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Khat

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118856/sleep-disturbances-and-memory-impairment-among-pregnant-women-consuming-khat-an-under-recognized-problem
#1
Md Dilshad Manzar, Mohammed Salahuddin, Peter Sony, Tarekegn Tesfaye Maru, Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal, Adam Moscovitch, Ahmed S Bahammam
Khat (Catha edulis) is a evergreen flowering shrub that is cultivated at high altitudes, especially in East Africa and the southwest of the Arabian Peninsula. The plant contains alkaloids, of which cathinone and cathine have structural similarity and pharmacological action similar to amphetamines. The leaves are, therefore, consumed in some regions as a psychoactive stimulant due to cultural beliefs and misperceptions on the health benefits of khat consumption. This resulted in a growing prevalence of khat consumption among pregnant women...
October 2017: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114193/undernutrition-and-associated-factors-among-adults-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hospitals-east-hararge-zone-oromia-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Mulugeta Dedha, Melake Damena, Gudina Egata, Lemma Negesa
Objective: The aim of the study was to assess undernutrition and factors associated with, among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: Facility-based cross-sectional study design was implemented. Data were collected using pretested structured questionnaire at ART service site. Basic descriptive statistics were computed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between outcome variable and explanatory variables...
November 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096691/problematic-khat-use-as-a-possible-risk-factor-for-harmful-use-of-other-psychoactive-substances-a-mixed-method-study-in-ethiopia
#3
Awoke Mihretu, Solomon Teferra, Abebaw Fekadu
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders along with neuropsychiatric disorders contributed about 14% of the global burden of disease. Harmful alcohol use, is a known contributor for many harms (accidents, suicide, violence, and complication of other psychiatric and medical disorders). In the Western countries, alcohol and nicotine are gateway drugs to cannabis use, and cannabis use is a risk factor for other illicit drugs such as cocaine and heroin. Khat use is another psychoactive substance which is common in East African and Arabian Peninsula...
November 2, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082568/stopping-khat-use-predictors-of-success-in-an-unaided-quit-attempt
#4
Samson W Duresso, Raimondo Bruno, Allison J Matthews, Stuart G Ferguson
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Despite the adverse effects of khat use and chewers interest in cessation, there are few studies that have reported on the outcome of khat cessation attempts, and limited resources available for potential quitters. We used electronic diaries to monitor the outcomes of an unassisted quit attempt among daily and near daily khat consumers, and examine predictors of success. DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixty participants between the ages of 18 and 35 years who regularly chewed khat and who were attempting to quit were purposively recruited from an Ethiopian University campus...
October 30, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026391/prevalence-of-khat-chewing-and-its-effect-on-academic-performance-in-sidama-zone-southern-ethiopia
#5
Andargachew Kassa, Eskindir Loha, Atkilt Esaiyas
BACKGROUND: Khat use is a well-established public health problem in Yemen, Arabian Peninsula, and Ethiopia. Along with its large scale production, the magnitude of khat use is increasing among students. OBJECTIVE: This study was intended to assess the prevalence, determinants, and effect of khat use on academic performance of high school students in Sidama Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2015...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943902/khat-promotes-human-breast-cancer-mda-mb-231-cell-apoptosis-via-mitochondria-and-mapk-associated-pathways
#6
Yu Lu, Yanyan Li, Min Xiang, Jie Zhou, Juan Chen
Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is a flowering evergreen plant in Eastern Africa and Southwestern Arabia. Consumption of Khat has been associated with the development of oral cancer, but its mechanism of action on the molecular level remains unclear. The present study demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of khat extracts on the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Trypan blue exclusion assays, flow cytometry, fluorescent and electron microscopy, as well as western blotting were used to analyze the effects of Khat on the cell viability of breast cancer cells, expression of apoptotic-associated proteins and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911631/new-psychoactive-substances-of-natural-origin-a%C3%A2-brief-review
#7
REVIEW
Ling-Yi Feng, Altansuvd Battulga, Eunyoung Han, Heesun Chung, Jih-Heng Li
Plant-based drugs of abuse are as old as recorded human history. Although traditional addictive substances, such as opium, cannabis and coca, have been controlled by the United Nations anti-drug conventions, many, if not most, natural plants with addictive or abuse liability remain elusive. Therefore, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has warned the emerging threat from new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are mostly derived or modified from the constituents of natural origin. For example, synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones are derived from the cannabis and khat plant, respectively...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884262/sleep-correlates-of-substance-use-in-community-dwelling-ethiopian-adults
#8
Md Dilshad Manzar, Mohammed Salahuddin, Tarekegn Tesfaye Maru, Tegene Legese Dadi, Mathewos Geneto Abiche, Dejene Derseh Abateneh, Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal, Ahmed S Bahammam
PURPOSE: The relationship between sleep disturbances and substance use can have harmful effects. Evidence shows widespread use of substances, including khat, in the Ethiopian population. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has investigated the sleep correlates of substance use in community-dwelling Ethiopian adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study using simple random sampling was performed on community-dwelling adults (n = 371, age = 25...
