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Germain Chevignon, Bret M Boyd, Jayce W Brandt, Kerry M Oliver, Michael R Strand
Many insects host facultative, bacterial symbionts that confer conditional fitness benefits to their hosts. Hamiltonella defensa is a common facultative symbiont of aphids that provides protection against parasitoid wasps. Protection levels vary among strains of H. defensa that are also differentially infected by bacteriophages named APSEs. However, little is known about trait variation among strains because only one isolate has been fully sequenced. Generating complete genomes for facultative symbionts is hindered by relatively large genome sizes but low abundances in hosts like aphids that are very small...
February 14, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
K E Cervantes-Luevano, N Caronni, M C Castiello, E Fontana, G Piperno, A Naseem, P Uva, M Bosticardo, G E Marcovecchio, L D Notarangelo, M P Cicalese, A Aiuti, A Villa, F Benvenuti
BACKGROUND: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in WASp, a key regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics in hematopoietic cells. A high proportion of patients develop autoimmunity due to a breakdown in T and B cell tolerance. Moreover, excessive production of type-I interferon by plasmacytoid DCs contribute to autoimmune signs, however, the factors that triggers excessive innate activation have not been defined. OBJECTIVE: Neutrophils extracellular traps (NETs) emerged as major initiating factors in diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Xinyue Wang, Tianbang Li, Makiko Kashio, Yijuan Xu, Makoto Tominaga, Tatsuhiko Kadowaki
Solenopsis invicta , the red imported fire ant, represents one of the most devastating invasive species. To understand their sensory physiology, we identified and characterized their Hymenoptera-specific (Hs) TRPA channel, SiHsTRPA. Consistent with the sensory functions of SiHsTRPA, it is activated by heat, an electrophile, and an insect repellent. Nevertheless, SiHsTRPA does not respond to most of the honey bee ortholog (AmHsTRPA)-activating compounds. The jewel wasp ortholog (NvHsTRPA) is activated by these compounds even though it outgroups both AmHsTRPA and SiHsTRPA...
January 2018: ENeuro
Tobias Engl, Johannes Kroiss, Marco Kai, Taras Y Nechitaylo, Aleš Svatoš, Martin Kaltenpoth
The increasing resistance of human pathogens severely limits the efficacy of antibiotics in medicine, yet many animals, including solitary beewolf wasps, successfully engage in defensive alliances with antibiotic-producing bacteria for millions of years. Here, we report on the in situ production of 49 derivatives belonging to three antibiotic compound classes (45 piericidin derivatives, 3 streptochlorin derivatives, and nigericin) by the symbionts of 25 beewolf host species and subspecies, spanning 68 million years of evolution...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Elizabeth A Tibbetts, Michelle L Fearon, Ellery Wong, Zachary Y Huang, Robin M Tinghitella
In many cooperatively breeding animals, subordinate group members have lower reproductive capacity than dominant group members. Theory suggests subordinates may downregulate their reproductive capacity because dominants punish subordinates who maintain high fertility. However, there is little direct experimental evidence that dominants cause physiological suppression in subordinates. Here, we experimentally test how social interactions influence subordinate reproductive hormones in Polistes dominula paper wasps...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Carolyn Trietsch, István Mikó, David G Notton, Andrew R Deans
Background: A new species, Dendrocerus scutellaris Trietsch & Mikó (Hymenoptera: Megaspilidae), is described here from male and female specimens captured in Costa Rica. This species is the only known ceraphronoid wasp with a straight mandibular surface and raised dorsal projections on the scutellum, called the mesoscutellar comb. It is hypothesised that the function of the mesoscutellar comb is to aid the emergence of the adult from the host, especially since the mandibles lack a pointed surface to tear open the pupal case...
