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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911631/new-psychoactive-substances-of-natural-origin-a%C3%A2-brief-review
#1
REVIEW
Ling-Yi Feng, Altansuvd Battulga, Eunyoung Han, Heesun Chung, Jih-Heng Li
Plant-based drugs of abuse are as old as recorded human history. Although traditional addictive substances, such as opium, cannabis and coca, have been controlled by the United Nations anti-drug conventions, many, if not most, natural plants with addictive or abuse liability remain elusive. Therefore, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has warned the emerging threat from new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are mostly derived or modified from the constituents of natural origin. For example, synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones are derived from the cannabis and khat plant, respectively...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884262/sleep-correlates-of-substance-use-in-community-dwelling-ethiopian-adults
#2
Md Dilshad Manzar, Mohammed Salahuddin, Tarekegn Tesfaye Maru, Tegene Legese Dadi, Mathewos Geneto Abiche, Dejene Derseh Abateneh, Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal, Ahmed S Bahammam
PURPOSE: The relationship between sleep disturbances and substance use can have harmful effects. Evidence shows widespread use of substances, including khat, in the Ethiopian population. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has investigated the sleep correlates of substance use in community-dwelling Ethiopian adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study using simple random sampling was performed on community-dwelling adults (n = 371, age = 25...
September 7, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870246/determinants-of-psychoactive-substances-use-among-woldia-university-students-in-northeastern-ethiopia
#3
Ashete Adere, Nigus Bililign Yimer, Henok Kumsa, Misgan Legesse Liben
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance use has become a major public health problem among students in Ethiopian universities. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the magnitude and determinants of psychoactive substances use (khat chewing, alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking) among undergraduate students of Woldia University, Ethiopia. METHODS: Institution based quantitative cross-sectional study was employed on Woldia University students in April 2015. 730 students were included in the study...
September 5, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834423/khat-catha-edulis-and-its-oral-health-effects-an-updated-review
#4
REVIEW
Sadeq A Al-Maweri, Saman Warnakulasuriya, Abdulaziz Samran
Khat or qat (Catha edulis) is a plant that grows in East Africa and southern Arabia. The leaves and twigs of this small tree are chewed by several millions of people worldwide for their stimulating amphetamine-like effects. The reported prevalence of khat chewing in Europe and the USA is on the rise, especially with global migration. Long-term khat chewing has several detrimental general and oral health effects. The aim of the present study was to review the current literature regarding khat use and its association with oral and dental diseases, with particular emphasis on its link with oral keratotic white lesions and oral cancer...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808405/catha-edulis-forsk-khat-evaluation-of-its-antidepressant-like-activity
#5
Hassan Alfaifi, Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab, Syam Mohan, Manal Mohamed Elhassan Taha, Sohier M Syame, Lamiaa A Shaala, Rashad Alsanosy
BACKGROUND: Catha edulis Forsk. (Khat) is traditionally used for treating various disorders. Nevertheless there are no reports of any scientific assessment of its psychopharmacological properties. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, the current study was designed to evaluate the antidepressant-like activity of Khat ethanolic extract using established animal models of depression and stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety healthy male albino mice were used in this study...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777672/the-physiological-and-ergogenic-effects-of-khat-catha-edulis-forsk-extract
#6
Mowaffaq Awad Sallam, Kamaludin Ahmed Sheikh, Ronald Baxendale, Mohammad Nurul Azam, Anwar M Hossain, Maged El-Setouhy
BACKGROUND: Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is a natural psychoactive substance which contains two main addictive substances; Cathine and Cathinone. Khat is widely used in east Africa and southern Arabian Peninsula. Khat chewers believe that it improves work capacity and increases energy level and alertness. That is why we aimed in this study to investigate the physiological and ergogenic effects of khat extract. METHODS: This study is an experimental study conducted at the Substance Abuse Research Centre in Jazan University, Saudi Arabia...
