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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522963/the-f-actin-binding-protein-cortactin-regulates-the-dynamics-of-the-exocytotic-fusion-pore-through-its-sh3-domain
#1
Arlek M González-Jamett, María J Guerra, María J Olivares, Valentina Haro-Acuña, Ximena Baéz-Matus, Jacqueline Vásquez-Navarrete, Fanny Momboisse, Narcisa Martinez-Quiles, Ana M Cárdenas
Upon cell stimulation, the network of cortical actin filaments is rearranged to facilitate the neurosecretory process. This actin rearrangement includes both disruption of the preexisting actin network and de novo actin polymerization. However, the mechanism by which a Ca(2+) signal elicits the formation of new actin filaments remains uncertain. Cortactin, an actin-binding protein that promotes actin polymerization in synergy with the nucleation promoting factor N-WASP, could play a key role in this mechanism...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514634/convergent-reversion-to-single-mating-in-a-wasp-social-parasite
#2
Kevin J Loope, Federico Lopez-Osorio, Libor Dvořák
While eusociality arose in species with single-mating females, multiple mating by queens has evolved repeatedly across the social ants, bees, and wasps. Understanding the benefits and costs of multiple mating of queens is important because polyandry results in reduced relatedness between siblings, reducing kin-selected benefits of helping while also selecting for secondary social traits that reduce intracolony conflict. The leading hypothesis for the benefits of polyandry in social insects emphasizes advantages of a genetically diverse workforce...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512459/in-vivo-chronic-stimulation-unveils-autoreactive-potential-of-wiskott-aldrich-syndrome-protein-deficient-b-cells
#3
Maria Carmina Castiello, Francesca Pala, Lucia Sereni, Elena Draghici, Donato Inverso, Aisha V Sauer, Francesca Schena, Elena Fontana, Enrico Radaelli, Paolo Uva, Karla E Cervantes-Luevano, Federica Benvenuti, Pietro L Poliani, Matteo Iannacone, Elisabetta Traggiai, Anna Villa, Marita Bosticardo
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the gene encoding the hematopoietic-specific WAS protein (WASp). WAS is frequently associated with autoimmunity, indicating a critical role of WASp in maintenance of tolerance. The role of B cells in the induction of autoreactive immune responses in WAS has been investigated in several settings, but the mechanisms leading to the development of autoimmune manifestations have been difficult to evaluate in the mouse models of the disease that do not spontaneously develop autoimmunity...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512035/the-predatory-behavior-of-the-neotropical-social-wasp-polybia-rejecta
#4
Alain Dejean, Héctor Rodríguez-Pérez, James M Carpenter, Frédéric Azémar, Bruno Corbara
We experimentally studied the predatory behavior of Polybia rejecta (Vespidae, Polistinae, Epiponini) towards 2-88 mm-long insects attracted to a UV light trap. Foragers, which began to hunt at 6:30, selected 4-14 mm-long prey insects. Prey detection by sight by hovering wasps was confirmed using decoys. After the wasps landed and walked along a sinuous path, prey were detected by contact or from a distance (1-3cm). This was followed by seizure, stinging (contrarily to most other known cases), prey manipulation and retrieval...
May 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508537/superorganismality-and-caste-differentiation-as-points-of-no-return-how-the-major-evolutionary-transitions-were-lost-in-translation
#5
Jacobus J Boomsma, Richard Gawne
More than a century ago, William Morton Wheeler proposed that social insect colonies can be regarded as superorganisms when they have morphologically differentiated reproductive and nursing castes that are analogous to the metazoan germ-line and soma. Following the rise of sociobiology in the 1970s, Wheeler's insights were largely neglected, and we were left with multiple new superorganism concepts that are mutually inconsistent and uninformative on how superorganismality originated. These difficulties can be traced to the broadened sociobiological concept of eusociality, which denies that physical queen-worker caste differentiation is a universal hallmark of superorganismal colonies...
May 15, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507496/safety-and-efficacy-of-venom-immunotherapy-a-real-life-study
#6
Agnieszka Kołaczek, Dawid Skorupa, Monika Antczak-Marczak, Piotr Kuna, Maciej Kupczyk
INTRODUCTION: Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is recommended as the first-line treatment for patients allergic to Hymenoptera venom. AIM: To analyze the safety and efficacy of VIT in a real life setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and eighty patients undergoing VIT were studied to evaluate the safety, efficacy, incidence and nature of symptoms after field stings and adverse reactions to VIT. RESULTS: Significantly more patients were allergic to wasp than bee venom (146 vs...
