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Supply chain

Ramón A Alvarez, Daniel Zavala-Araiza, David R Lyon, David T Allen, Zachary R Barkley, Adam R Brandt, Kenneth J Davis, Scott C Herndon, Daniel J Jacob, Anna Karion, Eric A Kort, Brian K Lamb, Thomas Lauvaux, Joannes D Maasakkers, Anthony J Marchese, Mark Omara, Stephen W Pacala, Jeff Peischl, Allen L Robinson, Paul B Shepson, Colm Sweeney, Amy Townsend-Small, Steven C Wofsy, Steven P Hamburg
Methane emissions from the U.S. oil and natural gas supply chain were estimated using ground-based, facility-scale measurements and validated with aircraft observations in areas accounting for ~30% of U.S. gas production. When scaled up nationally, our facility-based estimate of 2015 supply chain emissions is 13 ± 2 Tg/y, equivalent to 2.3% of gross U.S. gas production. This value is ~60% higher than the U.S. EPA inventory estimate, likely because existing inventory methods miss emissions released during abnormal operating conditions...
June 21, 2018: Science
Jan Fritsche
Food Safety is of fundamental importance for the food processing industry, food retailers and distributors, as well as for the competent authorities because of its potentially direct impact on consumers' health. Next to the prevention of microbiological, chemical, and physical hazards increasing efforts are currently made to combat risks associated with food fraud or food authenticity. Food Safety Management Systems nowadays comprise food safety, food defense, and food fraud prevention measures trying to cope with the increasing complexity and globalization of the food supply chains...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Narayan Tripathi, Fidius Kerketta, Prabir Chatterjee, V R Raman, Denny John, Kamlesh Jain
Background: In 2013, the Government of Chhattisgarh announced a policy guaranteeing access to free generic medicines in all the public health facilities. This study was conducted with the objectives of evaluating the prescribing patterns of physicians in public health facilities with regard to generic medicines, and whether the prescribed generic medicines were made available to patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducting from December 2013-October 2014, using exit interviews of patients...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Kerlijn Van Assche, Ariadna Nebot Giralt, Jean Michel Caudron, Benedetta Schiavetti, Corinne Pouget, Achilleas Tsoumanis, Bruno Meessen, Raffaella Ravinetto
Introduction: The rapid globalisation of the pharmaceutical production and distribution has not been supported by harmonisation of regulatory systems worldwide. Thus, the supply systems in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) remain exposed to the risk of poor-quality medicines. To contribute to estimating this risk in the private sector in LMICs, we assessed the quality assurance system of a convenient sample of local private pharmaceutical distributors. Methods: This descriptive study uses secondary data derived from the audits conducted by the QUAMED group at 60 local private pharmaceutical distributors in 13 LMICs...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Etienne Croteau, Christian-Alexandre Castellano, Marie Anne Richard, Mélanie Fortier, Scott Nugent, Martin Lepage, Simon Duchesne, Kevin Whittingstall, Éric E Turcotte, Christian Bocti, Tamàs Fülöp, Stephen C Cunnane
BACKGROUND: In Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is unknown whether the brain can utilize additional ketones as fuel when they are derived from a medium chain triglyceride (MCT) supplement. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether brain ketone uptake in AD increases in response to MCT as it would in young healthy adults. METHODS: Mild-moderate AD patients sequentially consumed 30 g/d of two different MCT supplements, both for one month: a mixture of caprylic (55%) and capric acids (35%) (n = 11), followed by a wash-out and then tricaprylin (95%; n = 6)...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Jennifer Koch, Florian Wimmer, Rüdiger Schaldach
The landscape surrounding urban areas is often used as farmland. With the observed expansion of urban areas over the last decades and a projected continuation of this trend, our objective was to analyze how urbanization affects food supply and demand in The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. We used a chain of simulation models covering components of the atmosphere (climate simulations), biosphere (crop yield calculations), and anthroposphere (simulations of urban expansion and land-use change) to calculate the effect of farmland displacement on land and water resources (hydrosphere)...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sławomira Drzymała-Czyż, Łukasz Kałużny, Patrycja Krzyżanowska-Jankowska, Dariusz Walkowiak, Renata Mozrzymas, Jarosław Walkowiak
The etiology of altered blood fatty acid (FA) profile in phenylketonuria (PKU) is understood only partially. We aimed to determine whether FAs deficiency is dependent on the diet or metabolic disturbances. The study comprised 40 PKU patients (20 female, 20 male; aged 11 to 35 years; 12 children and 28 adults) and 40 healthy subjects (HS; 20 female, 20 male, aged 18 to 33 years). We assessed the profile of FAs (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) and analyzed the 72-hour dietary recalls. The amount of C14:0, C16:0 and C16:1n-7, C18:1n-9 did not differ between the analyzed groups...
