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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921037/acute-kidney-injury-in-western-countries
#1
REVIEW
Josée Bouchard, Ravindra L Mehta
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, higher risk of chronic kidney disease, and prolonged hospital lengths of stay. The epidemiology of AKI mainly derives from studies performed in Western high-income countries. More limited data are available from Western low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) located in Central and South America. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the most recent data on the epidemiology of AKI in Western countries, aiming to contrast results from industrialized high-income countries with LMICs...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921036/acute-kidney-injury-in-asia
#2
REVIEW
Li Yang
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common disorder and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of the climate and of the socioeconomic and developmental status in Asia has a great influence on the etiology and presentation of AKI in different regions. In view of the International Society of Nephrology's 0by25 initiative, more and more attention has been paid to AKI in Asian countries. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the recent achievements with regard to the prevalence and clinical patterns of AKI in Asian countries...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917066/review-of-the-genus-genaemirum-heinrich-hymenoptera-ichneumonidae-ichneumoninae-with-interactive-identification-keys-to-species
#3
Pascal Rousse, Gavin R Broad, Simon van Noort
We describe Genaemirum phagocossorum Rousse, Broad & van Noort, sp. n., a new ichneumonine parasitoid wasp reared from Eucalyptus nitens logs infested by the cossid moth Coryphodema tristis, which is considered a major pest of forestry and food crops in South Africa. This is the first plausible host association for the genus, and fits with the host association predictions of Heinrich. Two further undescribed species were found in the collections of the Natural History Museum in London and are described as Genaemirum phacochoerus Broad, Rousse & van Noort, sp...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917045/a-biodiversity-hotspot-for-microgastrinae-hymenoptera-braconidae-in-north-america-annotated-species-checklist-for-ottawa-canada
#4
Jose Fernandez-Triana, Caroline Boudreault, Joel Buffam, Ronald Mclean
Microgastrinae wasps (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from the city of Ottawa and its surroundings (a 50-km radius circle, ~7,800 km(2)) were studied based on 1,928 specimens collected between 1894 and 2010, and housed in the Canadian National Collection of Insects. A total of 158 species from 21 genera were identified, which is by far the highest number of species ever recorded for a locality in North America. An annotated checklist of species is provided. Choeras parasitellae (Bouché, 1834) and Pholetesor nanus (Reinhard, 1880) are recorded for the first time in the Nearctic (previously only known from the Palearctic region), Cotesia depressa (Viereck, 1912) is recorded for the first time in Canada (previously only known from the United States), and Cotesia hemileucae (Riley, 1881) and Protapanteles phlyctaeniae (Muesebeck, 1929) are recorded for the first time in the province of Ontario...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913635/screening-and-analysis-of-janelia-flylight-project-enhancer-gal4-strains-identifies-multiple-gene-enhancers-active-during-hematopoiesis-in-normal-and-wasp-challenged-drosophila-larvae
#5
Tsuyoshi Tokusumi, Yumiko Tokusumi, Mark S Brahier, Victoria Lam, Jessica R Stoller-Conrad, Paul T Kroeger, Robert A Schulz
A GFP expression screen has been conducted on greater than one thousand Janelia FlyLight Project enhancer-Gal4 lines to identify transcriptional enhancers active in the larval hematopoietic system. A total of 190 enhancers associated with 87 distinct genes showed activity in cells of the third instar larval lymph gland and hemolymph. That is, gene enhancers were active in cells of the lymph gland posterior signaling center (PSC), medullary zone (MZ), and/or cortical zone (CZ), while certain of the transcriptional control regions were active in circulating hemocytes...
