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Biological clock Nuclear receptor

Huan Li, Wen-Kai Li, Yuan-Fu Lu, Li-Xin Wei, Jie Liu
Background. The circadian clock is involved in drug metabolism, efficacy and toxicity. Drugs could in turn affect the biological clock as a mechanism of their actions. Zuotai is an essential component of many popular Tibetan medicines for sedation, tranquil and "detoxification," and is mainly composed of metacinnabar (β-HgS). The pharmacological and/or toxicological basis of its action is unknown. This study aimed to examine the effect of Zuotai on biological clock gene expression in the liver of mice. Materials and methods...
2016: PeerJ
Sonal A Patel, Amol Chaudhari, Richa Gupta, Nikkhil Velingkaar, Roman V Kondratov
Calorie restriction (CR) increases longevity in many species by unknown mechanisms. The circadian clock was proposed as a potential mediator of CR. Deficiency of the core component of the circadian clock-transcriptional factor BMAL1 (brain and muscle ARNT [aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator]-like protein 1)-results in accelerated aging. Here we investigated the role of BMAL1 in mechanisms of CR. The 30% CR diet increased the life span of wild-type (WT) mice by 20% compared to mice on anad libitum(AL) diet but failed to increase life span ofBmal1(-/-)mice...
April 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Sophie S B Giguère, Amanda J Guise, Pierre M Jean Beltran, Preeti M Joshi, Todd M Greco, Olivia L Quach, Jeffery Kong, Ileana M Cristea
Deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1) has emerged as an important regulator of multiple cellular processes, ranging from gene expression to cell cycle progression. DBC1 has been linked to tumorigenesis both as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, HDAC3 and sirtuin 1, and as a transcriptional cofactor for nuclear hormone receptors. However, despite mounting interest in DBC1, relatively little is known about the range of its interacting partners and the scope of its functions. Here, we carried out a functional proteomics-based investigation of DBC1 interactions in two relevant cell types, T cells and kidney cells...
March 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Z Gerhart-Hines, M A Lazar
The circadian clock orchestrates the co-ordinated rhythmicity of numerous metabolic pathways to anticipate daily and seasonal changes in energy demand. This vital physiological function is controlled by a set of individual clock components that are present in each cell of the body, and regulate each other as well as clock output genes. A key factor is the nuclear receptor, Rev-erbα, a transcriptional repressor which functions not only as a clock component but also as a modulator of metabolic programming in an array of tissues...
September 2015: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Huatao Chen, Keishiro Isayama, Makoto Kumazawa, Lijia Zhao, Nobuhiko Yamauchi, Yasufumi Shigeyoshi, Seiichi Hashimoto, Masa-aki Hattori
The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα links circadian rhythms and numerous physiological processes, but its physiological role in ovaries remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of REV-ERBα in the regulation of the transcription of its putative target genes in granulosa cells (GCs) prepared from Per2-destablized luciferase (dLuc) reporter gene transgenic rats. Alas1, Ppargc1a, and Il6 were chosen as representatives for genes analysis. A real-time monitoring system of Per2 promoter activity was performed to detect Per2-dLuc circadian oscillations...
2015: Chronobiology International
Fan Wang, Yong Luo, Caiyan Li, Lvan Chen
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Growing evidence indicates that disruption of circadian rhythms may be a risk factor for the development of glioma. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the genetic regulation of circadian rhythms in glioma cells have yet to be explored. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Using immunohistochemical staining and methylation-specific PCR techniques, we examined the expression of the period 2 (PER2) gene, one of the most important clock genes, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in 92 gliomas...
November 2014: Tumori
Bing Ji, Qing Yang, Paul G Genever, Ronald J Patton, Michael J Fagan
Bone remodelling is a vital process which enables bone to repair, renew and optimize itself. Disorders in the bone remodelling process are inevitably manifested in bone-related diseases, such as hypothyroidism, primary hyperparathyroidism and osteoporosis. In our previous work, a predator-prey based mathematical model was developed to simulate bone remodelling cycles under normal and two pathological conditions, hypothyroidism and primary hyperparathyroidism, for trabecular bone at a fixed point. However, the biochemical meanings of the model parameters were not fully explored...
