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Andrine M Lemieux, Motohiro Nakajima, Riyadh Saif-Ali, Molham Al-Habori, Anisa Dokam, Mustafa al'Absi
INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoid activity is disrupted in substance users including khat chewers who also use tobacco. Anger, dysphoria, and anxiety can mediate this relationship. The aim of this study was to contrast emotion dysregulation and substance use variables as predictors of post-stress cortisol output. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Comparable numbers of males (n = 90) and females (n = 85) including controls, khat only, and concurrent khat and tobacco users participated in a stress study...
March 2, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Samson W Duresso, Allison J Matthews, Stuart G Ferguson, Raimondo Bruno
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the efficacy of the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) as a screening tool for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition-defined khat use disorder. METHODS: Cross-sectional, purposive sample of past-year khat consumers aged 16 and above were recruited from khat markets and cafes from university and general community in Adama, Ethiopia. Participants self-completed a survey comprising current substance use disorder...
March 11, 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
Jemal Abdella Bultum, Niguse Yigzaw, Wubit Demeke, Mekuriaw Alemayehu
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption among patients with HIV/AIDS increases the burden of the disease. HIV/AIDS is an epidemic among Sub-Saharan African countries. Excessive use of alcohol causes a large degree of health problems, social and economic burden in societies. However, the prevalence and associated factors of alcohol use disorder among this group of people has not been studied very well. Therefore, this study sought to assess the magnitude and associated factors of alcohol use disorder among HIV patients attending the antiretroviral (ART) clinic...
2018: PloS One
Al Muktafi Sadi, Talat Afroze, M Ahsan Siraj, Abdul Momen, Colin White-Dzuro, Dorrin Zarrin-Khat, Shivalika Handa, Kiwon Ban, M Golam Kabir, Maria G Trivieri, Robert Gros, Peter Backx, Mansoor Husain
Background:  Heart failure (HF) is associated with reduced expression of plasma membrane Ca2+ -ATPase 4 (PMCA4).  Cardiac-specific overexpression of human PMCA4b in mice inhibited nNOS activity and reduced cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting calcineurin.  Here we examine temporally-regulated cardiac-specific over-expression of hPMCA4b in mouse models of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) ex vivo , and HF following experimental myocardial infarction (MI) in vivo Methods & Results: Doxycycline-regulated cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression and activity of hPMCA4b produced adaptive changes in expression levels of Ca2+ -regulatory genes, and induced hypertrophy without significant differences in Ca2+ transients or diastolic Ca2+ concentrations...
February 27, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Victoria Gordon, Ratul Adhikary, Victoria Appleby, Debasis Das, James Day, Toby Delahooke, Selena Dixon, David Elphick, Claire Hardie, Barbara Hoeroldt, Patricia Hooper, John Hutchinson, Rebecca Jones, Faisal Khan, Guruprasad P Aithal, John McGonigle, Andrew Nelson, Alick Nkhoma, Stavroula Pelitari, Martin Prince, Annell Prosser, Vinay Sathanarayana, Sophia Savva, Naina Shah, Sushma Saksena, Sreedhari Thayalasekaran, Deven Vani, Andrew Yeoman, Dermot Gleeson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is limited information regarding patients with AIH outside relatively few large centres. We describe here the presenting features of patients with AIH, collected as part of an audit involving 28 UK hospitals. METHODS: Patients (incident since 1/1/2007 or prevalent since 1/1/2000) were >18 years and either met 1999 International AIH Group (IAIHG) diagnostic criteria (n=1164), or received immunosuppressive therapy for clinically diagnosed AIH (n=103)...
February 17, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Stian Magnus Staurung Orlien, Nejib Yusuf Ismael, Tekabe Abdosh Ahmed, Nega Berhe, Trine Lauritzen, Borghild Roald, Robert David Goldin, Kathrine Stene-Johansen, Anne Margarita Dyrhol-Riise, Svein Gunnar Gundersen, Marsha Yvonne Morgan, Asgeir Johannessen
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is assumed to be the major cause of chronic liver disease (CLD) in sub-Saharan Africa. The contribution of other aetiological causes of CLD is less well documented and hence opportunities to modulate other potential risk factors are being lost. The aims of this study were to explore the aetiological spectrum of CLD in eastern Ethiopia and to identify plausible underlying risk factors for its development. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken between April 2015 and April 2016 in two public hospitals in Harar, eastern Ethiopia...
