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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933286/viral-infection-in-the-development-and-progression-of-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Steven Nye, Richard J Whitley, Michele Kong
Viral infections are an important cause of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Numerous viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A (H1N1) virus, have been implicated in the progression of pneumonia to ARDS; yet the incidence of progression is unknown. Despite acute and chronic morbidity associated with respiratory viral infections, particularly in "at risk" populations, treatment options are limited. Thus, with few exceptions, care is symptomatic. In addition, mortality rates for viral-related ARDS have yet to be determined...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932782/cdc-grand-rounds-modeling-and-public-health-decision-making
#2
Leah S Fischer, Scott Santibanez, Richard J Hatchett, Daniel B Jernigan, Lauren Ancel Meyers, Phoebe G Thorpe, Martin I Meltzer
Mathematical models incorporate various data sources and advanced computational techniques to portray real-world disease transmission and translate the basic science of infectious diseases into decision-support tools for public health. Unlike standard epidemiologic methods that rely on complete data, modeling is needed when there are gaps in data. By combining diverse data sources, models can fill gaps when critical decisions must be made using incomplete or limited information. They can be used to assess the effect and feasibility of different scenarios and provide insight into the emergence, spread, and control of disease...
December 9, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932284/genetic-diversity-of-coronaviruses-in-bats-in-lao-pdr-and-cambodia
#3
Audrey Lacroix, Veasna Duong, Vibol Hul, Sorn San, Hull Davun, Keo Omaliss, Sokha Chea, Alexandre Hassanin, Watthana Theppangna, Soubanh Silithammavong, Kongsy Khammavong, Sinpakone Singhalath, Zoe Greatorex, Amanda E Fine, Tracey Goldstein, Sarah Olson, Damien O Joly, Lucy Keatts, Philippe Dussart, Aneta Afelt, Roger Frutos, Philippe Buchy
South-East Asia is a hot spot for emerging zoonotic diseases, and bats have been recognized as hosts for a large number of zoonotic viruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), responsible for acute respiratory syndrome outbreaks. Thus, it is important to expand our knowledge of the presence of viruses in bats which could represent a risk to humans. Coronaviruses (CoVs) have been reported in bat species from Thailand, China, Indonesia, Taiwan and the Philippines. However no such work was conducted in Cambodia or Lao PDR...
December 5, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931136/iminosugars-promising-therapeutics-for-influenza-infection
#4
Beatrice Ellen Tyrrell, Andrew Cameron Sayce, Kelly Lyn Warfield, Joanna Louise Miller, Nicole Zitzmann
Influenza virus causes three to five million severe respiratory infections per year in seasonal epidemics, and sporadic pandemics, three of which occurred in the twentieth century and are a continuing global threat. Currently licensed antivirals exclusively target the viral neuraminidase or M2 ion channel, and emerging drug resistance necessitates the development of novel therapeutics. It is believed that a host-targeted strategy may combat the development of antiviral drug resistance. To this end, a class of molecules known as iminosugars, hydroxylated carbohydrate mimics with the endocyclic oxygen atom replaced by a nitrogen atom, are being investigated for their broad-spectrum antiviral potential...
December 8, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930564/effects-of-intraoperative-dexmedetomidine-with-intravenous-anesthesia-on-postoperative-emergence-agitation-delirium-in-pediatric-patients-undergoing-tonsillectomy-with-or-without-adenoidectomy-a-consort-prospective-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#5
Jun-Li Cao, Yu-Ping Pei, Jing-Qiu Wei, Yue-Ying Zhang
Postoperative emergence agitation/delirium (POED) is a common complication in pediatric surgery patients, which increases the risk of developing postoperative airway obstruction and respiratory depression. This study aims to investigate the safety and efficacy of intraoperative infusion of dexmedetomidine (DEX) and its effects on POED in pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy.Sixty patients scheduled for tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy, aged 2 to 8 years, were randomly allocated into 2 groups (n = 30)...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930487/influence-of-chronic-heat-acclimatization-on-occupational-thermal-strain-in-tropical-field-conditions
#6
Matt B Brearley, Ian Norton, Daryl Rush, Michael Hutton, Steve Smith, Linda Ward, Hector Fuentes
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether non-heat acclimatized (NHA) emergency responders endure greater physiological and perceptual strain than heat acclimatized (HA) counterparts in tropical field settings. METHODS: Eight HA and eight NHA men urban search and rescue personnel had physiological and perceptual responses compared during the initial 4 hours shift of a simulated disaster in tropical conditions (ambient temperature 34.0 °C, 48% relative humidity, wet bulb globe temperature [WBGT] 31...
