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Hussein M Ageely, Ahmed E Agag, Syam Mohan, Atef Shehata
BACKGROUND: Khat (Catha edulis) is a controversial plant having a euphoretic effect, at the same time part of culture in many countries such as Africa and Arabian Peninsula. The presence of amphetamine-like substance, cathinone and cathine make this plant banned in many countries. Many neurological and other system related studies have been carried out in this plant, but the lack of toxicity studies are there especially the mechanism. OBJECTIVE: In this study, Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney cell line was used as an in vitro model to study the cell death mechanism...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Minaleshewa Atlabachew, Sandra Combrinck, Alvaro M Viljoen, Josias H Hamman, Chrisna Gouws
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Khat, the leaves of Catha edulis, is used as a "natural amphetamine-like" stimulant in eastern and southern Africa, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula. Leaves are masticated to elicit a state of euphoria. Although the psychostimulatory effects of the leaves are attributed to the presence of phenylpropylamino alkaloids (i.e. cathinone, cathine and norephedrine) the extent of permeation of these alkaloids across the oral and intestinal mucosa has not been established...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Mahantayya V Math, Yashoda R Kattimani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2016: British Dental Journal
Anne Berit Petersen, Lisa M Thompson, Gezahegn Bekele Dadi, Alemu Tolcha, Janine K Cataldo
BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, female smoking rates are currently low (1 %). However, because of male smoking rates (overall 7.7 % and up to 27 % depending on region), women and children's risk of second hand smoke (SHS) exposure is a pressing concern. In order to develop effective public health interventions that prevent the uptake and exposure to smoking, thereby averting the projected increase in tobacco-induced disease, an understanding of Ethiopian women's practices regarding tobacco is needed...
2016: BMC Public Health
Syam Mohan, Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab, Yahya Hasan Hobani, Suvitha Syam, Adel S Al-Zubairi, Rashad Al-Sanousi, Magbool Essa Oraiby
BACKGROUND: Catha edulis (Khat) is an evergreen shrub or small tree, traditionally used by various peoples of the Arabian Peninsula and Africa as an integral component of the socioeconomic traditions. It is believed that the psychostimulant nature and toxic nature of khat is primarily due to the presence of cathinone and cathine respectively. Studies have shown that khat chewing is closely associated with cardiac complications, especially myocardial infarction. Hence in this study, we exposed cathine-rich khat extract in a cardiomyoblast H9c2 (2-1) cell line to check the cell death mechanism...
May 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Hawa D Mahamoud, Sabah Mohammed Muse, Lewis R Roberts, Philip R Fischer, Michael S Torbenson, Tim Fader
BACKGROUND: Khat chewing is common especially among men in East Africa and Yemen. It is generally viewed by the populace as a benign social custom. Several studies of ethnic Somali immigrants to Western countries suggest an association between khat chewing and hepatotoxicity, but the risk of hepatotoxicity related to khat chewing within African settings is not documented. AIM: To identify and describe liver disease without evidence of alcohol exposure or infectious etiology in khat chewers...
2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
H A Alsufyani, J R Docherty
We have studied gender differences in the direct and indirect sympathomimetic cardiovascular effects of the stimulant cathinone (from Khat) (and for comparison methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) and the archetypal indirect sympathomimetic agent tyramine, employing male and female Wistar rats. Animals were sympathectomized by treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine or treated with vehicle. In male and female vehicle-treated pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rats, all three agonists (0.001-1 mg/kg) produced significant tachycardia, tyramine produced large pressor, and in high doses small depressor responses, MDMA produced small pressor responses, and cathinone produced only minor pressor effects...
January 2016: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
Berhanu Geresu, Emmanuel Onaivi, Ephrem Engidawork
Several studies have shown the existence of an interaction between the endocannabinoid system and some drugs of abuse, such as opioids, nicotine, alcohol, and cocaine. For instance, the endocannabinoid system has long been known to play a role in the underlying mechanisms of drug reward and dependence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible existence of an interaction between the endocannabinoid system and khat after acute administration. Behavioral interactions of khat extract with cannabinoids were assessed...
October 1, 2016: Brain Research
Motohiro Nakajima, Anisa Dokam, Najat Saem Khalil, Mohammed Alsoofi, Mustafa al'Absi
BACKGROUND: Habitual substance use poses public health threat. This is a growing concern in countries where one or more substances are commonly used. Many individuals in Middle Eastern and East African countries use khat (Catha edulis), a stimulant often accompanied by smoking. However, few systematic attempts have been made to characterize patterns of concurrent khat and tobacco use. OBJECTIVES: To examine correlates such as gender and patterns of khat and tobacco use in concurrent users and khat-only users...
October 14, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Admassu Assen, Fantahun Molla, Abrham Wondimu, Solomon Abrha, Wondim Melkam, Ebisa Tadesse, Zewdu Yilma, Tadele Eticha, Hagos Abrha, Birhanu Demeke Workneh
BACKGROUND: In spite of the availability and accessibility of HIV testing opportunities and efforts, people are being late to test in the course of HIV infection. Late diagnosis leads to late anti-retroviral therapy initiation which in turn results in poor treatment outcome and prognosis of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of late HIV diagnosis among HIV-infected patients in South Tigray Zone, Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility based cross sectional study was conducted among HIV positive patients from February 1-30, 2014 in Southern Tigray, Ethiopia...