August 4, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756023/febrile-rhabdomyolysis-of-unknown-origin-in-refugees-coming-from-west-africa-through-the-mediterranean
#7
Silvia Odolini, Federico Gobbi, Lorenzo Zammarchi, Simona Migliore, Paola Mencarini, Marco Vecchia, Nicoletta di Lauria, Simona Schivazappa, Tony Sabatini, Leonardo Chianura, Elisa Vanino, Daniela Piacentini, Paola Zanotti, Anna Bussi, Alessandro Bartoloni, Zeno Bisoffi, Francesco Castelli
OBJECTIVES: Cases of undiagnosed severe febrile rhabdomyolysis in refugees coming from West Africa, mainly from Nigeria, has been observed since May 2014. The aim of this study was to describe this phenomenon. METHODS: This was a multicentre retrospective observational study of cases of febrile rhabdomyolysis reported from May 2014 to December 2016 in 12 Italian centres. RESULTS: A total of 48 cases were observed, mainly in young males. The mean time interval between the day of departure from Libya and symptom onset was 26...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716128/tobacco-dependence-among-people-with-mental-illness-a-facility-based-cross-sectional-study-from-southwest-ethiopia
#8
Zemenay Molla, Lamesa Dube, Wolfgang Krahl, Matiwos Soboka
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a health care issue in developed as well as in developing countries. Tobacco smoking among people with mental illness is significantly higher than in the general population. Tobacco smoking has negative effects on physical, mental and financial well-being of people with mental illness but little is known about tobacco dependence among mental health service users in sub-Saharan African countries, including Ethiopia. Therefore, this study attempted to assess the prevalence of tobacco dependence and associated factors among mental health service users at Jimma University teaching hospital...
July 17, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699844/khat-use-is-associated-with-tobacco-alcohol-and-illicit-drug-use-a-cross-sectional-examination-in-the-united-states
#9
Motohiro Nakajima, Kalkidan Molla, Brook Belachew, Abduselam Mohammed, Abdikadir Hassan, Jerome Kroll, Mustafa al'Absi
No study has systematically examined khat (Catha edulis) use and its linkages with other substance use in the United States. This study provides novel findings related to the associations of khat with other substance use among immigrants in metropolitan areas of Minnesota where large East African communities reside. Using a convenience sampling, a total of 261 individuals completed a brief face-to-face interview during which demographic information and substance use were assessed. The proportion of lifetime and current use were 30% and 6...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680879/substance-use-as-a-strong-predictor-of-poor-academic-achievement-among-university-students
#10
Tesfa Mekonen, Wubalem Fekadu, Tefera Chane Mekonnen, Shimelash Bitew Workie
BACKGROUND: Substance use is a growing concern globally and its association with students' academic performance is not well studied. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and khat) and its association with academic performance among university students. METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted among Wolaita Sodo University students. A total of 747 students were selected by using cluster sampling technique...
2017: Psychiatry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626895/khat-chewing-habit-produces-a-significant-adverse-effect-on%C3%A2-periodontal-oral-health-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
M S Al-Akhali, E A Al-Moraissi
Although there is a general agreement that a khat chewing habit produces clinicopathological changes in the oral mucosa. However there is no reliable evidence of the effects of a khat chewing habit on the periodontal tissues. Thus, authors aimed to investigate the influence of khat chewing habits on periodontal, oral health, by comparing khat chewers to non-chewers in respect of gingival recession, periodontal pocketing depth and loss of attachment. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621269/tooth-wear-patterns-among-khat-and-shammah-users-in-jazan-city-kingdom-of-saudi-arabia-a-cross-sectional-survey
#12
Mohammed E Sayed, Ammar D Hamdi, Bassam M Hakami, Maryam H Mugri, Shilpa H Bhandi
AIM: The effect of Khat and Shammah habits, with the para-functional jaw activities that accompany them, on the structure and integrity of the natural dentition has not yet been investigated. The literature lacks studies that identify the patterns of tooth wear among Khat and Shammah users. Therefore, this study is the first attempt to address this concern in Jazan City population, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted among 300 recruits among dental clinics in Jazan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from October 1, 2015, to April 30, 2016...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603551/mental-distress-and-associated-factors-among-undergraduate-students-at-the-university-of-hargeisa-somaliland-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Liban Hersi, Kenfe Tesfay, Hailay Gesesew, Wolfgang Krahl, Deria Ereg, Markos Tesfaye
BACKGROUND: Mental distress is a common finding among University students. Empirical research has confirmed that the University student population has a higher prevalence of mental disorder than the general population. However, no previous study has examined the mental health conditions of students in Somaliland. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 570 undergraduate students at the University of Hargeisa in October, 2013...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557133/pharmacological-and-toxicological-effects-of-catha-edulis-f-khat
#14
REVIEW
Ephrem Engidawork
Khat chewing is deeply rooted in the culture and tradition of communities in khat belt countries, and its consumption is spread to other countries through the suitcase trade. The aim of this article is to review current knowledge on the chemistry, social, pharmacology and toxicology of khat and its use. Khat produces effect invariably in every system, which is harmful or beneficial in some instances. Harmful effects are observed in heavy users, although firm evidence is lacking. Chewing khat acutely elicits states of euphoria, which is followed by low mood...
