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Sex Steroids and depression

Andreas Walther, Michel Philipp, Niclà Lozza, Ulrike Ehlert
Research on healthy aging in men has increasingly focused on age-related hormonal changes. Testosterone (T) decline is primarily investigated, while age-related changes in other sex steroids (dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], estradiol [E2], progesterone [P]) are mostly neglected. An integrated hormone parameter reflecting aging processes in men has yet to be identified. 271 self-reporting healthy men between 40 and 75 provided both psychometric data and saliva samples for hormone analysis. Correlation analysis between age and sex steroids revealed negative associations for the four sex steroids (T, DHEA, E2, and P)...
August 31, 2016: Oncotarget
Juhae Sohn, Sujin Kim, Jan Koschorreck, Younglim Kho, Kyungho Choi
Low molecular weight phthalates, such as diethyl phthalate (DEP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBzP), or diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), are suspected to disrupt endocrine system. However, their adverse effects on sex steroid hormones and underlying mechanisms are not well-documented. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of major low molecular weight phthalates (LMWPs), i.e., DEP, BBzP, and DiBP, and their hydrolytic metabolites, on sex steroid hormone system, employing male zebrafish and/or a human adrenocortical carcinoma (H295R) cell...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Michael Q Steinman, Brian C Trainor
Women are nearly twice as likely as men to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder, yet the use of female animal models in studying the biological basis of depression lags behind that of males. The social defeat model uses social stress to generate depression-like symptoms in order to study the neurobiological mechanisms. In general, social defeat is difficult to apply in female rodents. However, male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus) are territorial. This allows defeat to be studied in both sexes...
June 30, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Katie L Druce, Yagnaseni Bhattacharya, Gareth T Jones, Gary J Macfarlane, Neil Basu
OBJECTIVES: RA-related fatigue is common and debilitating, but does not always respond to immunotherapy. In the context of anti-TNF therapy, we aimed to examine whether patients achieving disease remission experienced remission of fatigue. METHODS: Data from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for RA were used. In participants with severe baseline fatigue [36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) vitality score ⩽12.5], we identified those in disease remission [28-joint DAS (DAS28) <2...
October 2016: Rheumatology
Miyuki Kobayashi, Nobuhiro Sugiyama, Daimei Sasayama, Hidehiko Sasamoto, Yoshimichi Miyashiro, Kunimasa Arima, Shinsuke Washizuka
Animal studies suggest that estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-agonists, but not ERα-agonists, are antidepressants. Several endogenous ligands for ERβ have been proposed, including 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol (3βAdiol), Androstenediol (Δ5-diol), and 7α-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone (7α-OH-DHEA). The aim of this study was to determine the serum and salivary levels of natural ERβ ligands in men and women with and without past depressive episodes in the elderly population. DHEA (a precursor of 3βAdiol, Δ5-diol, and 7α-OH-DHEA), 17β-estradiol (E2), and cortisol (F) were also measured...
2016: Scientific Reports
Massimiliano Buoli, Alice Caldiroli, Marta Serati, Silvia Grassi, A Carlo Altamura
OBJECTIVE: Endocrine pathways seem to play a role in the etiology of major psychoses. The identification of biomarkers associated with psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia (SKZ) and mood disorders would allow the identification of high-risk subjects for delusions and hallucinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and progesterone plasma levels in drug-free patients with major psychoses and their relation with the diagnosis and history of psychotic symptoms...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
D S Stenbæk, P M Fisher, E Budtz-Jørgensen, A Pinborg, L V Hjordt, P S Jensen, G M Knudsen, V G Frokjaer
BACKGROUND: Women show increased risk of depressive symptoms in life phases where ovarian steroid hormone levels fluctuate or decline rapidly. The risk mechanisms may include changes in mental state and affective cognition possibly mediated by serotonergic neurotransmission. METHODS: In a randomized controlled double-blinded trial, 61 healthy women (mean age 24.3±4.9 years) were tested with measures of affective verbal memory, reaction time, mental distress, and serotonin transporter binding at baseline and at follow-up after receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) or placebo intervention...
