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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648823/the-evolution-of-venom-by-co-option-of-single-copy-genes
#1
Ellen O Martinson, Mrinalini, Yogeshwar D Kelkar, Ching-Ho Chang, John H Werren
The classic model for the evolution of novel gene function is through gene duplication followed by evolution of a new function by one of the copies (neofunctionalization) [1, 2]. However, other modes have also been found, such as novel genes arising from non-coding DNA, chimeric fusions, and lateral gene transfers from other organisms [3-7]. Here we use the rapid turnover of venom genes in parasitoid wasps to study how new gene functions evolve. In contrast to the classic gene duplication model, we find that a common mode of acquisition of new venom genes in parasitoid wasps is co-option of single-copy genes from non-venom progenitors...
June 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646090/cellular-functions-of-wasp-family-proteins-at-a-glance
#2
REVIEW
Olga Alekhina, Ezra Burstein, Daniel D Billadeau
Proteins of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family function as nucleation-promoting factors for the ubiquitously expressed Arp2/3 complex, which drives the generation of branched actin filaments. Arp2/3-generated actin regulates diverse cellular processes, including the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia, endocytosis and/or phagocytosis at the plasma membrane, and the generation of cargo-laden vesicles from organelles including the Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the endo-lysosomal network...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641574/intermittent-low-platelet-counts-hampering-diagnosis-of-x-linked-thrombocytopenia-in-children-report-of-two-unrelated-cases-and-a-novel-mutation-in-the-gene-coding-for-the-wiskott-aldrich-syndrome-protein
#3
Samuel Souza Medina, Lúcia Helena Siqueira, Marina Pereira Colella, Gabriela Goes Yamaguti-Hayakawa, Bruno Kosa Lino Duarte, Maria Marluce Dos Santos Vilela, Margareth Castro Ozelo
BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia can occur in different circumstances during childhood and although immune thrombocytopenia is its most frequent cause, it is important to consider other conditions, especially when there is a persistent or recurrent low platelet count. We report two cases of intermittent thrombocytopenia, previously misdiagnosed as immune thrombocytopenia. CASES PRESENTATION: Both cases described were boys who presented with an intermittent pattern of thrombocytopenia, with a persistently low mean platelet volume...
June 22, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638944/the-effect-of-fight-cost-structure-on-fighting-behaviour-involving-simultaneous-decisions-and-variable-investment-levels
#4
Mark Broom, Michal Johanis, Jan Rychtář
In the "producer-scrounger" model, a producer discovers a resource and is in turn discovered by a second individual, the scrounger, who attempts to steal it. This resource can be food or a territory, and in some situations, potentially divisible. In a previous paper we considered a producer and scrounger competing for an indivisible resource, where each individual could choose the level of energy that they would invest in the contest. The higher the investment, the higher the probability of success, but also the higher the costs incurred in the contest...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638084/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-chemosensory-receptor-genes-in-an-aphid-endoparasitoid-aphidius-gifuensis
#5
Zhi-Wei Kang, Hong-Gang Tian, Fang-Hua Liu, Xiang Liu, Xiang-Feng Jing, Tong-Xian Liu
Olfaction and gustation play critical roles during the host-location search process of insects. Several chemosensory receptor genes are thought to be involved in providing specificity to the olfactory sensory neuron responses. The aphid endoparasitoid, Aphidius gifuensis, has been used as a biological control agent against a variety of aphid species; this parasitoid is able to detect its target host(s) effectively during the parasitic process. To understand the mechanism of host detection in A. gifuensis, we assembled specific antennal transcriptomes of each sex through next generation sequencing technology to identify the major chemosensory receptor genes...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637858/maternal-and-nourishment-factors-interact-to-influence-offspring-developmental-trajectories-in-social-wasps
#6
Jennifer M Jandt, Sainath Suryanarayanan, John C Hermanson, Robert L Jeanne, Amy L Toth
The social and nutritional environments during early development have the potential to affect offspring traits, but the mechanisms and molecular underpinnings of these effects remain elusive. We used Polistes fuscatus paper wasps to dissect how maternally controlled factors (vibrational signals and nourishment) interact to induce different caste developmental trajectories in female offspring, leading to worker or reproductive (gyne) traits. We established a set of caste phenotype biomarkers in P. fuscatus females, finding that gyne-destined individuals had high expression of three caste-related genes hypothesized to have roles in diapause and mitochondrial metabolism...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636632/parasitoid-wasp-usurps-its-host-to-guard-its-pupa-against-hyperparasitoids-and-induces-rapid-behavioral-changes-in-the-parasitized-host
#7
Prabitha Mohan, Palatty Allesh Sinu
Some parasites have an ability to fabricate the behavior of their host and impel the host to guard parasites' offspring, which is popularly called as bodyguard manipulation. Psalis pennatula larva parasitized by a braconid parasitoid wasp Microplitis pennatula exhibits some behavioral changes including the guarding of the parasitoid pupa from its natural enemies. We hypothesized that these behavioral change exhibited by the parasitized host larva are induced by the parasitoid and can be considered as an example of bodyguard manipulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626024/intersectin-2-controls-actin-cap-formation-and-meiotic-division-in-mouse-oocytes-through-the-cdc42-pathway
#8
Jiaqi Zhang, Rujun Ma, Ling Li, Lina Wang, Xiaojing Hou, Longsen Han, Juan Ge, Mo Li, Qiang Wang
Intersectins (ITSNs), an evolutionarily conserved adaptor protein family, have been implicated in multiple biologic processes; however, their functions in mammalian oocytes have not been addressed. Here, we report delayed meiotic resumption and defective cytokinesis upon specific depletion of ITSN2 in mouse oocytes. In particular, abnormal spindle, misaligned chromosomes, and loss of cortical actin cap are readily observed in ITSN2-depleted oocytes. Similarly, a small molecule that targets the Cdc42-ITSN interaction also disrupts oocyte maturation and actin polymerization...