May 30, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531823/correlates-of-khat-use-during-pregnancy-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Motohiro Nakajima, Mulusew G Jebena, Mohammed Taha, Markos Tesfaye, Esayas Gudina, Andrine Lemieux, Richard Hoffman, Mustafa al'Absi
OBJECTIVES: Khat is widely used in East African countries including Ethiopia. A growing body of evidence indicates that long-term khat use is associated with various health consequences. The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude and correlates of khat use in pregnant women. METHODS: This study used a cross-sectional, face-to-face interview design that included 642 pregnant women receiving antenatal care services at primary care centers in Ethiopia. A series of chi-square tests and regression models were conducted to examine whether khat use status (i...
May 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529375/leaf-it-or-not-a-case-of-khat-dependence-from-india
#16
Sriniwas Gupta, Era S Dutta, M S V K Raju, Abhishek Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512538/oral-hygiene-and-periodontal-health-status-among-khat-chewers-a-case-control-study
#17
Sadeq-Ali Al-Maweri, Mohammed AlAkhali
BACKGROUND: Habitual khat chewing is a widespread male habit in Southern Arabia and East Africa. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Khat chewing on oral hygiene and periodontal health status among Yemeni male khat chewers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This case- control study included 310 khat chewers, aged 20-65 years, and 72 age- and gender- matched non-chewers as controls. Periodontal examination included recording of dental plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), attachment level (AL) and gingival recession (GR)...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511510/patterns-of-partial-edentulism-and-its-relation-to-khat-chewing-in-jazan-population-a-survey-study
#18
Mohammed Al Moaleem
INTRODUCTION: Partial edentulism is a prime indicator of overall oral health in a given country. Khat chewing habit in the south region of Saudi Arabia is widely practiced by a majority of the population. AIM: To determine the frequency of Kennedy's classes in each arch among different age groups, gender and to find out the relationship between khat chewing and the pattern of partial edentulism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data was collected from 780 subjects reporting to the College of Dentistry, Jazan University, who required removable partial dentures...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506311/one-fourth-of-the-prisoners-are-underweight-in-northern-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Semaw Ferede Abera, Kelemework Adane
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that prisoners are exposed to different health problems, prison health problems are often overlooked by researchers and no previous study has investigated nutritional problems of prisoners in Ethiopia. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected from 809 prisoners from nine major prison setups in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. A proportional stratified sampling technique was used to select the total number of participants needed from each prison site...
May 15, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493272/khat-use-and-related-addiction-mental-health-and-physical-disorders-the-need-to-address-a-growing-risk
#20
REVIEW
Michael Odenwald, Mustafa al'Absi
Khat use is a drug problem characteristic of the Eastern Mediterranean Region, which is a widespread culturally accepted practice in some countries and is becoming more prevalent in others. Although limited use may not be accompanied by serious consequences, prolonged exposure could lead to dependence, psychosis and other psychiatric disorders and physical conditions such as hypertension, cardiovascular complications, sexual dysfunction, hepatoxicity and reduced birth weight of infants born to khat-chewing mothers...
May 1, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
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