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Sales and marketing

Alfred Maroyi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Crinum macowanii is a deciduous bulbous plant which grows in east, central and southern Africa. Crinum macowanii has been used as herbal medicine by the indigenous people of east and southern Africa has for several centuries. The bulb, leaves and roots of C. macowanii are reported to possess diverse medicinal properties and used to treat or manage various human and animal diseases and ailments throughout its distributional range. Crinum macowanii is used traditionally as a remedy for boils, diarrhoea, fever, inflammation, respiratory system problems, skin rashes, tuberculosis, wounds and urinary tract problems...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Chaevia Clendinen, Yapei Zhang, Rebecca N Warburton, Donald W Light
BACKGROUND: Nearly all of the 500,000 new cases of cervical cancer and 270,000 deaths occur in middle or lower income countries. Yet the two most prevalent HPV vaccines are unaffordable to most. Even prices to Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, are unaffordable to graduating countries, once they lose Gavi subsidies. Merck and Glaxosmithkline (GSK) claim their prices to Gavi equal their manufacturing costs; but these costs remain undisclosed. We undertook this investigation to estimate those costs...
October 19, 2016: Vaccine
Luke Semrau
Erik Malmqvist defends the prohibition on kidney sales as a justifiable measure to protect individuals from harms they have not autonomously chosen. This appeal to 'group soft paternalism' requires that three conditions be met. It must be shown that some vendors will be harmed, that some will be subject to undue pressure to vend, and that we cannot feasibly distinguish between the autonomous and the non-autonomous. I argue that Malmqvist fails to demonstrate that any of these conditions are likely to obtain...
October 21, 2016: Bioethics
Grant J Aaron, Nicholas Strutt, Nathaniel Amoh Boateng, Ernest Guevarra, Katja Siling, Alison Norris, Shibani Ghosh, Mercy Nyamikeh, Antoine Attiogbe, Richard Burns, Esi Foriwa, Yasuhiko Toride, Satoshi Kitamura, Kwaku Tano-Debrah, Daniel Sarpong, Mark Myatt
The work reported here assesses the coverage achieved by two sales-based approaches to distributing a complementary food supplement (KOKO Plus™) to infants and young children in Ghana. Delivery Model 1 was conducted in the Northern Region of Ghana and used a mixture of health extension workers (delivering behavior change communications and demand creation activities at primary healthcare centers and in the community) and petty traders recruited from among beneficiaries of a local microfinance initiative (responsible for the sale of the complementary food supplement at market stalls and house to house)...
2016: PloS One
Paolo Vercellini
The problem regarding the influence that industry may exert on physicians through various types of payments is not of exclusively ethical nature, but has also important practical implications. Using money, industry may distort prescribing habits in favor of their own products, generally more costly, but not always more effective or better tolerated. Moreover, industry is interested in increasing the number of people to whom their products could be prescribed, thus widening the market. If physicians do not oppose these enticements, the patients and the citizens' tax funded National Health Service will pay the bill...
September 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Daniel P Giovenco, Myriam Casseus, Dustin T Duncan, Elliot J Coups, M Jane Lewis, Cristine D Delnevo
PURPOSE: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are now the most popular tobacco product among youth. Little is known about the relationship between exposure to e-cigarette marketing at the point-of-sale and youth e-cigarette use. METHODS: Research staff collected data on e-cigarette availability and promotion in tobacco retailers within a half-mile of 41 schools participating in the 2014 New Jersey Youth Tobacco Survey. These data were linked with participant responses from the New Jersey Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 3,909) and log-Poisson regression models estimated adjusted prevalence ratios for ever and past-month e-cigarette use...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Renata Kasper-Pakosz, Marcin Pietras, Łukasz Łuczaj
BACKGROUND: The study of plants and fungi sold in open-air markets is an important part of ethnobotanical enquiry. Only few such studies were carried out in Europe. METHODS: Four of the largest open-air markets of south-eastern Poland were visited regularly, and the plants sold in them were recorded between 2013 and 2015. The aim of the study was to record native and/or wild species sold in the markets. All the plants sold in the markets were photographed regularly...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Thomas Pineau, Adrien Schopfer, Lionel Grossrieder, Julian Broséus, Pierre Esseiva, Quentin Rossy
Despite the predominant role played by Internet in the distribution of doping substances, little is currently known about the online offer of doping products. Therefore, the study focuses on the detection of doping substances and suppliers discussed in Internet forums. It aims at having a comprehensive understanding of products and sellers to lead an operational monitoring of the online doping market. Thirteen community forums on the Internet were investigated and one million topics were extracted with source code scrappers...
September 27, 2016: Forensic Science International
Abhay B Kadam, Karen Maigetter, Roger Jeffery, Nerges F Mistry, Mitchell G Weiss, Allyson M Pollock
BACKGROUND: Good drug regulation requires an effective system for monitoring and inspection of manufacturing and sales units. In India, despite widespread agreement on this principle, ongoing shortages of drug inspectors have been identified by national committees since 1975. The growth of India's pharmaceutical industry and its large export market makes the problem more acute. METHODS: The focus of this study is a case study of Maharashtra, which has 29% of India's manufacturing units and 38% of its medicines exports...
April 27, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
(no author information available yet)
Estimates of future growth in the oncology market, a predicted increase of 11% per year in sales, and the need to expand drug-development pipelines to sustain profits have been driving up the value of corporate mergers, such as Pfizer's purchase of Medivation for $14 billion.
