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Benjamin Aroeti, Ephrem G Kassa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
John J Garber, Emily M Mallick, Karen M Scanlon, Jerrold R Turner, Michael S Donnenberg, John M Leong, Scott B Snapper
Background & Aims: Neural Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (N-WASP) is a key regulator of the actin cytoskeleton in epithelial tissues and is poised to mediate cytoskeletal-dependent aspects of apical junction complex (AJC) homeostasis. Attaching-and-effacing (AE) pathogens disrupt this homeostasis through translocation of the effector molecule early secreted antigenic target-6 (ESX)-1 secretion-associated protein F (EspF). Although the mechanisms underlying AJC disruption by EspF are unknown, EspF contains putative binding sites for N-WASP and the endocytic regulator sorting nexin 9 (SNX9)...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
James B Whitfield, Robert J Nuelle Jr, Robert J Nuelle Iii
The braconid wasp parasitoid Cotesia nuellorum Whitfield, new species, is described from specimens reared from a caterpillar of the hickory horned devil, Citheronia regalis (F.), and from a caterpillar of the luna moth, Actias luna (L.), in eastern Texas. The species is diagnosed with respect to other species of Cotesia recorded from North American Saturniidae, and details of its biology are provided.
2018: ZooKeys
Chien-Po Liao, Hsun Li, Hsiu-Hsiang Lee, Cheng-Ting Chien, Chun-Liang Pan
Self-avoidance allows sister dendrites from the same neuron to form non-redundant coverage of the sensory territory and is important for neural circuitry functions. Here, we report an unexpected, cell-autonomous role of the Wnt-secretory factor MIG-14/Wntless in mediating dendrite self-avoidance in the C. elegans multidendritic PVD neurons. Similar findings in Drosophila suggest that this novel function of Wntless is conserved. The mig-14 mutant shows defects in dendrite self-avoidance, and ectopic MIG-14 expression triggers dendrite repulsion...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
Shelley Halpain
In this issue of Neuron, Liao and colleagues (2018) uncover a surprising way that the guidance molecule MIG14/Wntless operates in dendrite self-avoidance in sensorimotor neurons. Not only does MIG14/Wntless not require the soluble cue Wntless, but it can mediate direct cell-cell contact at the plasma membrane. During dendrite tip contact, MIG14/Wntless drives local bursts of WASP-dependent actin filament assembly that facilitate sister dendrite repulsion.
April 18, 2018: Neuron
Hayley T Morris, Loic Fort, Heather J Spence, Rachana Patel, David F Vincent, James H Park, Scott B Snapper, Francis A Carey, Owen J Sansom, Laura M Machesky
N-WASP (WASL) is a widely expressed cytoskeletal signalling and scaffold protein also implicated in regulation of Wnt signalling and homeostatic maintenance of skin epithelial architecture. N-WASP mediates invasion of cancer cells in vitro and its depletion reduces invasion and metastatic dissemination of breast cancer. Given this role in cancer invasion and universal expression in the gastrointestinal tract, we explored a role for N-WASP in the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer. While deletion of N-wasp is not detectably harmful in the murine intestinal tract, numbers of Paneth cells increased, indicating potential changes in the stem cell niche and migration up the crypt-villus axis was enhanced...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Pathology
Yi-Yi Ou-Yang, Yi-Pei Zhao, Richard J Hopkins, Xu-Yang Chen, Guo-Hua Huang, Xing Wang
Early instar larvae of the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are recognized hosts of the parasitic wasp Microplitis prodeniae Rao and Kurian (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), although M. prodeniae has previously been regarded as monophagous. In this study, we found the immature period and longevity of M. prodeniae developing in S. exigua was similar to that in S. litura. It was shown that the development time of M. prodeniae in S...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Izabela Kot, Katarzyna Rubinowska
Gall-inducing Cynipidae (Hymenoptera) manipulate the leaves of their host plants and induce local resistance, resulting in a diversity of physiological changes. In this study, three gall morphotypes caused by the asexual generation of Cynips quercusfolii L., Neuroterus numismalis (Fourc.) and Neuroterus quercusbaccarum L. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on pedunculate oaks (Quercus robur L. (Fagales: Fagaceae)), were used as a model to examine physiological alterations in galls and foliar tissues, compared to non-galled tissues...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Yael Keinan, Rachel Braun, Tamar Keasar
Larvae of parasitoid wasps develop on a single arthropod host, and often face resource limitation that induces a tradeoff between egg maturation and somatic growth. Part of the variation in the growth-reproduction allocation was shown to be heritable, but how the larval developmental environment affects this allocation is not well-known. Detection of life history tradeoffs is often facilitated under stress conditions. We therefore exposed developing female larvae of the polyembryonic parasitoid Copidosoma koehleri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) to laboratory manipulations aimed to restrict host resources (either host-starvation or high larval density)...