June 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Hanna Klaus, Manuel E Cortés
Governments and society have accepted and enthusiastically promoted contraception, especially contraceptive steroid hormones, as the means of assuring optimal timing and number of births, an undoubted health benefit, but they seldom advert to their limitations and side effects. This article reviews the literature on the psychological, social, and spiritual impact of contraceptive steroid use. While the widespread use of contraceptive steroid hormones has expanded life style and career choices for many women, their impact on the women's well-being, emotions, social relationships, and spirituality is seldom mentioned by advocates, and negative effects are often downplayed...
August 2015: Linacre Quarterly
M G Pisu, A Garau, G Boero, F Biggio, V Pibiri, R Dore, V Locci, E Paci, P Porcu, M Serra
Women are more likely than men to suffer from anxiety disorders and major depression. These disorders share hyperresponsiveness to stress as an etiological factor. Thus, sex differences in brain arousal systems and their regulation by chronic stress may account for the increased vulnerability to these disorders in women. Social isolation is a model of early life stress that results in neurobiological alterations leading to increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors. Here we investigated the sex difference in the effects of post-weaning social isolation on acute stress sensitivity and behavior in rats...
April 21, 2016: Neuroscience
L Raz, L V Hunter, N M Dowling, W Wharton, C E Gleason, M Jayachandran, L Anderson, S Asthana, V M Miller
BACKGROUND: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is modulated by sex steroid hormones and affects vascular function and mood. In the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Cognitive and Affective Ancillary Study (KEEPS-Cog), women randomized to oral conjugated equine estrogens (oCEE) showed greater benefit on affective mood states than women randomized to transdermal 17β-estradiol (tE2) or placebo (PL). This study examined the effect of these treatments on the platelet content of 5-HT as a surrogate measure of 5-HT synthesis and uptake in the brain...
2016: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
S Henningsson, K H Madsen, A Pinborg, M Heede, G M Knudsen, H R Siebner, V G Frokjaer
Sex-hormone fluctuations may increase risk for developing depressive symptoms and alter emotional processing as supported by observations in menopausal and pre- to postpartum transition. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we used blood-oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate if sex-steroid hormone manipulation with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) influences emotional processing. Fifty-six healthy women were investigated twice: at baseline (follicular phase of menstrual cycle) and 16 ± 3 days post intervention...
2015: Translational Psychiatry
Michela Di Mauro, Alessandro Tozzi, Paolo Calabresi, Vito Enrico Pettorossi, Silvarosa Grassi
Estrogenic and androgenic steroids synthesized in the brain may rapidly modulate synaptic plasticity interacting with specific membrane receptors. We explored by electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices of male rat the influence of 17β-estradiol (E2) and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) neo-synthesis on the synaptic changes induced in the CA1 region. Induction of long-term depression (LTD) and depotentiation (DP) by low frequency stimulation (LFS, 15 min-1 Hz) and of long-term potentiation (LTP) by high frequency stimulation (HFS, 1 s-100 Hz), medium (MFS, 1 s-50 Hz), or weak (WFS, 1 s-25 Hz) frequency stimulation was assayed under inhibitors of enzymes converting testosterone (T) into DHT (5α-reductase) and T into E2 (P450-aromatase)...
2015: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jaylyn Waddell, Marie Hanscom, N Shalon Edwards, Mary C McKenna, Margaret M McCarthy
Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) of the brain in near-term and term infants is a leading cause of infant mortality and lifelong disability but current therapeutic approaches remain limited. Males consistently display greater vulnerability to the deleterious consequences of HI in both humans and animal models. Neurogenesis increases after neonatal HI and offers a potential therapeutic target for recovery. The steroid hormone estradiol has been extensively explored as a neuroprotectant in adult models of stroke but with mixed results...
