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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225885/life-history-strategy-resource-dispersion-and-phylogenetic-associations-shape-dispersal-of-a-fig-wasp-community
#1
Vignesh Venkateswaran, Amitabh Shrivastava, Anusha L K Kumble, Renee M Borges
Background: The combined influence of life-history strategy and resource dispersion on dispersal evolution of a biological community, and by extension, on community assemblage, has received sparse attention. Highly specialized fig wasp communities are ideal for addressing this question since the life-history strategies that affect their pace of life and the dispersion of their oviposition resources vary. We compared dispersal capacities of the wasp community of a widespread tropical fig, Ficus racemosa, by measuring flight durations, somatic lipid content and resting metabolic rates...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224785/incongruence-between-molecules-and-morphology-a-seven-gene-phylogeny-of-dacini-fruit-flies-paves-the-way-for-reclassification-diptera-tephritidae
#2
Michael San Jose, Camiel Doorenweerd, Luc Leblanc, Norman Barr, Scott Geib, Daniel Rubinoff
Molecular and morphological research often suggest conflicting results. Selective pressure on certain morphologies can confound understanding of evolutionary relationships. Dacini is one of the most diverse tribes of tephritid flies and contains many economically important pest species. Their black and yellow patterned body markings are presumed to act as wasp mimicry, and the characters separating species and groups are limited and in some cases phenotypically plastic. The traditional taxonomy of the tribe is controversial because groupings are based on unique combinations of morphological characters without the use of cladistic methods, though recent phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses have resulted in significant changes to their taxonomy...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215267/new-structural-insights-into-formation-of-the-key-actin-regulating-wip-wasp-complex-determined-by-nmr-and-molecular-imaging
#3
Adi Halle-Bikovski, Sophia Fried, Eva Rozentur-Shkop, Guy Biber, Hadassa Shaked, Noah Joseph, Mira Barda-Saad, Jordan H Chill
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) is exclusively expressed in hematopoietic cells and responsible for actin-dependent processes, including cellular activation, migration, and invasiveness. The C-terminal domain of WASp-Interacting Protein (WIP) binds to WASp and regulates its activity by shielding it from degradation in a phosphorylation dependent manner as we previously demonstrated. Mutations in the WAS-encoding gene lead to the primary immunodeficiencies Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) and X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT)...
December 7, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213193/anti-inflammatory-activity-of-crude-venom-isolated-from-parasitoid-wasp-bracon-hebetor-say
#4
Evelyn Saba, Tahir Shafeeq, Muhammad Irfan, Yuan Yee Lee, Hyuk-Woo Kwon, Myung Gi Seo, Sang-Joon Park, Kyeong-Yeoll Lee, Man Hee Rhee
Pest control in the agricultural fields, a major concern globally, is currently achieved through chemical or biological methods. Chemical methods, which leave toxic residue in the produce, are less preferred than biological methods. Venoms injected by stings of various wasps that kill the pest is considered as the examples of the biological method. Although several studies have investigated the biological control of pests through these venoms, very few studies have reported the effects of these venoms on mammalian cells...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212877/high-speed-super-resolution-imaging-of-the-proteins-in-fission-yeast-clathrin-mediated-endocytic-actin-patches
#5
Rajesh Arasada, Wasim A Sayyad, Julien Berro, Thomas D Pollard
To internalize nutrients and cell surface receptors via clathrin mediated endocytosis cells assemble at least 50 proteins including clathrin, clathrin-interacting proteins, actin filaments and actin binding proteins in a highly ordered and regulated fashion. The molecular mechanism by which actin filament polymerization deforms the cell membrane is unknown, largely due to lack of knowledge about the organization of the regulatory proteins and actin filaments. We used high-speed super-resolution localization microscopy (FPALM) of live fission yeast cells to improve the spatial resolution to ∼35 nm with 1 s temporal resolution...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200923/an-annotated-and-illustrated-checklist-of-microgastrinae-wasps-hymenoptera-braconidae-from-the-canadian-arctic-archipelago-and-greenland
