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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100464/six-month-market-exclusivity-extensions-to-promote-research-offer-substantial-returns-for-many-drug-makers
#1
Aaron S Kesselheim, Benjamin N Rome, Ameet Sarpatwari, Jerry Avorn
To incentivize pharmaceutical manufacturers to invest in areas of unmet medical need, policy makers frequently propose extending the market exclusivity period of desired drugs. Some such proposals are modeled after the pediatric exclusivity patent extension program, which since 1997 has provided six additional months of market exclusivity for drugs studied in children. The most recent proposal would encourage rare disease research by providing six months of extended exclusivity for any existing drug that is granted subsequent FDA approval for a new rare disease indication...
January 18, 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098022/system-dynamics-research-of-remanufacturing-closed-loop-supply-chain-dominated-by-the-third-party
#2
Shidi Miao, Tengfei Wang, Deyun Chen
With the rapid development of the electronic information industry in recent years, electronic products are being updated faster and faster, and e-waste recycling has become a common problem around the world. Firstly, this article contrasts recycling at home and abroad using the predicament of Midea Corp. Based on a closed-loop supply chain with the system dynamics method, a model is constructed and simulated. In this model, the collection point coverage rate is introduced to adjust the e-waste recycling rate dynamically...
January 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077151/multi-strategic-intervention-to-enhance-implementation-of-healthy-canteen-policy-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Luke Wolfenden, Nicole Nathan, Lisa M Janssen, John Wiggers, Kathryn Reilly, Tessa Delaney, Christopher M Williams, Colin Bell, Rebecca Wyse, Rachel Sutherland, Libby Campbell, Christophe Lecathelinais, Chris Oldmeadow, Megan Freund, Sze Lin Yoong
BACKGROUND: Internationally, governments have implemented school-based nutrition policies to restrict the availability of unhealthy foods from sale. The aim of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of a multi-strategic intervention to increase implementation of a state-wide healthy canteen policy. The impact of the intervention on the energy, total fat, and sodium of children's canteen purchases and on schools' canteen revenue was also assessed. METHODS: Australian primary schools with a canteen were randomised to receive a 12-14-month, multi-strategic intervention or to a no intervention control group...
January 11, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077114/using-nudging-and-social-marketing-techniques-to-create-healthy-worksite-cafeterias-in-the-netherlands-intervention-development-and-study-design
#4
Elizabeth Velema, Ellis L Vyth, Ingrid H M Steenhuis
BACKGROUND: The worksite cafeteria is a suitable setting for interventions focusing on changing eating behavior, because a lot of employees visit the worksite cafeteria regularly and a variety of interventions could be implemented there. The aim of this paper is to describe the intervention development and design of the evaluation of an intervention to make the purchase behavior of employees in the worksite cafeteria healthier. The developed intervention called "the worksite cafeteria 2...
January 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076383/time-varying-transition-probability-matrix-estimation-and-its-application-to-brand-share-analysis
#5
Tomoaki Chiba, Hideitsu Hino, Shotaro Akaho, Noboru Murata
In a product market or stock market, different products or stocks compete for the same consumers or purchasers. We propose a method to estimate the time-varying transition matrix of the product share using a multivariate time series of the product share. The method is based on the assumption that each of the observed time series of shares is a stationary distribution of the underlying Markov processes characterized by transition probability matrices. We estimate transition probability matrices for every observation under natural assumptions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069099/can-latino-food-trucks-loncheras-serve-healthy-meals-a-feasibility-study
#6
Deborah A Cohen, Ben Colaiaco, Mary Martinez-Wenzl, Monica Montes, Bing Han, Sandy H Berry
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a pilot study to assess the feasibility of modifying food truck meals to meet the My Plate guidelines as well as the acceptability of healthier meals among consumers. DESIGN: We recruited the owners of Latino food trucks (loncheras) in 2013-2014 and offered an incentive for participation, assistance with marketing and training by a bilingual dietitian. We surveyed customers and we audited purchases to estimate sales of the modified meals. SETTING: City of Los Angeles, CA, USA...