December 2, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913622/a-venom-serpin-splicing-isoform-of-the-endoparasitoid-wasp-pteromalus-puparum-suppresses-host-prophenoloxidase-cascade-by-forming-complexes-with-host-hemolymph-proteinases
#6
Zhichao Yan, Qi Fang, Yang Liu, Shan Xiao, Lei Yang, Fei Wang, Chunju An, John H Werren, Gongyin Ye
To ensure successful parasitism, parasitoid wasps inject venom along with their eggs into their hosts. The venom serves to suppress host immune responses, including melanization. Venom from Pteromalus puparum, a pupal endoparasitoid, inhibits melanization of host hemolymph in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Using assay guided fractionation, a serpin splicing isoform with phenoloxidase (PO) inhibitory activity was identified as P. puparum serpin-1, venom isoform (PpS1V). This serpin gene has 16 predicted splicing isoforms that differ only in the C-terminal region...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913150/juvenile-hormone-titers-ovarian-status-and-epicuticular-hydrocarbons-in-gynes-and-workers-of-the-paper-wasp-belonogaster-longitarsus
#7
Hans C Kelstrup, Klaus Hartfelder, Nanike Esterhuizen, Theresa C Wossler
The prevailing paradigm for social wasp endocrinology is that of juvenile hormone (JH) functioning pleiotropically in potential and actual queens, where it fuels dominance behaviors, stimulates ovarian growth and/or affects the production of status-linked cuticular compounds. In colonies with annual cycles (e.g., temperate-zone species), female adults produced at the end of the summer (called gynes) are physiologically primed to hibernate. Despite the absence of egg-laying in the pre-overwintering phase, gynes engage in dominance interactions that may affect reproductive potential following hibernation...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912247/molecular-evolution-in-insect-societies-an-eco-evo-devo-synthesis
#8
Amy L Toth, Sandra M Rehan
The evolution of eusociality is a perennial issue in evolutionary biology, and genomic advances have fueled steadily growing interest in the genetic changes underlying social evolution. Along with a recent flurry of research on comparative and evolutionary genomics in different eusocial insect groups (bees, ants, wasps, and termites), several mechanistic explanations have emerged to describe the molecular evolution of eusociality from solitary behavior. These include solitary physiological ground plans, genetic toolkits of deeply conserved genes, evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes, cis regulation, and the structure of gene networks, epigenetics, and novel genes...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911716/wasp-family-proteins-more-than-arp2-3-activators
#9
REVIEW
Joe J Tyler, Ellen G Allwood, Kathryn R Ayscough
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family proteins have been extensively characterized as factors that promote the nucleation of actin through the activation of the protein complex Arp2/3. While yeast mostly have a single member of the family, mammalian cells have at least six different members, often with multiple isoforms. Members of the family are characterized by a common structure. Their N-termini are varied and are considered to confer spatial and temporal regulation of Arp2/3-activating activity, whereas their C-terminal half contains a polyproline-rich region, one or more WASP homology-2 (WH2) actin-binding domains and motifs that bind directly to Arp2/3...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910450/first-order-reversal-curves-forc-analysis-of-individual-magnetic-nanostructures-using-micro-hall-magnetometry
#10
Merlin Pohlit, Paul Eibisch, Maryam Akbari, Fabrizio Porrati, Michael Huth, Jens Müller
Alongside the development of artificially created magnetic nanostructures, micro-Hall magnetometry has proven to be a versatile tool to obtain high-resolution hysteresis loop data and access dynamical properties. Here we explore the application of First Order Reversal Curves (FORC)-a technique well-established in the field of paleomagnetism for studying grain-size and interaction effects in magnetic rocks-to individual and dipolar-coupled arrays of magnetic nanostructures using micro-Hall sensors. A proof-of-principle experiment performed on a macroscopic piece of a floppy disk as a reference sample well known in the literature demonstrates that the FORC diagrams obtained by magnetic stray field measurements using home-built magnetometers are in good agreement with magnetization data obtained by a commercial vibrating sample magnetometer...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909303/conditional-knockout-of-n-wasp-in-mouse-fibroblast-caused-keratinocyte-hyper-proliferation-and-enhanced-wound-closure
#11
Neeraj Jain, Pazhanichamy Kalailingam, Kai Wei Tan, Hui Bing Tan, Ming Keat Sng, Jeremy Soon Kiat Chan, Nguan Soon Tan, Thirumaran Thanabalu
Neural-Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein (N-WASP) is expressed ubiquitously, regulates actin polymerization and is essential during mouse development. We have previously shown that N-WASP is critical for cell-ECM adhesion in fibroblasts. To characterize the role of N-WASP in fibroblast for skin development, we generated a conditional knockout mouse model in which fibroblast N-WASP was ablated using the Cre recombinase driven by Fibroblast Specific Protein promoter (Fsp-Cre). N-WASP(FKO) (N-WASP(fl/fl); Fsp-cre) were born following Mendelian genetics, survived without any visible abnormalities for more than 1 year and were sexually reproductive, suggesting that expression of N-WASP in fibroblast is not critical for survival under laboratory conditions...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907922/distinct-contributory-factors-determine-basophil-allergen-sensitivity-in-grass-pollen-rhinitis-and-in-anaphylactic-wasp-venom-allergy
#12
Peter Korošec, Mira Šilar, Peter Kopač, Renato Eržen, Mihaela Zidarn, Mitja Košnik
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine whether basophil-allergen sensitivity could be transferred to donor basophils by passive IgE sensitisation in allergic rhinitis and anaphylactic Hymenoptera venom hypersensitivity. METHODS: We studied 15 wasp venom-, 19 grass pollen- and 2 house dust mite-allergic patients, 2 healthy donors, and 8 wasp venom-allergic donors. In all subjects, we first evaluated the initial basophil response to wasp venom, grass pollen, or house dust mite allergen...
