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Babita Raghuwanshi, N K Pehlajani, Mithilesh K Sinha, Swagata Tripathy
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Excessive requests for cross matching blood which is more than the blood required for transfusion are usually based on worst case assumptions leading to overestimation of blood usage. We investigated the blood ordering pattern and transfusion practices so as to incorporate a blood ordering schedule for streamlining the use of blood in various hospital departments. METHODS: The study was conducted over a period of 19 months in a 350 bedded tertiary teaching hospital...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Chaofei Zhu, Pu Wang, Yingming Li, Zhaojing Chen, Honghua Li, Patrick Ssebugere, Qinghua Zhang, Guibin Jiang
Trophic transfer of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was investigated in both the terrestrial and aquatic food webs from an e-waste dismantling region in East China. The mean Σ3HBCD concentrations in the terrestrial species varied from 0.91 (0.16-1.85) ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw) in dragonflies (Pantala flavescens) to 40.3 (22.1-51.1) ng g(-1) lw in rats (Rattus norvegicus). The isomeric profile indicated that α-HBCD presented a decreasing trend along the trophic level (TL) (from 97.2% to 16.3% of Σ3HBCDs), while γ-HBCD showed a reverse trend (from 2...
February 2, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Kurt Daum, Justin Stoler, Richard J Grant
Global flows of e-waste from the Global North to the Global South continue to damage local environments and harm human health. Weak e-waste regulations and limited use of safety measures for e-waste workers in Accra, Ghana, foster an exploitative environment within the industry, and pose health risks for those working and living near e-waste processing sites. This paper presents an integrated review of over 40 e-waste studies specific to Accra, with particular emphasis on the well-studied e-waste processing site in Agbogbloshie, and synthesizes the existing research base across interdisciplinary themes of human health, environmental health, globalization, trade and informalization, and public policy...
January 29, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jin-Li Cui, Chun-Ling Luo, Chloe Wing-Yee Tang, Ting-Shan Chan, Xiang-Dong Li
Primitive electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities have caused serious environmental problems. However, little is known about the speciation and leaching behaviors of metal contaminants at e-waste contaminated sites. This study investigated trace metal speciation/mobilization from e-waste polluted soil through column leaching experiments involving irrigation with rainwater for almost 2.5 years. Over the experimental period, Cu and Zn levels in the porewater were 0.14±0.08mg/L, and 0.16±0...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Enrique E Rozas, Maria A Mendes, Claudio A O Nascimento, Denise C R Espinosa, Renato Oliveira, Guilherme Oliveira, Marcio R Custodio
The bacteria isolated from Hymeniacidon heliophila sponge cells showed bioleaching activity. The most active strain, Hyhel-1, identified as Bacillus sp., was selected for bioleaching tests under two different temperatures, 30°C and 40°C, showing rod-shaped cells and filamentous growth, respectively. At 30°C, the bacteria secreted substances which linked to the leached copper, and at 40°C metallic nanoparticles were produced inside the cells. In addition, infrared analysis detected COOH groups and linear peptides in the tested bacteria at both temperatures...
January 22, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Shizhen Zhao, Knut Breivik, Guorui Liu, Minghui Zheng, Kevin C Jones, Andrew J Sweetman
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial organic contaminants identified as persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic (PBT) and subject to long-range transport (LRT) with global scale significance. This study focuses on a reconstruction and prediction for China of long-term emission trends of intentionally and unintentionally produced (UP) ∑7PCBs (UP-PCBs, from the manufacture of steel, cement and sinter iron) and their re-emissions from secondary sources (e.g., soils and vegetation), using a dynamic fate model (BETR-Global)...
January 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Yu Liu, Aijun Gong, Lina Qiu, Jingrui Li, Fukai Li
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a good environmental microorganism capable of degrading decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). This paper studied the effect of Cu(2+) and humic acid (HA) extracted from e-waste contaminated soils on biodegradation of BDE-209 by P. aeruginosa. The adsorption isotherms of Cu(2+) on HA, the crude enzyme activity, cell surface morphology, and biodegradation pathway were also investigated. The results showed that BDE-209 biodegradation by P. aeruginosa was inhibited at Cu(2+) concentrations above 5 mg L(-1) , but exhibited the best effect at the condition of 40 mg L(-1) Cu(2+)  + 3 g L(-1) HA...
January 19, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Shidi Miao, Tengfei Wang, Deyun Chen
With the rapid development of the electronic information industry in recent years, electronic products are being updated faster and faster, and e-waste recycling has become a common problem around the world. Firstly, this article contrasts recycling at home and abroad using the predicament of Midea Corp. Based on a closed-loop supply chain with the system dynamics method, a model is constructed and simulated. In this model, the collection point coverage rate is introduced to adjust the e-waste recycling rate dynamically...
January 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Shao-You Lu, Yan-Xi Li, Tao Zhang, Dan Cai, Ju-Jun Ruan, Ming-Zhi Huang, Lei Wang, Jian-Qing Zhang, Rong-Liang Qiu
In this study, three chlorinated (Cl-mOPs) and five nonchlorinated (NCl-mOPs) organophosphate metabolites were determined in urine samples collected from participants living in an electronic waste (e-waste) dismantling area (n = 175) and two reference areas (rural, n = 29 and urban, n = 17) in southern China. Bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate [BCEP, geometric mean (GM): 0.72 ng/mL] was the most abundant Cl-mOP, and diphenyl phosphate (DPHP, 0.55 ng/mL) was the most abundant NCl-mOP. The GM concentrations of mOPs in the e-waste dismantling sites were higher than those in the rural control site...
