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Perinatal infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640799/screening-for-syphilis-and-other-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-pregnant-women-guam-2014
#1
Susan Cha, Tasneem Malik, Winston E Abara, Mia S DeSimone, Bernadette Schumann, Esther Mallada, Michael Klemme, Vince Aguon, Anne Marie Santos, Thomas A Peterman, Gail Bolan, Mary L Kamb
Prenatal screening and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can prevent adverse perinatal outcomes. In Guam, the largest of the three U.S. territories in the Pacific, primary and secondary syphilis rates among women increased 473%, from 1.1 to 6.3 per 100,000 during 2009-2013 (1). In 2013, the first congenital syphilis case after no cases since 2008 was reported (1,2). Little is known about STI screening coverage and factors associated with inadequate screening among pregnant women in Guam. This study evaluated the prevalence of screening for syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), chlamydia, and gonorrhea, and examined correlates of inadequate screening among pregnant women in Guam...
June 23, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633864/perinatal-group-b-streptococcal-infections-virulence-factors-immunity-and-prevention-strategies
#2
REVIEW
Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal and genital tracts and, during pregnancy, neonates are at risk of infection. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor and delivery has decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection, these measures do not prevent ascending infection that can occur earlier in pregnancy leading to preterm births, stillbirths, or late-onset neonatal infections...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633140/early-intrauterine-transfusion-in-fetuses-with-severe-anemia-caused-by-parvovirus-b19-infection
#3
Astrid Hellmund, Annegret Geipel, Christoph Berg, Rainer Bald, Ulrich Gembruch
OBJECTIVE: To describe procedure-related complications and perinatal survival after intrauterine transfusion (IUT) before 20 weeks of gestation in fetuses with severe anemia due to human parvovirus B19 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of all fetuses requiring IUT before 20 weeks of gestation in two tertiary referral centers between January 2002 and July 2015. Gestational age (GA) at first IUT, fetal blood sampling results, and presence of hydrops were related to procedure-related complications, fetal death (FD), and perinatal outcome...
June 21, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627520/unique-aspects-of-the-perinatal-immune-system
#4
REVIEW
Xiaoming Zhang, Dania Zhivaki, Richard Lo-Man
The early stages of life are associated with increased susceptibility to infection, which is in part due to an ineffective immune system. In the context of infection, the immune system must be stimulated to provide efficient protection while avoiding insufficient or excessive activation. Yet, in early life, age-dependent immune regulation at molecular and cellular levels contributes to a reduced immunological fitness in terms of pathogen clearance and response to vaccines. To enable microbial colonization to be tolerated at birth, epigenetic immune cell programming and early life-specific immune regulatory and effector mechanisms ensure that vital functions and organ development are supported and that tissue damage is avoided...
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620467/recent-advances-in-understanding-lung-function-development
#5
REVIEW
Erik Melén, Stefano Guerra
Recent years have witnessed critical contributions to our understanding of the determinants and long-term implications of lung function development. In this article, we review studies that have contributed to advances in understanding lung function development and its critical importance for lung health into adult life. In particular, we have focused on early life determinants that include genetic factors, perinatal events, environmental exposures, lifestyle, infancy lower respiratory tract infections, and persistent asthma phenotypes...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617973/hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-preconception-period-among-women-of-reproductive-age-in-rural-china-a-nationwide-study
#6
Qiongjie Zhou, Xiaotian Li, Qiaomei Wang, Haiping Shen, Yiping Zhang, Shikun Zhang, Ganesh Acharya
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection during pregnancy is associated with perinatal complications and poor maternal and fetal outcomes. There is a lack of reports on HBV infection screening, prophylaxis, and/or treatment in preconception period among women planning a pregnancy. This study is to investigate the prevalence and demographic characteristics of HBV infection among rural women of reproductive age planning pregnancy within 6 months, in different geographical regions of China...
June 15, 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617960/low-prevalence-of-igg-antibodies-against-antigens-of-hev-genotypes-1-and-3-in-women-with-a-high-risk-pregnancy
#7
Baptista-González Héctor, Trueba-Gómez Rocío, Rosenfeld-Mann Fanny, Roque-Álvarez Elsa, Méndez-Sánchez Nahúm
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to assess whether high-risk pregnant women have a higher prevalence of HEV during the perinatal period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 428 patients: Group 1, 127 women with a high-risk pregnancy; Group 2, 97 asymptomatic people with reactivity to HCV or HBV; Group 3, 94 patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of HEV infection; and Group 4, 110 healthy blood donors from an urban area of Mexico City...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611934/etiology-and-perinatal-outcome-of-nonimmune-hydrops-fetalis-in-southern-china
#8
Sheng He, Linlin Wang, Pingshan Pan, Hongwei Wei, Dahua Meng, Juan Du, Xiaoxian Tian, Chenguang Zheng, Xiaoxia Qiu, Guoyang Luo
Objective  This study aims to analyze the etiology and perinatal outcome of nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) in Southern China. Methods  All cases with NIHF diagnosed antenatally from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014 were identified and analyzed. Results  Total 482 cases of NIHF were identified during the study period. The most common cause of NIHF was hemoglobin (Hb) Bart's disease (61.8%), followed by chromosomal abnormalities (13.5%), idiopathic etiology (13.1%), cardiac abnormalities (6.4%), and others (5...
