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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328881/factors-affecting-the-virological-response-among-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-in-yemen
#1
Zaid Mutahar Mohammed Alezzi, Ayman Yosry Abd El Rehim, Waleed Fouad Fathallah, Mansour Ali Alamrani, Fouad Hezam Othman
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasingly seen as a major public health problem, threat, and concern worldwide. In Yemen about 1.7% of the population is infected with chronic hepatitis C. This study aimed to detect the predictors for response to pegylated interferon and ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV) in chronic HCV Yemeni patients. The study was conducted on 100 patients with chronic HCV who received Peg-IFN/RBV in the 48th Military Hospital in Sana'a Yemen, from 2011 to 2013. All patients were subjected to complete history taking, thorough clinical examinations, routine laboratory investigation, and abdominal ultrasonography...
January 2018: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319053/pesticide-application-and-khat-chewing-as-predictors-of-the-neurological-health-outcomes-among-pesticide-applicators-in-a-vector-control-unit-saudi-arabia
#2
Ahmed A Ismail, Mohammed Almalki, Ahmed Agag, Yahya M Solan, Ibrahim A Bani
BACKGROUND: Pesticide applicators are at risk of developing neurological symptoms and neurobehavioral deficits. This risk may increase if the applicator chews stimulant plants like khat. OBJECTIVE: To examine the sociodemographic and exposure determinants of neurological symptoms presentation, neurobehavioral performance, and cholinesterase activity among pesticide applicators in a vector control unit, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 30 pesticide applicators and 32 non-applicators from a vector control unit in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia, were studied...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249517/khat-and-synthetic-cathinones-emerging-drugs-of-abuse-with-dental-implications
#3
REVIEW
Worku Abebe
The rising global availability of the stimulant and euphoric substances, khat and synthetic cathinones, has become a cause for concern in many countries, including the United States. Both substances are illegal in United States, although this has not deterred their use. Besides central nervous system effects, these drugs also cause sympathomimetic and orodental adverse effects, similar to those of amphetamine. Although synthetic cathinones are stronger than khat in most cases, the latter additionally contains tannins, which have astringent effects on tissues components, including those in the oral cavity...
November 22, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214026/evaluating-treatment-outcomes-and-durations-among-cases-of-smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-yemen-a-prospective-follow-up-study
#4
Ammar Ali Saleh Jaber, Amer Hayat Khan, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman
Background: Evaluating outcomes after tuberculosis (TB) treatment can help identify the primary reasons for treatment success or failure. However, Yemen has a treatment success rate that remains below the World Health Organization's target. This study aimed to identify factors that were associated with unsuccessful treatment and prolonged treatment (>1 year). Method: Newly diagnosed cases of smear-positive pulmonary TB were prospectively followed at two centers (Taiz and Alhodidah, Yemen) between April 2014 and March 2015...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209590/risk-factors-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-adults-in-kenya-a-case-control-study
#5
Esther Muthumbi, Brett S Lowe, Cyprian Muyodi, Esther Getambu, Fergus Gleeson, J Anthony G Scott
Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adults worldwide; however, the risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in Africa are not well characterized. Methods: The authors recruited 281 cases of community-acquired pneumonia and 1202 hospital controls among patients aged ≥15 years who attended Kilifi District Hospital/Coast Provincial General Hospital in Kenya between 1994 and 6. Cases were admissions with an acute illness with ≥2 respiratory signs and evidence of consolidation on a chest radiograph...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204514/tuberculosis-among-jimma-university-undergraduate-students-first-insight-about-the-burden-of-tuberculosis-in-ethiopia-universities-cross-sectional-study
#6
Deneke Wolde, Mulualem Tadesse, Kedir Abdella, Gemeda Abebe, Solomon Ali
Background: Ethiopian universities are facilities where students live in relative overcrowding condition. This might favor the chance of tuberculosis transmission among students. This study was done to determine the magnitude and associated factors of tuberculosis among Jimma University students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done from February 2015 to July 2015. Hundred twenty-nine consented participants were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Biological specimens were collected and cultured on Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube...
