely with extended hydration and leucovorin rescue, with monitoring of serum creatinine and urine pH. METHODS: The prospective study was conducted at a single centre in Chandigarh, India in 2015. Patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or with T-cell ALL or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (T-NHL) were administered 3 and 5 gm/m2 of MTX (24 hr infusion), respectively...
May 16, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762733/the-effect-of-vaginal-microbial-communities-on-colonization-by-staphylococcus-aureus-with-the-gene-for-toxic-shock-syndrome-toxin-1-tsst-1-a-case-control-study
#3
Jacob D Pierson, Melanie A Hansmann, Catherine C Davis, Larry J Forney
Menstrual toxic shock syndrome is associated with vaginal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus strains that encode toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (tst+). Interestingly, a small proportion of women are colonized by S. aureus tst+ but do not have symptoms of toxic shock syndrome. Here we sought to determine if differences in the species composition of vaginal bacterial communities reflect a differential risk of colonization by S. aureus capable of producing toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1). The composition of vaginal communities of women that were or were not colonized with S...
June 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741523/fulminant-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome
#4
S Zavala, M Arias, P Legua
We present a case of a previously healthy 37-year-old male who developed fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and hypovolaemia. Within 5.5 h he presented with tachycardia, tachypnoea, became hypotensive and displayed a diffuse erythematous rash. In the following hours he developed persistent hypotension, acute respiratory distress syndrome, liver failure, kidney failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. A diagnosis of toxic shock syndrome was made, but despite antibiotic therapy, immunoglobulin administration, and supportive measures, the patient died 50 h after presentation...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722472/fulminant-group-a-streptococcal-infection-without-gangrene-in-the-extremities-analysis-of-five-autopsy-cases
#5
Shu Kato, Motoi Yanazaki, Kino Hayashi, Fumiko Satoh, Ichiro Isobe, Yutaka Tsutsumi
Five autopsy cases of fulminant group A streptococcal infection without gangrene in the extremities are presented. Clinical course of the fulminant illness was short (2-4 days). One pathological autopsy case was aged (86-years-old), and hemorrhagic cystitis was observed. The other four forensic autopsy cases were young (24-38 years-old) with the mean age of 32, and the primary infective lesions were located in the postpartum endometrium, tonsil and bronchus (2 cases). Systemic coccal dissemination with poor neutrophilic reaction was seen in two of five cases...
May 3, 2018: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685228/phenotypic-and-genotypic-characteristics-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-zoo-and-wild-animals
#6
Andrea T Feßler, Patricia Thomas, Kristin Mühldorfer, Mirjam Grobbel, Julian Brombach, Inga Eichhorn, Stefan Monecke, Ralf Ehricht, Stefan Schwarz
Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus is a major problem in human and veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to characterise S. aureus isolates from wild and zoo animals mainly associated with bacterial infections. In total, 23 S. aureus isolates, including nine from wild animals and 14 from zoo animals, were obtained during routine diagnostics. All isolates were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, macrorestriction analysis with subsequent SmaI pulsed-field gelelectrophoresis (PFGE), antimicrobial susceptibility testing and S...
May 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678918/impact-of-currently-marketed-tampons-and-menstrual-cups-on-staphylococcus-aureus-growth-and-tsst-1-production-in-vitro
#7
Louis Nonfoux, Myriam Chiaruzzi, Cédric Badiou, Jessica Baude, Anne Tristan, Jean Thioulouse, Daniel Muller, Claire Prigent Combaret, Gérard Lina
Fifteen currently marketed intravaginal protection products (11 types of tampon and four menstrual cups) were tested by the modified tampon sac method to determine their effect on Staphylococcus aureus growth and toxic shock toxin 1 (TSST-1) production. Most tampons reduced S. aureus growth and TSST-1 production, with differences based on brand and composition, and S. aureus growth was higher in de-structured than in unaltered tampons. We observed higher S. aureus growth and toxin production in menstrual cups than in tampons, potentially due to the additional air introduced to the bag by cups, with differences based on cup composition and size...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668758/clostridium-sordellii-outer-spore-proteins-maintain-spore-structural-integrity-and-promote-bacterial-clearance-from-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#8
Rebecca Rabi, Sarah Larcombe, Rommel Mathias, Sheena McGowan, Milena Awad, Dena Lyras
Bacterial spores play an important role in disease initiation, transmission and persistence. In some species, the exosporium forms the outermost structure of the spore and provides the first point of contact between the spore and the environment. The exosporium may also be involved in spore adherence, protection and germination. Clostridium sordellii is a highly lethal, spore forming pathogen that causes soft-tissue infections, enteritis and toxic-shock syndrome. Despite the importance of C. sordellii spores in disease, spore proteins from this bacterium have not been defined or interrogated functionally...