December 2, 2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903780/evidence-for-an-optimal-level-of-connectivity-for-establishment-and-colonization
#13
Thibaut Morel-Journel, Camille Piponiot, Elodie Vercken, Ludovic Mailleret
Dispersal is usually associated with the spread of invasive species, but it also has two opposing effects, one decreasing and the other increasing the probability of establishment. Indeed, dispersal both slows population growth at the site of introduction and increases the likelihood of surrounding habitat being colonized. The connectivity of the introduction site is likely to affect dispersal, and, thus, establishment, according to the dispersal behaviour of individuals. Using individual-based models and microcosm experiments on minute wasps, we demonstrated the existence of a hump-shaped relationship between connectivity and establishment in situations in which individual dispersal resembled a diffusion process...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901080/block-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-by-philanthotoxins-is-strongly-dependent-on-their-subunit-composition
#14
Hamid S Kachel, Rohit N Patel, Henrik Franzyk, Ian R Mellor
Philanthotoxin-433 (PhTX-433) is an active component of the venom from the Egyptian digger wasp, Philanthus triangulum. PhTX-433 inhibits several excitatory ligand-gated ion channels, and to improve selectivity two synthetic analogues, PhTX-343 and PhTX-12, were developed. Previous work showed a 22-fold selectivity of PhTX-12 over PhTX-343 for embryonic muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in TE671 cells. We investigated their inhibition of different neuronal nAChR subunit combinations as well as of embryonic muscle receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894937/cell-cycle-arrest-in-the-jewel-wasp-nasonia-vitripennis-in-larval-diapause
#15
Yuta Shimizu, Ayumu Mukai, Shin G Goto
Insects enter diapause to synchronise their life cycle with biotic and abiotic environmental conditions favourable for their development, reproduction, and survival. One of the most noticeable characteristics of diapause is the blockage of ontogeny. Although this blockage should occur with the cessation of cellular proliferation, i.e. cell cycle arrest, it was confirmed only in a few insect species and information on the molecular pathways involved in cell cycle arrest is limited. In the present study, we investigated developmental and cell cycle arrest in diapause larvae of the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892529/a-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-acts-in-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci-immunity-and-involves-in-begomovirus-acquisition
#16
Zhi-Zhi Wang, Min Shi, Yi-Cun Huang, Xiao-Wei Wang, David Stanley, Xue-Xin Chen
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are multifunctional pattern recognition proteins. Here, we report that a PGRP gene, BtPGRP, encodes a PGRP from the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (MEAM1) that binds and kills bacteria in vitro. We analyzed BtPGRP transcriptional profiling, and the distribution of the cognate protein within the midgut. Fungal infection and wasp parasitization induced expression of BtPGRP. Silencing BtPGRP with artificial media amended with dsRNA led to reduced expression of a gene encoding an antimicrobial peptide, B...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890089/a-mid-cretaceous-eccrinales-infesting-a-primitive-wasp-in-myanmar-amber
#17
George Poinar
A mid-Cretaceous Eccrinales in Myanmar amber is described as Paleocadus burmiticus gen. et sp. nov. in the family Eccrinaceae. The fossil is represented by two types of sporangiospores formed on different thalli protruding from the anus of a primitive wasp, with secondary infestation spores multinucleate and thin walled. Its presence establishes the Eccrinales in the mid-Cretaceous and shows that at that time, lineages of this group parasitized wasps, an association unknown with extant members of the Order.
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887946/inhibition-of-eicosanoid-signaling-leads-to-increased-lipid-peroxidation-in-a-host-parasitoid-system
#18
Ender Büyükgüzel, Meltem Erdem, Hasan Tunaz, Ceyhun Küçük, Utku Can Atılgan, David Stanley, Kemal Büyükgüzel
We posed the hypothesis that inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthesis leads to increased lipid peroxidation in insects. Here we report that rearing the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, on media supplemented with selected inhibitors of eicosanoid biosynthesis throughout the larval, pupal and adult life led to major alterations in selected oxidative and antioxidative parameters of wax moth and its ectoparasitoid, Bracon hebetor. The highest dietary dexamethasone (Dex), esculetin (Esc) and phenidone (Phe) led to increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and to elevated catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities in all developmental stages of host larvae...
November 23, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886334/microsatellite-loci-and-genetic-structure-of-artificial-populations-of-cotesia-flavipes-hymenoptera-braconidae
#19
L O S Anjos, R F Peixoto, D M S Chanquinie, L R Pinto, S A Creste, L L Dinardo-Miranda, M G A Landell, E V Tambarussi, R Vencovsky
Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) is a parasitoid wasp used in the biological control of the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis) (Fabr., 1794). Studies on the genetic diversity of C. flavipes are hampered by the lack of highly polymorphic molecular markers. In this report, a set of 11 microsatellite loci were developed from an enriched library of C. flavipes. Four microsatellite loci were polymorphic and were screened in 212 C. flavipes individuals (183 females and 29 males) that were randomly sampled from seven rearing laboratory populations...
November 21, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881679/the-shigella-virulence-factor-icsa-relieves-n-wasp-autoinhibition-by-displacing-the-vca-domain
#20
Rui P M Mauricio, Cy M Jeffries, Dmitri I Svergun, Janet E Deane
Shigella flexneri is a bacterial pathogen that invades cells of the gastrointestinal tract causing severe dysentery. Shigella mediate intracellular motility and spreading via actin comet tail formation. This process is dependent on the surface-exposed, membrane-embedded virulence factor IcsA, which recruits the host actin regulator N-WASP. Although it is clear that Shigella require N-WASP for this process, the molecular details of this interaction and the mechanism of N-WASP activation remain poorly understood...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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