April 2017: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609403/early-antiretroviral-therapy-reduces-hiv-dna-following-perinatal-hiv-infection
#9
Caroline Foster, Matthew Pace, Steve Kaye, Emily Hopkins, Mathew Jones, Nicola Robinson, Sarah Fidler, John Frater
: The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the size of the HIV reservoir has implications for virological remission in adults, but is not well characterised in perinatally acquired infection (PaHIV). In a prospective observational study of 20 children with PaHIV and sustained viral suppression on ART for >5 years, proviral DNA was significantly higher in deferred (>4 years) versus early (first year of life) ART recipients (p = 0.0062), and correlated with age of initiation (p = 0.13; r = 0...
June 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604824/decline-in-cd4-t-lymphocytes-with-monotherapy-bridging-strategy-for-non-adherent-adolescents-living-with-hiv-infection-results-of-the-impaact-p1094-randomized-trial
#10
Allison L Agwu, Meredith G Warshaw, Elizabeth J McFarland, George K Siberry, Ann J Melvin, Andrew A Wiznia, Lee Fairlie, Sandra Boyd, Paul Harding, Hans M L Spiegel, Elaine J Abrams, Vincent J Carey
INTRODUCTION: Management of persistently non-adherent youth living with HIV (YLHIV) with virologic failure (VF) on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains challenging. One strategy has been using 3TC/ FTC monotherapy (3TC/FTC), which in the presence of the M184V resistance mutation, does not suppress viral replication nor select for additional drug resistance mutations, and reduces viral fitness with limited side effects. P1094 compared the immunologic outcome of continuing failing cART vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600366/optimal-timing-for-elective-caesarean-delivery-in-a-chinese-population-a-large-hospital-based-retrospective-cohort-study-in-shanghai
#11
Yong Hu, Hong Shen, Mark B Landon, Weiwei Cheng, Xiaohua Liu
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between the timing of antepartum elective caesarean delivery (CD) at term and perinatal outcomes in a Chinese population. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of mode of delivery at a large obstetric centre in Shanghai, China between 2007 and 2014. Eligibility criteria included: term nulliparous women with a singleton gestation undergoing antepartum elective CD. RESULTS: There were 19 939 women delivered by antepartum CD without indications, with 5...
June 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600331/does-maternal-hsv-2-coinfection-increase-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Vishalini Sivarajah, Kevin Venus, Mark H Yudin, Kellie E Murphy, Steven A Morrison, Darrell Hs Tan
BACKGROUND: Reducing HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is critical to ending the HIV pandemic. Reports suggest that herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), a common coinfection in HIV-infected individuals, is associated with increased MTCT, but results have been conflicting. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies to quantify the magnitude of this relationship (PROSPERO no. CRD42016043315). METHODS: We searched Medline (1981 to June week 3, 2016), EMBASE (1981 to week 26, 2016), relevant conferences (2013-2016) and bibliographies of identified studies for cohort and case-control studies enrolling HIV-positive women during pregnancy or peripartum that quantified the effect of HSV-2 infection on MTCT...
June 9, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598357/microcephaly
#13
REVIEW
Emily Hanzlik, Joseph Gigante
Microcephaly is defined as a head circumference more than two standard deviations below the mean for gender and age. Congenital microcephaly is present at birth, whereas postnatal microcephaly occurs later in life. Genetic abnormalities, syndromes, metabolic disorders, teratogens, infections, prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal injuries can cause both congenital and postnatal microcephaly. Evaluation of patients with microcephaly begins with a thorough history and physical examination. In cases of worsening microcephaly or neurological signs or symptoms, neuroimaging, metabolic, or genetic testing should be strongly considered...
