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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912772/food-systems-transformations-ultra-processed-food-markets-and-the-nutrition-transition-in-asia
#1
Phillip Baker, Sharon Friel
BACKGROUND: Attracted by their high economic growth rates, young and growing populations, and increasingly open markets, transnational food and beverage corporations (TFBCs) are targeting Asian markets with vigour. Simultaneously the consumption of ultra-processed foods high in fat, salt and glycaemic load is increasing in the region. Evidence demonstrates that TFBCs can leverage their market power to shape food systems in ways that alter the availability, price, nutritional quality, desirability and ultimately consumption of such foods...
December 3, 2016: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906923/-out-of-the-frying-pan-but-not-into-the-fire-quantifying-commercial-cosmetic-tanning-services-in-new-zealand-to-inform-endgame-regulation
#2
Bronwen M McNoe, Anthony I Reeder
AIMS: In the context of possible regulation, to quantify and describe: (1) indoor tanning businesses in New Zealand; (2) sunbeds available for sale on Trade Me©. METHOD: In January 2016, we conducted a national audit of businesses potentially providing sunbed services (solariums, beauty-salons, hairdressers, gyms and fitness centres) to assess the availability and cost of indoor tanning services (sunbeds and spray tanning). In addition, Trade Me©, New Zealand's largest auction site for second-hand goods, was monitored for one year to determine whether ex-commercial sunbeds were being sold in the domestic market...
December 2, 2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903958/global-approaches-to-regulating-electronic-cigarettes
#3
Ryan David Kennedy, Ayodeji Awopegba, Elaine De León, Joanna E Cohen
OBJECTIVES: Classify and describe the policy approaches used by countries to regulate e-cigarettes. METHODS: National policies regulating e-cigarettes were identified by (1) conducting web searches on Ministry of Health websites, and (2) broad web searches. The mechanisms used to regulate e-cigarettes were classified as new/amended laws, or existing laws. The policy domains identified include restrictions or prohibitions on product: sale, manufacturing, importation, distribution, use, product design including e-liquid ingredients, advertising/promotion/sponsorship, trademarks, and regulation requiring: taxation, health warning labels and child-safety standards...
November 30, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895967/medical-representatives-intention-to-use-information-technology-in-pharmaceutical-marketing
#4
Eun-Seon Kwak, Hyejung Chang
OBJECTIVES: Electronic detailing (e-detailing), the use of electronic devices to facilitate sales presentations to physicians, has been adopted and expanded in the pharmaceutical industry. To maximize the potential outcome of e-detailing, it is important to understand medical representatives (MRs)' behavior and attitude to e-detailing. This study investigates how information technology devices such as laptop computers and tablet PCs are utilized in pharmaceutical marketing, and it analyzes the factors influencing MRs' intention to use devices...
October 2016: Healthcare Informatics Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888454/availability-and-quality-of-illegitimate-somatropin-products-obtained-from-the-internet
#5
Róbert György Vida, András Fittler, Ivett Mikulka, Eszter Ábrahám, Viktor Sándor, Ferenc Kilár, Lajos Botz
Background Growth hormones are widely available on the Internet for those who want to enhance their physical performance and improve body satisfaction. Illegitimate websites market somatropin injections without medical prescription and encourage misuse. Customers potentially put their health at risk when purchasing parenteral medications online. Objective The objective of our study was to evaluate the online market of no-prescription somatropin products and to analyse and document Internet pharmacy characteristics, distribution and pharmaceutical quality...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881277/impact-of-health-policy-changes-on-trends-in-the-pharmaceutical-market-in-turkey
#6
Esra Safak Yılmaz, Güvenç Koçkaya, Fatma Betül Yenilmez, Mete Saylan, Mehtap Tatar, Akif Akbulat, Hakkı Gürsöz, Saim Kerman
BACKGROUND: The implementation phase of the Turkish Health Transformation Program (HTP) began in 2003, with the aim of organizing, financing, and delivering health care services effectively, efficiently, and equally. The HTP impacted all clinical and economic outcomes of health, including pharmaceutical sales, by improving access to health services. OBJECTIVES: To understand the impact of five selected major policy changes that made an impact on supply, demand, or price in the pharmaceutical market between 1998 and 2012...
September 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881273/the-effects-of-the-new-methodology-application-on-the-method-of-pricing-of-drugs-the-case-of-the-republic-of-macedonia
#7
Rubin Zareski, A Kapedanovska Nestorovska, A Grozdanova, B Dimitrova, L J Suturkova, Z Sterjev
BACKGROUND: The introduction of a new methodology for the pricing of drugs by the Agency of Medicines of the Republic of Macedonia for the period 2012 to 2015 resulted in a price reduction of 1386 drugs. OBJECTIVE: This pioneer study evaluated the effects of the price changes during this period of 4 years and the consequent effects on the sale quantities for the segmented Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical groups. METHODS: The drugs were grouped by the size of the reductions, by segmenting the drugs by generic names, and by the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification, in which the quantities are grouped by generic names and the prices are calculated by average values for a period of 1 year...