2018: Biodiversity Data Journal
Roberto Romani, Sara Ruschioni, Paola Riolo, Nunzio Isidoro
Pimplinae are parasitoids belonging to the family Ichneumonidae that attack and develops inside hidden host; female wasps evolved a peculiar host recognition strategy, that involves the use of self-produced vibrations which are transmitted through the antennae on the substrate and perceived back as an echo using the leg subgenual organ. In this study we investigated, using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy, the antennal tips of a few Pimplinae. In all the investigated species, the antennal tips present peculiar apical pegs with different shape and number, often defining a flattened sole devoid of other antennal structures, such as sensilla...
February 6, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Jasper L A Vleugels, Marcel G W Dijkgraaf, Yark Hazewinkel, Linda K Wanders, Paul Fockens, Evelien Dekker, M C J M Becx, A M van Berkel, W Bruins Slot, M Cazemier, A C T M Depla, J M J Geesing, T A Grool, G M P Houben, J M Jansen, K Kessels, M E van Leerdam, N van Lelyveld, R C Mallant-Hent, W A Marsman, E Schnekenburger, E J van Soest, B W van der Spek, P C F Stokkers, J Tenthof van Noorden, S A C van Tuyl, K M A J Tytgat, M T Uiterwaal, R C Verdonk, M A M T Verhagen, M van der Vlugt, A Voorburg, C A Wientjes
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Real-time differentiation of diminutive polyps (1-5 mm) during endoscopy could replace histopathology analysis. According to guidelines, implementation of optical diagnosis into routine practice would require it to identify rectosigmoid neoplastic lesions with a negative predictive value (NPV) of over 90%, using histologic findings as a reference, and agreement with histology-based surveillance intervals for more than 90% of cases. METHODS: We performed a prospective study with 39 endoscopists accredited to perform colonoscopies on participants with positive results from fecal immunochemical tests in the Bowel Cancer Screening Program at 13 centers in the Netherlands...
February 6, 2018: Gastroenterology
Christina Sann, Franziska Wemheuer, Alexis Beaurepaire, Rolf Daniel, Silvio Erler, Stefan Vidal
Ongoing intensification of rice production systems in Southeast Asia is causing devastating yield losses each year due to rice hoppers. Their continuing development of immunity to resistant rice varieties and pesticide applications further complicates this problem. Hence, there is a high demand for biological control agents of rice hoppers. Egg parasitoid wasps are among the most important natural enemies of rice hoppers, such as Nilaparvata lugens and Nephotettix spp. However, our knowledge of their diversity is still very limited, due to their small size and the lack of available morphological information...
February 9, 2018: Insects
Lucia Sereni, Maria Carmina Castiello, Francesco Marangoni, Achille Anselmo, Dario di Silvestre, Sara Motta, Elena Draghici, Stefano Mantero, Adrian J Thrasher, Silvia Giliani, Alessandro Aiuti, Pierluigi Mauri, Luigi D Notarangelo, Marita Bosticardo, Anna Villa
BACKGROUND: Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked immunodeficiency characterized by eczema, infections and susceptibility to develop autoimmunity and malignancies. Thrombocytopenia is a constant finding, but its pathogenesis remains elusive. OBJECTIVE: To dissect the basis of WAS platelet (PLT) defect we used a novel conditional mouse model (CoWas) lacking WASp only in the megakaryocytic lineage in presence of a normal immunological environment and in parallel we analysed samples obtained from WAS patients...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jose Fernandez-Triana
Ten new species within four genera of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are described from Canada and United States: Diolcogaster ichiroi, Diolcogaster miamensis, Glyptapanteles pseudotsugae, Microgaster archboldensis, Microgaster syntopic, Microplitis altissimus, Microplitis jorgeluisi, Microplitis juanmanueli, Microplitis julioalbertoi, and Microplitis mariamargaritae. The new taxa are significant because they represent the first North American records of a tropical group (species of the basimacula group in Diolcogaster), exemplify interesting ecological cases (niche-based host selection in Glyptapanteles, syntopic species in Microgaster), and showcase unique morphological features and/or altitudinal records (Microplitis)...