January 10, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058459/-nutritional-supplements-in-sports-sense-nonsense-or-hazard
#7
Maria Kristina Parr, Sebastian Schmidtsdorff, Annette Sophie Kollmeier
The excessive sale of dietary supplements (DSs) has become a global multi-billion market as more and more people turn to DSs for a healthy lifestyle or for aesthetic reasons. DSs are also increasingly popular among athletes; 50-85% of recreational and 35-100% of competitive athletes report taking DSs, the latter more regularly. Unless pathological deficiencies are detected, the intake of DSs for recreational athletes is not recommended. While it may be advisable for competitive athletes to supplement their diet with certain macronutrients (proteins and carbohydrates), many micronutrients (vitamins, minerals) as well as allegedly performance enhancing DSs may only show minimal impact under specific conditions and for certain sports...
January 5, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058239/characteristics-of-medication-advertisements-found-in-us-women-s-fashion-magazines
#8
Jennifer Mongiovi, Grace Clarke Hillyer, Corey H Basch, Danna Ethan, Rodney Hammond
Background: Although prescriptions are dispensed at discretion of medical professionals, many pharmaceutical companies use direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising to increase sales. Over-the-counter (OTC) medications are similarly marketed. Methods: We examined the content of advertisements in 38 issues of 9 popular US women's fashion magazines. We evaluated target audience, health condition, product availability, message appeal, target to females, and mention of potential side effects and benefits. Results: Sixty total medication advertisements were identified, 58...
2017: Health Promotion Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057166/similar-biologics-global-opportunities-and-issues
#9
Prasanta Kumar Ghosh
The invention and use of a large number of biologics during the last three decades for treating various deficiencies and chronic disorders has resulted in great benefit to human health. Abundant use of these biologics has been considerably constrained due to the reasons of their increased prices, charged by the inventors up to the time up to which their use were/are protected by intellectual property rights (IPR).Some of these biologics are presently being manufactured by the existing and newer companies as "similar biologics" after the IPR on these products have expired and as a result the prices of several such medicines are coming down...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034504/revisiting-quechers-parameters-for-sample-preparation-in-pesticide-residue-analysis-of-lettuce-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#10
Fernanda Ribeiro Begnini Konatu, Márcia Cristina Breitkreitz, Isabel Cristina Sales Fontes Jardim
A new analytical method using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) procedure for multi-residue determination of 16 multiclass pesticides in five different types of lettuce was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The QuEChERS procedure was optimized in terms of extractor solvent, partitioning salts and clean-up salts, through recovery, gravimetric analysis and matrix-effect studies. Microwave extraction and the use of disposable pipette extraction in the clean-up step were also tested, providing interesting alternatives to the traditional QuEChERS method, depending on the pesticides properties...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018841/1-low-fat-milk-has-perks-an-evaluation-of-a-social-marketing-intervention
#11
Karla Jaye Finnell, Robert John, David M Thompson
This study evaluated the effect of a 12-week social marketing intervention conducted in 2012 promoting 1% milk use relying on paid advertising. Weekly milk sales data by type of milk (whole, 2%, 1%, and nonfat milk) were collected from 80 supermarkets in the Oklahoma City media market, the intervention market, and 66 supermarkets in the Tulsa media market (TMM), the comparison market. The effect was measured with a paired t-test. A mixed segmented regression model, controlling for the contextual difference between supermarkets and data correlation, identified trends before, during, and after the intervention...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009807/social-disparities-in-exposure-to-point-of-sale-cigarette-marketing
#12
Mohammad Siahpush, Paraskevi A Farazi, Jungyoon Kim, Tzeyu L Michaud, Aaron M Yoder, Ghada Soliman, Melissa K Tibbits, Minh N Nguyen, Raees A Shaikh
While most ecological studies have shown that higher levels of point-of-sale (POS) cigarette marketing are associated with larger proportions of residents from lower socioeconomic and minority backgrounds in neighborhoods, there are no studies that examine individual-level social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing among smokers in the United States. Our aim was to examine these disparities in a Midwestern metropolitan area in the United States. We conducted a telephone survey to collect data on 999 smokers...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004022/dataset-for-corporate-valuation-and-analyses-of-peer-effects-in-corporate-practices-and-local-factors-favoring-innovation
#13
Andrea Carosi
This data article provides cross-sectionals on the local values of the coefficients of ROE, R&D-TO-SALES, and TOTAL ASSET as regressors of the MARKET-TO-BOOK ratio and is related to the research article entitled "Do Local Causations Matter? The Effect of Firm Location on the Relations of ROE, R&D, and Firm Size with Market-to-Book" (A. Carosi, 2016) [1]. The data are aggregated at the regional level (NUTS2). The reported data are the regional average values of the coefficients of ROE, R&D-TO-SALES, and LN(TOTAL ASSET) on LN(MARKET-TO-BOOK), estimated upon the Italian non-financial listed firms in 1999-2007...
