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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047019/challenges-for-nationwide-vaccine-delivery-in-african-countries
#1
Mario Songane
Vaccines are very effective in providing individual and community (herd) immunity against a range of diseases. In addition to protection against a range of diseases, vaccines also have social and economic benefits. However, for vaccines to be effective, routine immunization programmes must be undertaken regularly to ensure individual and community protection. Nonetheless, in many countries in Africa, vaccination coverage is low because governments struggle to deliver vaccines to the most remote areas, thus contributing to constant outbreaks of various vaccine-preventable diseases...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Health Economics and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044104/mining-drives-extensive-deforestation-in-the-brazilian-amazon
#2
Laura J Sonter, Diego Herrera, Damian J Barrett, Gillian L Galford, Chris J Moran, Britaldo S Soares-Filho
Mining poses significant and potentially underestimated risks to tropical forests worldwide. In Brazil's Amazon, mining drives deforestation far beyond operational lease boundaries, yet the full extent of these impacts is unknown and thus neglected in environmental licensing. Here we quantify mining-induced deforestation and investigate the aspects of mining operations, which most likely contribute. We find mining significantly increased Amazon forest loss up to 70 km beyond mining lease boundaries, causing 11,670 km(2) of deforestation between 2005 and 2015...
October 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040303/continuing-professional-development-for-medical-nursing-and-midwifery-cadres-in-malawi-tanzania-and-south-africa-a-qualitative-evaluation
#3
Caryl Feldacker, Jillian Pintye, Sheena Jacob, Michael H Chung, Lyn Middleton, Jill Iliffe, H Nina Kim
BACKGROUND: As innovations in the prevention and treatment of HIV and TB advance, continuing professional development (CPD) of health care workers (HCWs) remains a high priority, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where dual TB/HIV epidemics are compounded by severe HCW shortages. There is further need to examine CPD programs to identify challenges and effective solutions to strengthen HIV/TB-related CPD. METHODS: Qualitative evaluations in Malawi, Tanzania and South Africa (RSA) were conducted using key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) in each country to identify barriers and enablers of effective HIV/TB-related CPD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032859/the-effect-of-maternal-dha-supplementation-on-body-fat-mass-in-children-at-7-years-follow-up-of-the-domino-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
K Wood, E Mantzioris, B Lingwood, J Couper, M Makrides, R A Gibson, B S Muhlhausler
BACKGROUND: Animal studies have suggested that an increased supply of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), in particular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), during the perinatal period can prevent later excess body fat mass. However, previous human studies have produced inconsistent findings, and few have assessed potential effects beyond 6 years of age. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of supplementing women in the second half of pregnancy with omega-3 LCPUFA, chiefly as DHA, on the percentage body fat of children at 7 years of age, as assessed by two methods: air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD) and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS)...
September 22, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030862/establishing-standards-on-colors-from-natural-sources
#5
REVIEW
James E Simon, Eric A Decker, Mario G Ferruzzi, M Monica Giusti, Carla D Mejia, Mark Goldschmidt, Stephen T Talcott
Color additives are applied to many food, drug, and cosmetic products. With up to 85% of consumer buying decisions potentially influenced by color, appropriate application of color additives and their safety is critical. Color additives are defined by the U.S. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) as any dye, pigment, or substance that can impart color to a food, drug, or cosmetic or to the human body. Under current U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, colors fall into 2 categories as those subject to an FDA certification process and those that are exempt from certification often referred to as "natural" colors by consumers because they are sourced from plants, minerals, and animals...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029317/the-critical-role-of-supply-chains-in-preventing-human-immunodeficiency-virus-drug-resistance-in-low-and-middle-income-settings
#6
Thomas Minior, Meaghan Douglas, Dianna Edgil, Meena Srivastava, John Crowley, Jacqueline Firth, Ilana Lapidos-Salaiz, Jason Williams, Lana Lee
The functioning of the supply chain may be a driving factor behind the development of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance (HIVDR) in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Additionally, the effectiveness of supply chains will likely impact the scale-up of both viral-load monitoring and HIVDR testing. This article describes the complexities of global supply chains relevant for LMICs and presents early data on stock-outs and drug substitutions in several countries supported by the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018074/organisational-and-extraorganisational-determinants-of-volume-of-service-delivery-by-english-community-pharmacies-a-cross-sectional-survey-and-secondary-data-analysis
#7
Mark Hann, Ellen I Schafheutle, Fay Bradley, Rebecca Elvey, Andrew Wagner, Devina Halsall, Karen Hassell, Sally Jacobs
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the organisational and extraorganisational factors associated with existing variation in the volume of services delivered by community pharmacies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Linear and ordered logistic regression of linked national data from secondary sources-community pharmacy activity, socioeconomic and health need datasets-and primary data from a questionnaire survey of community pharmacies in nine diverse geographical areas in England...
