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activation mediated microrna

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033001/the-role-of-micrornas-in-photodynamic-therapy-of-cancer
#1
Sherien M El-Daly, Mohammed L Abba, Amira M Gamal-Eldeen
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment modality used in the management of both benign and malignant conditions. It involves the administration of a photosensitizing agent followed by local light irradiation, which activates the photosensitizer, resulting in tissue damage. An in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanisms and mediators of PDT is important, not only for appreciating how this treatment modality is effective, but also as an avenue for understanding potential shortfalls and untoward effects that can be managed or improved...
October 5, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031499/micrornas-15a-and-16-1-activate-signaling-pathways-that-mediate-chemotaxis-of-immune-regulatory-b-cells-to-colorectal-tumors
#2
Ronghua Liu, Zhou Lu, Jie Gu, Jiajing Liu, Enyu Huang, Xiaoming Liu, Luman Wang, Jiao Yang, Yuting Deng, Jiawen Qian, Feifei Luo, Zhiming Wang, Hushan Zhang, Xuechao Jiang, Dan Zhang, Jing Qian, Guangwei Liu, Hongguang Zhu, Youcun Qian, Zhanju Liu, Yiwei Chu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: B cells infiltrate tumors but little is known about how they affect tumor growth and progression. microRNA15A (MIR15A or miRNA15A) and microRNA16-1 (MIR16-1 or miRNA16-1) regulate cell proliferation, apoptosis and drug resistance. We investigated their involvement in B cell-mediated immune suppression by colorectal tumors. METHODS: Mice with disruptions of the gene cluster that encodes MIR15A and MIR16-1 (KO mice), and control (C57BL/B6) mice were given azoxymethane with dextran sodium sulfate (AD) to induce formation of colorectal tumors...
October 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030851/cellular-approaches-in-investigating-argonaute2-dependent-rna-silencing
#3
Cai Zhang, Joonbae Seo, Takahisa Nakamura
In mammals, there are four Argonaute (Ago) family proteins that play crucial roles in RNA silencing, a process wherein microRNA (miRNA) mediates inhibition of target mRNA translation. Among the Ago proteins, Argonaute2 (Ago2) uniquely possesses an endoribonuclease (slicer) activity that is critical for the biogenesis of specific miRNAs and mRNA cleavage. This Ago2 slicer activity is required for postnatal development. Despite its important roles, there are still gaps in our understanding of the mechanistic basis of Ago2's unique functions in vivo due to a limited availability of experimental tools...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030826/analysis-of-microrna-mediated-translation-activation-of-in-vitro-transcribed-reporters-in-quiescent-cells
#4
Syed I A Bukhari, Samuel S Truesdell, Shobha Vasudevan
Quiescence (G0) is defined as an assortment of cell cycle arrested states that exhibit distinct properties. Leukemias harbor a subpopulation of G0 cells that can be enriched by growth factor deprivation or serum starvation. Target site reporters with shortened poly(A) tails show translation activation by microRNAs, via a noncanonical mechanism, when introduced into the nucleus of G0 cells. This is because recruitment by the activation causing FXR1a-microRNA-protein complex (FXR1a-microRNP) is nuclear and requires shortened poly(A) tails to avoid repressive factors and canonical translation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029439/microrna-149-suppresses-hepatic-inflammatory-response-through-antagonizing-stat3-signaling-pathway
#5
Qiqi Zhang, Jia Su, Ziwei Wang, Hui Qi, Zeyong Ge, Zhijun Li, Wei-Dong Chen, Yan-Dong Wang
Chronic inflammation is increasingly recognized as an important component of tumorigenesis and metabolic diseases. The roles of microRNA149* (miRNA149*) in inflammation remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that miR-149* is a suppressor of STAT3-mediated inflammation. MiR-149*(-/-) mice were generated with CRISPR/CAS9 technique. In a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation model, miR-149*(-/-) mice show more severe liver injury and inflammation, compared with wild-type (WT) mice. MiR-149*(-/-) mice also displayed elevated messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of interleukin (IL)-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), complement C3 (C3) and IL-4 in response to LPS...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024600/liver-x-receptor-%C3%AE-is-targeted-by-microrna-1-to-inhibit-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-through-ros-mediated-mitochondrial-pathway
#6
Yongxia Cheng, Dawei Zhang, Min Zhu, Ying Wang, Sufen Guo, Biao Xu, Guangyu Hou, Yukuan Feng, Guibo Liu
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is defined as ventricular dysfunction occurring independently of a recognized cause such as hypertension or coronary artery disease. Liver X receptor α (LXRα), a subtype of ligand-activated transcription factors LXRs, has been considered as a potential pharmacological target in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, the potential mechanism of how LXRα is regulated in cardiomyocytes is still unclear. This study investigated the effect of activating LXRα with GW3965 on cardiomyocyte apoptosis and its upstream regulator in glucose-induced H9C2 cells...
