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pediatric cancer cachexia

Tsukasa Higuchi, Kazuhiro Shimada, Yoshiaki Cho, Kisei Minami, Kouichi Takeuchi, Akiyuki Sakamoto
Although the effectiveness of subarachnoid continuous drug infusion has been established in cancer pain management, its clinical use in children is rare. A 14-year-old girl with neurofibromatosis type I complained of right leg pain stemming from a growing tumor on her right buttock. Continuous and breakthrough right leg pain were unbearable, even at high doses of systemic opioids that caused severe constipation and deep sedation. Subsequent continuous infusion of bupivacaine and morphine through a subarachnoid catheter effectively relieved the girl's pain...
August 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Wael Al-Zoughbi, Wael Al-Zhoughbi, Jianfeng Huang, Ganapathy S Paramasivan, Holger Till, Martin Pichler, Barbara Guertl-Lackner, Gerald Hoefler
In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organs. Amino acids, and distinct lipid and lipoprotein species can be essential for further tumor growth...
April 2014: Seminars in Oncology
Friedemann Geiger, Levke Wolfgram
BACKGROUND: Emesis and nausea are side effects induced by chemotherapy. These effects lead to enormous stress and strain on cancer patients. Further consequences may include restrictions in quality of life, cachexia or therapy avoidance. Evidence suggests that cancer patients develop the side effects of nausea and vomiting in anticipation of chemotherapy. Contextual cues such as smell, sounds or even the sight of the clinic may evoke anticipatory nausea and vomiting prior to infusion...
2013: Trials
T Psota, K Y Chen
The measurement of energy expenditure (EE) is recommended as an important component of comprehensive clinical nutrition assessments in patients with altered metabolic states, who failed to respond to nutrition support and with critical illness that require individualized nutrition support. There is evidence that EE is variable in patients with metabolic diseases, such as chronic renal disease, cirrhosis, HIV, cancer cachexia, cystic fibrosis and patients under intensive care. By using appropriate techniques and interpretations of basal or resting EE, clinicians can facilitate the adequate nutrition support with minimum negative impacts from under- or overfeeding in these patients...
May 2013: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Jacqueline Bauer, Heribert Jürgens, Michael C Frühwald
Adequate nutrition during cancer plays a decisive role in several clinical outcome measures, such as treatment response, quality of life, and cost of care. However, the importance of nutrition in children and young adults with malignancies is still an underestimated topic within pediatric oncology. The importance of our work is to reinforce and indicate that malnutrition in children with cancer should not be accepted at any stage of the disease or tolerated as an inevitable process. Unique to our manuscript is the close collaboration, the exchange of knowledge and expertise between pediatric oncologists and a nutritional specialist, as well as the comprehension of the mechanisms during cancer cachexia and malnutrition...
March 2011: Advances in Nutrition
Pontus M A Siren, Matti J Siren
Cachexia affects up to two thirds of all cancer patients and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. It is a complex metabolic syndrome associated with the underlying illness and characterized by loss of skeletal muscle tissue with or without loss of fat mass. Cachexia's other prominent clinical symptoms include anorexia, systemic inflammation, pediatric growth failure, and hypogonadism. The relationship between the symptoms of cancer cachexia and the underlying illness is unclear, and there is an urgent need for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of this syndrome...
September 2010: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Scott D M Miller, Patrick J Mansky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2009: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Ibrahim Bayram, Fatih Erbey, Nilgun Celik, Jeffrey L Nelson, Atila Tanyeli
BACKGROUND: The aim of nutritional therapy in cancer patients is to prevent weight loss and to improve functional capacity and quality of life. Clinical studies however, have continued to demonstrate that a reduction in body weight loss is difficult to achieve in cancer cachexia. Several studies have shown that supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 fatty acid, has anti-cachectic effects in adult cancer patients. This study evaluated the clinical effects of a protein and energy dense EPA containing nutritional supplement in a group of pediatric cancer patients receiving active chemotherapy treatment...