2017: International Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184411/depression-anxiety-stress-and-their-associated-factors-among-jimma-university-staff-jimma-southwest-ethiopia-2016-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Yigizie Yeshaw, Andualem Mossie
Background: Worldwide, approximately 450 million people suffer from mental disorders. Of these, approximately 150 million are affected with depression. Depression, anxiety, and stress have an impact on productivity, motivation to work, sleep behavior of the individual, and outcome of different chronic diseases. However, till date, there are no studies which evaluated mental health problems among university staff in Ethiopia. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress, and their associated factors among Jimma University staff...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178288/white-oral-mucosal-lesions-among-the-yemeni-population-and-their-relation-to-local-oral-habits
#8
Sadeq A Al-Maweri, Aisha Al-Jamaei, Rajan Saini, Denise M Laronde, Amany Sharhan
AIMS: The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of white oral mucosal lesions among Yemeni adults; in particular, those who chew khat and tobacco. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study included 1052 dental patients aged 15 years and older. A detailed oral examination was performed by a single examiner in accordance with standard international criteria. RESULTS: Overall, 25.2% of the study participants presented with one or more white lesions...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167719/is-khat-catha-edulis-chewing-a-risk-factor-for-periodontal-diseases-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Butchibabu Kalakonda, Sadeq-Ali Al-Maweri, Hashem-Motahir Al-Shamiri, Anum Ijaz, Shukri Gamal, Esam Dhaifullah
Background: Khat (Catha edulis) chewing is a highly prevalent habit in the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa, and has recently spread to Western countries. The association between khat chewing and oral mucosal lesions is well documented in the literature. However, there is no concrete evidence on the association between khat chewing and periodontal disease. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the influence of khat chewing on periodontal health. Material and Methods: A literature search of PubMed, Scopus and Web of Sciences databases was carried out to identify relevant articles published from 1990 to May 2017...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166591/a-cd103-conventional-dendritic-cell-surveillance-system-prevents-development-of-overt-heart-failure-during-subclinical-viral-myocarditis
#10
Xavier Clemente-Casares, Siyavash Hosseinzadeh, Iulia Barbu, Sarah A Dick, Jillian A Macklin, Yiming Wang, Abdul Momen, Crystal Kantores, Laura Aronoff, Maylis Farno, Tiffany M Lucas, Joan Avery, Dorrin Zarrin-Khat, Heidi J Elsaesser, Babak Razani, Kory J Lavine, Mansoor Husain, David G Brooks, Clinton S Robbins, Myron Cybulsky, Slava Epelman
Innate and adaptive immune cells modulate heart failure pathogenesis during viral myocarditis, yet their identities and functions remain poorly defined. We utilized a combination of genetic fate mapping, parabiotic, transcriptional, and functional analyses and demonstrated that the heart contained two major conventional dendritic cell (cDC) subsets, CD103+ and CD11b+, which differentially relied on local proliferation and precursor recruitment to maintain their tissue residency. Following viral infection of the myocardium, cDCs accumulated in the heart coincident with monocyte infiltration and loss of resident reparative embryonic-derived cardiac macrophages...
November 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118856/sleep-disturbances-and-memory-impairment-among-pregnant-women-consuming-khat-an-under-recognized-problem
#11
Md Dilshad Manzar, Mohammed Salahuddin, Peter Sony, Tarekegn Tesfaye Maru, Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal, Adam Moscovitch, Ahmed S Bahammam
Khat (Catha edulis) is a evergreen flowering shrub that is cultivated at high altitudes, especially in East Africa and the southwest of the Arabian Peninsula. The plant contains alkaloids, of which cathinone and cathine have structural similarity and pharmacological action similar to amphetamines. The leaves are, therefore, consumed in some regions as a psychoactive stimulant due to cultural beliefs and misperceptions on the health benefits of khat consumption. This resulted in a growing prevalence of khat consumption among pregnant women...
October 2017: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114193/undernutrition-and-associated-factors-among-adults-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hospitals-east-hararge-zone-oromia-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Mulugeta Dedha, Melake Damena, Gudina Egata, Lemma Negesa
Objective: The aim of the study was to assess undernutrition and factors associated with, among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: Facility-based cross-sectional study design was implemented. Data were collected using pretested structured questionnaire at ART service site. Basic descriptive statistics were computed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between outcome variable and explanatory variables...
November 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096691/problematic-khat-use-as-a-possible-risk-factor-for-harmful-use-of-other-psychoactive-substances-a-mixed-method-study-in-ethiopia
#13
Awoke Mihretu, Solomon Teferra, Abebaw Fekadu
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders along with neuropsychiatric disorders contributed about 14% of the global burden of disease. Harmful alcohol use, is a known contributor for many harms (accidents, suicide, violence, and complication of other psychiatric and medical disorders). In the Western countries, alcohol and nicotine are gateway drugs to cannabis use, and cannabis use is a risk factor for other illicit drugs such as cocaine and heroin. Khat use is another psychoactive substance which is common in East African and Arabian Peninsula...
