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Sales and marketing

Meropi Tzanetakis
INTRODUCTION: Cryptomarkets operating on the darknet are a recent phenomenon that has gained importance only over the last couple of years (Barratt, 2012). However, they now constitute an evolving part of illicit drug markets. Although selling and buying a variety of psychoactive substances on the Internet has a long history, new technological developments enable systematic drug trading on the net.These technological innovations on the Internet allow users to proceed with (illicit) drug transactions with almost completely anonymous identities and locations...
February 12, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Sheila Yu, Patricia Escobedo, Robert Garcia, Tess Boley Cruz, Jennifer B Unger, Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati, Leah Meza, Steve Sussman
After proposing the "Deeming Rule" in 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began regulating the manufacturing, marketing, and sales of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) products as tobacco products in 2016. The current study conducted vape shop store observations and surveyed Los Angeles-area shop employees (assessing their beliefs, awareness, and perceptions of e-cigarettes and related FDA regulations) at two time points one year apart to better understand what vape shop retailers would do given FDA's soon-to-be-enacted Deeming Rule...
February 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Utkarshani Jaimini
According to a study done in 2014 by National Health Interview Survey around 6.3 million children in United States suffer from asthma [1]. Asthma remains one of the leading reasons for pediatric admissions to children's hospitals, and has a prevalence rate of approximately 10% in children and it leads to missed days from school and other societal costs. This occurs despite improved medications to control asthma symptoms. Asthma management is challenging as it involves understanding asthma causes and avoiding asthma triggers that are both multi-factorial and individualistic in nature...
May 2017: Proc Int Conf Smart Comput SMARTCOMP
Atsuko Tsutsui, Koji Yahara, Keigo Shibayama
Frequent use of broad-spectrum antimicrobial classes has been reported in Japan; however, little is known about the long-term trend of national antimicrobial consumption, and that of individual agents. This study analyzed the national sales data of systemic antimicrobials from 2004 to 2016, derived from the IMS Japan Pharmaceutical Market database, to assess the consumption patterns of antimicrobial classes and agents in Japan. The number of defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID) was calculated for each antimicrobial agent...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Joy L Hart, Kandi L Walker, Clara G Sears, Lindsay K Tompkins, Alexander S Lee, Delvon T Mattingly, Allison Groom, Robyn Landry, Aida L Giachello, Thomas J Payne, Anshula Kesh, Allison Siu, Courteney Smith, Rose M Robertson
INTRODUCTION: In Appalachia, youth tobacco-use rates remain higher than the U.S. national average. Past research has indicated that several factors are related to high rates of tobacco use among Appalachian youth (e.g. low socioeconomic status, rural lifestyles). Of the Appalachian states, Kentucky has one of the highest rates of youth tobacco use. The aim of this study was to explore views of tobacco among Kentucky youth living in Appalachian counties. METHODS: In Fall 2014 - Spring 2015, focus group interviews were conducted with middle and high school students (N=109) in Appalachian counties in Kentucky...
January 2018: Tobacco Prevention & Cessation
Colin Millard, Abhay B Kadam, Rushikesh Mahajan, Allyson M Pollock, Petra Brhlikova
Background: The aim of this study is to assess the availability and rational use of six essential medicines in private retail outlets in Maharashtra state. The study focuses on the range of brands for each medicine, and the availability of these brands in the pharmacies. The medicines were chosen because they are included in the World Health Organization's (WHO) essential medicines list (EML), the Indian national and Maharashtra state medicines list, and are all included in existing Indian public health initiatives and national disease control programmes...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
J M D Murray, E Hanna, P Hastie
Background: Nutritional supplements are frequently used by horse owners/caregivers to supplement their horse(s) diets. Some work has been done to identify the types of supplements fed and the reasons for doing so; however, this has been predominantly disciple-specific and with little focus on participants' perceptions of supplement testing and regulation. The aim of this study was to gain an insight into the use and perceptions of equine dietary supplements in the Irish equestrian industry...
2018: Irish Veterinary Journal
Carla J Berg, Lisa Henriksen, Patricia A Cavazos-Rehg, Regine Haardoerfer, Bridget Freisthler
The emerging retail market for recreational marijuana use warrants research and surveillance as such markets are established in more US states. This research can be informed by the existing literature regarding tobacco and alcohol, which highlights the impact of spatial access to tobacco and alcohol retailers and exposure to tobacco and alcohol marketing on smoking and drinking among youth and young adults. Prior research indicates that tobacco and alcohol retailers, as well as medical marijuana dispensaries, are disproportionately located in neighborhoods characterized by socioeconomic disadvantage and by higher proportions of racial/ethnic minorities and young adults...
February 1, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Masarah Paquet-Clouston, David Décary-Hétu, Carlo Morselli
BACKGROUND: Since 2011, drug market participants have traded illegal drugs through cryptomarkets, a user-friendly infrastructure in which drug market participants can conduct business transactions. This study assesses market competition and the size and scope of drug vendors' activities on one of the largest cryptomarkets, AlphaBay, in order to better understand the challenges that drug vendors face when selling on this venue. METHODS: Relying on data collected from AlphaBay, we calculate the degree of competition within the drug market using the Herfindhal-Hirshmann Index (HHI)...
January 30, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Sandra Braun, Erika Nayeli Abad-Vivero, Raúl Mejía, Inti Barrientos, James D Sargent, James F Thrasher
INTRODUCTION: In a previous cross-sectional study of early adolescents, we developed a marketing receptivity index (MRI) that integrates point-of-sale (PoS) marketing exposures, brand recall, and ownership of branded merchandise. The MRI had independent, positive associations with smoking susceptibility among never smokers and with current smoking behavior. The current longitudinal study assessed the MRI's predictive validity among adolescents who have never smoked cigarettes METHODS: Data come from a longitudinal, school-based survey of 33 secondary schools in Argentina...
