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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057187/challenges-in-laboratory-detection-of-unusual-substance-abuse-issues-with-magic-mushroom-peyote-cactus-khat-and-solvent-abuse
#1
A Dasgupta
Drug abuse is a worldwide problem. Although commonly abused drugs can be identified during routine urine drug testing, less commonly abused drugs may escape detection. These less commonly abused drugs not only include some designer drugs such as synthetic cannabinoid but also include abuse of psychedelic magic mushroom (active ingredients: psilocybin and psilocin), peyote cactus (active ingredient: mescaline), and khat plants (active ingredient: cathinone). Moreover, solvent and glue abuse is gaining popularity among teenagers and young adults which may even cause fatality...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057079/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-use-of-khat-a-survey-of-patients-entering-hiv-treatment-programs-in-ethiopia
#2
Alan R Lifson, Sale Workneh, Tibebe Shenie, Desalegn Admassu Ayana, Zenebe Melaku, Lemlem Bezabih, Hiwot Tekle Waktola, Behailu Dagne, Rose Hilk, Ken C Winters, Lucy Slater
BACKGROUND: Khat, a plant native to East Africa, has psychoactive constituents similar to amphetamine. Chronic khat use can lead to psychological dependence with multiple physical and mental health harms, complicating clinical management of people living with HIV. In two Ethiopian cities where khat is common, we evaluated prevalence and correlates of khat use among patients new to HIV care. METHODS: During 2013-2014, we surveyed 322 patients recently enrolled in HIV clinics in Dire Dawa and Harar about khat use, demographics, smoking and alcohol use, clinical illness, food insecurity, and social support...
January 6, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053661/psychological-morbidity-and-substance-use-among-patients-with-hypertension-a-hospital-based-cross-sectional-survey-from-south-west-ethiopia
#3
Matiwos Soboka, Esayas Kebede Gudina, Markos Tesfaye
BACKGROUND: Psychological morbidity and substance use disorders have been linked to cardiovascular diseases; affecting patients' medical outcome and quality of life. However, little is known about psychological morbidity and substance use among patients with hypertension in Ethiopia. Therefore, we aimed to assess psychological comorbidity and substance use among hypertensive patients in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 396 hypertensive patients on follow-up at Jimma University Teaching Hospital in Ethiopia during the study period...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050980/prevalence-and-severity-of-temporomandibular-disorders-among-undergraduate-medical-students-in-association-with-khat-chewing
#4
Mohammed M Al Moaleem, Abdulmajeed S Okshah, Ahid A Al-Shahrani, Abdulkhaliq Ali F Alshadidi, Fawzia I Shaabi, Abdulaziz H Mobark, Khurshid A Mattoo
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs) among undergraduate medical students in the presence of khat chewing over a period of time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Totally, 186 medical college students (age < 20 years) were randomly selected for the present study. The study subjects were divided into two groups according to age, under 20 and above 20 years. The study was based on Fonseca's anamnestic index and its questionnaire, which is composed of 10 questions and classifies the severity of TMDs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043552/role-of-socio-demographical-factors-on-tuberculosis-outcome-in-yemen
#5
Ammar Ali Saleh Jaber, Amer Hayat Khan, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Nafees Ahmad
OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection disease caused by an organism called Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tubercle bacilli). Tuberculosis remains the most common infection worldwide (Organization & World Health Organization, 2013). Yemen situated in WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region and ranked as intermediate TB-burdened countries. TB considers as one of the main health problems; it ranks as the fourth in the priority of the public health issue (NTCP, 2010). The study was conducted to evaluate the Socio-Demographical variables on tuberculosis treatment outcome...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978853/khat-a-new-precipitating-factor-for-reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome-a-case-report
#6
Harith Baharith, Amy Zarrin
BACKGROUND: Postpartum reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is one of the rare reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes. The clinical presentation is usually characterized by recurrent headache, focal neurological deficit, and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction seen on cerebral angiography. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 35-year-old Yemeni woman who presented with headache and focal neurological deficits that occurred 10 days after delivery, with segmental narrowing of cerebral arteries on angiography...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917217/determinants-of-alcohol-use-and-khat-chewing-among-hawassa-university-students-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Andargachew Kassa, Negash Wakgari, Fiker Taddesse
BACKGROUND: Students' alcohol and khat use have been associated with various health related problems. However, its magnitude and associated factors among Ethiopian students are not yet well documented. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of alcohol use, khat chewing and its associated factors among Hawassa University students. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to July 2011. Multistage stratified sampling technique was employed to select 590 students...