November 2, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082568/stopping-khat-use-predictors-of-success-in-an-unaided-quit-attempt
#14
Samson W Duresso, Raimondo Bruno, Allison J Matthews, Stuart G Ferguson
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Despite the adverse effects of khat use and chewers interest in cessation, there are few studies that have reported on the outcome of khat cessation attempts, and limited resources available for potential quitters. We used electronic diaries to monitor the outcomes of an unassisted quit attempt among daily and near daily khat consumers, and examine predictors of success. DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixty participants between the ages of 18 and 35 years who regularly chewed khat and who were attempting to quit were purposively recruited from an Ethiopian University campus...
October 30, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026391/prevalence-of-khat-chewing-and-its-effect-on-academic-performance-in-sidama-zone-southern-ethiopia
#15
Andargachew Kassa, Eskindir Loha, Atkilt Esaiyas
BACKGROUND: Khat use is a well-established public health problem in Yemen, Arabian Peninsula, and Ethiopia. Along with its large scale production, the magnitude of khat use is increasing among students. OBJECTIVE: This study was intended to assess the prevalence, determinants, and effect of khat use on academic performance of high school students in Sidama Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2015...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943902/khat-promotes-human-breast-cancer-mda-mb-231-cell-apoptosis-via-mitochondria-and-mapk-associated-pathways
#16
Yu Lu, Yanyan Li, Min Xiang, Jie Zhou, Juan Chen
Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is a flowering evergreen plant in Eastern Africa and Southwestern Arabia. Consumption of Khat has been associated with the development of oral cancer, but its mechanism of action on the molecular level remains unclear. The present study demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of khat extracts on the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Trypan blue exclusion assays, flow cytometry, fluorescent and electron microscopy, as well as western blotting were used to analyze the effects of Khat on the cell viability of breast cancer cells, expression of apoptotic-associated proteins and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911631/new-psychoactive-substances-of-natural-origin-a%C3%A2-brief-review
#17
REVIEW
Ling-Yi Feng, Altansuvd Battulga, Eunyoung Han, Heesun Chung, Jih-Heng Li
Plant-based drugs of abuse are as old as recorded human history. Although traditional addictive substances, such as opium, cannabis and coca, have been controlled by the United Nations anti-drug conventions, many, if not most, natural plants with addictive or abuse liability remain elusive. Therefore, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has warned the emerging threat from new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are mostly derived or modified from the constituents of natural origin. For example, synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones are derived from the cannabis and khat plant, respectively...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884262/sleep-correlates-of-substance-use-in-community-dwelling-ethiopian-adults
#18
Md Dilshad Manzar, Mohammed Salahuddin, Tarekegn Tesfaye Maru, Tegene Legese Dadi, Mathewos Geneto Abiche, Dejene Derseh Abateneh, Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal, Ahmed S Bahammam
PURPOSE: The relationship between sleep disturbances and substance use can have harmful effects. Evidence shows widespread use of substances, including khat, in the Ethiopian population. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has investigated the sleep correlates of substance use in community-dwelling Ethiopian adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study using simple random sampling was performed on community-dwelling adults (n = 371, age = 25...
September 7, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870246/determinants-of-psychoactive-substances-use-among-woldia-university-students-in-northeastern-ethiopia
#19
Ashete Adere, Nigus Bililign Yimer, Henok Kumsa, Misgan Legesse Liben
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance use has become a major public health problem among students in Ethiopian universities. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the magnitude and determinants of psychoactive substances use (khat chewing, alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking) among undergraduate students of Woldia University, Ethiopia. METHODS: Institution based quantitative cross-sectional study was employed on Woldia University students in April 2015. 730 students were included in the study...
September 5, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834423/khat-catha-edulis-and-its-oral-health-effects-an-updated-review
#20
REVIEW
Sadeq A Al-Maweri, Saman Warnakulasuriya, Abdulaziz Samran
Khat or qat (Catha edulis) is a plant that grows in East Africa and southern Arabia. The leaves and twigs of this small tree are chewed by several millions of people worldwide for their stimulating amphetamine-like effects. The reported prevalence of khat chewing in Europe and the USA is on the rise, especially with global migration. Long-term khat chewing has several detrimental general and oral health effects. The aim of the present study was to review the current literature regarding khat use and its association with oral and dental diseases, with particular emphasis on its link with oral keratotic white lesions and oral cancer...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
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