January 2016: Experimental Neurology
A Aswathi, Soundravally Rajendiren, Archana Nimesh, R Ravi Philip, Shivanand Kattimani, D Jayalakshmi, P H Ananthanarayanan, Pooja Dhiman
In view of the reported cases of mood disorders that occur in mothers following childbirth and believing that sex steroid hormones contribute to mood and behavioral changes, this study has been aimed to explore the role of sex steroid hormones as an etiological factor for postpartum depression (PPD). This study was conducted at JIPMER, Puducherry, India between January 2010 and 2011. 103 women were recruited in the study after childbirth, out of which 62 women who were believed to be suffering from PPD were categorized as cases and the remaining 41 with no mood changes as controls, using Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) (cases had EPDS score ≥10 at 24-28h, controls had score <10 at 24-48h postpartum)...
October 2015: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Lauren B Shomaker, Elizabeth Goodman
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether depressive symptoms predict change in fasting insulin among adolescents followed into young adulthood. We hypothesized that higher depressive symptoms would predict increased insulin and that puberty and race/ethnicity would moderate this relationship. METHODS: Data came from the Princeton School District Study, a school-based longitudinal cohort of non-Hispanic black and white adolescents (2001-2011). Depressive symptoms, fasting insulin, and body mass index were measured at baseline (adolescence) and 8 years later (young adulthood) in 685 participants...
October 2015: Psychosomatic Medicine
A Hajduk, K Nowicka-Sauer, Ż Smoleńska, Z Czuszyńska, Z Zdrojewski
BACKGROUND: Suicidal ideation is observed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). No study on this notable phenomenon in neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) is available so far. METHODS: Participants were 53 consecutive outpatients with NPSLE (48 women; mean age 43.8 years) diagnosed according to the American College of Rheumatology nomenclature for SLE neuropsychiatric syndromes. A Neuropsychiatric Questionnaire (NP-Q) concerning 45 neurological, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms was used to assess the prevalence of self-perceived neuropsychiatric symptoms...
February 2016: Lupus
Ovidiu Lungu, Stéphane Potvin, Andràs Tikàsz, Adrianna Mendrek
BACKGROUND: In view of the greater prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in women than in men, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have examined sex-differences in brain activations during emotion processing. Comparatively, sex-differences in brain connectivity received little attention, despite evidence for important fronto-limbic connections during emotion processing across sexes. Here, we investigated sex-differences in fronto-limbic connectivity during negative emotion processing...
December 2015: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Julian Macoveanu, Susanne Henningsson, Anja Pinborg, Peter Jensen, Gitte M Knudsen, Vibe G Frokjaer, Hartwig R Siebner
Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg, postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here, we examine how women's vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo or the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin, which causes a net decrease in sex-steroid levels...
March 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
K Keyes, J Agnew-Blais, A L Roberts, A Hamilton, I De Vivo, H Ranu, K Koenen
PURPOSE: The role of exogenous and endogenous sex hormones in the etiology of depression remains elusive, in part because sex hormone variation is often correlated with behaviors, life stage changes, and other factors that may influence depression. Estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and beta (ESR2) are known to regulate gene expression and estrogen response in areas of the brain associated with major depression and are unlikely to be correlated with exogenous factors that may influence depression...
December 2015: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Jiaqiang Zhang, Changqing Xu, Dyanet L Puentes, Christoph N Seubert, Nikolaus Gravenstein, Anatoly E Martynyuk
UNLABELLED: Recent studies have demonstrated that long-term developmental effects of neonatal anesthesia were more prominent in males. We tested whether steroids, in general, and sex steroids, in particular, are involved in the mediation of sevoflurane-caused paradoxical cortical seizures during the early postnatal period. METHODS: Cortical electroencephalograms, hippocampal synaptic activity, serum levels of steroids and the loss of the righting reflex (LORR), a marker of anesthetic effect, were measured on postnatal days 4-6 in Sprague Dawley rats of both genders exposed to 2...
2016: Neuroendocrinology
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