2018: PloS One
Pablo Servigne, Jérôme Orivel, Frédéric Azémar, James Carpenter, Alain Dejean, Bruno Corbara
Although the Neotropical territorially dominant arboreal ant Azteca chartifex Forel is very aggressive towards any intruder, its populous colonies tolerate the close presence of the fierce polistine wasp Polybia rejecta (F.). In French Guiana, 83.33% of the 48 P. rejecta nests recorded were found side by side with those of A. chartifex. This nesting association results in mutual protection from predators (i.e., the wasps protected from army ants; the ants protected from birds). We conducted field studies, laboratory-based behavioral experiments and chemical analyses to elucidate the mechanisms allowing the persistence of this association...
April 16, 2018: Insect Science
Ramya Ganesan, Karen M Henkels, Lucile E Wrenshall, Yasunori Kanaho, Gilbert Di Paolo, Michael A Frohman, Julian Gomez-Cambronero
The uptake of cholesterol carried by low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is tightly controlled in the body. Macrophages are not well suited to counteract the cellular consequences of excess cholesterol leading to their transformation into "foam cells," an early step in vascular plaque formation. We have uncovered and characterized a novel mechanism involving phospholipase D (PLD) in foam cell formation. Utilizing bone marrow-derived macrophages from genetically PLD deficient mice, we demonstrate that PLD2 (but not PLD1)-null macrophages cannot fully phagocytose aggregated oxidized LDL (Agg-Ox-LDL), which was phenocopied with a PLD2-selective inhibitor...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Hui Li, Qi Yao, Alberto Garcia Mariscal, Xudong Wu, Justus Hülse, Esben Pedersen, Kristian Helin, Ari Waisman, Caroline Vinkel, Simon Francis Thomsen, Alexandra Avgustinova, Salvador Aznar Benitah, Paola Lovato, Hanne Norsgaard, Mette Sidsel Mortensen, Lone Veng, Björn Rozell, Cord Brakebusch
The chronic skin inflammation psoriasis is crucially dependent on the IL-23/IL-17 cytokine axis. Although IL-23 is expressed by psoriatic keratinocytes and immune cells, only the immune cell-derived IL-23 is believed to be disease relevant. Here we use a genetic mouse model to show that keratinocyte-produced IL-23 is sufficient to cause a chronic skin inflammation with an IL-17 profile. Furthermore, we reveal a cell-autonomous nuclear function for the actin polymerizing molecule N-WASP, which controls IL-23 expression in keratinocytes by regulating the degradation of the histone methyltransferases G9a and GLP, and H3K9 dimethylation of the IL-23 promoter...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Fabio Fernando Flores, Norma Inés Hilgert, Liliana Concepción Lupo
BACKGROUND: The order Hymenoptera comprises melliferous insects (bees, wasps and bumblebees); among them, stingless bees comprise a diverse group of eusocial insects present in tropical and subtropical areas. Of a total of approximately 500 species, 400 are found in the Neotropics. On the continent of America, before the introduction of Apis mellifera, these insects represented the main source of honey and wax. In Argentina, ethnobiological investigations had been carried out on this group of insects, principally in the Atlantic Forest and Chaco regions...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Erin C Powell, Lisa A Taylor
Individual foraging specialization describes the phenomenon where conspecifics within a population of generalists exhibit differences in foraging behavior, each specializing on different prey types. Individual specialization is widespread in animals, yet is understudied in invertebrates, despite potential impacts to food web and population dynamics . Sceliphron caementarium (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) is an excellent system to examine individual specialization. Females of these mud dauber wasps capture and paralyze spiders which they store in mud nests to provision their offspring...