February 2, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Noah R Gubner, Denise D Williams, Anna Pagano, Barbara K Campbell, Joseph Guydish
There are higher rates of menthol cigarette smoking within certain population subgroups. Limited research has examined menthol use among individuals in treatment for substance use disorders (SUD), a population with a high prevalence of cigarette smoking, poor smoking cessation outcomes, and high tobacco disease burden. Survey data were collected from 863 smokers sampled from 24 SUD treatment programs affiliated with the NIDA Clinical Trials Network (CTN) in the United States. Prevalence of menthol cigarette smoking was examined for the sample...
February 1, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Patricia McGettigan, Peter Roderick, Abhay Kadam, Allyson Pollock
Rising antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health crisis. India has among the highest resistance rates and antibiotic consumption internationally. Extensive use of fixed dose combination (FDC) antibiotics and of unapproved formulations are claimed contributory factors but there has been no systematic examination of formulations or volumes sold. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the regulatory approval status and sales volumes of systemic antibiotics marketed in India. METHODS: This was an ecological study using regulatory records in India, the UK and US to determine the approval status in each country of systemic antibiotic FDC and single drug formulations (SDFs) marketed in India...
February 4, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Nina Zupanič, Krista Miklavec, Anita Kušar, Katja Žmitek, Nataša Fidler Mis, Igor Pravst
Scientific evidence of the association between free sugar consumption and several adverse health effects has led many public health institutions to take measures to limit the intake of added or free sugar. Monitoring the efficiency of such policies and the amount of free sugar consumed requires precise knowledge of free sugar content in different food products. To meet this need, our cross-sectional study aimed at assessing free sugar content for 10,674 pre-packaged food items available from major Slovenian food stores during data collection in 2015...
January 30, 2018: Nutrients
Rebecca S Williams, Jason C Derrick
INTRODUCTION: Cigar sales have nearly doubled as cigarette sales have dropped, and large cigars have been replaced by little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs). Many LCCs are flavored, are perceived as less harmful than cigarettes, and have become increasingly available from e-commerce sources. We conducted surveillance of the online retail environment in 2013 and 2014 for LCCs in order to describe characteristics of Internet tobacco vendors selling LCCs and their sales and marketing practices, youth access practices, and their practices in relation to cigarette and other tobacco product sales...
January 26, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Sofia-Sotiria Xanthopoulou, Korina Katsaliaki
The increase in the consumption of generic drugs to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure is a challenge for many countries, especially during the economic crisis. The purpose of the present study is to review the Greek market of generic drugs and the decisions that shape it, to determine the factors that affect Greek patients' and doctors' attitudes about generic substitution and present a set of measures for all stakeholders based on the findings of the secondary and primary analysis. The study includes (a) an analysis of international and national reports and legislation on drugs policies and (b) a questionnaire survey of 242 hospital patients and 85 doctors regarding their perceptions on generics...
January 1, 2018: Health Services Management Research
Giulia Poma, Carlos Sales, Bram Bruyland, Christina Christia, Severine Goscinny, Joris Van Loco, Adrian Covaci
The occurrence of 14 organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers (PFRs) was investigated in 165 composite food samples purchased from the Belgian market and divided in 14 food categories, including fish, crustaceans, mussels, meat, milk, cheese, dessert, food for infants, fats and oils, grains, eggs, potatoes and derived products, other food (stocks) and vegetables. Seven PFRs [namely, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP), tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPHP) and tris (2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP)] were detected at concentrations above quantification limits...
January 27, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Natalie Papanastasiou, Sarah Hill, Amanda Amos
Introduction: A range of tobacco control policies endeavour to prevent smoking uptake in young people, yet relatively little is known about how such interventions impact young people's engagement with smoking. We reviewed existing qualitative evidence on young people and smoking in Europe in order to assess whether, in what ways and why young people comply with, adapt to, resist or circumvent tobacco control policies in their respective countries. Methods: We undertook a systematic review of academic literature presenting qualitative research from Europe on smoking and young people (11-18 years), published from 2000 - 2015...
January 23, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Mitsuhiro Rokuda, Naoki Matsumaru, Katsura Tsukamoto
PURPOSE: Multiregional clinical trials (MRCT) are a standard strategy used to improve global drug approval efficiency and the feasibility of clinical trials. Japan is the world's third largest drug market with a unique health care system, making it a key inclusion as an operational region for MRCT (MRCT-JP) for global drug development. We aimed to identify the factors required for efficient drug development by comprehensively reviewing the clinical trials of drugs approved in Japan to identify the factors associated with whether or not MRCT-JP is implemented...
January 17, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Yi Zhun Zhu, Weijun Wu, Qing Zhu, Xinhua Liu
Despite several advances in percutaneous coronary intervention and the discovery of new drugs, the incidence of myocardial infarction and deaths due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has not decreased markedly in China. The quality of life is affected seriously, which further results in great social and family burden. Many drugs, from the century-old aspirin to the newly FDA-approved Byvalson, have been proven to be effective in the treatment and prevention of CVD. As clinically reported, those life-saving drugs still have their side effects in regards to the narrow therapeutic indexes influenced by individual genetic variations...
January 19, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Tiziano Squartini, Assaf Almog, Guido Caldarelli, Iman van Lelyveld, Diego Garlaschelli, Giulio Cimini
Reconstructing patterns of interconnections from partial information is one of the most important issues in the statistical physics of complex networks. A paramount example is provided by financial networks. In fact, the spreading and amplification of financial distress in capital markets are strongly affected by the interconnections among financial institutions. Yet, while the aggregate balance sheets of institutions are publicly disclosed, information on single positions is mostly confidential and, as such, unavailable...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
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