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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771560/khat-withdrawal-symptoms-among-chronic-khat-users-following-a-quit-attempt-an-ecological-momentary-assessment-study
#1
Samson W Duresso, Raimondo Bruno, Allison J Matthews, Stuart G Ferguson
Research reports show increased prevalence of habitual khat chewing among various parts of the community in Ethiopia. Some users experience problems controlling their use; withdrawal symptoms may be adding to difficulties with reducing or ceasing use. We aimed to describe the nature and the time course of any withdrawal syndrome in relation to the cessation of khat use over the first 2 weeks of a quit attempt. Fifty-nine participants between the ages of 18 and 35 and who have already chewed ≥1 bundle of khat in their life with a chewing frequency of ≥3 days per week were recruited from Adama Science and Technology University campus...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714473/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-cathinone-derived-psychostimulants
#2
Steven J Simmons, Jonna M Leyrer-Jackson, Chicora F Oliver, Callum Hicks, John Muschamp, Scott M Rawls, M Foster Olive
Cathinone is a plant alkaloid found in khat leaves of perennial shrubs grown in East Africa. Similar to cocaine, cathinone elicits psychostimulant effects which are in part attributed to its amphetamine-like structure. Around 2010, home laboratories began altering the parent structure of cathinone to synthesize derivatives with mechanisms of action, potencies, and pharmacokinetics permitting high abuse potential and toxicity. These "synthetic cathinones" include 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and the empathogenic agent 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone) which collectively gained international popularity following aggressive online marketing as well as availability in various retail outlets...
May 1, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703181/disparities-in-risky-sexual-behavior-among-khat-chewer-and-non-chewer-college-students-in-southern-ethiopia-a-comparative-cross-sectional-study
#3
Eyasu Ware, Gurmesa Tura, Tsedach Alemu, Eshetu Andarge
BACKGROUND: Risky sexual behavior (RSB) and its consequence among school adolescents and youths have been well understood. It is still a common practice among college and university students living away from their controlling families compounded with the ever-worsening khat chewing habits. However, the relation between khat chewing and RSB is not well studied particularly among college students in Ethiopia. Hence, this study contributes to the literature by examining disparities of RSB among khat chewer and non-chewer students in Southern Ethiopia with the purpose of improving adolescent and youth health...
April 27, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649253/prevalence-and-predictors-of-khat-chewing-among-ethiopian-university-students-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Alemu Gebrie, Animut Alebel, Abriham Zegeye, Bekele Tesfaye
BACKGROUND: Khat chewing has become a common practice among university students in developing countries like Ethiopia. It has a potential effect on physical, mental, social and cognitive aspects of student functioning. In Ethiopia, study findings regarding the prevalence of khat chewing were highly dispersed and inconsistent. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis estimates the pooled prevalence of khat chewing and its predictors among Ethiopian university students. METHOD: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622021/substance-use-and-associated-factors-among-debre-berhan-university-students-central-ethiopia
#5
Tesfay Birhane Gebremariam, Kalayu Birhane Mruts, Tedla Kutaye Neway
BACKGROUND: Being a global burden of youths, substances use is unhealthy behavior that exposes youths to health and social problems. Knowledge of the prevalence and predictors of substance use behavior among university students is important for designing periodic and locally appropriate interventions. This study is conducted to assess the prevalence and predicators of substances among Debre Berhan University students. METHODS: Cross-sectional quantitative study was employed in May 2016...
April 5, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582636/individual-and-integrated-effects-of-potential-risk-factors-for-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-hospital-based-case-control-study-in-jazan-saudi-arabia
#6
Fahd Alharbi, Mir Faeq Ali Quadri
Background: Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world, with a high prevalence reported in Jazan province of Saudi Arabia. The objectives of this study were to check individual and integrated effects of potential risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and methods: A case control study was designed with a sample of 210 subjects, in which histopathologically confirmed incident cases (n=70) and controls (n=140) matched for age, gender and referral route, were recruited. Differences in exposure to potential risk factors between cases and controls were assessed using chi-square and McNemar analyses...
March 27, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551550/anger-anxiety-and-depressive-affect-as-predictors-of-stress-induced-cortisol-production-in-khat-and-tobacco-users
#7
Andrine M Lemieux, Motohiro Nakajima, Riyadh Saif-Ali, Molham Al-Habori, Anisa Dokam, Mustafa al'Absi
INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoid activity is disrupted in substance users including khat chewers who also use tobacco. Anger, dysphoria, and anxiety can mediate this relationship. The aim of this study was to contrast emotion dysregulation and substance use variables as predictors of post-stress cortisol output. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Comparable numbers of males (n = 90) and females (n = 85) including controls, khat only, and concurrent khat and tobacco users participated in a stress study...
