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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108242/evaluation-of-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-the-mastoparan-polybia-mpii-isolated-from-venom-of-the-social-wasp-pseudopolybia-vespiceps-testacea-vespidae-hymenoptera
#1
Juliana C Silva, Lázaro M Neto, Rogério C Neves, Jaqueline C Gonçalves, Monalisa M Trentini, Ricardo Mucury-Filho, Karina S Smidt, Isabel C Fensterseifer, Osmar N Silva, Lilian D Lima, Patricia B Clissa, Nathália Vilela, Fernanda Guilhelmelli, Luciano P Silva, Marisa Rangel, André Kipnis, Ildinete Silva-Pereira, Octavio L Franco, Ana P Junqueira-Kipnis, Anamelia L Bocca, Márcia R Mortari
Mastoparans, a class of peptides found in wasp venom, have significant effects following a sting as well as useful applications in clinical practice. Among these is their potential use in the control of micro-organisms that cause infectious diseases with a significant impact on society. Thus, the present study describes the isolation and identification of a mastoparan peptide from the venom of the social wasp Pseudopolybia vespiceps and evaluated its antimicrobial profile against bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium abscessus subsp...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104679/genome-sequencing-of-the-behaviour-manipulating-virus-lbfv-reveals-a-possible-new-virus-family
#2
D Lepetit, B Gillet, S Hughes, K Kraaijeveld, J Varaldi
Parasites are sometimes able to manipulate the behaviour of their hosts. However, the molecular cues underlying this phenomenon are poorly documented. We previously reported that the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi which develops from Drosophila larvae is often infected by an inherited DNA virus. In addition to being maternally transmitted, the virus benefits from horizontal transmission in superparasitized larvae (Drosophila that have been parasitized several times). Interestingly, the virus forces infected females to lay eggs in already parasitized larvae, thus increasing the chance of being horizontally transmitted...
January 19, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095615/the-long-term-population-dynamics-of-common-wasps-in-their-native-and-invaded-range
#3
Philip J Lester, John Haywood, Michael E Archer, Chris R Shortall
Populations of introduced species are often thought to perform differently, or experience different population dynamics, in their introduced range compared to their native habitat. Differences between habitats in climate, competition or natural enemies may result in populations with varying density dependence and population dynamics. We examined the long-term population dynamics of the invasive common wasp, Vespula vulgaris, in its native range in England and its invaded range in New Zealand. We used 39 years of wasp density data from four sites in England, and 23 years of data from six sites in New Zealand...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089234/oncogenic-kras-induced-increase-in-fluid-phase-endocytosis-is-dependent-on-n-wasp-and-is-required-for-the-formation-of-pancreatic-preneoplastic-lesions
#4
Clara Lubeseder-Martellato, Katharina Alexandrow, Ana Hidalgo-Sastre, Irina Heid, Sophie Luise Boos, Thomas Briel, Roland M Schmid, Jens T Siveke
Fluid-phase endocytosis is a homeostatic process with an unknown role in tumor initiation. The driver mutation in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is constitutively active KRas(G12D), which induces neoplastic transformation of acinar cells through acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM). We have previously shown that KRas(G12D)-induced ADM is dependent on RAC1 and EGF receptor (EGFR) by a not fully clarified mechanism. Using three-dimensional mouse and human acinar tissue cultures and genetically engineered mouse models, we provide evidence that (i) KRas(G12D) leads to EGFR-dependent sustained fluid-phase endocytosis (FPE) during acinar metaplasia; (ii) variations in plasma membrane tension increase FPE and lead to ADM in vitro independently of EGFR; and (iii) that RAC1 regulates ADM formation partially through actin-dependent regulation of FPE...
