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Sales and marketing

Amy Hudson, Elizabeth Lopez, Ahmad J Almalki, Amy L Roe, Angela I Calderón
Use of herbal dietary supplements by the public is common and has been happening for centuries. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration has a limited scope of regulation over marketed herbal dietary supplements, which may contain toxic botanical compounds that pose a public health risk. While the Food and Drug Administration has made efforts to prohibit the sale of unsafe herbal dietary supplements, numerous reports have proliferated of adverse events due to these supplements. This literature review investigates bioactive plant compounds commonly used in herbal dietary supplements and their relative toxicities...
April 19, 2018: Planta Medica
Mehrnaz Kheirandish, Vida Varahrami, Abbas Kebriaeezade, Abdol Majid Cheraghali
Background: It has been argued that economic sanctions and the economic crisis have adversely affected access to drugs. Aim: To assess the impact of economic sanctions on the Iranian banking system in 2011 and Central Bank in 2012 on access to and use of drugs for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Methods: An interrupted time series study assessed the effects of sanctions on drugs for diabetes (5 drug groups), asthma (5 drug groups), cancer (14 drugs) and multiple sclerosis (2 drugs)...
April 5, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Monika Kędzierska-Matysek, Mariusz Florek, Anna Wolanciuk, Joanna Barłowska, Zygmunt Litwińczuk
The aim of the study was to compare the content of selected minerals in different nectar honeys (acacia, buckwheat, raspberry, linden, rapeseed, and multifloral) available on the Polish market. The degree to which the demand for eight minerals (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu) by adults is met by a portion of 100 g of honey was estimated as well. The material consisted of 34 artisanal honeys from direct sale and 34 samples purchased from retail stores. The artisanal honeys contained significantly more K, Mg, and Mn, but significantly less Na and Fe than the honeys purchased from the retail stores...
April 4, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Iyeseun O Asieba, Teresa M Nmadu
Background: Community pharmacy has been a lucrative area of practice for pharmacists in Jos, Nigeria, until about the turn of the millennium where a decline in viability of the business has been observed. Objective: This study assessed the entrepreneurial skills of community pharmacists, the business performance of community pharmacies and the impact of their entrepreneurial skills on business performance. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted by administering a pretested questionnaire to 30 community pharmacists in Jos...
January 2018: Pharmacy Practice
A Gnassingbe, A Flahault, A Geissbuhler, D Sprumont, A Awesso
The extent of medicines sales and consumption in the informal market in Togo raises many ethical and public health issues. In order to report on the situation of public action in the fight against this practice, we conducted a qualitative survey from 15 to 25 February 2016 in the commune of Lomé and in the Maritime Region among the actors of control system and resource people in the general population. This was supplemented by an analysis of Togo's pharmaceutical and health policy documents and a literature review on the illicit drug market issues relating to public health, political science, the social sciences applied to health...
February 1, 2018: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Y J Hu, Y Y He, Y R Wang, C Liu, M M Wang, X Gan, W Wang, S F Yan, Y Bai, Z X Peng, F Q Li, J Xu
Objective: To obtain the serotype diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolates recovered from retail chicken carcasses for sale in six regions of China. Methods: From August 2010 to March 2012, each month 20 retail chicken carcasses including freshly slaughtered, chilled and frozen samples were collected from supermarkets and farmer's markets in 7 monitoring sites in Beijing, Jilin province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous, Shanxi province, Jiangsu province and Guangdong province, respectively. Samples were routinely collected for 12 months for each site...
April 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Tim Mackey, Janani Kalyanam, Josh Klugman, Ella Kuzmenko, Rashmi Gupta
BACKGROUND: On December 6-7, 2017, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services hosted its first Code-a-Thon event aimed at leveraging technology and data-driven solutions to help combat the opioid epidemic. Authors, comprised of an interdisciplinary team from academia, the private sector, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, participated in the Code-a-Thon as part of the "Prevention" track. OBJECTIVE: To develop and deploy a methodology using machine learning to accurately detect the marketing and sale of opioids by illicit online sellers via Twitter as part of participation at the HHS Opioid Code-a-Thon event...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Benjamin Niland, Brooks D Cash
Gluten-related diseases such as celiac disease and gluten ataxia are rare conditions, affecting less than 1% of the population in the United States. Despite the rarity of these diseases, there have been significant increases in the adoption of a gluten-free lifestyle and the consumption of gluten-free foods in the United States over the last 3 decades. More than $15.5 billion were spent on retail sales of gluten-free foods in 2016. The gluten-free diet is driven by multiple factors, including social and traditional media coverage, aggressive consumer-directed marketing by manufacturers and retail outlets, and reports in the medical literature and mainstream press of the clinical benefits of gluten avoidance...
February 2018: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Katharina Waha, Mark T van Wijk, Steffen Fritz, Linda See, Philip K Thornton, Jannike Wichern, Mario Herrero
Farmers in Africa have long adapted to climatic and other risks by diversifying their farming activities. Using a multi-scale approach we explore the relationship between farming diversity and food security and the diversification potential of African agriculture and its limits on the household and continental scale. On the household scale we use agricultural surveys from more than 28,000 households located in 18 African countries. In a next step we use the relationship between rainfall, rainfall variability and farming diversity to determine the available diversification options for farmers on the continental scale...
March 31, 2018: Global Change Biology
A M Carnero, K Kitayama, D A Diaz, M Garvich, N Angulo, V A Cama, R H Gilman, A M Bayer
Interspecies transmission of pathogens is an unfrequent but naturally occurring event and human activities may favour opportunities not previously reported. Reassortment of zoonotic pathogens like influenza A virus can result from these activities. Recently, swine and birds have played a central role as "mixing vessels" for epidemic and pandemic events related to strains like H1N1 and H5N1. Unsafe practices in poultry markets and swine farms can lead to interspecies transmission, favouring the emergence of novel strains...