May 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
Hongdan Li, Haoqi Wang, Zhen Ren
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aims to explore the effects of microRNA-214-5p (miR-214-5p) on the invasion and migration of Hepatocellular Carcinoma cells (HCC). METHODS: Hepatocellular Carcinoma tissues and adjacent normal tissues from 44 hepatocellular carcinoma patients were prepared for this study. The HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells were transfected with miR-214-5p mimic and inhibitor. qRT-PCR was performed to detect the expressions of miR-214-5p. Transwell assays were used to detect the invasion and migration assays in HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells...
March 29, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Raúl Bonal, Enrique Vargas-Osuna, Juan Diego Mena, José Miguel Aparicio, María Santoro, Angela Martín
The quick spread of the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Europe constitutes an outstanding example of recent human-aided biological invasion with dramatic economic losses. We screened for the first time a set of five nuclear and mitochondrial genes from D. kuriphilus collected in the Iberian Peninsula, and compared the sequences with those available from the native and invasive range of the species. We found no genetic variability in Iberia in none of the five genes, moreover, the three genes compared with other European samples showed no variability either...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anna K Block, Charles T Hunter, Caitlin Rering, Shawn A Christensen, Robert L Meagher
The maize inbred line W22 has lower herbivore-induced volatile production than B73 but both fall armyworm larvae and the wasps that parasitize them prefer W22 over B73. Maize inbred line W22 is an important resource for genetic studies due to the availability of the UniformMu mutant population and a complete genome sequence. In this study, we assessed the suitability of W22 as a model for tritrophic interactions between maize, Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) and the parasitoid wasp Cotesia marginiventris...
April 3, 2018: Planta
Clive T Darwell, Simon T Segar, James M Cook
BACKGROUND: Localised patterns of species diversity can be influenced by many factors, including regional species pools, biogeographic features and interspecific interactions. Despite recognition of these issues, we still know surprisingly little about how invertebrate biodiversity is structured across geographic scales. In particular, there have been few studies of how insect communities vary geographically while using the same plant host. We compared the composition (species, genera) and functional structure (guilds) of the chalcid wasp communities associated with the widespread fig tree, Ficus benjamina, towards the northern (Hainan province, China) and southern (Queensland, Australia) edges of its natural range...
April 3, 2018: BMC Ecology
Ren Wu, Ding Li, Qi Tang, Wanchun Wang, Guangrong Xie, Pengcheng Dou
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a typical bone cancer, and most frequently used cancer treatments for OS are limited due to severe drug-related toxicities. Wasp venoms contain functional components that may offer pharmaceutical components for the treatment of cancers. This study aimed to isolate and characterize a novel peptide (venom anti-cancer peptide 1, VACP1) derived from the wasp venom of Vespa ducalis SMITH. Toxins from Vespa ducalis crude venom were separated by gel filtration and purified by C18 reverse-phase HPLC...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Prapenpuksiri Rungsa, Steve Peigneur, Sakda Daduang, Jan Tytgat
Vespa tropica, a social wasp locally found in Thailand is responsible for many out off the record accidental stings due to close encounters with human activities and because of the animal's highly potent venom. Phospholipase (PLA) is one of the major proteins commonly found in insect venom. In this work, V. tropica phospholipase was successfully isolated, purified and characterized. Three isoforms PLAs have been purified using reversed phase HPLC, and are named VesT1s (VesT1.01a, VesT1.01b and VesT1.02). They are not glycoproteins...
March 29, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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