October 12, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023933/mir-15a-16-1-suppresses-ahr-dependent-il-22-secretion-in-cd4-t-cells-and-contributes-to-immune-mediated-organ-injury
#7
Zhou Lu, Jiajing Liu, Xiaoming Liu, Enyu Huang, Jiao Yang, Jiawen Qian, Dan Zhang, Ronghua Liu, Yiwei Chu
Interleukin-22 (IL-22), as a link between leukocytic and non-leukocytic cells, has gained increasing attention for its pronounced tissue-protective properties. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), emerging as crucial immune modulators, have been reported to be involved in the production and action of various cytokines. However, the precise control of IL-22 by miRNAs and its subsequent actions remained to be elucidated. In this study, we found a negative correlation between the expression of miR-15a/16-1 and IL-22 in the model of concanavalinA (ConA)-induced immune-mediated liver injury...
October 10, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023799/mir-214-activates-tp53-but-suppresses-the-expression-of-rela-ctnnb1-and-stat3-in-human-cervical-and-colorectal-cancer-cells
#8
Karthik Subramanian Chandrasekaran, Anusha Sathyanarayanan, Devarajan Karunagaran
High Mobility Group AT-hook 1 (HMGA1) was identified as a target of miR-214 in human cervical and colorectal cancers (CaCx and CRC) in a previous study. While the expression of miR-214 remains suppressed, HMGA1 behaves as a potent oncogene and plays crucial roles in several aberrant signalling pathways by interacting with intermediates like RELA, CTNNB1, STAT3, and TP53 in CaCx and CRC. Hypothetically, miR-214 should be able to regulate the stabilization of some of these intermediates through the regulation of HMGA1...
October 10, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023429/mir-150-inhibits-cell-growth-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-by-restraining-the-rab11a-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-thyroid-cancer
#9
Dongfang Bai, Haipeng Sun, Xiaodong Wang, Hongliang Lou, Jian Zhang, Xiaohong Wang, Ling Jiang
BACKGROUND Emerging evidence has shown that downregulation or upregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) plays an important role in the development and progression of thyroid cancer (TC). However, the potential role of miR-150 and its biological function in TC remains largely unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was employed to detect the expression level of miR-150 and RAB11A in human TC tissue and human normal thyroid tissue. MTT assay, colony formation assay, flow cytometry cell cycle, and apoptosis assay were used to investigate the role of miR-150 and RAB11A on the malignant phenotypes in vitro...