September 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871070/khat-catha-edulis-and-obesity-a-scoping-review-of-animal-and-human-studies
#8
Mustafa Ahmed Alshagga, Mohammed Abdullah Alshawsh, Atefehalsadat Seyedan, Abdulsamad Alsalahi, Yan Pan, Suresh Kumar Mohankumar, Abdolgodose Alkebsi, Saba Kassim, Zahurin Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Khat (Catha edulis) is a plant that is deeply rooted in the cultural life of East African and Southwestern Arabian populations. Prevalent traditional beliefs about khat are that the plant has an effect on appetite and body weight. SUMMARY: This review assesses the accumulated evidences on the mutual influence of monoamines, hormones and neuropeptides that are linked to obesity. A few anti-obesity drugs that exert their mechanisms of action through monoamines are briefly discussed to support the notion of monoamines being a critical target of drug discovery for new anti-obesity drugs...
November 22, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785113/projection-neurons-in-the-cortex-and-hippocampus-differential-effects-of-chronic-khat-and-ethanol-exposure-in-adult-male-rats
#9
Paul E Alele, Daniel Matovu, Lawrence Imanirampa, Abayomi M Ajayi, Gyaviira T Kasule
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that many individuals who chew khat recreationally also drink ethanol to offset the stimulating effect of khat. The objective of this study was to describe the separate and interactive effects of chronic ethanol and khat exposure on key projection neurons in the cortex and hippocampus of young adult male rats. METHODS: Young adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six treatment groups: 2 g/kg khat, 4 g/kg khat, 4 g/kg ethanol, combined khat and ethanol (4 g/kg each), a normal saline control, and an untreated group...
2016: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761074/catha-edulis-khat-induces-apoptosis-in-madin-darby-bovine-kidney-cell-line
#10
Hussein M Ageely, Ahmed E Agag, Syam Mohan, Atef Shehata
BACKGROUND: Khat (Catha edulis) is a controversial plant having a euphoretic effect, at the same time part of culture in many countries such as Africa and Arabian Peninsula. The presence of amphetamine-like substance, cathinone and cathine make this plant banned in many countries. Many neurological and other system related studies have been carried out in this plant, but the lack of toxicity studies are there especially the mechanism. OBJECTIVE: In this study, Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney cell line was used as an in vitro model to study the cell death mechanism...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616032/isolation-and-in-vitro-permeation-of-phenylpropylamino-alkaloids-from-khat-catha-edulis-across-oral-and-intestinal-mucosal-tissues
#11
Minaleshewa Atlabachew, Sandra Combrinck, Alvaro M Viljoen, Josias H Hamman, Chrisna Gouws
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Khat, the leaves of Catha edulis, is used as a "natural amphetamine-like" stimulant in eastern and southern Africa, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula. Leaves are masticated to elicit a state of euphoria. Although the psychostimulatory effects of the leaves are attributed to the presence of phenylpropylamino alkaloids (i.e. cathinone, cathine and norephedrine), the extent of permeation of these alkaloids across the oral and intestinal mucosa has not been established...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608556/khat-and-cancer
#12
Mahantayya V Math, Yashoda R Kattimani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2016: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582041/factors-associated-with-secondhand-tobacco-smoke-in-the-home-an-exploratory-cross-sectional-study-among-women-in-aleta-wondo-ethiopia
#13
Anne Berit Petersen, Lisa M Thompson, Gezahegn Bekele Dadi, Alemu Tolcha, Janine K Cataldo
BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, female smoking rates are currently low (1 %). However, because of male smoking rates (overall 7.7 % and up to 27 % depending on region), women and children's risk of second hand smoke (SHS) exposure is a pressing concern. In order to develop effective public health interventions that prevent the uptake and exposure to smoking, thereby averting the projected increase in tobacco-induced disease, an understanding of Ethiopian women's practices regarding tobacco is needed...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563219/catha-edulis-extract-induces-h9c2-cell-apoptosis-by-increasing-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-and-activation-of-mitochondrial-proteins
#14
Syam Mohan, Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab, Yahya Hasan Hobani, Suvitha Syam, Adel S Al-Zubairi, Rashad Al-Sanousi, Magbool Essa Oraiby
BACKGROUND: Catha edulis (Khat) is an evergreen shrub or small tree, traditionally used by various peoples of the Arabian Peninsula and Africa as an integral component of the socioeconomic traditions. It is believed that the psychostimulant nature and toxic nature of khat is primarily due to the presence of cathinone and cathine respectively. Studies have shown that khat chewing is closely associated with cardiac complications, especially myocardial infarction. Hence in this study, we exposed cathine-rich khat extract in a cardiomyoblast H9c2 (2-1) cell line to check the cell death mechanism...