September 7, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870246/determinants-of-psychoactive-substances-use-among-woldia-university-students-in-northeastern-ethiopia
#9
Ashete Adere, Nigus Bililign Yimer, Henok Kumsa, Misgan Legesse Liben
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance use has become a major public health problem among students in Ethiopian universities. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the magnitude and determinants of psychoactive substances use (khat chewing, alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking) among undergraduate students of Woldia University, Ethiopia. METHODS: Institution based quantitative cross-sectional study was employed on Woldia University students in April 2015. 730 students were included in the study...
September 5, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834423/khat-catha-edulis-and-its-oral-health-effects-an-updated-review
#10
REVIEW
Sadeq A Al-Maweri, Saman Warnakulasuriya, Abdulaziz Samran
Khat or qat (Catha edulis) is a plant that grows in East Africa and southern Arabia. The leaves and twigs of this small tree are chewed by several millions of people worldwide for their stimulating amphetamine-like effects. The reported prevalence of khat chewing in Europe and the USA is on the rise, especially with global migration. Long-term khat chewing has several detrimental general and oral health effects. The aim of the present study was to review the current literature regarding khat use and its association with oral and dental diseases, with particular emphasis on its link with oral keratotic white lesions and oral cancer...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808405/catha-edulis-forsk-khat-evaluation-of-its-antidepressant-like-activity
#11
Hassan Alfaifi, Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab, Syam Mohan, Manal Mohamed Elhassan Taha, Sohier M Syame, Lamiaa A Shaala, Rashad Alsanosy
BACKGROUND: Catha edulis Forsk. (Khat) is traditionally used for treating various disorders. Nevertheless there are no reports of any scientific assessment of its psychopharmacological properties. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, the current study was designed to evaluate the antidepressant-like activity of Khat ethanolic extract using established animal models of depression and stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety healthy male albino mice were used in this study...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777672/the-physiological-and-ergogenic-effects-of-khat-catha-edulis-forsk-extract
#12
Mowaffaq Awad Sallam, Kamaludin Ahmed Sheikh, Ronald Baxendale, Mohammad Nurul Azam, Anwar M Hossain, Maged El-Setouhy
BACKGROUND: Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is a natural psychoactive substance which contains two main addictive substances; Cathine and Cathinone. Khat is widely used in east Africa and southern Arabian Peninsula. Khat chewers believe that it improves work capacity and increases energy level and alertness. That is why we aimed in this study to investigate the physiological and ergogenic effects of khat extract. METHODS: This study is an experimental study conducted at the Substance Abuse Research Centre in Jazan University, Saudi Arabia...
August 4, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756023/febrile-rhabdomyolysis-of-unknown-origin-in-refugees-coming-from-west-africa-through-the-mediterranean
#13
Silvia Odolini, Federico Gobbi, Lorenzo Zammarchi, Simona Migliore, Paola Mencarini, Marco Vecchia, Nicoletta di Lauria, Simona Schivazappa, Tony Sabatini, Leonardo Chianura, Elisa Vanino, Daniela Piacentini, Paola Zanotti, Anna Bussi, Alessandro Bartoloni, Zeno Bisoffi, Francesco Castelli
OBJECTIVES: Cases of undiagnosed severe febrile rhabdomyolysis in refugees coming from West Africa, mainly from Nigeria, has been observed since May 2014. The aim of this study was to describe this phenomenon. METHODS: This was a multicentre retrospective observational study of cases of febrile rhabdomyolysis reported from May 2014 to December 2016 in 12 Italian centres. RESULTS: A total of 48 cases were observed, mainly in young males. The mean time interval between the day of departure from Libya and symptom onset was 26...