October 12, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022908/mir-143-and-mir-145-inhibit-gastric-cancer-cell-migration-and-metastasis-by-suppressing-myo6
#10
Chao Lei, Feng Du, Lina Sun, Ting Li, Tingyu Li, Yali Min, Aiying Nie, Xin Wang, Lei Geng, Yuanyuan Lu, Xiaodi Zhao, Yongquan Shi, Daiming Fan
Metastasis is a major clinical obstacle responsible for the high mortality and poor prognosis of gastric cancer (GC). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical mediators of metastasis that act by modulating their target genes. In this study, we found that miR-143 and miR-145 act via a common target gene, MYO6, to regulate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inhibit metastasis. We determined that miR-143 and miR-145 were downregulated in GC, and the ectopic expression of miR-143 and/or miR-145 inhibited GC cell migration and metastasis...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021573/an-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-microrna-regulatory-network-tunes-macrophage-inflammatory-responses
#11
Mati Mann, Arnav Mehta, Jimmy L Zhao, Kevin Lee, Georgi K Marinov, Yvette Garcia-Flores, David Baltimore
The innate inflammatory response must be tightly regulated to ensure effective immune protection. NF-κB is a key mediator of the inflammatory response, and its dysregulation has been associated with immune-related malignancies. Here, we describe a miRNA-based regulatory network that enables precise NF-κB activity in mouse macrophages. Elevated miR-155 expression potentiates NF-κB activity in miR-146a-deficient mice, leading to both an overactive acute inflammatory response and chronic inflammation. Enforced miR-155 expression overrides miR-146a-mediated repression of NF-κB activation, thus emphasizing the dominant function of miR-155 in promoting inflammation...
October 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019980/radically-truncated-mecp2-rescues-rett-syndrome-like-neurological-defects
#12
Rebekah Tillotson, Jim Selfridge, Martha V Koerner, Kamal K E Gadalla, Jacky Guy, Dina De Sousa, Ralph D Hector, Stuart R Cobb, Adrian Bird
Heterozygous mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene cause the neurological disorder Rett syndrome. The methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) protein is an epigenetic reader whose binding to chromatin primarily depends on 5-methylcytosine. Functionally, MeCP2 has been implicated in several cellular processes on the basis of its reported interaction with more than 40 binding partners, including transcriptional co-repressors (for example, the NCoR/SMRT complex), transcriptional activators, RNA, chromatin remodellers, microRNA-processing proteins and splicing factors...
October 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017520/the-nuclear-receptor-er%C3%AE-engages-ago2-in-regulation-of-gene-transcription-rna-splicing-and-risc-loading
#13
Roberta Tarallo, Giorgio Giurato, Giuseppina Bruno, Maria Ravo, Francesca Rizzo, Annamaria Salvati, Luca Ricciardi, Giovanna Marchese, Angela Cordella, Teresa Rocco, Valerio Gigantino, Biancamaria Pierri, Giovanni Cimmino, Luciano Milanesi, Concetta Ambrosino, Tuula A Nyman, Giovanni Nassa, Alessandro Weisz
BACKGROUND: The RNA-binding protein Argonaute 2 (AGO2) is a key effector of RNA-silencing pathways It exerts a pivotal role in microRNA maturation and activity and can modulate chromatin remodeling, transcriptional gene regulation and RNA splicing. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is endowed with oncosuppressive activities, antagonizing hormone-induced carcinogenesis and inhibiting growth and oncogenic functions in luminal-like breast cancers (BCs), where its expression correlates with a better prognosis of the disease...
October 6, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017169/ox-ldl-induced-microrna-155-promotes-autophagy-in-human-endothelial-cells-via-repressing-the-rheb-mtor-pathway
#14
Jinlin Lv, Lixia Yang, Ruiwei Guo, Yankun Shi, Ziwei Zhang, Jinshan Ye
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Autophagy, an evolutionary conserved biological process, is activated in cells to cope with various types of stress. MicroRNAs control several activities related to autophagy. However, the role of autophagy-related microRNAs during atherosclerosis is far from known. MicroRNA-155 was identified to be a crucial regulator of atherosclerosis. The objectives of the study were to analyze the effect of microRNA-155 on autophagic signaling and explore its mechanism in human endothelial cells under ox-LDL stress...
October 11, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017096/enhancing-mir-132-expression-by-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-attenuates-tumorigenesis-associated-with-chronic-colitis
#15
Abdullah M Alzahrani, Hamza Hanieh, Hairul-Islam Mohamed Ibrahim, Omar Mohafez, Tamer Shehata, Mohammad Bani Ismail, Manal Alfwuaires
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients is the major risk factor for colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). Recent evidences have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in CAC pathogenesis. However, the interaction of miRNAs with the transcription factors that alleviate CAC has not been reported. METHODS: 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) were used to activate aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) in azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced CAC in mice...