May 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543281/khat-chewing-and-cirrhosis-in-somaliland-case-series
#15
Hawa D Mahamoud, Sabah Mohammed Muse, Lewis R Roberts, Philip R Fischer, Michael S Torbenson, Tim Fader
BACKGROUND: Khat chewing is common especially among men in East Africa and Yemen. It is generally viewed by the populace as a benign social custom. Several studies of ethnic Somali immigrants to Western countries suggest an association between khat chewing and hepatotoxicity, but the risk of hepatotoxicity related to khat chewing within African settings is not documented. AIM: To identify and describe liver disease without evidence of alcohol exposure or infectious etiology in khat chewers...
July 28, 2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534387/investigation-of-gender-differences-in-the-cardiovascular-actions-of-direct-and-indirect-sympathomimetic-stimulants-including-cathinone-in-the-anaesthetized-rat
#16
H A Alsufyani, J R Docherty
We have studied gender differences in the direct and indirect sympathomimetic cardiovascular effects of the stimulant cathinone (from Khat) (and for comparison methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) and the archetypal indirect sympathomimetic agent tyramine, employing male and female Wistar rats. Animals were sympathectomized by treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine or treated with vehicle. In male and female vehicle-treated pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rats, all three agonists (0.001-1 mg/kg) produced significant tachycardia, tyramine produced large pressor, and in high doses small depressor responses, MDMA produced small pressor responses, and cathinone produced only minor pressor effects...
January 2016: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502029/behavioral-evidence-for-the-interaction-between-cannabinoids-and-catha-edulis-f-khat-in-mice
#17
Berhanu Geresu, Emmanuel Onaivi, Ephrem Engidawork
Several studies have shown the existence of an interaction between the endocannabinoid system and some drugs of abuse, such as opioids, nicotine, alcohol, and cocaine. For instance, the endocannabinoid system has long been known to play a role in the underlying mechanisms of drug reward and dependence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible existence of an interaction between the endocannabinoid system and khat after acute administration. Behavioral interactions of khat extract with cannabinoids were assessed...
October 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486991/correlates-of-concurrent-khat-and-tobacco-use-in-yemen
#18
Motohiro Nakajima, Anisa Dokam, Najat Saem Khalil, Mohammed Alsoofi, Mustafa al'Absi
BACKGROUND: Habitual substance use poses public health threat. This is a growing concern in countries where one or more substances are commonly used. Many individuals in Middle Eastern and East African countries use khat (Catha edulis), a stimulant often accompanied by smoking. However, few systematic attempts have been made to characterize patterns of concurrent khat and tobacco use. OBJECTIVES: To examine correlates such as gender and patterns of khat and tobacco use in concurrent users and khat-only users...
October 14, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405542/late-presentation-for-diagnosis-of-hiv-infection-among-hiv-positive-patients-in-south-tigray-zone-ethiopia
#19
Admassu Assen, Fantahun Molla, Abrham Wondimu, Solomon Abrha, Wondim Melkam, Ebisa Tadesse, Zewdu Yilma, Tadele Eticha, Hagos Abrha, Birhanu Demeke Workneh
BACKGROUND: In spite of the availability and accessibility of HIV testing opportunities and efforts, people are being late to test in the course of HIV infection. Late diagnosis leads to late anti-retroviral therapy initiation which in turn results in poor treatment outcome and prognosis of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of late HIV diagnosis among HIV-infected patients in South Tigray Zone, Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility based cross sectional study was conducted among HIV positive patients from February 1-30, 2014 in Southern Tigray, Ethiopia...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398388/alcohol-substance-use-and-psychosocial-competence-of-adolescents-in-selected-secondary-schools-in-uganda-a-cross-sectional-survey
#20
Catherine Abbo, Elialilia S Okello, Wilson Muhwezi, Grace Akello, Emilio Ovuga
AIMS: 1) To determine the nature and extent of alcohol and substance use and 2) To describe the relationship between alcohol use and psychosocial competence among secondary school youths in Northern and Central Uganda. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Departments of Mental Health, Gulu University (Northern Uganda) and Department of Psychiatry, Makerere University College of Health Sciences (Central Uganda) between September 2011 and April 2012...
2016: International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal
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