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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213920/potato-aphid-macrosiphum-euphorbiae-performance-is-determined-by-aphid-genotype-and-not-mycorrhizal-fungi-or-water-availability
#1
Alison Jane Karley, Matthew Emslie-Smith, Alison Elizabeth Bennett
Intra- and inter-specific variation in plant and insect traits can alter the strength and direction of insect-plant interactions, with outcomes modified by soil biotic and abiotic conditions. We used the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas) feeding on cultivated S. tuberosum and wild S. berthaulti to study the impact of water availability and plant mutualistic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on aphid performance and susceptibility to a parasitoid wasp (Aphidius ervi Haliday). Plants were grown under glass with live or sterile AM fungal spores and supplied with sufficient or reduced water supply...
February 18, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212567/ribosomal-dna-status-inferred-from-dna-cloud-assays-and-mass-spectrometry-identification-of-agarose-squeezed-proteins-interacting-with-chromatin-aspic-ms
#2
Kamil Krol, Justyna Jendrysek, Janusz Debski, Marek Skoneczny, Anna Kurlandzka, Joanna Kaminska, Michal Dadlez, Adrianna Skoneczna
Ribosomal RNA-encoding genes (rDNA) are the most abundant genes in eukaryotic genomes. To meet the high demand for rRNA, rDNA genes are present in multiple tandem repeats clustered on a single or several chromosomes and are vastly transcribed. To facilitate intensive transcription and prevent rDNA destabilization, the rDNA-encoding portion of the chromosome is confined in the nucleolus. However, the rDNA region is susceptible to recombination and DNA damage, accumulating mutations, rearrangements and atypical DNA structures...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211924/a-selfish-b-chromosome-induces-genome-elimination-by-disrupting-the-histone-code-in-the-jewel-wasp-nasonia-vitripennis
#3
John C Aldrich, Alexandra Leibholz, Manjinder S Cheema, Juan Ausiό, Patrick M Ferree
Intragenomic conflict describes a phenomenon in which genetic elements act 'selfishly' to gain a transmission advantage at the expense of the whole genome. A non-essential, selfish B chromosome known as Paternal Sex Ratio (PSR) induces complete elimination of the sperm-derived hereditary material in the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis. PSR prevents the paternal chromatin from forming chromosomes during the first embryonic mitosis, leading to its loss. Although paternally transmitted, PSR evades self-elimination in order to be inherited...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209129/orthograph-a-versatile-tool-for-mapping-coding-nucleotide-sequences-to-clusters-of-orthologous-genes
#4
Malte Petersen, Karen Meusemann, Alexander Donath, Daniel Dowling, Shanlin Liu, Ralph S Peters, Lars Podsiadlowski, Alexandros Vasilikopoulos, Xin Zhou, Bernhard Misof, Oliver Niehuis
BACKGROUND: Orthology characterizes genes of different organisms that arose from a single ancestral gene via speciation, in contrast to paralogy, which is assigned to genes that arose via gene duplication. An accurate orthology assignment is a crucial step for comparative genomic studies. Orthologous genes in two organisms can be identified by applying a so-called reciprocal search strategy, given that complete information of the organisms' gene repertoire is available. In many investigations, however, only a fraction of the gene content of the organisms under study is examined (e...
February 16, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208706/assessment-of-trichogramma-japonicum-and-t-chilonis-as-potential-biological-control-agents-of-yellow-stem-borer-in-rice
#5
Rui Tang, Dirk Babendreier, Feng Zhang, Min Kang, Kai Song, Mao-Lin Hou
Two species of Trichogramma wasps were assessed for their effectiveness against yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas. A laboratory cage test with T. japonicum and T. chilonis showed that both species parasitized yellow stem borer egg masses at 60.0% ± 9.13% and 40.7% ± 7.11%, respectively, with egg parasitism rates of 15.8% ± 22.2% for T. japonicum and 2.8% ± 5.0% for T. chilonis. Once the host eggs were parasitized, emergence rates were high for both species (95.7% ± 0.12% for T. japonicum and 100% for T...