April 2017: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503948/attraction-behaviour-of-anagrus-nilaparvatae-to-remote-lemongrass-cymbopogon-distans-oil-and-its-volatile-compounds
#7
Guo-Feng Mao, Xiao-Chang Mo, Hatem Fouad, Ghulam Abbas, Jian-Chu Mo
Utilisation of Anagrus nilaparvatae is a promising and effective method for planthoppers manipulation. Twenty-seven components of remote lemongrass (Cymbopogon distans) oil were identified by GC/MS and nine volatiles were selected for behavioural experiments. In this study, we noted that the remote lemongrass oil was attractive to female A. nilaparvatae at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg/L. α-Pinene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, carveol and D-carvone attracted female wasps in the dose-dependent bioassays. Blend 1 (a mixture of eucalyptol, D-carvone, carveol, α-pinene, and β-pinene with ratios of remote lemongrass oil volatiles of 625:80:11:5:3) attracted female wasps at 10 mg/L, while blend 2 (a mixture of the same five volatiles at the same loading ratio) attracted them at 0...
May 15, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498866/cognitive-adaptation-in-asexual-and-sexual-wasps-living-in-contrasted-environments
#8
Lucie Froissart, Martin Giurfa, Sandrine Sauzet, Emmanuel Desouhant
Differences in learning and memory dynamics between populations are suspected to result from differences in ecological constraints such as resource distribution. The two reproductive modes (strains) of the parasitoid wasp Venturia canescens share the same geographical areas but live in contrasting habitats: arrhenotokous wasps live in the wild (generally orchards), whereas thelytokous ones live mostly in stored-products buildings (e.g. granaries). This species thus represents a relevant biological model for understanding the relationship between the ecological constraints faced by a species and its memory and learning ability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497674/the-vespid-allergy-quality-of-life-questionnaire-cultural-adaptation-and-translation-to-portuguese
#9
D Silva, A M Pereira, N Santos, L Amaral, L Delgado, J N Oude Elberink, A Coimbra
A cross-cultural translation of the Vespid Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire (VQLQ) to the Portuguese population (VQLQ-P) was performed, assessing its applicability in wasp and in non-beekeeper bee venom allergic patients. Additionally, we evaluated a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) to estimate hymenoptera allergy interference with daily life. Methods. Cross-cultural translation was performed according to recommendations. The final VQLQ-P version, the Expectation of Outcome questionnaire (EoQ), EQ-5D and VAS were applied to wasp (n = 19) and non-beekeeper bee venom allergic patients (n = 30)...
May 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494946/tropomodulins-and-leiomodins-actin-pointed-end-caps-and-nucleators-in-muscles
#10
REVIEW
Velia M Fowler, Roberto Dominguez
Cytoskeletal structures characterized by actin filaments with uniform lengths, including the thin filaments of striated muscles and the spectrin-based membrane skeleton, use barbed and pointed-end capping proteins to control subunit addition/dissociation at filament ends. While several proteins cap the barbed end, tropomodulins (Tmods), a family of four closely related isoforms in vertebrates, are the only proteins known to specifically cap the pointed end. Tmods are ∼350 amino acids in length, and comprise alternating tropomyosin- and actin-binding sites (TMBS1, ABS1, TMBS2, and ABS2)...
May 9, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490760/hormonal-pleiotropy-helps-maintain-queen-signal-honesty-in-a-highly-eusocial-wasp
#11
Ricardo Caliari Oliveira, Ayrton Vollet-Neto, Cintia Akemi Oi, Jelle S van Zweden, Fabio Nascimento, Colin Sullivan Brent, Tom Wenseleers
In insect societies, both queens and workers produce chemicals that reliably signal caste membership and reproductive status. The mechanisms that help to maintain the honesty of such queen and fertility signals, however, remain poorly studied. Here we test if queen signal honesty could be based on the shared endocrine control of queen fertility and the production of specific signals. In support of this "hormonal pleiotropy" hypothesis, we find that in the common wasp, application of methoprene (a juveline hormone analogue) caused workers to acquire a queen-like cuticular hydrocarbon profile, resulting in the overproduction of known queen pheromones as well as some compounds typically linked to worker fertility...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487723/genome-silencing-and-elimination-insights-from-a-selfish-b-chromosome
#12
REVIEW
John C Aldrich, Patrick M Ferree
B chromosomes are non-essential components of numerous plant and animal genomes. Because many of these "extra" chromosomes enhance their own transmission in ways that are detrimental to the rest of the genome, they can be thought of as genome parasites. An extreme example is a paternally inherited B chromosome known as paternal sex ratio (PSR), which is found in natural populations of the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis. In order to ensure its own propagation, PSR severely biases the wasp sex ratio by converting diploid female-destined embryos into transmitting haploid males...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486493/characterization-of-joining-sites-of-a-viral-histone-h4-on-host-insect-chromosomes
#13
Sunil Kumar, Jin-Kyo Jung, Yonggyun Kim
A viral histone H4 (CpBV-H4) is encoded in a polydnavirus, Cotesia plutellae bracovirus (CpBV). It plays a crucial role in parasitism of an endoparasitoid wasp, C. plutellae, against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, by altering host gene expression in an epigenetic mode by its N-terminal tail after joining host nucleosomes. Comparative transcriptomic analysis between parasitized and nonparasitized P. xylostella by RNA-Seq indicated that 1,858 genes were altered at more than two folds in expression levels at late parasitic stage, including 877 up-regulated genes and 981 down-regulated genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486123/evolution-taking-the-sting-out-of-wasp-phylogenetics
#14
Pu Tang, Alfried P Vogler
Hymenopterans - one of the 'big four' of insect orders - includes the sawflies, wasps, ants and bees. Two phylogenomic studies now resolve hymenopteran phylogeny and provide scenarios for the evolution of major lineages and key lifestyle transitions.