September 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878693/is-medicines-parallel-trade-regulatory-arbitrage
#8
Joan Costa-Font
Parallel trade (PT) is a phenomenon that takes place at the distribution level, when a patented product is diverted from the official distribution chain to another one where it competes as a parallel distributor. Although some research regards PT in Europe as a 'common' form of arbitrage, there are reasons to believe that it is a type of 'regulatory arbitrage' that does not necessarily produce equivalent welfare effects. We draw upon a unique dataset that contains source country records of parallel imported medicine sales to the Netherlands for one therapeutic group (statins), that accounts for 5 % of the market at the time of study and it faced no generic competition...
December 2016: Int J Health Econ Manag
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878673/reforming-the-swedish-pharmaceuticals-market-consequences-for-costs-per-defined-daily-dose
#9
Mats A Bergman, David Granlund, Niklas Rudholm
In 2009 and 2010, the Swedish pharmaceuticals market was reformed. One of the stated policy goals was to achieve low costs for pharmaceutical products dispensed in Sweden. We use price and sales data for off-patent brand-name and generic pharmaceuticals to estimate a log-linear regression model, allowing us to assess how the policy changes affected the cost per defined daily dose. The estimated effect is an 18 % cost reduction per defined daily dose at the retail level and a 34 % reduction in the prices at the wholesale level (pharmacies' purchase prices)...
September 2016: Int J Health Econ Manag
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876025/substituting-sugar-confectionery-with-fruit-and-healthy-snacks-at-checkout-a-win-win-strategy-for-consumers-and-food-stores-a-study-on-consumer-attitudes-and-sales-effects-of-a-healthy-supermarket-intervention
#10
Lise L Winkler, Ulla Christensen, Charlotte Glümer, Paul Bloch, Bent E Mikkelsen, Brian Wansink, Ulla Toft
BACKGROUND: The widespread use of in-store marketing strategies to induce unhealthy impulsive purchases has implications for shopping experience, food choice and possibly adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine consumer attitudes and evaluate sales effects of a healthy checkout supermarket intervention. The study was part of Project Sundhed & Lokalsamfund (Project SoL); a Danish participatory community-based health promotion intervention. METHODS: Consumer attitudes towards unhealthy snack exposure in supermarkets were examined in a qualitative pre-intervention study (29 short in-store interviews, 11 semi-structured interviews and three focus group interviews)...
November 22, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870671/surgeon-attitudes-regarding-the-use-of-generic-implants-an-ota-survey-study
#11
Justin A Walker, Peter L Althausen
OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of generic orthopaedic trauma implants in the current orthopaedic trauma market, as perceived by OTA members, and investigate potential hurdles to the use of generic implants and other cost-containment measures. DESIGN: Survey study. SETTING: Not applicable. PARTICIPANTS: All active OTA members with valid e-mail addresses were invited to participate. INTERVENTION: Participants completed a brief online survey with questions regarding participation in cost-containment and incentive programs, industry relationships, generic implant use, and the role of surgeons in cost containment...
December 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864186/does-industry-driven-alcohol-marketing-influence-adolescent-drinking-behaviour-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Stephanie Scott, Colin Muirhead, Janet Shucksmith, Rachel Tyrrell, Eileen Kaner
AIM: To systematically review evidence on the influence of specific marketing components (Price, Promotion, Product attributes and Place of sale/availability) on key drinking outcomes (initiation, continuation, frequency and intensity) in young people aged 9-17. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, PsychINFO, CINAHL and ProQuest were searched from inception to July 2015, supplemented with searches of Google Scholar, hand searches of key journals and backward and forward citation searches of reference lists of identified papers...
November 17, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859358/six-years-without-pholcodine-norwegians-are-significantly-less-ige-sensitized-and-clinically-more-tolerant-to-neuromuscular-blocking-agents
#13
G H de Pater, E Florvaag, S G O Johansson, Å Irgens, M N H Petersen, A B Guttormsen
BACKGROUND: As a strong inducer of IgE-antibodies to substituted ammonium ion epitopes (QAI), pholcodine (PHO) is a postulated cause of allergic anaphylaxis to neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs). Three years after withdrawal of PHO in Norway, a significant reduction in IgE-sensitization and anaphylaxis reporting was seen. OBJECTIVE: Six year follow-up study on the effects of PHO withdrawal on IgE-sensitization and anaphylaxis reporting. METHODS: From 650 acute consecutive reports (2005-2013) to the Norwegian Network for Anaphylaxis under Anaesthesia (NARA), total number of reports on suspected anaphylactic reactions, number of reactions where NMBAs were administered, number of reactions where serum IgE-antibodies (≥0...