June 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625782/complex-sexual-deception-in-an-orchid-is-achieved-by-co-opting-two-independent-biosynthetic-pathways-for-pollinator-attraction
#9
Haiyang Xu, Björn Bohman, Darren C J Wong, Claudia Rodriguez-Delgado, Adrian Scaffidi, Gavin R Flematti, Ryan D Phillips, Eran Pichersky, Rod Peakall
Sexually deceptive orchids lure their specific male pollinators using volatile semiochemicals that mimic female sex pheromones. To date, the semiochemicals known to be involved consist of blends of chemically and biosynthetically related compounds. In contrast, we report that (S)-β-citronellol and 2-hydroxy-6-methylacetophenone, two biosynthetically distinct compounds, are the active semiochemicals in Caladenia plicata, which is pollinated by male Zeleboria sp. thynnine wasps. They are also sex pheromone components of the female Zeleboria...
June 12, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623282/a-nationwide-study-of-severe-and-protracted-diarrhoea-in-patients-with-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases
#10
Wen-I Lee, Chien-Chang Chen, Tang-Her Jaing, Liang-Shiou Ou, Chuen Hsueh, Jing-Long Huang
Diarrhoea lasting longer than 14 days and failing to respond to conventional management is defined as severe and protracted diarrhoea (SD). In this study, we investigated the prevalence, pathogens and prognosis of SD in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). Among 246 patients with predominantly paediatric-onset PIDs from 2003-2015, 21 [Btk (six), IL2RG (four), WASP, CD40L, gp91 (three each), gp47, RAG2 (one each)] and five [CVID (four), SCID (one)] without identified mutations had SD before prophylactic treatment...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623149/subtle-effect-of-xenos-vesparum-xenidae-strepsiptera-on-the-reproductive-apparatus-of-its-male-host-parasite-or-parasitoid
#11
L Beani, D Marchini, F Cappa, I Petrocelli, M Gottardo, F Manfredini, F Giusti, R Dallai
Parasitic castration is an adaptive strategy where parasites usurp the hosts' reproductive physiology to complete their life cycle. The alterations in the host traits vary in their magnitude, from subtle changes in the host morpho-physiology and behaviour to the production of complex aberrant phenotypes, which often depend on the host gender. The strepsipteran macroparasite Xenos vesparum induces dramatic behavioural and physiological changes in its female host, the paper wasp Polistes dominula, while its effect on the male phenotype is largely unknown...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621878/isolation-and-chemical-characterization-of-agelaiatoxin8-avtx8-from-agelaia-vicina-wasp-venom-and-its-biological-effects-on-gaba-neurotransmission
#12
Andrea B Pizzo, Renê O Beleboni, Ruither O Gomes Carolino, Luciana de Oliveira, Antonio Miranda, Joaquim Coutinho-Netto, Andréia C K Fontana, Wagner Ferreira Dos Santos
Arthropod venoms are sources of molecules that may be useful tools to investigate molecular mechanisms of putative new medicines and laboratory drugs. Here we show the effects of the compound agelaiatoxin-8 (AVTx8), isolated from Agelaia vicina venom, on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission in rat brain synaptosomes. Analysis reveals that AvTx8 is composed by 14 amino acid residues with a molecular weight (MW) of 1567 Da. AvTx8 increased GABA release and inhibited GABA uptake in synaptosomes from rat cerebral cortex...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621508/avoidance-of-parasitized-host-by-female-wasps-of-aphidius-gifuensis-hymenoptera-braconidae-the-role-of-natal-rearing-effects-and-host-availability
#13
Ming-Zhen Pan, Tong-Xian Liu, Christian Nansen
Natal rearing experience of animals may affect their behaviors, such as, habitat selection and oviposition decision. As part of the overall fitness of insect parasitoids, successful host discrimination (distinguishing parasitized hosts from unparasitized hosts) is of paramount importance. In this study we examined whether and how parasitoids' natal rearing experience would affect their host discrimination ability according to host availability. We established separate colonies of Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead by continually reared on two hosts, Sitobion avenae F...