2018: ZooKeys
Michael S Engel, Diying Huang, Chenyang Cai, Abdulaziz S Alqarni
A new braconid wasp from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) amber of the Hukawng Valley in Kachin State, Myanmar is described and figured from a unique female. Seneciobracon novalatus Engel & Huang, gen. et sp. n., is placed in a distinct subfamily, Seneciobraconinae Engel & Huang, subfam. n., owing to the presence of a unique combination of primitive protorhyssaline-like traits, with an otherwise more derived wing venation. The fossil is discussed in the context of other Cretaceous Braconidae.
2018: ZooKeys
Majeed Askari Seyahooei, Akhtar Mohammadi-Rad, Shahram Hesami, Abdoolnabi Bagheri
Cold storage can extend shelf life of parasitoids for use in biocontrol. However, cold storage may have negative impacts on life history traits of the parasitoids and, therefore, on their performance as biocontrol agents. Here, we examine the effect of cold storage on life history traits of Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of several economic lepidopteran pests. Newly emerged wasps were stored at three constant temperatures (3°C, 5°C, 7°C) for up to 4 wk. Both temperature and exposure time significantly affected longevity, parasitism, fecundity, and sex ratio...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Amilcar Perez-Riverol, Michaela Miehe, Frederic Jabs, Henning Seismann, Luís Gustavo Romani Fernandes, Ricardo de Lima Zollner, Thilo Jakob, Marcia R Brochetto-Braga, Edzard Spillner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Misato Okamoto Miyakawa, Koji Tsuchida, Hitoshi Miyakawa
A female diploid, male haploid sex determination system (haplodiploidy) is found in hymenopteran taxa, such as ants, wasps, bees and sawflies. In this system, a single, complementary sex-determination (sl-CSD) locus functions as the primary sex-determination signal. In the taxa that has evolved this system, females and males are heterozygous and hemi/homozygous at the CSD locus, respectively. While the sl-CSD system enables females to alter sex ratios in the nest, it carries a high cost in terms of inbreeding, as individuals that are homozygous at the CSD locus become sterile diploid males...
February 2, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Sarah Cuschieri
Research metrics are quantitative measurements that identify and acknowledge research output while enhancing article, author and journal impact within the academic community. The article impact depends on the number of times that same article is cited by other authors, while an author's impact depends on the number of citations received on the total number of published articles by the same author. With the advancement in technology and the increased availability of open access journals, article-level metrics has become a popular metric...
February 2, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
The calculation of descriptive statistics includes the calculation of standard error and confidence interval, an inevitable component of data analysis in inferential statistics. This paper provides pointers as to how to do this in Microsoft Excel™.
February 2, 2018: Early Human Development
Miaomiao Zhang, Changpin Zhou, Zhijiao Song, Qijie Weng, Mei Li, Hongxia Ji, Xiaoyong Mo, Huanhua Huang, Wanhong Lu, Jianzhong Luo, Fagen Li, Siming Gan
Genomic loci related with resistance to gall-inducing insects have not been identified in any plants. Here, association mapping was used to identify molecular markers for resistance to the gall wasp Leptocybe invasa in two Eucalyptus species. A total of 86 simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were screened out from 839 SSRs and used for association mapping in E. grandis. By applying the mixed linear model, seven markers were identified to be associated significantly (P ≤ 0.05) with the gall wasp resistance in E...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Victor Grech
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 27, 2018: Early Human Development
Tania Zaviezo, Romina Retamal, Teddy Urvois, Xavier Fauvergue, Aurélie Blin, Thibaut Malausa
Inbreeding and inbreeding depression are processes in small populations of particular interest for a range of human activities such as animal breeding, species conservation, or pest management. In particular, biological control programs should benefit from a thorough understanding of the causes and consequences of inbreeding because natural enemies experience repetitive bottlenecks during importation, laboratory rearing, and introduction. Predicting the effect of inbreeding in hymenopteran parasitoid wasps, frequently used in biological control programs, is nonetheless a difficult endeavor...
February 2018: Evolutionary Applications
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