February 8, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199361/bombyx-mori-and-aedes-aegypti-form-multi-functional-immune-complexes-that-integrate-pattern-recognition-melanization-coagulants-and-hemocyte-recruitment
#6
Dennis R Phillips, Kevin D Clark
The innate immune system of insects responds to wounding and pathogens by mobilizing multiple pathways that provide both systemic and localized protection. Key localized responses in hemolymph include melanization, coagulation, and hemocyte encapsulation, which synergistically seal wounds and envelop and destroy pathogens. To be effective, these pathways require a targeted deposition of their components to provide protection without compromising the host. Extensive research has identified a large number of the effectors that comprise these responses, but questions remain regarding their post-translational processing, function, and targeting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198464/sublethal-doses-of-imidacloprid-disrupt-sexual-communication-and-host-finding-in-a-parasitoid-wasp
#7
Lars Tappert, Tamara Pokorny, John Hofferberth, Joachim Ruther
Neonicotinoids are widely used insecticides, but their use is subject of debate because of their detrimental effects on pollinators. Little is known about the effect of neonicotinoids on other beneficial insects such as parasitoid wasps, which serve as natural enemies and are crucial for ecosystem functioning. Here we show that sublethal doses of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid impair sexual communication and host finding in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Depending on the dose, treated females were less responsive to the male sex pheromone or unable to use it as a cue at all...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191488/measurement-of-mechanical-tension-at-cell-cell-junctions-using-two-photon-laser-ablation
#8
Xuan Liang, Magdalene Michael, Guillermo A Gomez
The cortical actomyosin cytoskeleton is found in all non-muscle cells where a key function is to control mechanical force (Salbreux et al., 2012). When coupled to E-cadherin cell-cell adhesion, cortical actomyosin generates junctional tension that influences many aspects of tissue function, organization and morphogenesis (Lecuit and Yap, 2015). Uncovering the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of junctional tension requires tools for measuring it in live cells with a high spatio-temporal resolution...
December 20, 2016: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187311/candidate-chemosensory-genes-identified-in-the-endoparasitoid-meteorus-pulchricornis-hymenoptera-braconidae-by-antennal-transcriptome-analysis
#9
Sheng Sheng, Cheng-Wu Liao, Yu Zheng, Yu Zhou, Yan Xu, Wen-Miao Song, Peng He, Jian Zhang, Fu-An Wu
Meteorus pulchricornis is an endoparasitoid wasp which attacks the larvae of various lepidopteran pests. We present the first antennal transcriptome dataset for M. pulchricornis. A total of 48,845,072 clean reads were obtained and 34,967 unigenes were assembled. Of these, 15,458 unigenes showed a significant similarity (E-value <10(-5)) to known proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Gene ontology (GO) and cluster of orthologous groups (COG) analyses were used to classify the functions of M...
January 31, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184941/combined-effects-of-furanodiene-and-doxorubicin-on-the-migration-and-invasion-of-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#10
Zhang-Feng Zhong, Wen Tan, Ke Tian, Hua Yu, Wen-An Qiang, Yi-Tao Wang
Furanodiene is one of the major bioactive components isolated from the natural product of the plant, Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Chen et C. Ling. Furanodiene has been found to exert anticancer effects in various types of cancer cell lines, as well as exhibit antimetastatic activities. However, the antimetastatic capacity of furanodiene in combination with the common chemotherapy drug doxorubicin has not been investigated. We found that doxorubicin at a non-toxic concentration induced cell migration and cell invasion in highly metastatic breast cancer cells...
February 10, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183831/ecological-and-evolutionary-consequences-of-tri-trophic-interactions-spatial-variation-and-effects-of-plant-density
#11
Luis Abdala-Roberts, Víctor Parra-Tabla, Xoaquín Moreira, José Ramos-Zapata
PREMISE OF STUDY: The factors driving variation in species interactions are often unknown, and few studies have made a link between changes in interactions and the strength of selection. METHODS: We report on spatial variation in functional responses by a seed predator (SP) and its parasitic wasps associated with the herb Ruellia nudiflora. We assessed the influence of plant density on consumer responses and determined whether density effects and spatial variation in functional responses altered natural selection by these consumers on the plant...
February 9, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179550/the-coupon-collector-urn-model-with-unequal-probabilities-in-ecology-and-evolution
#12
REVIEW
N Zoroa, E Lesigne, M J Fernández-Sáez, P Zoroa, J Casas
The sequential sampling of populations with unequal probabilities and with replacement in a closed population is a recurrent problem in ecology and evolution. Examples range from biodiversity sampling, epidemiology to the estimation of signal repertoire in animal communication. Many of these questions can be reformulated as urn problems, often as special cases of the coupon collector problem, most simply expressed as the number of coupons that must be collected to have a complete set. We aimed to apply the coupon collector model in a comprehensive manner to one example-hosts (balls) being searched (draws) and parasitized (ball colour change) by parasitic wasps-to evaluate the influence of differences in sampling probabilities between items on collection speed...
