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Perinatal infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148634/labor-delivery-and-postpartum-complications-in-nulliparous-women-with-female-genital-mutilation-admitted-to-karamara-hospital
#1
Wondimu Gudu, Mutasim Abdulahi
Objectives: To assess labor, delivery and postpartum complications in nulliparous women with FGM/C and evaluate the attitude of mothers towards elimination of FGM. Methods: A prospective hospital based study using structured questionnaire was conducted between January to March 2015 at Karamara hospital, Jijiga, Ethiopia. All nulliparous women admitted for labor and delivery were included. Data were collected regarding circumcision status, events of labor, delivery; postpartum and neonatal outcomes as well as attitude of mothers towards elimination of FGM/C...
January 2017: Ethiopian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148566/factors-that-influence-the-provision-of-intrapartum-and-postnatal-care-by-skilled-birth-attendants-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-qualitative-evidence-synthesis
#2
REVIEW
Susan Munabi-Babigumira, Claire Glenton, Simon Lewin, Atle Fretheim, Harriet Nabudere
BACKGROUND: In many low- and middle-income countries women are encouraged to give birth in clinics and hospitals so that they can receive care from skilled birth attendants. A skilled birth attendant (SBA) is a health worker such as a midwife, doctor, or nurse who is trained to manage normal pregnancy and childbirth. (S)he is also trained to identify, manage, and refer any health problems that arise for mother and baby. The skills, attitudes and behaviour of SBAs, and the extent to which they work in an enabling working environment, impact on the quality of care provided...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142177/perinatal-exposure-to-tetrabromobisphenol-a-tbbpa-a-brominated-flame-retardant-exacerbated-the-pneumonia-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-infected-offspring-mice
#3
Wataru Watanabe, Akihiko Hirose, Tomomi Takeshita, Seiko Hashiguchi, Kentaro Sakata, Katsuhiko Konno, Aki Miyauchi, Toshi Akashi, Hiroki Yoshida, Chihiro Sugita, Masahiko Kurokawa
To investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a brominated flame retardant, on the immune system, a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection mouse model was utilized. Female mice were exposed to TBBPA mixed with the diet from 10 days after conception to weaning on postnatal day 21. Offspring mice were infected intranasally with A2 strain of RSV. Although no general toxicological sign was observed, the pulmonary viral titers of offspring mice exposed to 0.1% TBBPA were significantly increased compared with the control on day 5 post-infection...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140938/immunity-following-childhood-vaccinations-in-perinatally-hiv-exposed-children-with-and-without-hiv-infection-in-latin-america
#4
Regina Cm Succi, Margot R Krauss, D Robert Harris, Daisy M Machado, Maria I de Moraes-Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Noris Pavia Ruz, Russell B Pierre, Lenka A Kolevic Roca, Esaú Joao, Irene Foradori, Marcelo C Scotta, Rohan Hazra, George K Siberry
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are at risk for undervaccination and poor vaccine response at four years of age. Childhood vaccine coverage and immune response were compared between PHIV and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: PHIV and HEU children were enrolled prospectively at fifteen sites from 2002-2009. Full vaccination by age four years was defined as: three hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine doses; four tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine doses; three doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine by age 12 months or ≥1 dose given after age 12 months; one measles-containing vaccine dose; one rubella-containing vaccine dose...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137869/morbidity-and-mortality-in-homeless-individuals-prisoners-sex-workers-and-individuals-with-substance-use-disorders-in-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Robert W Aldridge, Alistair Story, Stephen W Hwang, Merete Nordentoft, Serena A Luchenski, Greg Hartwell, Emily J Tweed, Dan Lewer, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Andrew C Hayward
BACKGROUND: Inclusion health focuses on people in extremely poor health due to poverty, marginalisation, and multimorbidity. We aimed to review morbidity and mortality data on four overlapping populations who experience considerable social exclusion: homeless populations, individuals with substance use disorders, sex workers, and imprisoned individuals. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for studies published between Jan 1, 2005, and Oct 1, 2015...