October 2014: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
José Xavier-Neto, Ângela M Sousa Costa, Ana Carolina M Figueira, Carlo Donato Caiaffa, Fabio Neves do Amaral, Lara Maldanis Cerqueira Peres, Bárbara Santos Pires da Silva, Luana Nunes Santos, Alexander R Moise, Hozana Andrade Castillo
Retinoic acid (RA) is a terpenoid that is synthesized from vitamin A/retinol (ROL) and binds to the nuclear receptors retinoic acid receptor (RAR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) to control multiple developmental processes in vertebrates. The available clinical and experimental data provide uncontested evidence for the pleiotropic roles of RA signaling in development of multiple embryonic structures and organs such eyes, central nervous system, gonads, lungs and heart. The development of any of these above-mentioned embryonic organ systems can be effectively utilized to showcase the many strategies utilized by RA signaling...
February 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Carlo C Lazado, Hiruni P S Kumaratunga, Kazue Nagasawa, Igor Babiak, Christopher Marlowe A Caipang, Jorge M O Fernandes
The notion that the circadian rhythm is exclusively regulated by a central clock has been challenged by the discovery of peripheral oscillators. These peripheral clocks are known to have a direct influence on the biological processes in a tissue or cell. In fish, several peripheral clocks respond directly to light, thus raising the hypothesis of autonomous regulation. Several clock genes are expressed with daily rhythmicity in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fast skeletal muscle. In the present study, myosatellite cell culture and short-term cultured fast skeletal muscle explant models were developed and characterized, in order to investigate the autonomy of the clock system in skeletal muscle of Atlantic cod...
October 2014: Molecular Biology Reports
Yukimasa Takeda, Hong Soon Kang, Johannes Freudenberg, Laura M DeGraff, Raja Jothi, Anton M Jetten
The hepatic circadian clock plays a key role in the daily regulation of glucose metabolism, but the precise molecular mechanisms that coordinate these two biological processes are not fully understood. In this study, we identify a novel connection between the regulation of RORγ by the clock machinery and the diurnal regulation of glucose metabolic networks. We demonstrate that particularly at daytime, mice deficient in RORγ exhibit improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance due to reduced hepatic gluconeogenesis...
2014: PLoS Genetics
Xuan Zhao, Han Cho, Ruth T Yu, Annette R Atkins, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans
Circadian rhythms characterize almost every aspect of human physiology, endocrinology, xenobiotic detoxification, cell growth, and behavior. Modern lifestyles that disrupt our normal circadian rhythms are increasingly thought to contribute to various disease conditions ranging from depression and metabolic disorders to cancer. This self-sustained time-keeping system is generated and maintained by an endogenous molecular machine, the circadian clock, which is a transcriptional mechanism composed of the transcription factors CLOCK and BMAL and their co-repressors, PER and CRY...
May 2014: EMBO Reports
Ron C Anafi, Yool Lee, Trey K Sato, Anand Venkataraman, Chidambaram Ramanathan, Ibrahim H Kavakli, Michael E Hughes, Julie E Baggs, Jacqueline Growe, Andrew C Liu, Junhyong Kim, John B Hogenesch
Over the last decades, researchers have characterized a set of "clock genes" that drive daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. This arduous work has yielded results with far-reaching consequences in metabolic, psychiatric, and neoplastic disorders. Recent attempts to expand our understanding of circadian regulation have moved beyond the mutagenesis screens that identified the first clock components, employing higher throughput genomic and proteomic techniques. In order to further accelerate clock gene discovery, we utilized a computer-assisted approach to identify and prioritize candidate clock components...
April 2014: PLoS Biology
Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Manlio Vinciguerra, Jude Oben, Roberto Tarquini, Salvatore De Cosmo
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the accumulation of triglycerides in the hepatocytes in the absence of excess alcohol intake, and is caused by an imbalance between hepatic synthesis and breakdown of fats, as well as fatty acid storage and disposal. Liver metabolic pathways are driven by circadian biological clocks, and hepatic health is maintained by proper timing of circadian patterns of metabolic gene expression with the alternation of anabolic processes corresponding to feeding/activity during wake times, and catabolic processes characterizing fasting/resting during sleep...