April 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662470/basis-of-virulence-in-enterotoxin-mediated-staphylococcal-food-poisoning
#9
REVIEW
Emilie L Fisher, Michael Otto, Gordon Y C Cheung
The Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins are a superfamily of secreted virulence factors that share structural and functional similarities and possess potent superantigenic activity causing disruptions in adaptive immunity. The enterotoxins can be separated into two groups; the classical (SEA-SEE) and the newer (SEG-SE l Y and counting) enterotoxin groups. Many members from both these groups contribute to the pathogenesis of several serious human diseases, including toxic shock syndrome, pneumonia, and sepsis-related infections...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662467/multilocus-sequence-typing-and-virulence-associated-gene-profile-analysis-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-retail-ready-to-eat-food-in-china
#10
Xiaojuan Yang, Shubo Yu, Qingping Wu, Jumei Zhang, Shi Wu, Dongli Rong
The aim of this study was to characterize the subtypes and virulence profiles of 69 Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from retail ready-to-eat food in China. The isolates were analyzed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of important virulence factor genes, including the staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes ( sea , seb , sec , sed , see , seg , seh , sei , sej ), the exfoliative toxin genes ( eta and etb ), the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 gene ( tst ), and the Panton-Valentine leucocidin-encoding gene ( pvl )...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657682/the-relationship-between-prevalence-of-antibiotics-resistance-and-virulence-factors-genes-of-mrsa-and-mssa-strains-isolated-from-clinical-samples-west-iran
#11
Mohammad Reza Arabestani, Sahar Rastiyani, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani, Seyed Fazlullah Mousavi
Objectives: We sought to evaluate the relationship between the prevalence of antibiotics resistance and virulence factors genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains from clinical samples taken in west Iran. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using 100 MRSA and 100 MSSA samples isolated from clinical specimens. We used biochemical methods to identify the isolates, which were confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay...
March 2018: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619033/triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cells-1-signaling-protective-and-pathogenic-roles-on-streptococcal-toxic-shock-like-syndrome-caused-by-streptococcus-suis
#12
REVIEW
Li Han, Lei Fu, Yongbo Peng, Anding Zhang
Streptococcus suis infections can cause septic shock, which is referred to as streptococcal toxic-shock-like syndrome (STSLS). The disease is characterized by a severe inflammatory response, multiple organ failure, and high mortality. However, no superantigen that is responsible for toxic shock syndrome was detected in S. suis , indicating that the mechanism underlying STSLS is different and remains to be elucidated. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1), belonging to the Ig superfamily, is an activating receptor expressed on myeloid cells, and has been recognized as a critical immunomodulator in several inflammatory diseases of both infectious and non-infectious etiologies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616025/differences-between-pediatric-and-adult-t-cell-responses-to-in-vitro-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-b-stimulation
#13
Mark E Rudolph, Monica A McArthur, Robin S Barnes, Laurence S Magder, Wilbur H Chen, Marcelo B Sztein
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is capable of inducing life-threatening fever, rash, and systemic organ failure, though the specific mechanisms behind these symptoms remain poorly understood. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and other superantigens have shown to be important factors in TSS, capable of promoting cross-linking between T cell receptors and major histocompatibility complexes which results in overwhelming T cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production. The resulting proinflammatory cytokine cascade, often referred to as the "cytokine storm," seems to be critical to the development of disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601458/epidemiology-and-clinical-relevance-of-toxic-shock-syndrome-in-us-children
#14
James T Gaensbauer, Meghan Birkholz, Michael A Smit, Roger Garcia, James K Todd
INTRODUCTION: It is important for clinicians to recognize the contribution of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) to the overall burden of pediatric septic shock because the clinical features, optimal therapy and prognosis differ from non-TSS septic shock. METHODS: We analyzed cases of pediatric septic shock reported to the Pediatric Health Information Systems (PHIS) database between 2009 and 2013 to define the clinical and demographic characteristics of pediatric TSS in the US...