September 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716128/tobacco-dependence-among-people-with-mental-illness-a-facility-based-cross-sectional-study-from-southwest-ethiopia
#14
Zemenay Molla, Lamesa Dube, Wolfgang Krahl, Matiwos Soboka
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a health care issue in developed as well as in developing countries. Tobacco smoking among people with mental illness is significantly higher than in the general population. Tobacco smoking has negative effects on physical, mental and financial well-being of people with mental illness but little is known about tobacco dependence among mental health service users in sub-Saharan African countries, including Ethiopia. Therefore, this study attempted to assess the prevalence of tobacco dependence and associated factors among mental health service users at Jimma University teaching hospital...
July 17, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699844/khat-use-is-associated-with-tobacco-alcohol-and-illicit-drug-use-a-cross-sectional-examination-in-the-united-states
#15
Motohiro Nakajima, Kalkidan Molla, Brook Belachew, Abduselam Mohammed, Abdikadir Hassan, Jerome Kroll, Mustafa al'Absi
No study has systematically examined khat (Catha edulis) use and its linkages with other substance use in the United States. This study provides novel findings related to the associations of khat with other substance use among immigrants in metropolitan areas of Minnesota where large East African communities reside. Using a convenience sampling, a total of 261 individuals completed a brief face-to-face interview during which demographic information and substance use were assessed. The proportion of lifetime and current use were 30% and 6...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680879/substance-use-as-a-strong-predictor-of-poor-academic-achievement-among-university-students
#16
Tesfa Mekonen, Wubalem Fekadu, Tefera Chane Mekonnen, Shimelash Bitew Workie
BACKGROUND: Substance use is a growing concern globally and its association with students' academic performance is not well studied. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and khat) and its association with academic performance among university students. METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted among Wolaita Sodo University students. A total of 747 students were selected by using cluster sampling technique...
2017: Psychiatry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626895/khat-chewing-habit-produces-a-significant-adverse-effect-on%C3%A2-periodontal-oral-health-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
M S Al-Akhali, E A Al-Moraissi
Although there is a general agreement that a khat chewing habit produces clinicopathological changes in the oral mucosa. However there is no reliable evidence of the effects of a khat chewing habit on the periodontal tissues. Thus, authors aimed to investigate the influence of khat chewing habits on periodontal, oral health, by comparing khat chewers to non-chewers in respect of gingival recession, periodontal pocketing depth and loss of attachment. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621269/tooth-wear-patterns-among-khat-and-shammah-users-in-jazan-city-kingdom-of-saudi-arabia-a-cross-sectional-survey
#18
Mohammed E Sayed, Ammar D Hamdi, Bassam M Hakami, Maryam H Mugri, Shilpa H Bhandi
AIM: The effect of Khat and Shammah habits, with the para-functional jaw activities that accompany them, on the structure and integrity of the natural dentition has not yet been investigated. The literature lacks studies that identify the patterns of tooth wear among Khat and Shammah users. Therefore, this study is the first attempt to address this concern in Jazan City population, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted among 300 recruits among dental clinics in Jazan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from October 1, 2015, to April 30, 2016...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603551/mental-distress-and-associated-factors-among-undergraduate-students-at-the-university-of-hargeisa-somaliland-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Liban Hersi, Kenfe Tesfay, Hailay Gesesew, Wolfgang Krahl, Deria Ereg, Markos Tesfaye
BACKGROUND: Mental distress is a common finding among University students. Empirical research has confirmed that the University student population has a higher prevalence of mental disorder than the general population. However, no previous study has examined the mental health conditions of students in Somaliland. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 570 undergraduate students at the University of Hargeisa in October, 2013...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557133/pharmacological-and-toxicological-effects-of-catha-edulis-f-khat
#20
REVIEW
Ephrem Engidawork
Khat chewing is deeply rooted in the culture and tradition of communities in khat belt countries, and its consumption is spread to other countries through the suitcase trade. The aim of this article is to review current knowledge on the chemistry, social, pharmacology and toxicology of khat and its use. Khat produces effect invariably in every system, which is harmful or beneficial in some instances. Harmful effects are observed in heavy users, although firm evidence is lacking. Chewing khat acutely elicits states of euphoria, which is followed by low mood...
July 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
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