March 2, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527722/using-the-severity-of-dependence-scale-to-screen-for-dsm-5-khat-use-disorder
#8
Samson W Duresso, Allison J Matthews, Stuart G Ferguson, Raimondo Bruno
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the efficacy of the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) as a screening tool for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition-defined khat use disorder. METHODS: Cross-sectional, purposive sample of past-year khat consumers aged 16 and above were recruited from khat markets and cafes from university and general community in Adama, Ethiopia. Participants self-completed a survey comprising current substance use disorder...
March 11, 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509771/alcohol-use-disorder-and-associated-factors-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients-attending-antiretroviral-therapy-clinic-at-bishoftu-general-hospital-oromiya-region-ethiopia
#9
Jemal Abdella Bultum, Niguse Yigzaw, Wubit Demeke, Mekuriaw Alemayehu
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption among patients with HIV/AIDS increases the burden of the disease. HIV/AIDS is an epidemic among Sub-Saharan African countries. Excessive use of alcohol causes a large degree of health problems, social and economic burden in societies. However, the prevalence and associated factors of alcohol use disorder among this group of people has not been studied very well. Therefore, this study sought to assess the magnitude and associated factors of alcohol use disorder among HIV patients attending the antiretroviral (ART) clinic...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487197/cardiac-specific-inducible-overexpression-of-human-plasma-membrane-ca-2-atpase-4b-is-cardioprotective-and-improves-survival-in-mice-following-ischemic-injury
#10
Al Muktafi Sadi, Talat Afroze, M Ahsan Siraj, Abdul Momen, Colin White-Dzuro, Dorrin Zarrin-Khat, Shivalika Handa, Kiwon Ban, M Golam Kabir, Maria G Trivieri, Robert Gros, Peter Backx, Mansoor Husain
Background: Heart failure (HF) is associated with reduced expression of plasma membrane Ca2+ -ATPase 4 (PMCA4). Cardiac-specific overexpression of human PMCA4b in mice inhibited nNOS activity and reduced cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting calcineurin. Here we examine temporally regulated cardiac-specific overexpression of hPMCA4b in mouse models of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) ex vivo , and HF following experimental myocardial infarction (MI) in vivo Methods and results: Doxycycline-regulated cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression and activity of hPMCA4b produced adaptive changes in expression levels of Ca2+ -regulatory genes, and induced hypertrophy without significant differences in Ca2+ transients or diastolic Ca2+ concentrations...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455458/diagnosis-presentation-and-initial-severity-of-autoimmune-hepatitis-aih-in-patients-attending-28-hospitals-in-the-uk
#11
Victoria Gordon, Ratul Adhikary, Victoria Appleby, Debasis Das, James Day, Toby Delahooke, Selena Dixon, David Elphick, Claire Hardie, Barbara Hoeroldt, Patricia Hooper, John Hutchinson, Rebecca Jones, Faisal Khan, Guruprasad P Aithal, John McGonigle, Andrew Nelson, Alick Nkhoma, Stavroula Pelitari, Martin Prince, Annell Prosser, Vinay Sathanarayana, Sophia Savva, Naina Shah, Sushma Saksena, Sreedhari Thayalasekaran, Deven Vani, Andrew Yeoman, Dermot Gleeson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is limited information regarding patients with AIH outside relatively few large centres. We describe here the presenting features of patients with AIH, collected as part of an audit involving 28 UK hospitals. METHODS: Patients (incident since 1/1/2007 or prevalent since 1/1/2000) were ≥18 years and either met 1999 International AIH Group (IAIHG) diagnostic criteria (n = 1164), or received immunosuppressive therapy for clinically diagnosed AIH (n = 103)...
February 17, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439653/unexplained-chronic-liver-disease-in-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Stian Magnus Staurung Orlien, Nejib Yusuf Ismael, Tekabe Abdosh Ahmed, Nega Berhe, Trine Lauritzen, Borghild Roald, Robert David Goldin, Kathrine Stene-Johansen, Anne Margarita Dyrhol-Riise, Svein Gunnar Gundersen, Marsha Yvonne Morgan, Asgeir Johannessen
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is assumed to be the major cause of chronic liver disease (CLD) in sub-Saharan Africa. The contribution of other aetiological causes of CLD is less well documented and hence opportunities to modulate other potential risk factors are being lost. The aims of this study were to explore the aetiological spectrum of CLD in eastern Ethiopia and to identify plausible underlying risk factors for its development. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken between April 2015 and April 2016 in two public hospitals in Harar, eastern Ethiopia...
February 13, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436858/kaurene-as-the-major-constituent-of-the-essential-oils-of-the-narcotic-plant-khat-catha-edulis-forsk
#13
Morteza Gholami, Sedigheh Esmaeilzadeh Bahabadi
Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is a narcotic plant which contains significant amounts of amphetamines, like alkaloids. Herein, analysis of the essential oil composition showed that Khat has useful volatile chemicals in addition to its alkaloids. Results indicated that among 35 identified constituents including mono and sesquiterpenes, the diterpene kaurene, comprises the major part of the essential oil, around 50 percent of total. Kaurene is known as a potent biological agent for the treatment of cancer patients...