November 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136115/estradiol-levels-are-altered-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-pregnant-women-randomized-to-efavirenz-versus-lopinavir-ritonavir-based-antiretroviral-therapy
#6
Chloe R McDonald, Andrea L Conroy, Joel L Gamble, Eszter Papp, Michael Hawkes, Peter Olwoch, Paul Natureeba, Moses Kamya, Michael Silverman, Deborah Cohan, Catherine A Koss, Grant Dorsey, Kevin C Kain, Lena Serghides
Background: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) use in pregnancy has been associated with hormonal dysregulation. We performed a secondary retrospective analysis of longitudinal progesterone and estradiol levels in pregnancy using specimens from the Protease Inhibitors to Reduce Malaria Morbidity in HIV-infected Pregnant Women study, which randomized Ugandan human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected ART-naive women to initiate either lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based or efavirenz (EFV)-based cART...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135490/the-microbiome-and-hiv-persistence-implications-for-viral-remission-and-cure
#7
Wei Li A Koay, Lilly V Siems, Deborah Persaud
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses the interaction between HIV infection, the gut microbiome, inflammation and immune activation, and HIV reservoirs, along with interventions to target the microbiome and their implications for HIV remission and cure. RECENT FINDINGS: Most studies show that HIV-infected adults have a gut microbiome associated with decreased bacterial richness and diversity, and associated systemic inflammation and immune activation. A unique set of individuals, elite controllers, who spontaneously control HIV replication, have a similar microbiome to HIV-uninfected individuals...
November 10, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119035/discordant-hiv-test-results-implications-on-perinatal-and-haemotransfusion-screening-for-hiv-infection-cape-coast-ghana
#8
Ato Kwamena Tetteh, Edward Agyarko
Screening results of 488 pregnant women aged 15-44 years whose blood samples had been tested on-site, using First Response® HIV 1/2, and confirmed with INNO-LIA™ HIV I/II Score were used. Of this total, 178 were reactive (HIV I, 154; HIV II, 2; and HIV I and HIV II, 22). Of the 154 HIV I-reactive samples, 104 were confirmed to be HIV I-positive and 2 were confirmed to be HIV II-positive, while 48 were confirmed to be negative [false positive rate = 17.44% (13.56-21.32)]. The two HIV II samples submitted were confirmed to be negative with the confirmatory test...
2017: Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118985/acute-development-of-cushing-syndrome-in-an-hiv-infected-child-on-atazanavir-ritonavir-based-antiretroviral-therapy
#9
Gueorgui Dubrocq, Andrea Estrada, Shannon Kelly, Natella Rakhmanina
An 11-year-old male with perinatally acquired human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection on antiretroviral regimen, which included abacavir plus lamivudine (Epzicom), didanosine, ritonavir and atazanavir presented with bilateral axillary striae, increased appetite, fatigue, facial swelling and acute weight gain. Two months prior to presentation, the patient had received a diagnostic and therapeutic intra-articular triamcinolone injection in the knee for pain relief and subsequently became progressively swollen in the face, developed striae bilaterally at the axillae, experienced increased appetite, fatigue and an 8 pound weight gain...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117328/maternal-disease-with-group-b-streptococcus-and-serotype-distribution-worldwide-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#10
Jennifer Hall, Nadine Hack Adams, Linda Bartlett, Anna C Seale, Theresa Lamagni, Fiorella Bianchi-Jassir, Joy E Lawn, Carol J Baker, Clare Cutland, Paul T Heath, Margaret Ip, Kirsty Le Doare, Shabir A Madhi, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Stephanie Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Michael G Gravett
Background: Infections such as group B Streptococcus (GBS) are an important cause of maternal sepsis, yet limited data on epidemiology exist. This article, the third of 11, estimates the incidence of maternal GBS disease worldwide. Methods: We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS], World Health Organization Library Information System [WHOLIS], and Scopus) and sought unpublished data on invasive GBS disease in women pregnant or within 42 days postpartum...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117323/group-b-streptococcal-disease-worldwide-for-pregnant-women-stillbirths-and-children-why-what-and-how-to-undertake-estimates
#11
Joy E Lawn, Fiorella Bianchi-Jassir, Neal J Russell, Maya Kohli-Lynch, Cally J Tann, Jennifer Hall, Lola Madrid, Carol J Baker, Linda Bartlett, Clare Cutland, Michael G Gravett, Paul T Heath, Margaret Ip, Kirsty Le Doare, Shabir A Madhi, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Stephanie Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Anna C Seale