March 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581121/dextromethorphan-attenuates-nadph-oxidase-regulated-gsk-3%C3%AE-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-and-reduces-nitric-oxide-production-in-group-a-streptococcal-infection
#15
Chia-Ling Chen, Miao-Huei Cheng, Chih-Feng Kuo, Yi-Lin Cheng, Ming-Han Li, Chih-Peng Chang, Jiunn-Jong Wu, Robert Anderson, Shuying Wang, Pei-Jane Tsai, Ching-Chuan Liu, Yee-Shin Lin
Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen that causes a wide spectrum of diseases, including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Dextromethorphan (DM), an antitussive drug, has been demonstrated to efficiently reduce inflammatory responses thereby contributing to an increased survival rate of GAS-infected mice. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms underlying DM treatment in GAS infection remain unclear. DM is known to exert neuroprotective effects through a NADPH oxidase-dependent regulated process...
March 26, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564253/assessment-of-menstrual-hygiene-among-reproductive-age-women-in-south-west-delhi
#16
Gunjan Kumar, Josyula G Prasuna, Gaurav Seth
Background: The issue of menstrual hygiene is inadequately acknowledged in our nation. The use of sanitary pads and washing the genital area are essential practices for good menstrual hygiene. Poor menstrual hygiene may lead to itching or rashes in the perineal region, bad odor, and sometimes, major complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease and toxic shock syndrome. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene among reproductive age group women...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513103/characterization-of-toxin-genes-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-staphylococcus-aureus-from-retail-raw-chicken-meat
#17
Suixia Li, Panpan Wang, Jialin Zhao, Luhong Zhou, Pengfei Zhang, Chengyu Fu, Jianghong Meng, Xin Wang
The aim of this study was to investigate the toxin gene profile and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from raw chicken in the People's Republic of China. In total, 289 S. aureus isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and genes encoding enterotoxins, exfoliative toxins, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, and toxic shock syndrome toxin were revealed by PCR. Overall, 46.0% of the isolates were positive for one or more toxin genes. A high proportion of toxin genes were pvl (26...
April 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494927/comparative-homology-model-building-and-docking-evaluation-for-rna-iii-inhibiting-peptide-of-multi-drug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-strain-mrsa252
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Vishal Mevada, Rajesh Patel, Bhoomi Patel, Rajesh Chaudhari
Since last several years, infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus is challenging to cure using conventional antibiotics. The organism is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that can cause serious diseases not only in humans but also in animals, such as various skin infections, pneumonia, endocarditis and toxin shock syndrome. This bacterium causes such diseases by producing macromolecules such as hemolysins, enterotoxins, proteases and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1). This organism had developed the multidrug resistance by acquiring MEC-A gene...
April 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457020/infective-endocarditis-associated-with-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-due-to-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-subsp-equisimilis-infection-in-a-hemodialysis-patient
#19
Momoko Kan, Yasukiyo Mori, Nao Kishimoto, Hiroki Shibutani, Yuno Tomita, Tomoko Hagino, Eiko Ohira, Masahiro Karakawa
The risk of infective endocarditis in chronic hemodialysis patients is markedly higher than that in the general population. We report the first case of a hemodialysis patient with infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) who presented with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. In the last decade, there has been an increase in the incidence of SDSE infections. Therefore, it is important to recognize SDSE as a possible causative agent of infective endocarditis in an immunocompromised population, such as hemodialysis patients...
September 2017: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453477/effects-of-bilateral-nasal-packing-on-oxygen-saturation-and-blood-pressure
#20
Meera Bista
INTRODUCTION: Nasal packing is one of the most common rhinological procedures in ENT practice exerting local in nose and systemic effects. Systemic effects may be due to poor sleep quality, respiratory difficulty, decreased oxygen saturation, circulatory problems and toxic shock syndrome which can threaten the life of a person.The study was done to investigate the effect on bilateral nasal packing on blood oxygen saturation and blood pressure changes. METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study was undertaken in Kathmandu Medical College from January 2017 to June 2017...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
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