December 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930359/the-role-of-whey-acidic-protein-four-disulfide-core-proteins-in-respiratory-health-and-disease
#7
Donna M Small, Declan F Doherty, Caoifa M Dougan, Sinéad Weldon, Clifford C Taggart
Members of the whey acidic protein (WAP) or WAP four-disulfide-core (WFDC) family of proteins are a relatively under-explored family of low molecular weight proteins. The two most prominent WFDC proteins, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and elafin (or the precursor, trappin-2), have been shown to possess multiple functions including anti-protease, anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory properties. It is therefore of no surprise that both SLPI and elafin/trappin-2 have been developed as potential therapeutics...
December 8, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929695/secondhand-smoke-exposure-illness-severity-and-resource-utilization-in-pediatric-emergency-department-patients-with-respiratory-illnesses
#8
Ashley L Merianos, Cinnamon A Dixon, E Melinda Mahabee-Gittens
OBJECTIVE: Hospital-based data reveal that children who have secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) experience severe respiratory illnesses and greater resource utilization. Our objective was to assess the relationship between SHSe and illness severity/resource utilization among children presenting to the pediatric emergency department (PED) with three common respiratory conditions - asthma, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. METHODS: A retrospective review of a yearlong consecutive sample of PED patients with SHSe status documentation and asthma, bronchiolitis, or pneumonia diagnoses was performed...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929452/knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviours-of-healthcare-workers-in-the-kingdom-of-saudi-arabia-to-mers-coronavirus-and-other-emerging-infectious-diseases
#9
Abdullah J Alsahafi, Allen C Cheng
Background: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has experienced a prolonged outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus since 2012. Healthcare workers (HCWs) form a significant risk group for infection. Objectives: The aim of this survey was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, infection control practices and educational needs of HCWs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to MERS coronavirus and other emerging infectious diseases. Methods: 1500 of HCWs from Saudi Ministry of Health were invited to fill a questionnaire developed to cover the survey objectives from 9 September 2015 to 8 November 2015...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928779/how-antibiotics-should-be-prescribed-to-hospitalized-elderly-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#10
Forest W Arnold
Elderly patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) should be administered antimicrobials in the emergency department prior to transfer to the ward or intensive care unit (ICU). For ward patients, a β-lactam with a macrolide or a respiratory fluoroquinolone alone should be given to cover typical and atypical pathogens. For ICU patients, a β-lactam with either a macrolide or a fluoroquinolone should be given. Other regimens are indicated if methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a concern...
December 7, 2016: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927961/nasal-respiration-entrains-human-limbic-oscillations-and-modulates-cognitive-function
#11
Christina Zelano, Heidi Jiang, Guangyu Zhou, Nikita Arora, Stephan Schuele, Joshua Rosenow, Jay A Gottfried
: The need to breathe links the mammalian olfactory system inextricably to the respiratory rhythms that draw air through the nose. In rodents and other small animals, slow oscillations of local field potential activity are driven at the rate of breathing (∼2-12 Hz) in olfactory bulb and cortex, and faster oscillatory bursts are coupled to specific phases of the respiratory cycle. These dynamic rhythms are thought to regulate cortical excitability and coordinate network interactions, helping to shape olfactory coding, memory, and behavior...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927840/%C3%AE-blockers-heart-disease-and-copd-current-controversies-and-uncertainties
#12
Jillian G Baker, Robert G Wilcox
Treating people with cardiovascular disease and COPD causes significant clinician anxiety. β-Blockers save lives in people with heart disease, specifically postinfarction and heart failure. COPD and heart disease frequently coexist and people with both disorders have particularly high cardiovascular mortality. There are concerns about giving β-blockers to people with concomitant COPD that include reduced basal lung function, diminished effectiveness of emergency β-agonist treatments, reduced benefit of long-acting β-agonist treatment and difficulty in discriminating between asthma and COPD...
December 7, 2016: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927264/factors-influencing-the-intentions-of-nurses-and-respiratory-therapists-to-use-automated-external-defibrillators-during-in-hospital-cardiac-arrest-a-qualitative-interview-study
#13
Jessica Andrews, Christian Vaillancourt, Jan Jensen, Ann Kasaboski, Manya Charette, Catherine M Clement, Jamie C Brehaut, Martin H Osmond, George A Wells, Ian G Stiell, Jeremy Grimshaw
OBJECTIVES: Nurses and respiratory therapists are seldom allowed to use automated external defibrillators (AED) during in-hospital cardiac arrest. This can result in significant time delays before defibrillation occurs and lower survival for cardiac arrest victims. We sought to identify barriers and facilitators to AED use by nurses and respiratory therapists. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with a purposeful sample of nurses and respiratory therapists...