Improving maternal, newborn, and child health is central to Sustainable Development Goal targets for 2030, requiring acceleration especially to prevent 5.6 million deaths around the time of birth. Infections contribute to this burden, but etiological data are limited. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important perinatal pathogen, although previously focus has been primarily on liveborn children, especially early-onset disease. In this first of an 11-article supplement, we discuss the following: (1) Why estimate the worldwide burden of GBS disease? (2) What outcomes of GBS in pregnancy should be included? (3) What data and epidemiological parameters are required? (4) What methods and models can be used to transparently estimate this burden of GBS? (5) What are the challenges with available data? and (6) How can estimates address data gaps to better inform GBS interventions including maternal immunization? We review all available GBS data worldwide, including maternal GBS colonization, risk of neonatal disease (with/without intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis), maternal GBS disease, neonatal/infant GBS disease, and subsequent impairment, plus GBS-associated stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal encephalopathy...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117038/development-and-validation-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-mortality-risk-models-for-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#12
Yigit S Guner, Danh V Nguyen, Lishi Zhang, Yanjun Chen, Matthew T Harting, Peter Rycus, Ryan Barbaro, Matteo Di Nardo, Thomas V Brogan, John P Cleary, Peter T Yu
The purpose of our study was to develop and validate extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)-specific mortality risk models for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We utilized the data from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry (2000-2015). Prediction models were developed using multivariable logistic regression. We identified 4,374 neonates with CDH with an overall mortality of 52%. Predictive discrimination (C statistic) for pre-ECMO mortality model was C = 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0...
November 7, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112908/reproductive-decision-making-in-women-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Juan M Leyva-Moral, Patrick A Palmieri, María Feijoo-Cid, Sandra K Cesario, Nataly Julissa Membrillo-Pillpe, Patricia N Piscoya-Angeles, Marilyn Goff, Ana Toledo-Chavarri, Joan E Edwards
OBJECTIVES: Analyze and synthesize the research evidence to understand the reproductive decisions made by women living with HIV from the beginning of the epidemic to the present. Evaluate the barriers and the facilitators for reproductive decision-making. Identify areas of strength, improvement, and those requiring further research. DESIGN AND DATA SOURCES: Systematic review following the PRISMA guideline. PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, SocINDEX, Embase, and Scopus databases were searched from 1985 to 2016 using the following Keywords: HIV, AIDS, pregnancy, reproduction, and decision-making...
October 25, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112069/neuropsychological-performance-in-african-children-with-hiv-enrolled-in-a-multi-site-anti-retroviral-clinical-trial
#14
Michael J Boivin, Linda Barlow-Mosha, Miriam Chernoff, Barbara Laughton, Bonnie Zimmer, Celeste Joyce, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Mmule Ratswana, Nasreen Abrahams, Lee Fairlie, Hermien Gous, Portia Kamthunzi, Katie McCarthy, Itziar Familiar-Lopez, Patrick Jean-Phillippe, Joan Coetzee, Avy Violari, Mark Cotton, Paul Palumbo
OBJECTIVE & DESIGN: Children with HIV infection (HIV+) are at neuropsychological risk, but few studies have evaluated this at multiple sites in low and middle income countries (LMICs). We compared neuropsychological outcomes at enrollment (>5 yrs age) among HIV+, HIV-uninfected perinatally-exposed (HEU), and HIV unexposed (HU) children from 4 sub-Saharan countries. METHODS: IMPAACT P1060 compared Nevirapine (NVP) versus Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPVr)-based ART in HIV-infected children 6 to 35 months of age...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109971/%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-1-signaling-drives-cell-death-synaptogenesis-circuit-reorganization-and-gabapentin-mediated-neuroprotection-in-a-model-of-insult-induced-cortical-malformation
#15
Lauren A Lau, Farzad Noubary, Dongqing Wang, Chris G Dulla
Developmental cortical malformations (DCMs) result from pre- and perinatal insults, as well as genetic mutations. Hypoxia, viral infection, and traumatic injury are the most common environmental causes of DCMs, and are associated with the subsyndromes focal polymicrogyria and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) Type IIId, both of which have a high incidence of epilepsy. Understanding the molecular signals that lead to the formation of a hyperexcitable network in DCMs is critical to devising novel treatment strategies...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105047/hepatitis-e-virus-seroprevalence-in-pregnant-women-in-pakistan-maternal-and-fetal-outcomes
#16
Najma Javed, Sultana H Ullah, Nazli Hussain, Munir A Sheikh, Ambreen Khan, Farkhanda Ghafoor, Rukhsana Firdous, Waqar Uddin, Arif N Saqib, Ghazal Muhyudin
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic in Pakistan. Although otherwise asymptomatic, HEV infection becomes fatal in pregnancy, with considerable maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. We conducted a descriptive study from April to October 2015 in 10 tertiary care hospitals throughout Pakistan to determine maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in HEV-positive pregnant women with acute jaundice or raised liver function tests. Twenty-one of 135 women were HEV positive and in 3rd trimester except for 1 in 1st trimester...