September 2014: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Janusz K Rybakowski, Monika Dmitrzak-Weglar, Sebastian Kliwicki, Joanna Hauser
OBJECTIVES: The therapeutic action of lithium in bipolar mood disorder may be connected with its effect on biological rhythms. In the present study, an attempt was made to investigate an association between multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their haplotypes pertaining to four genes involved in regulation of biological rhythms [circadian locomotor output cycle kaput (CLOCK), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (ARNTL), timeless circadian clock (TIMELESS), period circadian clock 3 (PER 3)], and the efficacy of lithium prophylaxis...
March 2014: Bipolar Disorders
Suk-Hyun Hong, Maryam Ahmadian, Ruth T Yu, Annette R Atkins, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans
The ability to adapt to cycles of feast and famine is critical for survival. Communication between multiple metabolic organs must be integrated to properly metabolise nutrients. By controlling networks of genes in major metabolic organs, nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) play central roles in regulating metabolism in a tissue-specific manner. NHRs also establish daily rhythmicity by controlling the expression of core clock genes both centrally and peripherally. Recent findings show that many of the metabolic effects of NHRs are mediated through certain members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family...
May 2014: Diabetologia
Jemma Ransom, Peter J Morgan, Peter J McCaffery, Patrick N Stoney
The retinoids are a family of compounds that in nature are derived from vitamin A or pro-vitamin A carotenoids. An essential part of the diet for mammals, vitamin A has long been known to be essential for many organ systems in the adult. More recently, however, they have been shown to be necessary for function of the brain and new discoveries point to a central role in processes ranging from neuroplasticity to neurogenesis. Acting in several regions of the central nervous system including the eye, hippocampus and hypothalamus, one common factor in its action is control of biological rhythms...
May 2014: Journal of Neurochemistry
Jean-Michel Fustin, Masao Doi, Yoshiaki Yamaguchi, Hayashi Hida, Shinichi Nishimura, Minoru Yoshida, Takayuki Isagawa, Masaki Suimye Morioka, Hideaki Kakeya, Ichiro Manabe, Hitoshi Okamura
The eukaryotic biological clock involves a negative transcription-translation feedback loop in which clock genes regulate their own transcription and that of output genes of metabolic significance. While around 10% of the liver transcriptome is rhythmic, only about a fifth is driven by de novo transcription, indicating mRNA processing is a major circadian component. Here, we report that inhibition of transmethylation reactions elongates the circadian period. RNA sequencing then reveals methylation inhibition causes widespread changes in the transcription of the RNA processing machinery, associated with m(6)A-RNA methylation...
November 7, 2013: Cell
Xiao-Mei Li, Ali Mohammad-Djafari, Mircea Dumitru, Sandrine Dulong, Elisabeth Filipski, Sandrine Siffroi-Fernandez, Ali Mteyrek, Francesco Scaglione, Catherine Guettier, Franck Delaunay, Francis Lévi
Circadian timing of anticancer medications has improved treatment tolerability and efficacy several fold, yet with intersubject variability. Using three C57BL/6-based mouse strains of both sexes, we identified three chronotoxicity classes with distinct circadian toxicity patterns of irinotecan, a topoisomerase I inhibitor active against colorectal cancer. Liver and colon circadian 24-hour expression patterns of clock genes Rev-erbα and Bmal1 best discriminated these chronotoxicity classes, among 27 transcriptional 24-hour time series, according to sparse linear discriminant analysis...
December 15, 2013: Cancer Research
M J McCarthy, H Wei, Z Marnoy, R M Darvish, D L McPhie, B M Cohen, D K Welsh
Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with abnormal circadian rhythms. In treatment responsive BD patients, lithium (Li) stabilizes mood and reduces suicide risk. Li also affects circadian rhythms and expression of 'clock genes' that control them. However, the extent to which BD, Li and the circadian clock share common biological mechanisms is unknown, and there have been few direct measurements of clock gene function in samples from BD patients. Hence, the role of clock genes in BD and Li treatment remains unclear...
October 22, 2013: Translational Psychiatry
Gabriela C Monsalve, Alison R Frand
Animal development requires temporal coordination between recurrent processes and sequential events, but the underlying timing mechanisms are not yet understood. The molting cycle of C. elegans provides an ideal system to study this basic problem. We recently characterized LIN-42, which is related to the circadian clock protein PERIOD, as a key component of the developmental timer underlying rhythmic molting cycles. In this context, LIN-42 coordinates epithelial stem cell dynamics with progression of the molting cycle...
October 1, 2012: Worm
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