2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Shifeng Han, Xingzhong Xu
In a two-echelon new energy vehicle (NEV) supply chain consisting of a risk-neutral manufacturer and a risk-averse retailer, the coordination and sustainability problem is investigated. The risk-averse retailer, who makes sales effort and undertakes the incurred effort cost, decides the order quantity and sales effort level under the Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR) criterion. We derive the optimal centralized decisions of a vertically integrated supply chain where the retailer is owned by the manufacturer...
2018: PloS One
Mahror Norlia, M A R Nor-Khaizura, Jinap Selamat, Fatimah Abu Bakar, Son Radu, Cheow Keat Chin
The peanut supply chain in Malaysia is dominated by three main stakeholders (importers, manufacturers, retailers). The present study, aimed to determine the levels and critical points of aflatoxins and fungal contamination in peanuts along the supply chain. Specifically, two types of raw peanuts and six types of peanut-based products were collected (N = 178). Samples were analysed for aflatoxins by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Results revealed that the aflatoxins contamination was significantly higher (P≤0...
June 18, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Penelope D Manta-Vogli, Kleopatra H Schulpis, Yannis Dotsikas, Yannis L Loukas
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is characterized by a complexity of metabolic processes that may impact fetal development and infant health outcome. Normal fetal growth and development depend on a continuous supply of nutrients via the placenta. The placenta transports, utilizes, produces and interconverts amino acids (AAs). FINDINGS: Concentrations of both nonessential and essential AAs in maternal plasma decrease in early pregnancy and persist at low concentrations throughout...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
L Han, F Batistel, Y Ma, A S M Alharthi, C Parys, J J Loor
The periparturient period is the most critical period during the lactation cycle of dairy cows and is characterized by increased oxidative stress status. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of supplementing rumen-protected methionine on nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2, formerly NRF2) protein and target gene expression in the mammary gland during the early postpartal period. Multiparous Holstein cows were used in a block design experiment with 30 cows per treatment. Treatments consisting of a basal control diet (control) or the basal diet plus rumen-protected methionine (methionine) were fed from d -28 to 60 relative to parturition...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Dongyang Liu, Hong Cheng, Rainer W Bussmann, Zhiyong Guo, Bo Liu, Chunlin Long
BACKGROUND: Chuxiong, known as "the City of Fungi," is rich in fungal resources and traditional knowledge related to fungal biodiversity. The local environment is an excellent habitat for a wide variety of edible fungi. In addition, the region is home to many ethnic minorities and especially the Yi ethnic group who has a long history for traditionally using fungi as food or medicine. The aims of this review are to provide up-to-date information on the knowledge about, and traditional management of, fungi in this area and give advice on future utilization and conservation...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Manny Saltiel, Marvin Finnefrock
Hundreds of oral and injectable generic drugs have seen dramatic price increases during the 2010s. Several reasons for the astronomic price increases have been postulated, ranging from reduced competition, shortages in the manufacturing supply chain, very small markets, market consolidation, the Unapproved Drugs Initiative of 2006, and unanticipated manufacturing safety issues. In one survey, over 90% of hospital administrators reported that higher drug prices had a moderate or severe impact on their budgets...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Virginia Sanchez-Quiles, Nerea Osinalde, Vyacheslav Akimov, Irina Kratchmarova, Blagoy Blagoev
The present data article corresponds to the proteomic data of the involvement of Cylindromatosis protein (CYLD) in the ubiquitination signaling initiated by EGF stimulation. CYLD tumor suppressor protein has Lys63-chain deubiquitinase activity that has been proved essential for the negative regulation of crucial signaling mechanisms, namely the NFkB pathway. Previous results have suggested the involvement of CYLD in the EGF-dependent signal transduction as well, showing its engagement within the tyrosine-phosphorylated complexes formed following the addition of the growth factor...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Bernhard Geissler, Gerald Steiner, Michael C Mew
Big Data, blockchains, and cloud computing have become ubiquitous in today's mass media and are universally known terms used in everyday speech. If we look behind these often misused buzzwords, we find at least one common element, namely data. Although we hardly use these terms in the "classic discipline" of mineral economics, we find various similarities. The case of phosphate data bears numerous challenges in multiple forms such as uncertainties, fuzziness, or misunderstandings. Often simulation models are used to support decision-making processes...