September 30, 2016: Cancer Discovery
Julius Ho, Gladys Odhiambo, Lucy W Meng'anyi, Rosemary M Musuva, Joseph M Mule, Zakayo S Alaly, Maurice R Odiere, Pauline N Mwinzi, Lisa Ganley-Leal
BACKGROUND: Private sector medicine outlets are an important provider of health services across the developing world, and are an untapped means of distributing and selling vaccines outside of childhood immunization programs. The present study assessed the viability of medicine outlets (chemists and pharmacies) as potential channels for sale of vaccines. METHODS: To evaluate the viability of the medicine outlet model, we partnered with nine outlets across urban and rural communities in western Kenya to sell a nurse-administered typhoid vaccine...
September 29, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
H Liu, L P Cai, H Xue, Y Zhao, D Wu, D P Zhang, W Y Yin, J P Sun
Currently, a growing number of community-based organizations are providing rapid HIV testing service in various forms, some people with specific needs also purchase HIV rapid test papers through online sales channels, those imply that the demand of HIV self-test is in increasing year by year.In this paper, aims to understand the current situation of HIV rapid test led by CBOs and the approach, strategies and results of social marketing by means of expert interviews and site visits. Hope to illustrate the current situation, and make recommendations for future work...
October 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Robyn Johnston, Julia Stafford, Hannah Pierce, Mike Daube
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: In Australia, most alcohol is sold as packaged liquor from off-premises retailers, a market increasingly dominated by supermarket chains. Competition between retailers may encourage marketing approaches, for example, discounting, that evidence indicates contribute to alcohol-related harms. This research documented the nature and variety of promotional methods used by two major supermarket retailers to promote alcohol products in their supermarket catalogues. DESIGN AND METHODS: Weekly catalogues from the two largest Australian supermarket chains were reviewed for alcohol-related content over 12 months...
September 28, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
Hans-Joerg Fugel, Mark Nuijten, Maarten Postma
RATIONALE: Stratified Medicine (SM) is becoming a natural result of advances in biomedical science and a promising path for the innovation-based biopharmaceutical industry to create new investment opportunities. While the use of biomarkers to improve R&D efficiency and productivity is very much acknowledged by industry, much work remains to be done to understand the drivers and conditions that favour using a stratified approach to create economically viable products and to justify the investment in SM interventions as a stratification option...
December 25, 2016: New Biotechnology
G A White, L Ward, C Pink, J Craigon, K M Millar
Complex relationships commonly exist between owners and their companion animals, particularly around feeding behaviour with an owner's affection or love for their animal most pronounced through the provision of food. It is notable that the pet food market is experiencing strong year-on-year growth in sales of dog and cat treats. Recognising the impact of treat giving in pet nutrition, the objective of the study was to investigate owner attitudes and motivations towards feeding treats (shop bought and other) to their dogs...
September 15, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Ubaka Ogbogu, Candace Necyk
BACKGROUND: Reports of regulatory and evidentiary gaps have raised concerns about the marketing and use of natural health products (NHPs). The majority of NHPs offered for sale are purchased at a community pharmacy and pharmacists are "front-line" health professionals involved in the marketing and provision of NHPs. To date, the involvement of pharmacists in pharmacy care involving NHPs and the degree to which concerns over the safety, efficacy, marketing and regulation of NHPs are addressed in pharmacy care in Canada have not been studied...
2016: PloS One
Diana S Dolliver, Joseph B Kuhns
Prior research has documented the availability of drugs on many Tor Network websites, with the Internet playing a particularly vital role in the global new psychoactive substances (NPS) market. The primary objective of this research was to document types of NPS for sale on the largest operating Tor site (Agora) over a period of four months. Secondary objectives were to analyze countries and vendors sourcing NPS on Agora. Data from Agora were collected in February and June 2015. The number of total advertisements on Agora increased from 20,742 to 27,431 over the four months, while the number of NPS advertisements increased from 2,205 to 2,271 and the number of vendors increased from 157 to 288...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Avinash R Patwardhan
Physician-industry relationships have come a long way since serious debates began after a 1990 Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources report on the topic. On one side, the Sun Shine Act of 2007, now a part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act that mandates disclosure of payments and gifts to the physicians, has injected more transparency into the relationships, and on the other side, numerous voluntary self-regulation guidelines have been instituted to protect patients. However, despite these commendable efforts, problem persists...
2016: Inquiry: a Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing
Sara Armorini, Alberto Altafini, Anna Zaghini, Paola Roncada
In the present study, 58 samples of milk were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). The samples were purchased during the period April-May 2013 in a random manner from local stores (supermarkets, small retail shops, small groceries, and specialized suppliers) located in the surrounding of Bologna (Italy). The commercial samples of milk were either organic (n = 22) or conventional (n = 36); fresh milk samples and UHT milk samples, whole milk samples, and partially skim milk samples were present in both the two considered categories...
November 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Hayden McRobbie, Chris Bullen, Rachna Begh, Lindsay F Stead, Peter Hajek
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are electronic devices that heat a liquid into an aerosol for inhalation. The liquid usually comprises propylene glycol and glycerol, with or without nicotine and flavours, and stored in disposable or refillable cartridges or a reservoir. Since ECs appeared on the market in 2006 there has been a steady growth in sales. Smokers report using ECs to reduce risks of smoking, but some healthcare organizations, tobacco control advocacy groups and policy makers have been reluctant to encourage smokers to switch to ECs, citing lack of evidence of efficacy and safety...
September 14, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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