#6
Jose Fernández-Triana, Joel Buffam, Melanie Beaudin, Hannah Davis, Ana Fernández-Galliano, Emily Griffin, Shang-Yao Lin, Megan K McAulay, Robin Richter, Freddy Rodriguez, Gergely Várkonyi
The Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from ten islands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) and Greenland were studied based on 2,183 specimens deposited in collections. We report a total of 33 species in six genera, more than doubling the totals previously known. Most of the species (75.7%) have a distribution restricted to the Nearctic, with nine of those (27.3%) confirmed to be High Arctic endemics and another 10 species considered very likely to be High Arctic endemics as well - accounting for all of those, more than half of all species found are endemic to the region...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199047/egg-laying-behavior-and-morphological-and-chemical-characterization-of-egg-surface-and-egg-attachment-glue-of-the-digger-wasp-ampulex-compressa-hymenoptera-ampulicidae
#7
Werner Gnatzy, Walter Volknandt, Anja Dzwoneck
For providing their offspring females of the digger wasp species Ampulex compressa hunt cockroaches paralyze them and attach as a rule one egg to the coxa of one of the mid legs of their prey. We observed the egg-laying behavior and examined with light- and scanning microscopy (i) nearly mature eggs from ovaries of freshly dissected females and (ii) eggs immediately after their deposition on the coxae of their prey. The length of the white bean-shaped eggs varied between 2.2 and 3.0 mm, their diameter between 0...
November 30, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198250/cornicle-secretions-by-aphis-fabae-hemiptera-aphididae-result-in-age-dependent-costs-and-improved-host-suitability-for-lysiphlebus-fabarum-marshall-hymenoptera-braconidae
#8
Y Parvizi, A Rasekh, J P Michaud
We examined the life history consequences of cornicle secretion by Aphis fabae Scopoli in second and fourth instars, and its effects on host suitability for its parasitoid, Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall). Cornicle secretion did not affect aphid fecundity, but secretion in the second instar enhanced life table parameters, whereas secretion in the fourth instar affected them negatively, suggesting a higher cost of secretion in later instars. Secretion in either instar improved host suitability for L. fabarum...
December 4, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197474/venomics-reveals-novel-ion-transport-peptide-likes-itpls-from-the-parasitoid-wasp-tetrastichus-brontispae
#9
Nai-Yong Liu, Zhi-Wen Xu, Wei Yan, Xue-Min Ren, Zhi-Quan Zhang, Jia-Ying Zhu
Despite substantial advances in uncovering constituents of parasitoid venoms due to their potential applications as insecticides and pharmaceuticals, most of these studies are primarily restricted to braconid and ichneumonid wasps. Little information is available regarding virulent factors from venom of Eulophidae. In order to provide insight into the venom components of this family and parasitoid venom evolution, a venom protein repertoire (venomics) of the endoparasitoid wasp, Tetrastichus brontispae was deciphered using a proteomic approach...
November 29, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193144/simulating-thermal-effects-of-mr-guided-focused-ultrasound-in-cortical-bone-and-its-surrounding-tissue
#10
Thomas J Hudson, Thomas Looi, Samuel Pichardo, Joao Amaral, Michael Temple, James M Drake, Adam C Waspe
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is emerging as a treatment alternative for osteoid osteoma and painful bone metastases. This study describes a new simulation platform that predicts the distribution of heat generated by MRgFUS when applied to bone tissue. METHODS: Calculation of the temperature distribution was performed using two mathematical models. The first determined the propagation and absorption of acoustic energy through each medium, and this was performed using a multi-layered approximation of the Rayleigh integral...