June 16, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615504/biological-markets-in-cooperative-breeders-quantifying-outside-options
#14
Lena Grinsted, Jeremy Field
A major aim in evolutionary biology is to understand altruistic help and reproductive partitioning in cooperative societies, where subordinate helpers forego reproduction to rear dominant breeders' offspring. Traditional models of cooperation in these societies typically make a key assumption: that the only alternative to staying and helping is solitary breeding, an often unfeasible task. Using large-scale field experiments on paper wasps (Polistes dominula), we show that individuals have high-quality alternative nesting options available that offer fitness payoffs just as high as their actual chosen options, far exceeding payoffs from solitary breeding...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615487/cognitive-specialization-for-learning-faces-is-associated-with-shifts-in-the-brain-transcriptome-of-a-social-wasp
#15
Ali J Berens, Elizabeth A Tibbetts, Amy L Toth
The specialized ability to learn and recall individuals based on distinct facial features is known in only a few, large-brained social taxa. Social paper wasps in the genus Polistes are the only insects known to possess this form of cognitive specialization. We analyzed genome-wide brain gene expression during facial and pattern training for two species of paper wasps (P. fuscatus, which has face recognition, and P. metricus, which does not) using RNA sequencing. We identified 237 transcripts associated with face specialization in P...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615481/paper-wasps-really-recognise-each-other-s-faces
#16
Kathryn Knight
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614101/clinical-characteristics-of-allergy-to-hymenoptera-stings
#17
Nualanong Visitsunthorn, Teera Kijmassuwan, Kittipos Visitsunthorn, Panchama Pacharn, Orathai Jirapongsananuruk
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of allergy to stings from the Hymenoptera order of insects in a hospital in Thailand. METHODS: A descriptive retrospective analytical study was carried out in inpatients and outpatients suffering from Hymenoptera stings from 2009 to 2013 in Siriraj Hospital. RESULTS: Medical records of 386 patients with an allergy to Hymenoptera stings were evaluated. Anaphylaxis was more common in patients younger than 15 years, who comprised 22...
June 13, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610275/a-new-species-of-the-genus-i-discoelius-i-latreille-1809-hymenoptera-vespidae-eumeninae-from-india
#18
Arati Pannure, Vasuki V Belavadi, James M Carpenter
Discoelius vasukii Pannure & Carpenter, sp. nov. is described and illustrated from Tamil Nadu, India.        Discoelius Latreille, 1809 is a small genus of solitary wasp with ten species and one subspecies described, of which D. aurantiacus Nguyen, D. emeishanensus Zhou & Li, D. esakii Yasumatsu, D. longinodus Yamane, D. nigriclypeus Zhou & Li, D. turneri (Meade-Waldo), D. wangi Yamane and D. zonalis (Panzer) are recorded from Oriental Region (Zhou et al. 2013; Nguyen 2016). Only a single species, D...
May 31, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610193/description-of-i-brachymeria-philornisae-i-sp-n-hymenoptera-chalcididae-%C3%A2-a-parasitoid-of-the-bird-parasite-i-philornis-i-i-trinitensis-i-diptera-muscidae-in-tobago-with-a-review-of-the-sibling-species
#19
Gérard Delvare, George E Heimpel, Hannes Baur, Dave D Chadee, Raymond Martinez, Sarah A Knutie
In this paper, we describe and illustrate a new species of parasitoid wasp as Brachymeria philornisae Delvare, sp. nov. The new species was reared from Philornis trinitensis Dodge & Aitken (Diptera: Muscidae) puparia that were found in the nests of the bird species Mimus gilvus (Vieillot) (Mimidae) and Tiaris bicolor (L.) (Thraupidae) in Tobago. The new species is of particular interest as it may be considered a potential biological control agent in locations where Philornis species are invasive, such as the Galapagos Islands...
March 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610092/parasitism-of-i-zatypota-i-i-riverai-i-gauld-hymenoptera-ichneumonidae-pimplinae-on-i-anelosimus-i-i-baeza-i-agnarsson-araneae-theridiidae-in-northeast-brazil-with-a-description-of-the-male
#20
Jober Fernando Sobczak, Yuri Fanchini Messas, Diego Galvão DE Pádua
Ichneumonid wasps of the Polysphincta genus-group (Polysphinctini sensu Townes hereafter "polysphinctine wasps") are exclusively koinobiont ectoparasitoids of spiders (Fitton et al. 1987; Gauld 2006). Since the first report of a spider's behavior being manipulated by a polysphinctine wasp (Eberhard 2000), several studies have since focused on unravelling the mechanisms and evolution of this association (e.g. Gonzaga & Sobczak 2007; Matsumoto 2009; Sobczak et al. 2009; Eberhard 2010; Gonzaga & Sobczak 2011; Korenko & Pekár 2011; Korenko et al...
March 23, 2017: Zootaxa
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