October 30, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102433/effect-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-non-skeletal-disorders-a-systematic-review-of-meta-analyses-and-randomised-trials
#17
REVIEW
Philippe Autier, Patrick Mullie, Alina Macacu, Miruna Dragomir, Magali Boniol, Kim Coppens, Cécile Pizot, Mathieu Boniol
Randomised trials reported up to Dec 31, 2012, did not confirm that vitamin D supplementation could protect from non-skeletal health conditions affecting adults, as was expected on the basis of data from observational studies. To examine whether the more recently published meta-analyses and trials would change past conclusions, we systematically reviewed meta-analyses of vitamin D supplementation and non-skeletal disorders published between Jan 1, 2013, and May 31, 2017, that included study participants of all ages, including pregnant women...
October 25, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100794/serotype-distribution-and-clinical-correlation-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-causing-invasive-disease-in-infants-and-children-in-taiwan
#18
Chiao-Wei Lo, Hao-Chuan Liu, Chien-Chung Lee, Chia-Ling Lin, Chyi-Liang Chen, Mei-Jy Jeng, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B Streptococcus (GBS), remains to be one of the leading pathogens causing invasive infections in infants. METHODS: The clinical GBS isolates from sterile sites of patients younger than 18 years old were collected from October 1998 to December 2014 in two hospitals in Taiwan. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Every isolate was serotyped with a multiplex PCR assay. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed in representative isolates of different serotypes...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099327/extensive-cerebrovascular-disease-and-stroke-with-prolonged-prodromal-symptoms-as-first-presentation-of-perinatally-acquired-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-a-young-adult
#19
T G Chigonda, G T Chatora, G W Ngwende, R F Miller, R A Ferrand
A 26-year-old black African woman presented with an acute onset of hemiparesis and visual symptoms. This had been preceded several months by symptoms which were apparently psychiatric in nature. She had no apparent risk for cerebrovascular disease. Neurological evaluation revealed a striking burden of cerebrovascular disease for her age, including the rare stroke syndrome of basilar artery occlusion. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was identified during clinical assessment. This was judged to be perinatally acquired, as there was no history of sexual debut or blood transfusion; her mother was taking antiretroviral therapy and she had facial planar warts and underlying bronchiectasis...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097418/prevalence-and-treatment-outcomes-of-routine-chlamydia-trachomatis-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-and-trichomonas-vaginalis-testing-during-antenatal-care-gaborone-botswana
#20
Adriane Wynn, Doreen Ramogola-Masire, Ponatshego Gaolebale, Neo Moshashane, Ontiretse Sickboy, Sofia Duque, Elizabeth Williams, Klara Doherty, Jeffrey D Klausner, Chelsea Morroni
OBJECTIVES: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are curable, mostly asymptomatic, STIs that cause adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Most countries do not test for those infections during antenatal care. We implemented a CT, NG and TV testing and treatment programme in an antenatal clinic in Gaborone, Botswana. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study in the antenatal clinic at Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana...
November 2, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
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