May 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485877/diagnostic-precision-of-component-resolved-vs-extract-based-in-vitro-diagnosis-of-hymenoptera-venom-allergy-effects-on-clinical-management
#15
Florian Seyfarth, Diana Miguel, Sibylle Schliemann, Uta-Christina Hipler
BACKGROUND: The measurement of specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies plays a key role in the diagnosis of honeybee and wasp venom allergy. In recent years, component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) has been introduced, which allows for the measurement of sIgE antibodies against Api m 1, Ves v 1, Ves v 5, and Pol d 5, as well as cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs). These tests are intended to help determine the clinical relevance of any given sensitization, especially in patients with dual sensitization...
May 2017: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485252/interspecific-interactions-in-solitary-aculeata-is-the-presence-of-heterospecifics-important-for-females-establishing-nests
#16
J Kierat, K Miler, W Celary, M Woyciechowski
There are several possible causes of aggregated nesting in solitary Aculeata, one being joint defense against parasites. We tested whether females prefer nesting in aggregations, even if they consist of heterospecifics. We compared the colonization and nesting parasitism of trap-nests with and without a red mason bee aggregation. The results did not support our hypothesis that females prefer nesting in aggregations. The numbers of wild Aculeata nests did not differ between trap-nests with and without an aggregation...
May 9, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476025/high-wave3-expression-correlates-with-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-in-human-ovarian-cancer
#17
Jin Lu, Su-Li Wang, Ying-Chun Wang, Yi-Nan Wu, Xi Yu, Wan-Zhou Zhao, Jin-Hua Wang
BACKGROUND: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome verprolin-homologous (WAVE) 3, a member of the WASP/WAVE family of proteins, plays a critical role in cell motility and acts as an oncogene in some human cancers, but no sufficient information available to illustrate its involvement in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis and progression. METHODS: The expression of WAVE3 in human ovarian cancer and normal tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. WAVE3 gene and protein expression in different human ovarian cancer cell lines was tested by RT-PCR and western blotting...
April 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475688/oxaliplatin-inhibits-proliferation-and-migration-of-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-via-gas7c-and-the-n-wasp-fak-f-actin-pathway
#18
Dan Li, Bin Zhang, Chao Hu
The growth arrest-specific gene 7 (GAS7), a member of the growth-arrest-specific family, encodes three protein isoforms (GAS7A, GAS7B, and GAS7C) and plays a potential role in lung cancer as a tumor suppressor gene. In the present study, we found low endogenous expressions of GAS7C mRNA and protein in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines compared with normal liver cells, and that there was a distinct increase of GAS7C expression in HCC cells treated with oxaliplatin. CCK8, apoptosis, and Transwell migration assays showed that cell proliferation and motility of HepG2 and MHCC-97 H cells were inhibited by oxaliplatin, while apoptosis was increased...
May 5, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473602/wasp-and-scar-are-evolutionarily-conserved-in-actin-filled-pseudopod-based-motility
#19
Lillian K Fritz-Laylin, Samuel J Lord, R Dyche Mullins
Diverse eukaryotic cells crawl through complex environments using distinct modes of migration. To understand the underlying mechanisms and their evolutionary relationships, we must define each mode and identify its phenotypic and molecular markers. In this study, we focus on a widely dispersed migration mode characterized by dynamic actin-filled pseudopods that we call "α-motility." Mining genomic data reveals a clear trend: only organisms with both WASP and SCAR/WAVE-activators of branched actin assembly-make actin-filled pseudopods...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472589/patterns-of-genomic-diversification-reflect-differences-in-life-history-and-reproductive-biology-between-figs-ficus-and-the-stone-oaks-lithocarpus
#20
Chai-Shian Kua, Charles Cannon
One of the remarkable aspects of the tremendous biodiversity found in tropical forests is the wide range of evolutionary strategies that have produced this diversity, indicating many paths to diversification. We compare two diverse groups of trees with profoundly different biologies to discover whether these differences are reflected in their genomes. Ficus (Moraceae), with its complex co-evolutionary relationship with obligate pollinating wasps, produces copious tiny seeds which are widely dispersed. Lithocarpus (Fagaceae), with generalized insect pollination, produces large seeds that are poorly dispersed...
May 4, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
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