June 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
S Kosari, E J Walker, C Anderson, G M Peterson, M Naunton, E Castillo Martinez, S Garg, J Thomas
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Vaccines and other pharmaceuticals are essential medical supplies that require continuous storage at specific temperatures to maintain viability. Power outages can lead to a break in the cold chain, resulting in the degradation of essential medicines. COMMENT: After a power outage, the stability of vaccines and other medicines can be difficult to ascertain. Many public health guidelines therefore recommend discarding potentially compromised pharmaceuticals unless the cold chain can be guaranteed-a costly endeavour...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Elahe Ashtarinezhad, Amir Homayoon Sarfaraz, Mehrzad Navabakhsh
Nowadays, the evaluation of the suppliers in order to improve the total performance of supply chain and increase the power of competitiveness, satisfaction and profitability of the company are considered important and significant issues at the organizations. The main objective of this research is to help oil and gas industry in order to evaluate and categorize the suppliers, using Fuzzy Inference System. The present research is empirical in terms of purpose and descriptive-survey in terms of data collection...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Linford J B Briant, Michael S Dodd, Margarita V Chibalina, Nils J G Rorsman, Paul R V Johnson, Peter Carmeliet, Patrik Rorsman, Jakob G Knudsen
Glucagon, the principal hyperglycemic hormone, is secreted from pancreatic islet α cells as part of the counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia. Hence, secretory output from α cells is under high demand in conditions of low glucose supply. Many tissues oxidize fat as an alternate energy substrate. Here, we show that glucagon secretion in low glucose conditions is maintained by fatty acid metabolism in both mouse and human islets, and that inhibiting this metabolic pathway profoundly decreases glucagon output by depolarizing α cell membrane potential and decreasing action potential amplitude...
June 12, 2018: Cell Reports
João F D Rodrigues, Daniel Moran, Richard Wood, Paul Behrens
Consumption-based carbon accounts (CBCAs) track how final demand in a region causes carbon emissions elsewhere due to supply chains in the global economic network, taking into account international trade. Despite the importance of CBCAs as an approach for understanding and quantifying responsibilities in climate mitigation efforts, very little is known of their uncertainties. Here we use five global multiregional input-output (MRIO) databases to empirically calibrate a stochastic multivariate model of the global economy and its GHG emissions in order to identify the main drivers of uncertainty in global CBCAs...
June 13, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jun Zhou, Lili Tang, Jincheng Wang, Jia-Sheng Wang
In this study, male F344 rats were orally exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) at 0, 5, 25, and 75 μg/kg for four weeks. Rat feces were collected from 2-4 weeks following exposure and were assessed for gut-microbiota dependent metabolites. Gut-microbiota related organic acids were quantitated in the feces using 2-nitrophenylhydrazine derivatization coupled HPLC-profiling method which was validated and showed good reliability, accuracy and sensitivity. After 2-week exposure, AFB1 significantly reduced the levels of fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) with an over 70% reduction in the high-dose group (75 μg/kg)...
April 20, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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