March 30, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Natalia C Pimenta, André P Antunes, Adrian A Barnett, Valêncio W Macedo, Glenn H Shepard
Commercial hunting for the international trade in animal hides in the 20th century decimated many populations of aquatic wildlife in Amazonia. However, impacts varied significantly between different species and regions, depending upon hunting intensity, accessibility of habitat, and the inherent resilience of various species and their habitats. We investigated the differential responses of two Amazonian Mustelid species, the neotropical otter and giant otter, to commercial hunting pressure along the upper Rio Negro in Brazil, and examined historical factors that influenced spatial and temporal variation in commercial exploitation...
2018: PloS One
Shuai Kang, Jing Lu, Ji Zhang, Chao-Jie Lian, Ai-Hua Wei, Shuang-Cheng Ma
Epimedii Folium is a commonly used traditional Chinese drug, and now still depends on the wild resource. In recent years, with the surge in consumption, the resources are declining, the use of market varieties are constantly changing. In this paper, Production and sales situation of the five species contained in pharmacopoeia(Epimedium brevicornu, E. sagittatum, E. pubescens, E. koreanum and E. wushanense) have been studied on the basis of the existing researches, in-depth investigation and collection of accurate plant specimens and samples...
February 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Elizabeth A Smith, Patricia A McDaniel, Ruth E Malone
OBJECTIVE: To explore the perspectives of key stakeholders regarding advancement of the tobacco endgame in California. DESIGN: Interviews and focus groups exploring participants' knowledge of the tobacco endgame concept, their reactions to 4 endgame policy proposals (banning tobacco sales, registering smokers, retailer reduction, and permanently prohibiting tobacco sales to all those born after a certain year ["tobacco-free generation"]), and policy priorities and obstacles...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Anushree Sharma, Brian V Fix, Cristine D Delnevo, K Michael Cummings, Richard J O'Connor
Objective: Pall Mall gained significant brand share in the cigarette market between 2002 and 2013. We sought to determine whether demographic shifts occurred among the participants reporting Pall Mall as their usual brand during this time span. Method: We examined National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) data from 2002-2014. Demographic characteristics included age, education, ethnicity, income, and cigarette use (cigarettes per day, daily/non-daily smoking, and nicotine dependence)...
June 21, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Pratibha Nayak, Dianne C Barker, Jidong Huang, Catherine B Kemp, Theodore L Wagener, Frank Chaloupka
While the market share of electronic vapor products (EVPs), sold primarily through vape shops and other outlets, has increased rapidly, these products remained largely unregulated until 2016. This study, conducted prior to announcement of the deeming regulations, provides insights into vape shop operator attitudes toward potential government regulations of EVPs. In 2015, we conducted 37 in-person interviews of vape shop operators across nine US cities. Shops were identified through extensive web-searches. We used QSR International's NVivo 11 qualitative data analysis software to analyze the transcripts...
March 26, 2018: Health Education Research
Lisa Urquhart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2018: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
Karin C Lødrup Carlsen, Håvard O Skjerven, Kai-Håkon Carlsen
Electronic cigarettes (E-cig), also referred to as Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (ENDS), were initially developed in 2003 to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco smoking. Since then, E-cig have become widely available in many countries and are used by many young people who would be unlikely to take up cigarette smoking. However, the adverse effects on child health remain largely unknown. E-cigs are available through regulated sale in many countries, but easily accessible by the internet in others. Adverse effects may be ascribed to the nicotine itself, to the accompanying substances in the aerosol (often referred to as vapour) or to temperature modifications of the content...
February 10, 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
K Gambino-Shirley, L Stevenson, J Concepción-Acevedo, E Trees, D Wagner, L Whitlock, J Roberts, N Garrett, S Van Duyne, G McAllister, B Schick, L Schlater, V Peralta, R Reporter, L Li, H Waechter, T Gomez, J Fernández Ordenes, S Ulloa, C Ragimbeau, J Mossong, M Nichols
Zoonotic transmission of Salmonella infections causes an estimated 11% of salmonellosis annually in the United States. This report describes the epidemiologic, traceback and laboratory investigations conducted in the United States as part of four multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections linked to small turtles. Salmonella isolates indistinguishable from the outbreak strains were isolated from a total of 143 ill people in the United States, pet turtles, and pond water samples collected from turtle farm A, as well as ill people from Chile and Luxembourg...
March 25, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Jelili Olaide Saka, Ajoke Oyegbami, Isaiah Annayochukwu Okere, Adeboye Joseph Omole, James Oyegoke Fayenuwo
The study was conducted to examine the management practices and constraints associated with quail production in southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected through a survey of 113 quail bird farmers selected by multi-stage sampling technique from three states of southwestern Nigeria. Data were analyzed mainly by descriptive statistics with values compared across states using relevant statistics at certain instances. The results show that quail farming is a relatively new enterprise with farmers' average year of experience estimated as 4...
March 24, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Kimberly A Watson, Doris G Gammon, Brett R Loomis, Harlan R Juster, Elizabeth Anker
PURPOSE: To describe the presence of licensed tobacco retailers (LTRs), cigarette advertisements, price-reducing promotions, and compliance with tobacco control policies in New York State from 2004 to 2015 and to discuss implications and lessons learned from 11 years of experience conducting LTR surveys. DESIGN: Annual surveys of tobacco advertising from cross-sectional, stratified random samples of LTRs in New York State from 2004 to 2015 were conducted by professional data collectors...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
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