December 8, 2016: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924105/innovating-affordable-neonatal-care-equipment-for-use-at-scale
#14
REVIEW
V Sashi Kumar, V K Paul, K Sathasivam
The care of small and sick neonates requires biomedical technologies, such as devices that can keep babies warm (radiant warmers and incubators), resuscitate (self-inflating bags), track growth (weighing scales), treat jaundice (phototherapy units) and provide oxygen or respiratory support (hoods, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices and ventilators). Until the 1990s, most of these products were procured through import at a high cost and with little maintenance support. Emerging demand and an informal collaboration of neonatologists, engineers and entrepreneurs has led to the production of good quality equipment of several high-volume categories at affordable cost in India...
December 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923981/sarcopenia-and-frailty-in-chronic-respiratory-disease-lessons-from-gerontology
#15
Anna E Bone, Nilay Hepgul, Samantha Kon, Matthew Maddocks
Sarcopenia and frailty are geriatric syndromes characterized by multisystem decline, which are related to and reflected by markers of skeletal muscle dysfunction. In older people, sarcopenia and frailty have been used for risk stratification, to predict adverse outcomes and to prompt intervention aimed at preventing decline in those at greatest risk. In this review, we examine sarcopenia and frailty in the context of chronic respiratory disease, providing an overview of the common assessments tools and studies to date in the field...
December 6, 2016: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923527/benzodiazepine-opioid-co-prescribing-in-a-national-probability-sample-of-emergency-department-encounters
#16
Howard S Kim, Danielle M McCarthy, D Mark Courtney, Patrick M Lank, Bruce L Lambert
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepine-opioid combination therapy is potentially harmful due to the risk of synergistic respiratory depression, and the rate of death due to benzodiazepine-opioid overdose is increasing. Little is known about the prevalence and characteristics of benzodiazepine-opioid co-prescribing from the ED setting. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, using sample weights to generate population estimates...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922570/developing-a-simulation-based-training-program-for-the-prehospital-professionals-and-students-on-the-management-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome
#17
Melih Elcin, Arif Onan, Orhan Odabasi, Melahat Saylam, Handan Ilhan, Pinar Daylan Kockaya, Ilker Gurcuoglu, Yavuz Uckuyu, Duygu Cengiz, Osman Arikan Nacar
INTRODUCTION: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a major global health threat. Prehospital professionals face the risk of infection as they work to save lives. They should be made aware of the disease and be prepared to handle such cases. The aims of our study are to develop a training program about the prehospital management of a MERS case using standardized patient (SP) scenarios, to evaluate the awareness and preparedness of the participants about MERS, and to evaluate the effectiveness of this training...
December 2016: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921442/nebulized-antibiotics-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-roadmap-and-challenges
#18
G Poulakou, G Siakallis, S Tsiodras, A Arfaras Melainis, G Dimopoulos
Nebulized antibiotics use has become common practice in the therapeutics of pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients. There is an increasing interest in their use for respiratory infections in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients in order to a) overcome pharmacokinetic issues in the lung compartment with traditional systemic antibiotic use and b) prevent the emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Areas covered: The beneficial effects of antibiotic nebulization in MV patients e.g. increasing efficacy, reduced toxicity and prevention of resistance are described...
December 6, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921174/spatiotemporal-variations-of-extreme-low-temperature-for-emergency-transport-a-nationwide-observational-study
#19
Daisuke Onozuka, Akihito Hagihara
Although recent studies have investigated the effect of extreme heat on emergency transport, few have investigated the spatiotemporal variations of extreme low temperature for emergency transport on a national scale. Data pertaining to emergency ambulance transport and weather variation in the 47 prefectures of Japan between 2007 and 2010 were obtained. Nonlinear and delayed relationships between temperature and morbidity were assessed using a two-stage analysis. First, a Poisson regression analysis allowing for overdispersion in a distributed lag nonlinear model was used to estimate the prefecture-specific effects of temperature on morbidity...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921105/ultrasmall-silver-nanoclusters-highly-efficient-antibacterial-activity-and-their-mechanisms
#20
Jian-Cheng Jin, Xiao-Juan Wu, Juan Xu, Bei-Bei Wang, Feng-Lei Jiang, Yi Liu
Silver materials have been widely used as antimicrobial agents. Notably, silver nanoparticles have emerged as a new generation of nanoproducts for biomedical and environmental applications in recent years. However, ultrasmall silver nanoclusters (NCs) (∼2 nm) have rarely been used to kill bacteria and their antibacterial mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. Herein, we studied the antibacterial activities of bifunctional fluorescent DHLA-AgNCs against three types of bacteria. The results showed that DHLA-AgNCs exhibited excellent antibacterial activities against Gram-negative E...
December 6, 2016: Biomaterials Science
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