December 24, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088250/pre-hospital-treatment-of-bee-and-wasp-induced-anaphylactic-reactions-a-retrospective-study
#5
Athamaica Ruiz Oropeza, Søren Mikkelsen, Carsten Bindslev-Jensen, Charlotte G Mortz
BACKGROUND: Bee and wasp stings are among the most common triggers of anaphylaxis in adults representing around 20% of fatal anaphylaxis from any cause. Data of pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions, the severity of the reactions and to correlate the pre-hospital treatment with the severity of the anaphylactic reaction. METHODS: Retrospective and descriptive study based on data from the Mobile Emergency Care Units (MECUs) in the Region of Southern Denmark (2008 only for Odense and 2009-2014 for the whole region)...
January 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076373/larvae-and-nests-of-aculeate-hymenoptera-hymenoptera-aculeata-nesting-in-reed-galls-induced-by-lipara-spp-diptera-chloropidae-with-a-review-of-species-recorded-part-ii
#6
Alena Astapenková, Petr Heneberg, Petr Bogusch
The ability of aculeate Hymenoptera to utilize wetlands is poorly understood, and descriptions of their nests and developmental stages are largely absent. Here we present results based on our survey of hymenopterans using galls induced by Lipara spp. flies on common reed Phragmites australis in the years 2015-2016. We studied 20,704 galls, of which 9,446 were longitudinally cut and the brood from them reared in the laboratory, while the remaining 11,258 galls reared in rearing bags also in laboratory conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074919/development-of-microsatellite-markers-and-estimation-of-inbreeding-frequency-in-the-parasitoid-wasp-melittobia
#7
Jun Abe, Bart A Pannebakker
The parasitoid wasp Melittobia is an important insect for basic and applied biology. Specifically, their extremely female-biased sex ratios, which contrast to the prediction of pre-existing theories, are needed to be explained from the aspect of evolutionary biology. In this study, using next-generation sequencing, 20 microsatellite loci were developed and characterized for M. australica. The developed loci were used to analyze two populations, one from a mainland Japan and one from the Okinawa island region...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074845/local-coexistence-and-genetic-isolation-of-three-pollinator-species-on-the-same-fig-tree-species
#8
T L Sutton, J L DeGabriel, M Riegler, J M Cook
Molecular tools increasingly reveal cryptic lineages and species that were previously unnoticed by traditional taxonomy. The discovery of cryptic species in sympatry prompts the question of how they coexist in the apparent absence of ecological divergence. However, this assumes first that the molecular taxonomy used to identify cryptic lineages delimits species boundaries accurately. This issue is important, because many diversity studies rely heavily or solely on data from mitochondrial DNA sequences for species delimitation, and several factors may lead to poor identification of species boundaries...
January 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070276/a-hypothesis-to-explain-accuracy-of-wasp-resemblances
#9
Michael Boppré, Richard I Vane-Wright, Wolfgang Wickler
Mimicry is one of the oldest concepts in biology, but it still presents many puzzles and continues to be widely debated. Simulation of wasps with a yellow-black abdominal pattern by other insects (commonly called "wasp mimicry") is traditionally considered a case of resemblance of unprofitable by profitable prey causing educated predators to avoid models and mimics to the advantage of both (Figure 1a). However, as wasps themselves are predators of insects, wasp mimicry can also be seen as a case of resemblance to one's own potential antagonist...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066972/efficacy-of-a-long-lasting-bifenthrin-treated-net-against-horticultural-pests-and-its-compatibility-with-the-predatory-mite-amblyseius-swirskii-and-the-parasitic-wasp-eretmocerus-mundus
#10
Mª Del Mar Fernández, Ignacio Colomer, Pilar Medina, Alberto Fereres, Pedro Del Estal, Elisa Viñuela
BACKGROUND: The insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are being investigated lately for their use in agriculture. Depending on the insecticide, the hole size and the way they are produced, these nets can target different pests and therefore they could be interesting options to be used in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). As the information on their compatibility with beneficial fauna is practically negligible, in this work we have tested the compatibility of an experimental bifenthrin long lasting insecticide-treated net (LLITN) with Amblyseius swirskii and Eretmocerus mundus, important natural enemies of whiteflies and thrips, under laboratory, semi-field and commercial greenhouses...