May 2009: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Maureen B Huhmann, David A August
It is clear that cancer patients develop complex nutrition issues. Nutrition support may or may not be indicated in these patients depending on individual patient characteristics. This review article, the first in a series of articles to examine the A.S.P.E.N. Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients Cancer Guidelines, evaluates the evidence related to the use of nutrition screening and nutrition assessment in cancer patients. This first article will provide background concerning nutrition issues in cancer patients as well as discuss the role of nutrition screening and nutrition assessment in the care of cancer patients...
April 2008: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Elena J Ladas, Nancy Sacks, Lillian Meacham, Dave Henry, Lori Enriquez, Genevieve Lowry, Ria Hawkes, Gaye Dadd, Paul Rogers
Over the past few decades, great progress has been made in the survival rates of childhood cancer. As survival rates have improved, there has been an increased focus on supportive care. Nutrition is a supportive-care modality that has been associated with improved tolerance to chemotherapy, improved survival, increased quality of life, and decreased risk of infection in children undergoing anticancer therapy. Guidelines and assessment criteria have been proposed for the nutrition management of a child with cancer; however, there is no consistent use of criteria among institutions treating children with cancer...
August 2005: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Jin-Shei Lai, David Cella, Amy Peterman, Joshua Barocas, Stewart Goldman
BACKGROUND: Anorexia is a common symptom in patients with cancer, which can lead to poor tolerance of treatment and can contribute to cachexia in extreme cases. Children with advanced-stage cancer are especially vulnerable to malnutrition resulting from anorexia and cachexia. Currently, there are no instruments that measure common concerns specifically associated with anorexia and cachexia in children with cancer. The purpose of the current article was to test the psychometric properties of a newly developed pediatric Functional Assessment of Anorexia and Cachexia Therapy (peds-FAACT) for children with cancer...
October 1, 2005: Cancer
M Roulet, N Bianchi, A Garcia Aristizabal, M Nenadov-Beck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2000: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Clinical & Performance Programme
I Sharkey, A V Boddy, H Wallace, J Mycroft, R Hollis, S Picton
The majority of chemotherapy regimens and trials specify doses of cytotoxic drugs normalized to body surface area. Estimation of BSA in paediatric patients is particularly problematic, as conventional nomograms require accurate determination of both height and weight. The chemotherapy standards group of the UKCCSG (United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group) has evaluated a method for calculation of body surface area (BSA) estimation, based solely on patient weight. In comparison with BSA estimations using 2 commonly used methods, which require both weight and height measurements, deviation in the estimate of BSA was less than 10%...
July 6, 2001: British Journal of Cancer
R J Andrassy, W J Chwals
The child with a malignancy frequently will have associated cachexia with significant weight loss and malnutrition. The reasons for this are multifactorial and may be related directly to the tumor, such as increased metabolic rate, circulating peptides leading to anorexia, and decreased intake due to poor appetite or gut involvement. There appears to be other reasons involved, including increased whole body protein breakdown, increased lipolysis, and increased gluconeogenesis. Release of certain cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and others may increase the cancer cachexia...
January 1998: Nutrition
H E Bodánszky
Good nutritional status is very important in patients with malignant diseases, especially during chemotherapy. It is most important to avoid cachexia: One should avoid factors that may cause it or feed the patient by tube or intravenously if not possible orally, even if it is necessary to give total parenteral nutrition. The target is to ensure that the infants and children with malignant diseases during chemotherapy will retain optimal nutritional condition, which helps the children's growth development and helps them tolerate the treatment better...
September 17, 1997: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
W D DeWys
Weight loss and failure to gain weight normally in cancer patients are attributable to negative energy balance and altered metabolism. Energy balance is negative because of decreased intake, increased expenditure, or both. Changes in carbohydrate metabolism include glucose uptake and lactate production by tumor, relative hypoinsulinism, and relative insulin resistance. Alterations in protein metabolism include preferential uptake of amino acids by the tumor, decreased synthesis of some host tissue proteins such as muscle tissue, and increased synthesis of other host proteins...
1982: Cancer Research
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