February 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Anshu Priya, Subrata Hait
Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) or electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in the urban environment worldwide. The core component of printed circuit board (PCB) in e-waste contains a complex array of metals in rich quantity, some of which are toxic to the environment and all of which are valuable resources. Therefore, the recycling of e-waste is an important aspect not only from the point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of metals for economic growth...
January 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
R Cayumil, M Ikram-Ul-Haq, R Khanna, R Saini, P S Mukherjee, B K Mishra, V Sahajwalla
High temperature pyrolysis investigations were carried out on waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) in the temperature range 800-1000°C under inert conditions, with an aim to determine optimal operating conditions for the recovery of copper. Pyrolysis residues were characterized using ICP-OES analysis, SEM/EDS and XRD investigations. Copper foils were successfully recovered after pyrolysis at 800°C for 10-20 min; the levels of Pb and Sn present were found to be quite low and these were generally present near the foil edges...
January 12, 2017: Waste Management
Wojciech Hyk, Konrad Kitka
A system composed of persulfate salt and ammonia in highly alkaline aqueous solution is developed and examined for leaching metallic silver from elements of the electronic waste materials (e-scrap). Strong base activates persulfate ions providing in situ generation of highly reactive oxygen molecules. The oxidized metal forms then well soluble complex ions with ammonia ligands. The kinetic studies of the leaching process were performed for pure metallic silver. They revealed that the efficiency of the process is affected by the type of the persulfate salt...
January 2, 2017: Waste Management
Dan Liu, Sheng-Min Wu, Qin Zhang, Min Guo, Jie Cheng, Sheng-Hu Zhang, Cheng Yao, Jian-Qiu Chen
Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been frequently observed in marine aquatic environments; however, little information is available on the occurrence of these compounds in freshwater aquatic environments, including freshwater lakes. In this study, we investigated the occurrence and spatial distribution of typical OH-PBDEs, including 2'-OH-BDE-68, 3-OH-BDE-47, 5-OH-BDE-47, and 6-OH-BDE-47 in surface sediments of Taihu Lake. 3-OH-BDE-47 was the predominant congener, followed by 5-OH-BDE-47, 2'-OH-BDE-68, and 6-OH-BDE-47...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Runxia Sun, Xiaojun Luo, Bin Tang, Laiguo Chen, Yu Liu, Bixian Mai
Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are under review for inclusion into the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. However, limited information is available on their bioaccumulation and biomagnification in ecosystems, which is hindering evaluation of their ecological and health risks. In the present study, wild aquatic organisms (fish and invertebrates), water, and sediment collected from an enclosed freshwater pond contaminated by electronic waste (e-waste) were analyzed to investigate the bioaccumulation, distribution, and trophic transfer of SCCPs in the aquatic ecosystem...
March 2017: Environmental Pollution
Mei-Yun Zheng, Xing-Hong Li, Yun Zhang, You-Lin Yang, Wen-Yue Wang, Yuan Tian
Presently, knowledge on the partitioning of polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from mother to fetus and the relationship between PBDE exposure and the levels of thyroid hormones (THs) needs to be extended further. In the present study, we investigated the concentrations of PBDEs in paired mother-fetus samples from 72 pregnant women in Wenling, China. The detection of PBDE concentration suggested that the expectant women living in Wenling for over 20 years might be highly exposed to PBDEs, which is largely ascribed to e-waste recycling activities in the local environment...
March 2017: Chemosphere
Bingbing Sun, Yuanan Hu, Hefa Cheng, Shu Tao
Plastic components of e-waste contain high levels of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), whose releases cause environmental and human health concerns. This study characterized the release kinetics of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from millimeter-sized granules processed from the plastic exteriors of two scrap computer displays at environmentally relevant temperatures. The release rate of a substitute of PBDEs, 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), from the waste plastics, was reported for the first time...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Jianbo Wang, Zhenming Xu
up to now, the recycling of e-waste should be developed towards more depth and refinement to promote industrial production of e-waste resource recovery. in the present study, the recycling of aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs) from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) is focused on. First of all, AECs are disassembled from WPCBs by a self-designed machine; meanwhile, the disassembled AECs are subjected to an integrated process, involving heating treatment, crushing, sieving, and magnetic separating, to recover aluminum and iron; finally, the off-gas and residue generated during the aforementioned processes are analyzed to evaluate environmental risks...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Eric Akortia, Olubiyi I Olukunle, Adegbenro P Daso, Jonathan O Okonkwo
Unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling operations have become a significant environmental issue as well as human health risk in developing countries across the world. The present study evaluated the extent of pollution in Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling site in Accra, Ghana. The concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and some selected trace metals were determined using gas chromatography electron impact ionization mass spectrometry and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, respectively...
March 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Zhitong Yao, Daidai Wu, Jie Liu, Weihong Wu, Hongting Zhao, Junhong Tang
The disposal of waste cathode ray-tubes (CRTs) from old televisions and discarded computer monitors has become a major environmental concern worldwide. In this work, an open-loop recycling method was developed to synthesize zeolites using CRT funnel glass as the raw material. The effects of hydrothermal temperatures and pressure, n(SiO2/Al2O3) molar ratios and hydrothermal time on the resulting products were investigated. The results indicated that hydrothermal temperatures and pressure played critical roles in zeolite synthesis...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Jie Luo, Shihua Qi, Xianming Xie, X W Sophie Gu, Jinji Wang
Guiyu is a well-known electronic waste dismantling and recycling town in south China. Concentrations and distribution of the 21 mineral elements and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) collected there were evaluated. Principal component analyses (PCA) applied to the data matrix of PAHs in the soil extracted three major factors explaining 85.7% of the total variability identified as traffic emission, coal combustion, and an unidentified source. By using metallic or metalloid element concentrations as variables, five principal components (PCs) were identified and accounted for 70...
November 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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