November 28, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192219/symbionts-protect-aphids-from-parasitic-wasps-by-attenuating-herbivore-induced-plant-volatiles
#11
Enric Frago, Mukta Mala, Berhane T Weldegergis, Chenjiao Yang, Ailsa McLean, H Charles J Godfray, Rieta Gols, Marcel Dicke
Plants respond to insect attack by releasing blends of volatile chemicals that attract their herbivores' specific natural enemies, while insect herbivores may carry endosymbiotic microorganisms that directly improve herbivore survival after natural enemy attack. Here we demonstrate that the two phenomena can be linked. Plants fed upon by pea aphids release volatiles that attract parasitic wasps, and the pea aphid can carry facultative endosymbiotic bacteria that prevent the development of the parasitic wasp larva and thus markedly improve aphid survival after wasp attack...
November 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191847/wasp-family-proteins-and-formins-compete-in-pseudopod-and-bleb-based-migration
#12
Andrew J Davidson, Clelia Amato, Peter A Thomason, Robert H Insall
Actin pseudopods induced by SCAR/WAVE drive normal migration and chemotaxis in eukaryotic cells. Cells can also migrate using blebs, in which the edge is driven forward by hydrostatic pressure instead of actin. In Dictyostelium discoideum, loss of SCAR is compensated by WASP moving to the leading edge to generate morphologically normal pseudopods. Here we use an inducible double knockout to show that cells lacking both SCAR and WASP are unable to grow, make pseudopods or, unexpectedly, migrate using blebs. Remarkably, amounts and dynamics of actin polymerization are normal...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191551/the-drosophila-lymph-gland-is-an-ideal-model-for-studying-hematopoiesis
#13
Shichao Yu, Fangzhou Luo, Li Hua Jin
Hematopoiesis in Drosophila melanogaster occurs throughout the entire life cycle, from the embryo to adulthood. The healthy lymph gland, as a hematopoietic organ during the larval stage, can give rise to two mature types of hemocytes, plasmatocytes and crystal cells, which persist into the pupal and adult stages. Homeostasis of the lymph gland is tightly controlled by a series of conserved factors and signaling pathways, which also play key roles in mammalian hematopoiesis. Thus, revealing the hematopoietic mechanisms in Drosophila will advance our understanding of hematopoietic stem cells and their niche as well as leukemia in mammals...
November 27, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190677/cortical-actin-nodes-their-dynamics-and-recruitment-of-podosomal-proteins-as-revealed-by-super-resolution-and-single-molecule-microscopy
#14
Yuki M Shirai, Taka A Tsunoyama, Nao Hiramoto-Yamaki, Koichiro M Hirosawa, Akihiro C E Shibata, Kenichi Kondo, Atsushi Tsurumune, Fumiyoshi Ishidate, Akihiro Kusumi, Takahiro K Fujiwara
Electron tomography of the plasma membrane (PM) identified several layers of cortical actin meshwork running parallel to the PM cytoplasmic surface throughout the PM. Here, cortical actin structures and dynamics were examined in living cells, using super-resolution microscopy, with (x,y)- and z-resolutions of ~140 and ~400 nm, respectively, and single-molecule imaging. The super-resolution microscopy identified sub-micron-sized actin clusters that appeared identical by both phalloidin post-fixation staining and Lifeact-mGFP expression followed by fixation, and therefore, these actin clusters were named "actin-pl-clusters"...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189997/a-new-species-of-uniclypea-bou%C3%A4-ek-1976-hymenoptera-pteromalidae-parasitic-on-apoderus-tranquebaricus-fabricius-coleoptera-attelabidae-from-india-with-notes-on-biology
#15
Ankita Gupta
One new species of parasitic wasp, Uniclypea similis n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), reared from the leaf knots constructed by Apoderus tranquebaricus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Attelabidae) on the host plant Grewia abutilifolia Vent. ex Juss. is described and illustrated. The characteristic features of the new species are: post-marginal vein 2.3× stigmal vein, metasoma length 4.3× its width and costal cell 1.47× marginal vein. To my knowledge, the male of a species of Uniclypea is described and illustrated for the first time...