2016: BMC Public Health
Catherine Abbo, Elialilia S Okello, Wilson Muhwezi, Grace Akello, Emilio Ovuga
AIMS: 1) To determine the nature and extent of alcohol and substance use and 2) To describe the relationship between alcohol use and psychosocial competence among secondary school youths in Northern and Central Uganda. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Departments of Mental Health, Gulu University (Northern Uganda) and Department of Psychiatry, Makerere University College of Health Sciences (Central Uganda) between September 2011 and April 2012...
2016: International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal
R Marway
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 8, 2016: British Dental Journal
Ammar Ali Saleh Jaber, Amer Hayat Khan, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Nafees Ahmad, Mohamed Saif Anaam
BACKGROUND: The health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of Tuberculosis (TB) patients is important because it directly influences the outcome of TB patients in several aspects. The current study aims to evaluate and to find the factors influencing the HRQoL of TB patients in two major TB-prevalent cities (Taiz and Alhodidah) in Yemen. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted, and all TB patients meeting the HRQoL criteria were asked to complete the HRQoL SF-36 survey...
2016: PloS One
Tegegne Bogale, Epherm Engidawork, Engida Yisma
BACKGROUND: Chewing fresh leaves of the khat plant (Catha edulis forsk) is a deep rooted and widespread habit in East Africa and the Middle East. Although a body of knowledge exists about the adverse effects of khat on health, data are sparse with regard to the consequences of long-term khat chewing in resulting schizophrenic like symptoms. METHODS: A crude extract of khat at different doses (100 mg/kg (K (khat)100), 200 mg/kg (K200) and 400 mg/kg (K400)) were administered for experimental group of mice whereas standard (ketamine (KT) 10 mg/kg- positive controls (KT10)) and vehicle (2 % v/v Tween-80 in distilled water - negative control groups (CON)) were administered for control groups of mice daily for two months to evaluate subchronic oral administration of crude khat extract to induce schizophrenic-like symptoms in mice...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Faiza H Issa, Molhem Al-Habori, Michael L Chance
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of khat (Catha edulis) on chloroquine (CQ) bioavailability in healthy Yemeni adults and its effect on CQ plasma levels and parasite clearance among malaria patients. METHODS: This study took place between January and April 2007 in Bajil and Sana'a, Yemen. Two CQ doses (600 mg each) were given to 15 healthy males on separate occasions; the first dose was followed by a khat-chewing session (phase one) while controls abstained from khat-chewing for the second (phase two)...
May 2016: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Eva Teisen, Ben Vainer, Henriette Ytting
Chewing of leaves from the Catha edulis (khat) plant has amphetamine-like, stimulating effects and is used in rituals among East African men. In recent years, a possible liver-toxic effect has been observed in Somali immigrants in Western countries and has in severe cases led to death or liver transplantation. It is discussed whether the liver insufficiency represents a severe ethnic variant of autoimmune hepatitis, or a khat-induced hepatitis with autoimmune features. We describe six patients with Somalian background and possibly khat-induced toxic hepatitis...
May 16, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Mowaffaq Awad Sallam, Kamaludin Ahmed Sheikh, Ronald Baxendale, Mohammad Nurul Azam, Maged El-Setouhy
BACKGROUND: Khat (Catha Edulis Forsk) is a natural psychoactive substance that contains addictive substances such as Cathine and Cathinone which have similar structure and action to amphetamine. This substance has been suggested that it can decrease perceived exertion and thus improve performance. There is no study in the literature regarding the effect of khat on exercise performance. Therefore, the aim of this study is to find out whether khat leaves can decrease perceived exertion in humans...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Khaled M Mohamed, Abtehaj H Al-Hazmi, Alanoud M Alasiri, Mahmoud El-Said Ali
The stimulating herbal drug khat (cathine, cathinone) and its analog methcathinone are common substances of abuse in most countries. A GC-MS method was developed and validated for the detection and quantification of cathine, cathinone, methcathinone and ephedrine in oral fluid specimens. The analytes and internal standard (amphetamine-d5) were extracted from 0.5 mL oral fluids by ethyl acetate, and then the dried extracts were derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride at 70°C for 30 min. The MS was used in selected ion monitoring mode...
September 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Richard A Glennon, Richard Young
Synthetic cathinones are analogs of cathinone or β-ketoamphetamine - the major psychostimulant component of the shrub Catha edulis or khat. Cathinone analogs - though not termed as such - have been known for>100years, but confusing chemical nomenclature often made the topic difficult to appreciate. In addition, many of the early analogs were prepared as synthetic precursors for the development of various other agents, and relatively few were pharmacologically evaluated. Cathinone is a close structural relative of amphetamine...
April 29, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Esietu Gebregazabher Hagos, Gebrekidan Gebregzabher Asfeha, Birhane Alem Berihu
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse (SA) refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. The most common substances which are usually abused are alcohol and tobacco. Herein, we assessed the prevalence of SA among regular degree health science students of the Sheba University College (SUC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 1076 SUC students using self-administered structured questionnaire...
April 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
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