February 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000764/statistically-validated-network-of-portfolio-overlaps-and-systemic-risk
#14
Stanislao Gualdi, Giulio Cimini, Kevin Primicerio, Riccardo Di Clemente, Damien Challet
Common asset holding by financial institutions (portfolio overlap) is nowadays regarded as an important channel for financial contagion with the potential to trigger fire sales and severe losses at the systemic level. We propose a method to assess the statistical significance of the overlap between heterogeneously diversified portfolios, which we use to build a validated network of financial institutions where links indicate potential contagion channels. The method is implemented on a historical database of institutional holdings ranging from 1999 to the end of 2013, but can be applied to any bipartite network...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998396/worldwide-trend-of-botanical-drug-and-strategies-for-developing-global-drugs
#15
Kyungseop Ahn
Natural product drugs, or botanical drugs, are drugs composed of natural substances which has constituent and efficacy. In Korea, government-led projects brought attention to botanical drugs invigorating domestic botanical drug industry. Foreign markets, as well, are growing bigger as the significance of botanical drugs stood out. To follow along with the tendency, Korea puts a lot of effort on developing botanical drugs suitable for global market. However, standards on approving drug sales varies by countries...
December 20, 2016: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995611/disruptive-potential-of-the-internet-to-transform-illicit-drug-markets-and-impact-on-future-patterns-of-drug-consumption
#16
P Griffiths, J Mounteney
The internet facilitates rapid and covert communication, knowledge transfer, and has the potential to disrupt and transform drug market models and associated consumption patterns. Innovation and new trends diffuse rapidly through this medium and new operational models are emerging. Although the online drug markets currently only account for a small share of all drug transactions, the potential of the surface and deep web to provide a new platform for drug sale and exchanges is considerable.
November 7, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992273/high-occurrence-rate-and-contamination-level-of-bacillus-cereus-in-organic-vegetables-on-sale-in-retail-markets
#17
Young-Ji Kim, Hong-Seok Kim, Kwang-Yeop Kim, Jung-Whan Chon, Dong-Hyeon Kim, Kun-Ho Seo
Organic foods have risen in popularity recently. However, the increased risk of bacterial contamination of organic foods has not been fully evaluated. In this study, 100 samples each of organic and conventional fresh vegetables (55 lettuce samples and 45 sprout samples) sold in South Korea were analyzed for aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus cereus. Although the aerobic bacteria and coliform counts were not significantly different between the two farming types (p > 0.05), the occurrence rate of B...
December 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979184/precooling-and-ozone-treatments-affects-postharvest-quality-of-black-mulberry-morus-nigra-fruits
#18
Qiang Han, Haiyan Gao, Hangjun Chen, Xiangjun Fang, Weijie Wu
Mulberry (Morus spp.) fruits are delicious and nutritious, but they are highly perishable and have a very short shelf-life for sale in the market. This study investigated the effect and mechanisms of 2ppm ozone and precooling treatments on the postharvest quality of mulberry fruit during refrigerated storage. The results revealed that mulberry fruit subjected to ozone and precooling treatment had higher levels of titratable acidity and total soluble solids content, better retention in firmness and color, and lower decay rate, respiratory intensity, and polyphenol oxidase activity compared to the control...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978408/differences-in-food-and-beverage-marketing-policies-and-practices-in-us-school-districts-by-demographic-characteristics-of-school-districts-2012
#19
Caitlin L Merlo, Shannon Michael, Nancy D Brener, Edward Coffield, Beverly S Kingsley, Deena Zytnick, Heidi Blanck
INTRODUCTION: Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students' exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students...
December 15, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976502/chance-and-design-in-proinsecticide-discovery
#20
REVIEW
Vincent L Salgado, Michael D David
Many insecticides are inactive on their target sites in the form that is sold and applied, needing first to be bioactivated. This proinsecticide strategy has often been achieved by design, through systematic derivatization of intrinsically active molecules with protecting groups that mask their toxic effects until their selective removal in target insects by metabolic enzymes generates the toxiphore. Proinsecticides can be designed to gain selectivity between target and non-target organisms, or to improve bioavailability by enhancing plant or insect uptake...
December 15, 2016: Pest Management Science
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