February 13, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Morteza Gholami, Sedigheh Esmaeilzadeh Bahabadi
Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is a narcotic plant which contains significant amounts of amphetamines, like alkaloids. Herein, analysis of the essential oil composition showed that Khat has useful volatile chemicals in addition to its alkaloids. Results indicated that among 35 identified constituents including mono and sesquiterpenes, the diterpene kaurene, comprises the major part of the essential oil, around 50 percent of total. Kaurene is known as a potent biological agent for the treatment of cancer patients...
February 13, 2018: Natural Product Research
Stian Magnus Staurung Orlien, Irene Sandven, Nega Belay Berhe, Nejib Yusuf Ismael, Tekabe Abdosh Ahmed, Kathrine Stene-Johansen, Svein Gunnar Gundersen, Marsha Yvonne Morgan, Asgeir Johannessen
The chewing of the leaves of Catha edulis (khat) has been implicated in the development of liver disease, but no controlled observations have been undertaken. The objective of the present study was to determine whether khat chewing is associated with development of chronic liver disease (CLD). A case-control study was conducted at two public hospitals in Harar, Ethiopia, between April 2015 and April 2016. A consecutive sample of 150 adult hospital attendees with CLD were included as cases, and 300 adult hospital attendees without clinical or laboratory evidence of CLD were included as controls...
January 25, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
S Zaami, R Giorgetti, S Pichini, F Pantano, E Marinelli, F P Busardò
OBJECTIVE: Synthetic cathinones, more commonly known as "bath salts", are synthetic drugs chemically related to cathinone, a psychostimulant found in the khat plant. They are the first most consumed products among new psychoactive substances, which cause psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects determining a number of fatalities worldwide.  In this paper, we have systematically reviewed cases of synthetic cathinones-related fatalities analytically confirmed, which have occurred in the last few years...
January 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Zaid Mutahar Mohammed Alezzi, Ayman Yosry Abd El Rehim, Waleed Fouad Fathallah, Mansour Ali Alamrani, Fouad Hezam Othman
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasingly seen as a major public health problem, threat, and concern worldwide. In Yemen about 1.7% of the population is infected with chronic hepatitis C. This study aimed to detect the predictors for response to pegylated interferon and ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV) in chronic HCV Yemeni patients. The study was conducted on 100 patients with chronic HCV who received Peg-IFN/RBV in the 48th Military Hospital in Sana'a Yemen, from 2011 to 2013. All patients were subjected to complete history taking, thorough clinical examinations, routine laboratory investigation, and abdominal ultrasonography...
January 2018: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Ahmed A Ismail, Mohammed Almalki, Ahmed Agag, Yahya M Solan, Ibrahim A Bani
BACKGROUND: Pesticide applicators are at risk of developing neurological symptoms and neurobehavioral deficits. This risk may increase if the applicator chews stimulant plants like khat. OBJECTIVE: To examine the sociodemographic and exposure determinants of neurological symptoms presentation, neurobehavioral performance, and cholinesterase activity among pesticide applicators in a vector control unit, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 30 pesticide applicators and 32 non-applicators from a vector control unit in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia, were studied...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Worku Abebe
The rising global availability of the stimulant and euphoric substances, khat and synthetic cathinones, has become a cause for concern in many countries, including the United States. Both substances are illegal in United States, although this has not deterred their use. Besides central nervous system effects, these drugs also cause sympathomimetic and orodental adverse effects, similar to those of amphetamine. Although synthetic cathinones are stronger than khat in most cases, the latter additionally contains tannins, which have astringent effects on tissues components, including those in the oral cavity...
November 22, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Ammar Ali Saleh Jaber, Amer Hayat Khan, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman
Background: Evaluating outcomes after tuberculosis (TB) treatment can help identify the primary reasons for treatment success or failure. However, Yemen has a treatment success rate that remains below the World Health Organization's target. This study aimed to identify factors that were associated with unsuccessful treatment and prolonged treatment (>1 year). Method: Newly diagnosed cases of smear-positive pulmonary TB were prospectively followed at two centers (Taiz and Alhodidah, Yemen) between April 2014 and March 2015...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Esther Muthumbi, Brett S Lowe, Cyprian Muyodi, Esther Getambu, Fergus Gleeson, J Anthony G Scott
Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adults worldwide; however, the risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in Africa are not well characterized. Methods: The authors recruited 281 cases of community-acquired pneumonia and 1202 hospital controls among patients aged ≥15 years who attended Kilifi District Hospital/Coast Provincial General Hospital in Kenya between 1994 and 6. Cases were admissions with an acute illness with ≥2 respiratory signs and evidence of consolidation on a chest radiograph...