January 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066711/metagenomic-analysis-of-microbial-community-of-a-parasitoid-wasp-megaphragma-amalphitanum
#11
A V Nedoluzhko, F S Sharko, S V Tsygankova, E S Boulygina, A S Sokolov, S M Rastorguev, V V Kadnikov, A V Mardanov, N V Ravin, A M Mazur, A A Polilov, N M Gruzdeva, E B Prokhortchouk, K G Skryabin
The vast majority of multicellular organisms coexist with bacterial symbionts that may play various roles during their life cycle. Parasitoid wasp Megaphragma amalphitanum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) belongs to the smallest known insects whose size is comparable with some bacteria. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS), we described microbiota diversity for this arthropod and its potential impact on their lifecycle. Metagenomic sequences were deposited to SRA database which is available at NCBI with accession number SRX2363723 and SRX2363724...
March 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058837/talarazines-a-e-noncytotoxic-iron-iii-chelators-from-an-australian-mud-dauber-wasp-associated-fungus-talaromyces-sp-cmb-w045
#12
Pabasara Kalansuriya, Michelle Quezada, Breno P Espósito, Robert J Capon
Chemical analysis of an Australian mud dauber wasp-associated fungus, Talaromyces sp. (CMB-W045), yielded five new coprogen siderophores, talarazines A-E (1-5), together with dimerumic acid (6), desferricoprogen (7), and elutherazine B (8). Structures inclusive of absolute configuration were assigned on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis and application of the C3 Marfey's method. We report on the noncytotoxic Fe(III) chelation properties of 1-8 and demonstrate that biosynthesis is regulated by available Fe(III) in culture media...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057438/oncogenic-kras-induced-increase-in-fluid-phase-endocytosis-is-dependent-on-n-wasp-and-is-required-for-the-formation-of-pancreatic-preneoplastic-lesions
#13
Clara Lubeseder-Martellato, Katharina Alexandrow, Ana Hidalgo-Sastre, Irina Heid, Sophie Luise Boos, Thomas Briel, Roland M Schmid, Jens T Siveke
Fluid-phase endocytosis is a homeostatic process with an unknown role in tumor initiation. The driver mutation in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is constitutively active KRas(G12D), which induces neoplastic transformation of acinar cells through acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM). We have previously shown that KRas(G12D)-induced ADM is dependent on RAC1 and EGF receptor (EGFR) by a not fully clarified mechanism. Using three-dimensional mouse and human acinar tissue cultures and genetically engineered mouse models, we provide evidence that (i) KRas(G12D) leads to EGFR-dependent sustained fluid-phase endocytosis (FPE) during acinar metaplasia; (ii) variations in plasma membrane tension increase FPE and lead to ADM in vitro independently of EGFR; and (iii) that RAC1 regulates ADM formation partially through actin-dependent regulation of FPE...
February 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054943/a-nutritional-profile-of-the-trap-nesting-wasp-trypoxylon-lactitarse-hymenoptera-crabronidae-comparison-of-sexes-and-overwintering-and-non-overwintering-generations
#14
Timothy M Judd, Matthew P Fasnacht
The wasp Trypoxylon lactitarse Saussure is a bivoltine trap-nesting species that possesses a non-overwintering generation (G1) and a generation that overwinters as a prepupa (G2). Thus, the nutritional needs of the G1 individuals were predicted to be different than the G2 because the latter generation needs to store energy prior to diapause. Trap-nesting Trypoxylon are also of interest because, unlike most Hymenoptera, the males guard the nest while females forage. Thus, males may lose nutrients as they stay and guard the nest...