October 7, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016934/microrna-7-upregulates-death-receptor-5-and-primes-resistant-brain-tumors-to-caspase-mediated-apoptosis
#16
Deepak Bhere, Kaoru Tamura, Hiroaki Wakimoto, Sung Hugh Choi, Benjamin Purow, Jeremy Debatisse, Khalid Shah
Background: MicroRNAs (miRs) are known to play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis, controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the potential of miR-7 to prime resistant tumor cells to apoptosis in glioblastoma (GBM). Methods: We created constitutive and regulatable miR-7 expression vectors and utilized pharmacological inhibition of caspases and genetic loss of function to study the effect of forced expression of miR-7 on death receptor (DR) pathways in a cohort of GBM with established resistance to tumor necrosis factor apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and in patient-derived primary GBM stem cell (GSC) lines...
July 25, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016706/microrna-532-protects-the-heart-in-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-represses-prss23-a-positive-regulator-of-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#17
Ahmed S Bayoumi, Jian-Peng Teoh, Tatsuya Aonuma, Zhize Yuan, Xiaofen Ruan, Yaoliang Tang, Huabo Su, Neal L Weintraub, Il-Man Kim
Aims: Acute myocardial infarction (MI) leads to cardiac remodelling and development of heart failure. Insufficient myocardial capillary density after MI is considered a critical determinant of this process. MicroRNAs (miRs), negative regulators of gene expression, have emerged as important players in MI. We previously showed that miR-532-5p (miR-532) is up-regulated by the β-arrestin-biased β-adrenergic receptor antagonist (β-blocker) carvedilol, which activates protective pathways in the heart independent of G protein-mediated second messenger signalling...
July 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990842/microrna-655-3p-regulates-echinacea-purpurea-mediated-activation-of-abcg2
#18
Charles Awortwe, Meike Kaehler, Bernd Rosenkranz, Ingolf Cascorbi, Henrike Bruckmueller
The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory effect of Echinacea purpurea (EP) on efflux transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 and to identify specific microRNAs contributing to their post-transcriptional regulation. ABCB1 and ABCG2 levels were assessed in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells treated with 50 µg/mL methanolic extract of commercial EP capsules for different durations of time. The microRNA expression profile of HepG2 cells after EP treatment was evaluated and in silico target prediction was subsequently conducted to identify specific microRNAs with binding sites in the 3'-UTR of ABCB1 and ABCG2...
October 9, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990808/microrna-205-mediates-proteinase-activated-receptor-2-par2-promoted-cancer-cell-migration
#19
Xu Yang, Lan Yang, Yiming Ma, Xinhua Zhao, Hongying Wang
Activation of proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) promotes cell migration in cancers, but the exact mechanism underlying this process remains largely unknown. Here we report that activation of PAR2 reduced miR-205 expression, whereas inhibition of miR-205 promoted cell migration in cancer cells. Overexpression of miR-205 blocked PAR2-mediated stimulation of cell migration. BMPR1B was identified as a downstream target gene of miR-205. In colorectal carcinoma specimens from patients, the level of PAR2 was negatively correlated with that of miR-205, but it was positively associated with BMPR1B expression...
October 9, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990488/the-microrna-mir773-is-involved-in-the-arabidopsis-immune-response-to-fungal-pathogens
#20
Raquel Salvador-Guirao, Patricia Baldrich, Detlef Weigel, Ignacio Rubio-Somoza, Blanca San Segundo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21-24 nucleotide short non-coding RNAs that trigger gene silencing in eukaryotes. In plants, miRNAs play a crucial role in a wide range of developmental processes and adaptive responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this work, we investigated the role of miR773 in modulating resistance to infection by fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana. Interference with miR773 activity by target mimics (in MIM773 plants) and concomitant up-regulation of the miR773 target gene METHYLTRANSFERASE 2 (MET2) increased resistance to infection by necrotrophic (Plectosphaerrella cucumerina) and hemibiotrophic (Fusarium oxysporum, Colletototrichum higginianum) fungal pathogens...
October 9, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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