2017: Pneumonia
Deneke Wolde, Mulualem Tadesse, Kedir Abdella, Gemeda Abebe, Solomon Ali
Background: Ethiopian universities are facilities where students live in relative overcrowding condition. This might favor the chance of tuberculosis transmission among students. This study was done to determine the magnitude and associated factors of tuberculosis among Jimma University students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done from February 2015 to July 2015. Hundred twenty-nine consented participants were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Biological specimens were collected and cultured on Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube...
2017: International Journal of Bacteriology
Yigizie Yeshaw, Andualem Mossie
Background: Worldwide, approximately 450 million people suffer from mental disorders. Of these, approximately 150 million are affected with depression. Depression, anxiety, and stress have an impact on productivity, motivation to work, sleep behavior of the individual, and outcome of different chronic diseases. However, till date, there are no studies which evaluated mental health problems among university staff in Ethiopia. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress, and their associated factors among Jimma University staff...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Sadeq A Al-Maweri, Aisha Al-Jamaei, Rajan Saini, Denise M Laronde, Amany Sharhan
AIMS: The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of white oral mucosal lesions among Yemeni adults; in particular, those who chew khat and tobacco. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study included 1052 dental patients aged 15 years and older. A detailed oral examination was performed by a single examiner in accordance with standard international criteria. RESULTS: Overall, 25.2% of the study participants presented with one or more white lesions...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
Butchibabu Kalakonda, Sadeq-Ali Al-Maweri, Hashem-Motahir Al-Shamiri, Anum Ijaz, Shukri Gamal, Esam Dhaifullah
Background: Khat (Catha edulis) chewing is a highly prevalent habit in the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa, and has recently spread to Western countries. The association between khat chewing and oral mucosal lesions is well documented in the literature. However, there is no concrete evidence on the association between khat chewing and periodontal disease. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the influence of khat chewing on periodontal health. Material and Methods: A literature search of PubMed, Scopus and Web of Sciences databases was carried out to identify relevant articles published from 1990 to May 2017...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Xavier Clemente-Casares, Siyavash Hosseinzadeh, Iulia Barbu, Sarah A Dick, Jillian A Macklin, Yiming Wang, Abdul Momen, Crystal Kantores, Laura Aronoff, Maylis Farno, Tiffany M Lucas, Joan Avery, Dorrin Zarrin-Khat, Heidi J Elsaesser, Babak Razani, Kory J Lavine, Mansoor Husain, David G Brooks, Clinton S Robbins, Myron Cybulsky, Slava Epelman
Innate and adaptive immune cells modulate heart failure pathogenesis during viral myocarditis, yet their identities and functions remain poorly defined. We utilized a combination of genetic fate mapping, parabiotic, transcriptional, and functional analyses and demonstrated that the heart contained two major conventional dendritic cell (cDC) subsets, CD103+ and CD11b+ , which differentially relied on local proliferation and precursor recruitment to maintain their tissue residency. Following viral infection of the myocardium, cDCs accumulated in the heart coincident with monocyte infiltration and loss of resident reparative embryonic-derived cardiac macrophages...
November 21, 2017: Immunity
Md Dilshad Manzar, Mohammed Salahuddin, Peter Sony, Tarekegn Tesfaye Maru, Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal, Adam Moscovitch, Ahmed S Bahammam
Khat (Catha edulis) is a evergreen flowering shrub that is cultivated at high altitudes, especially in East Africa and the southwest of the Arabian Peninsula. The plant contains alkaloids, of which cathinone and cathine have structural similarity and pharmacological action similar to amphetamines. The leaves are, therefore, consumed in some regions as a psychoactive stimulant due to cultural beliefs and misperceptions on the health benefits of khat consumption. This resulted in a growing prevalence of khat consumption among pregnant women...
October 2017: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
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