June 9, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595510/young-adults-hiv-1-infected-by-vertical-transmission-in-southern-brazil-clinical-demographic-and-virological-features
#14
Beatris M Martin, Jucélia S Santos, Fernanda V Scapinello, Clea El Ribeiro, Monica M Gomes-da-Silva, Sonia M Raboni
Combination antiretroviral therapy promotes longer life expectancy, making it possible for perinatally HIV-infected patients to achieve adulthood. Past therapy was not always optimized, suggesting that virological and host features may also play a role in survival. The aim of this study is to describe characteristics of HIV disease progression associated with virological features in adolescents perinatally that were HIV infected. A case series was conducted including 81 patients that were in follow-up at Hospital de Clínicas/Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594854/identification-of-key-micrornas-and-genes-in-preeclampsia-by-bioinformatics-analysis
#15
Shouling Luo, Nannan Cao, Yao Tang, Weirong Gu
Preeclampsia is a leading cause of perinatal maternal-foetal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study is to identify the key microRNAs and genes in preeclampsia and uncover their potential functions. We downloaded the miRNA expression profile of GSE84260 and the gene expression profile of GSE73374 from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed miRNAs and genes were identified and compared to miRNA-target information from MiRWalk 2.0, and a total of 65 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMIs), including 32 up-regulated miRNAs and 33 down-regulated miRNAs, and 91 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 83 up-regulated genes and 8 down-regulated genes, were identified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594771/serial-head-and-brain-imaging-of-17-fetuses-with-confirmed-zika-virus-infection-in-colombia-south-america
#16
Miguel Parra-Saavedra, Jennita Reefhuis, Juan Pablo Piraquive, Suzanne M Gilboa, Martina L Badell, Cynthia A Moore, Marcela Mercado, Diana Valencia, Denise J Jamieson, Mauricio Beltran, Magda Sanz-Cortes, Ana Maria Rivera-Casas, Mayel Yepez, Guido Parra, Martha Ospina Martinez, Margaret A Honein
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fetal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings among a series of pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection to evaluate the signs of congenital Zika syndrome with respect to timing of infection. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series of pregnant women referred to two perinatal clinics in Barranquilla and Ibagué, Colombia, who had findings consistent with congenital Zika syndrome and Zika virus infection confirmed in maternal, fetal, or neonatal samples...
June 6, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591025/neurocognitive-development-in-hiv-positive-children-is-correlated-with-plasma-viral-loads-in-early-childhood
#17
Valentin Weber, Daniel Radeloff, Bianca Reimers, Emilia Salzmann-Manrique, Peter Bader, Dirk Schwabe, Christoph Königs
Because of neurocognitive impairments in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and adolescents, this study aimed to demonstrate the effect of plasma viral loads and early initiation of sufficient combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on neurocognitive development.In total, 14 perinatally infected HIV-positive children (median age 8.24 years [range: 6.0-16.74]) receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based ART underwent neurocognitive testing using the Wechsler Intelligence Score for Children, 4th Edition (WISC-IV)...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590332/hiv-positive-youth-who-are-perinatally-infected-have-impaired-endothelial-function
#18
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Abdus Sattar, Manjusha Kulkarni, Emily Bowman, Nicholas Funderburg, Grace A Mccomsey
OBJECTIVE: Evaluating cardiovascular (CVD) risk in children and youth 13-24 years old who are facing a life time exposure to both HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a research priority. This study compares endothelial function measured by Peripheral Arterial Tonometry in HIV+ youth infected perinatally and behaviorally as well as HIV- controls. METHODS: Three groups of participants aged 8-30 yo were enrolled; HIV+ perinatally-infected, HIV+ behaviorally-infected on ART with HIV-1 RNA <1,000 copies/mL, and HIV- controls...
June 5, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590327/pregnancy-incidence-and-outcomes-in-women-with-perinatal-hiv-infection
#19
Laura Byrne, Rebecca Sconza, Caroline Foster, Pat A Tookey, Mario Cortina-Borja, Claire Thorne
OBJECTIVE(S): To estimate the incidence of first pregnancy in women living with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) in the UK and to compare pregnancy management and outcomes with age-matched women with behaviourally-acquired HIV (BHIV). DESIGN: The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC) is a comprehensive, population-based surveillance study that collects demographic and clinical data on all pregnant women living with HIV, their children, and all HIV-infected children in the UK & Ireland...
June 5, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578174/maternal-marijuana-use-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-and-neonatal-morbidity
#20
Torri D Metz, Amanda A Allshouse, Carol J Rowland Hogue, Robert L Goldenberg, Donald J Dudley, Michael W Varner, Deborah L Conway, George R Saade, Robert M Silver
BACKGROUND: The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network previously demonstrated an association between stillbirth and maternal marijuana use as defined by the presence of tetrahydrocannabinol in the umbilical cord homogenate. However, the relationship between marijuana use and perinatal complications in live births is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine if maternal marijuana use is associated with increased odds of adverse pregnancy outcomes and neonatal morbidity among live-born controls in the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network cohort...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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