November 9, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856948/impact-of-introducing-subsidized-combination-treatment-with-artemether-lumefantrine-on-sales-of-anti-malarial-monotherapies-a-survey-of-private-sector-pharmacies-in-huambo-angola
#14
Cristina Lussiana, Marco Floridia, Joana Martinho do Rosário, Filomeno Fortes, Richard Allan
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) against malaria are subsidized in many African countries, but the impact of subsidy programs in reducing the sales of concomitantly available antimalarial monotherapies is poorly defined. METHODS: Data from The MENTOR initiative, that introduced subsidized artemether-lumefantrine (sAL) in the private sector of Huambo province, Angola, were used. The main response variable was represented by sales of sAL and of monotherapies, measured as number of treatment courses...
November 17, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856337/understanding-the-relationship-between-sales-of-legal-cigarettes-and-deaths-a-case-study-in-brazil
#15
André Salem Szklo, Roberto Magno Iglesias, Mirian Carvalho de Souza, Moysés Szklo, Tânia Maria Cavalcante, Liz Maria de Almeida
Brazil has experienced a large decline in cigarette consumption in the last 25years. However, the most recent annual reports from the tobacco industry market leader in Brazil did not show a decrease in its gross profits. This is particularly important because tobacco industry donations/sponsorships come directly from the industry's reported gross-profits and are used to subvert health policies. The aim of the present study was to estimate (i)tobacco industry's gross-profit from legal cigarettes sales, and (ii)all-cause smoking-attributable deaths (SADs) among current Brazilian smokers who consumed legal cigarettes in 2013...
November 14, 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855600/optimization-on-fc-for-improvement-of-stability-and-aggregation-resistance
#16
Xiaobo Chen, Fang Zeng, Tao Huang, Liang Cheng, Huan Liu, Rui Gong
Fc-based therapeutics including therapeutic full-size monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and Fc-fusion proteins represent fastest-growing market in biopharmaceutical industrial. However, one major challenge during development of Fc-based therapeutics is how to maintain their efficacy in clinic use. Many factors may lead to failure in final marketing. For example, the stability and aggregation resistance might not be high enough for bearing the disadvantages during fermentation, purification, formulation, storage, shipment and other steps in manufacture and sale...
November 17, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833835/comparison-of-pharmaceutical-pricing-and-reimbursement-systems-in-turkey-and-certain-eu-countries
#17
Enver Kagan Atikeler, Gulbin Özçelikay
Recently, the need for health care services has increased gradually and the limitations in sources allocated for this area have been recognized. Moving from this fact, it has gained a supreme importance to determine what health programs or technologies will be given priority. According to Danzon (Reference pricing: theory and evidence, reference pricing and pharmaceutical policy: perspectives on economics and innovation, springer, New York, pp 86-126, 2001), arrangements towards controlling the expenses through price and profit controls, reimbursement methods and incentives have recently gained wide currency...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822320/sustainable-smallholder-poultry-interventions-to-promote-food-security-and-social-agricultural-and-ecological-resilience-in-the-luangwa-valley-zambia
#18
Sarah E Dumas, Luke Lungu, Nathan Mulambya, Whiteson Daka, Erin McDonald, Emily Steubing, Tamika Lewis, Katherine Backel, Jarra Jange, Benjamin Lucio-Martinez, Dale Lewis, Alexander J Travis
In Zambia's Luangwa Valley, highly variable rainfall and lack of education, agricultural inputs, and market access constrain agricultural productivity, trapping smallholder farmers in chronic poverty and food insecurity. Human and animal disease (e.g. HIV and Newcastle Disease, respectively), further threaten the resilience of poor families. To cope with various shocks and stressors, many farmers employ short-term coping strategies that threaten ecosystem resilience. Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) utilizes an agribusiness model to alleviate poverty and food insecurity through conservation farming, market development and value-added food production...
June 2016: Food Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816494/fragmentation-in-the-biopharmaceutical-industry
#19
REVIEW
Andrew D Goldsmith, Francisco Varela
The large number of biopharmaceutical mergers and acquisitions (M&A) that occurred over the past decade has generated questions about whether the industry is consolidating around too-few players, negatively impacting both the number of medicines developed and overall innovation. However, closer examination of the level of biopharmaceutical consolidation shows that the industry was more fragmented in 2015 than it was in 2003 by prescription drug sales. The trend towards increasing fragmentation is also observed across noncommercial and independent metrics over the same time period...
November 2, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814451/community-adaptations-to-an-impending-food-desert-in-rural-appalachia-usa
#20
Wayne C Miller, Denver Rogalla, Dustin Spencer, Nida Zia, Brian N Griffith, Haylee B Heinsberg
INTRODUCTION: The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) describes a food desert as an urban neighborhood or rural town without ready access to fresh, healthy, and affordable food. An estimated 2.3 million rural Americans live in food deserts. One goal of the USDA is to eliminate food deserts. However, at a time when some food deserts are being eliminated, hundreds of grocery stores are closing, causing other food deserts to arise. The literature is scarce on how a community adapts to an impending food desert...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
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