February 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178988/nested-houses-domestication-dynamics-of-human-wasp-relations-in-contemporary-rural-japan
#13
Charlotte L R Payne, Joshua D Evans
BACKGROUND: Domestication is an important and contested concept. Insects are used as food worldwide, and while some have been described as domesticated and even 'semi-domesticated', the assumptions and implications of this designation are not clear. The purpose of this paper is to explore these aspects of insect domestication, and broader debates in domestication studies, through the case of edible wasps in central rural Japan. METHODS: Both authors conducted ethnographic fieldwork with communities in central rural Japan...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178183/enhanced-trapping-of-yellowjacket-wasps-hymenoptera-vespidae-via-spatial-partitioning-of-attractants
#14
Dangsheng Liang, Jose E Pietri
Several yellowjacket species are important pests in both their native habitat and in areas where they are invasive. Traps that contain one or more chemical attractants to lure insects inside are commonly used to combat these yellowjackets in urban environments. Usually, attractants are placed within the trap and combined indiscriminately, though little is known about how this design influences trap attractiveness or efficacy. Here, using the common attractant heptyl butyrate in combination with chicken extract, we demonstrate that spatial partitioning of attractants results in increased capture of the western yellowjacket Vespula pensylvanica-a widespread pestiferous species...
February 6, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28172869/decay-of-sexual-trait-genes-in-an-asexual-parasitoid-wasp
#15
Ken Kraaijeveld, Seyed Yahya Anvar, Jeroen Frank, Arnoud Schmitz, Jens Bast, Jeanne Wilbrandt, Malte Petersen, Tanja Ziesmann, Oliver Niehuis, Peter de Knijff, Johan T den Dunnen, Jacintha Ellers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170317/the-golden-mimicry-complex-uses-a-wide-spectrum-of-defence-to-deter-a-community-of-predators
#16
Stano Pekár, Lenka Petráková, Matthew W Bulbert, Martin J Whiting, Marie E Herberstein
Mimicry complexes typically consist of multiple species that deter predators using similar anti-predatory signals. Mimics in these complexes are assumed to vary in their level of defence from highly defended through to moderately defended, or not defended at all. Here, we report a new multi-order mimicry complex that includes at least 140 different putative mimics from four arthropod orders including ants, wasps, bugs, tree hoppers and spiders. All members of this mimicry complex are characterised by a conspicuous golden body and an ant Gestalt, but vary substantially in their defensive traits...
February 7, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169397/yeasts-harbored-by-vespine-wasps-in-the-pacific-northwest
#17
Sebastian Ibarra Jimenez, Cassandra Carroll, Tamara Babcock, Nathan Derstine, Alison Hadwin, Margo Moore, Gerhard Gries
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168097/taxonomic-revision-and-molecular-phylogenetics-of-the-idarnes-incertus-species-group-hymenoptera-agaonidae-sycophaginae
#18
Fernando H A Farache, Astrid Cruaud, Gwenaëlle Genson, Jean-Yves Rasplus, Rodrigo A S Pereira
Sycophaginae is a group of non-pollinating fig wasps considered closely related to the fig pollinators (Agaoninae, Tetrapusiinae, and Kradibiinae) in the most recent phylogenetic analyses. They occur in all tropical regions and are associated with Ficus subgenera Urostigma and Sycomorus. There are six described genera of Sycophaginae, and two are native and confined to the Neotropics, namely Idarnes Walker, 1843 and Anidarnes Bouček, 1993. Genus Idarnes is divided into three morphologically distinct groups that were proven to be monophyletic by recent molecular phylogenetic analyses...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168034/tracing-the-history-and-ecological-context-of-wolbachia-double-infection-in-a-specialist-host-urophora-cardui-parasitoid-eurytoma-serratulae-system
#19
Jes Johannesen
The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia is the most widespread bacteria in insects, yet the ecology of novel acquisitions in natural host populations is poorly understood. Using temporal data separated by 12 years, I tested the hypothesis that immigration of a parasitoid wasp led to transmission of its Wolbachia strain to its dipteran host, resulting in double-strain infection, and I used geographic and community surveys to explore the history of transmission in fly and parasitoid. Double infection in the fly host was present before immigration of the parasitoid...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168032/no-inbreeding-depression-in-laboratory-reared-individuals-of-the-parasitoid-wasp-allotropa-burrelli
#20
Bastien Quaglietti, Lucie Tamisier, Géraldine Groussier, Alexandre Fleisch, Isabelle Le Goff, Nicolas Ris, Philippe Kreiter, Xavier Fauvergue, Thibaut Malausa
Inbreeding depression is a major concern in almost all human activities relating to plant and animal breeding. The biological control of pests with natural enemies is no exception, because populations of biocontrol agents experience a series of bottlenecks during importation, rearing, and introduction. A classical biological control program for the Comstock mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was initiated in France in 2008, based on the introduction of an exotic parasitoid, Allotropa burrelli Mues...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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