February 13, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369368/khat-chewing-increases-the-risk-for-developing-chronic-liver-disease-a-hospital-based-case-control-study
#14
Stian Magnus Staurung Orlien, Irene Sandven, Nega Belay Berhe, Nejib Yusuf Ismael, Tekabe Abdosh Ahmed, Kathrine Stene-Johansen, Svein Gunnar Gundersen, Marsha Yvonne Morgan, Asgeir Johannessen
The chewing of the leaves of Catha edulis (khat) has been implicated in the development of liver disease, but no controlled observations have been undertaken. The objective of the present study was to determine whether khat chewing is associated with development of chronic liver disease (CLD). A case-control study was conducted at two public hospitals in Harar, Ethiopia, between April 2015 and April 2016. A consecutive sample of 150 adult hospital attendees with CLD were included as cases, and 300 adult hospital attendees without clinical or laboratory evidence of CLD were included as controls...
January 25, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364498/synthetic-cathinones-related-fatalities-an-update
#15
S Zaami, R Giorgetti, S Pichini, F Pantano, E Marinelli, F P Busardò
OBJECTIVE: Synthetic cathinones, more commonly known as "bath salts", are synthetic drugs chemically related to cathinone, a psychostimulant found in the khat plant. They are the first most consumed products among new psychoactive substances, which cause psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects determining a number of fatalities worldwide.  In this paper, we have systematically reviewed cases of synthetic cathinones-related fatalities analytically confirmed, which have occurred in the last few years...
January 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328881/factors-affecting-the-virological-response-among-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-in-yemen
#16
Zaid Mutahar Mohammed Alezzi, Ayman Yosry Abd El Rehim, Waleed Fouad Fathallah, Mansour Ali Alamrani, Fouad Hezam Othman
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasingly seen as a major public health problem, threat, and concern worldwide. In Yemen about 1.7% of the population is infected with chronic hepatitis C. This study aimed to detect the predictors for response to pegylated interferon and ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV) in chronic HCV Yemeni patients. The study was conducted on 100 patients with chronic HCV who received Peg-IFN/RBV in the 48th Military Hospital in Sana'a Yemen, from 2011 to 2013. All patients were subjected to complete history taking, thorough clinical examinations, routine laboratory investigation, and abdominal ultrasonography...
January 2018: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319053/pesticide-application-and-khat-chewing-as-predictors-of-the-neurological-health-outcomes-among-pesticide-applicators-in-a-vector-control-unit-saudi-arabia
#17
Ahmed A Ismail, Mohammed Almalki, Ahmed Agag, Yahya M Solan, Ibrahim A Bani
BACKGROUND: Pesticide applicators are at risk of developing neurological symptoms and neurobehavioral deficits. This risk may increase if the applicator chews stimulant plants like khat. OBJECTIVE: To examine the sociodemographic and exposure determinants of neurological symptoms presentation, neurobehavioral performance, and cholinesterase activity among pesticide applicators in a vector control unit, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 30 pesticide applicators and 32 non-applicators from a vector control unit in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia, were studied...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249517/khat-and-synthetic-cathinones-emerging-drugs-of-abuse-with-dental-implications
#18
REVIEW
Worku Abebe
The rising global availability of the stimulant and euphoric substances, khat and synthetic cathinones, has become a cause for concern in many countries, including the United States. Both substances are illegal in United States, although this has not deterred their use. Besides central nervous system effects, these drugs also cause sympathomimetic and orodental adverse effects, similar to those of amphetamine. Although synthetic cathinones are stronger than khat in most cases, the latter additionally contains tannins, which have astringent effects on tissues components, including those in the oral cavity...
February 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214026/evaluating-treatment-outcomes-and-durations-among-cases-of-smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-yemen-a-prospective-follow-up-study
#19
Ammar Ali Saleh Jaber, Amer Hayat Khan, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman
Background: Evaluating outcomes after tuberculosis (TB) treatment can help identify the primary reasons for treatment success or failure. However, Yemen has a treatment success rate that remains below the World Health Organization's target. This study aimed to identify factors that were associated with unsuccessful treatment and prolonged treatment (>1 year). Method: Newly diagnosed cases of smear-positive pulmonary TB were prospectively followed at two centers (Taiz and Alhodidah, Yemen) between April 2014 and March 2015...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209590/risk-factors-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-adults-in-kenya-a-case-control-study
#20
Esther Muthumbi, Brett S Lowe, Cyprian Muyodi, Esther Getambu, Fergus Gleeson, J Anthony G Scott
Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adults worldwide; however, the risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in Africa are not well characterized. Methods: The authors recruited 281 cases of community-acquired pneumonia and 1202 hospital controls among patients aged ≥15 years who attended Kilifi District Hospital/Coast Provincial General Hospital in Kenya between 1994 and 6. Cases were admissions with an acute illness with ≥2 respiratory signs and evidence of consolidation on a chest radiograph...
2017: Pneumonia
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