January 3, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045911/do-quiescence-and-wasp-venom-induced-lethargy-share-common-neuronal-mechanisms-in-cockroaches
#15
Stav Emanuel, Frederic Libersat
The escape behavior of a cockroach may not occur when it is either in a quiescent state or after being stung by the jewel wasp (Ampulex compressa). In the present paper, we show that quiescence is an innate lethargic state during which the cockroach is less responsive to external stimuli. The neuronal mechanism of such a state is poorly understood. In contrast to quiescence, the venom-induced lethargic state is not an innate state in cockroaches. The Jewel Wasp disables the escape behavior of cockroaches by injecting its venom directly in the head ganglia, inside a neuropile called the central complex a 'higher center' known to regulate motor behaviors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042043/first-plastid-phylogenomic-study-reveals-potential-cyto-nuclear-discordance-in-the-evolutionary-history-of-ficus-l-moraceae
#16
Sam Bruun-Lund, Wendy L Clement, Finn Kjellberg, Nina Rønsted
Standard Sanger chloroplast markers provide limited information to resolve species level relationships within plants, in particular within large genera. Figs (Ficus L., Moraceae) compose one of the 50 largest genera of angiosperms with ∼750 species occurring in the tropics and subtropics worldwide. Figs, in addition to being a keystone food resource in rainforests, are well-known for the mutualistic interactions with their pollinating wasps. It is regarded as a model system for understanding co-evolution dating back more than 75million years...
December 29, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041943/high-temperature-induces-downregulation-of-polydnavirus-gene-transcription-in-lepidopteran-host-and-enhances-accumulation-of-host-immunity-gene-transcripts
#17
M Lukas Seehausen, Michel Cusson, Jacques Régnière, Maxence Bory, Don Stewart, Abdelmadjid Djoumad, Sandy M Smith, Véronique Martel
Endoparasitoids face the challenge of overcoming the immune reaction of their hosts, which typically consists of encapsulation and melanisation of parasitoid eggs or larvae. Some endoparasitic wasps such as the solitary Tranosema rostrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) that lay their eggs in larvae of the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), have evolved a symbiotic relationship with a polydnavirus (PDV), which in turn helps them suppress the host's immune response. We observed an increase in mortality of immature T...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040477/design-of-novel-antimicrobial-peptide-dimer-analogues-with-enhanced-antimicrobial-activity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-by-intermolecular-triazole-bridge-strategy
#18
Beijun Liu, Haifeng Huang, Zhibin Yang, Beiyin Liu, Sanhu Gou, Chao Zhong, Xiufeng Han, Yun Zhang, Jingman Ni, Rui Wang
Currently, antimicrobial peptides have attracted considerable attention because of their broad-sprectum activity and low prognostic to induce antibiotic resistance. In our study, for the first time, a series of side-chain hybrid dimer peptides J-AA (Anoplin-Anoplin), J-RR (RW-RW), and J-AR (Anoplin-RW) based on the wasp peptide Anoplin and the arginine- and tryptophan-rich hexapeptide RW were designed and synthesized by click chemistry, with the intent to improve the antimicrobial efficacy of peptides against bacterial pathogens...
December 28, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040222/elicitation-of-superparasitization-behavior-from-the-parasitoid-wasp-leptopilina-boulardi-by-the-organophosphorus-insecticide-chlorpyrifos
#19
Jean-Marie Delpuech
Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus insecticide that largely contributes to environmental pollution. Parasitoids, as any other non-target species, can be exposed to insecticides through environmental pollution. Parasitoids are key species because they regulate natural populations of other insects. The hymenopterous parasitoid Leptopilina boulardi, whose larvae develop inside Drosophila larvae, is a solitary parasitoid; thus, only one larva can successfully develop per host. Therefore, females generally lay only one egg per host because any increase in the number of eggs laid will decrease its fitness...
December 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035894/sweet-tetra-trophic-interactions-multiple-evolution-of-nectar-secretion-a-defensive-extended-phenotype-in-cynipid-gall-wasps
#20
James A Nicholls, George Melika, Graham N Stone
Many herbivores employ reward-based mutualisms with ants to gain protection from natural enemies. We examine the evolutionary dynamics of a tetra-trophic interaction in which gall wasp herbivores induce their host oaks to produce nectar-secreting galls, which attract ants that provide protection from parasitoids. We show that, consistent with other gall defensive traits, nectar secretion has evolved repeatedly across the oak gall wasp tribe and also within a single genus (Disholcaspis) that includes many nectar-inducing species...
January 2017: American Naturalist
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