November 30, 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188381/the-effect-of-wolbachia-on-diapause-fecundity-and-clock-gene-expression-in-trichogramma-brassicae-hymenoptera-trichogrammatidae
#16
Somayeh Rahimi-Kaldeh, Ahmad Ashouri, Alireza Bandani, Kenji Tomioka
The short day lengths of late summer in moderate regions are used to induce diapause in various insects. Many studies have shown the maternal effect of photoperiod on diapause induction of Trichogramma wasps, but there is no study to show the relationship between photoperiodic regimes and clock genes in these useful biological control agents. Here, we investigated the role of photoperiods on diapause, fecundity, and clock gene expression (clk, cyc, cry2, per, and timeout) in asexual and sexual Trichogramma brassicae as a model insect to find any differences between two strains...
November 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187976/genome-comparisons-indicate-recent-transfer-of-wri-like-wolbachia-between-sister-species-drosophila-suzukii-and-d-%C3%A2-subpulchrella
#17
William R Conner, Mark L Blaxter, Gianfranco Anfora, Lino Ometto, Omar Rota-Stabelli, Michael Turelli
Wolbachia endosymbionts may be acquired by horizontal transfer, by introgression through hybridization between closely related species, or by cladogenic retention during speciation. All three modes of acquisition have been demonstrated, but their relative frequency is largely unknown. Drosophila suzukii and its sister species D. subpulchrella harbor Wolbachia, denoted wSuz and wSpc, very closely related to wRi, identified in California populations of D. simulans. However, these variants differ in their induced phenotypes: wRi causes significant cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in D...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187971/plant-diversity-has-contrasting-effects-on-herbivore-and-parasitoid-abundance-in-centaurea-jacea-flower-heads
#18
Norma Nitschke, Eric Allan, Helmut Zwölfer, Lysett Wagner, Sylvia Creutzburg, Hannes Baur, Stefan Schmidt, Wolfgang W Weisser
High biodiversity is known to increase many ecosystem functions, but studies investigating biodiversity effects have more rarely looked at multi-trophic interactions. We studied a tri-trophic system composed of Centaurea jacea (brown knapweed), its flower head-infesting tephritid fruit flies and their hymenopteran parasitoids, in a grassland biodiversity experiment. We aimed to disentangle the importance of direct effects of plant diversity (through changes in apparency and resource availability) from indirect effects (mediated by host plant quality and performance)...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186329/aselux-an-ultra-fast-and-accurate-allelic-reads-counter
#19
Zong Miao, Marcus Alvarez, Päivi Pajukanta, Arthur Ko
Motivation: Mapping bias causes preferential alignment to the reference allele, forming a major obstacle in allele-specific expression (ASE) analysis. The existing methods, such as simulation and SNP-aware alignment, are either inaccurate or relatively slow. To fast and accurately count allelic reads for ASE analysis, we developed a novel approach, ASElux, which utilizes the personal SNP information and counts allelic reads directly from unmapped RNA-sequence (RNA-seq) data. ASElux significantly reduces runtime by disregarding reads outside single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) during the alignment...
November 23, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181449/transcriptome-sequencing-reveals-novel-candidate-genes-for-cardinium-hertigii-caused-cytoplasmic-incompatibility-and-host-cell-interaction
#20
Evelyne Mann, Corinne M Stouthamer, Suzanne E Kelly, Monika Dzieciol, Martha S Hunter, Stephan Schmitz-Esser
Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is an intriguing, widespread, symbiont-induced reproductive failure that decreases offspring production of arthropods through crossing incompatibility of infected males with uninfected females or with females infected with a distinct symbiont genotype. For years, the molecular mechanism of CI remained unknown. Recent genomic, proteomic, biochemical, and cell biological studies have contributed to understanding of CI in the alphaproteobacterium Wolbachia and implicate genes associated with the WO prophage...
November 2017: MSystems
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