October 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017550/improving-family-planning-services-delivery-and-uptake-experiences-from-the-reversing-the-stall-in-fertility-decline-in-western-kenya-project
#8
Joshua Amo-Adjei, Michael Mutua, Sherine Athero, Chimaraoke Izugbara, Alex Ezeh
OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we reflect on our experiences of implementing a multipronged intervention to improve sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The project used family planning as its entry point and was implemented in two high fertility counties-Busia and Siaya in Kenya. The intervention, implemented by a seven-member consortium, involved: family planning services delivery; regular training of service providers to deliver high quality services; monitoring and evaluation; strengthening of commodity chain delivery and forecasting; school-based and out-of-school based sexuality education; and advocacy and stakeholder engagements at the community, county and national levels...
October 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016297/case-series-of-naegleria-fowleri-primary-ameobic-meningoencephalitis-from-karachi-pakistan
#9
Najia K Ghanchi, Bushra Jamil, Erum Khan, Zeeshan Ansar, Azra Samreen, Afia Zafar, Zahra Hasan
Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) which is almost always fatal. Naegleria fowleri is waterborne, and its infections are usually associated with aquatic activities but it can also be transmitted via the domestic water supply. An increasing number of N. fowleri cases have been reported from Pakistan. Improved methods for diagnosis are required. We report the utility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of N. fowleri in patients suspected of PAM. One hundred and sixteen cases suspected of having PAM were examined...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993629/global-trade-statistics-lack-granularity-to-inform-traceability-and-management-of-diverse-and-high-value-fishes
#10
Donna-Mareè Cawthorn, Stefano Mariani
Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing and seafood supply chain fraud are multifaceted problems that demand multifaceted solutions. Here, we investigate the extent to which global fisheries trade data analyses can support effective seafood traceability and promote sustainable seafood markets using one of the world's most highly prized, yet misunderstood, groups of fishes as a model: the snappers, family Lutjanidae. By collating and comparing production, import and export data from international and national statistical collections for the period 2006-2013, we show that official trade data severely lack the level of detail required to track snapper trade flows, uncover potential IUU activities and/or inform exploitation management of snappers and related species...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992931/livestock-mortality-and-offtake-in-sheep-and-goat-flocks-of-livestock-owners-making-use-of-services-offered-by-paravets-in-west-afghanistan
#11
Chris J M Bartels, A Qader Fakhri, M Hamed Shams, Raymond P Briscoe, Bram E C Schreuder
In the present study, we quantified the effect of livestock services provided through paravets (intermediate-level training in veterinary medicine) on mortality and offtake of small ruminants in Western Afghanistan for the years 2010, 2011 and 2013. We compared mortality in adult and in young stock, and offtake of young stock of 120 livestock owners that made use of the paravet services (Users) with 120 livestock owners who did not make use of these services (Non-users). Security issues in the districts under study influenced the choice of villages...
October 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989704/genesis-the-generic-simulation-system-for-modelling-state-transitions
#12
Matthew S Gillman
This software implements a discrete time Markov chain model, used to model transitions between states when the transition probabilities are known a priori. It is highly configurable; the user supplies two text files, a "state transition table" and a "config file", to the Perl script genesis.pl. Given the content of these files, the script generates a set of C++ classes based on the State design pattern, and a main program, which can then be compiled and run. The C++ code generated is based on the specification in the text files...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Open Research Software
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987718/fatty-acid-profile-of-maternal-and-fetal-erythrocytes-and-placental-expression-of-fatty-acid-transport-proteins-in-normal-and-intrauterine-growth-restriction-pregnancies
#13
Renata P Assumpção, Daniela B Mucci, Fernanda C P Fonseca, Henrique Marcondes, Fátima L C Sardinha, Marta Citelli, Maria G Tavares do Carmo
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), mainly docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic acids (AA), are critical for adequate fetal growth and development. We investigated mRNA expression of proteins involved in hydrolysis, uptake and/or transport of fatty acids in placenta of fifteen full term normal pregnancies and eleven pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with normal umbilical blood flows. The mRNA expression of LPL, FATPs (-1, -2 and -4) and FABPs (-1 and -3) was increased in IUGR placentas, however, tissue profile of LC-PUFA was not different between groups...
October 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985439/identification-of-potential-genes-that-contributed-to-the-variation-in-the-taxoid-contents-between-two-taxus-species-taxus-media-and-taxus-mairei
#14
Chunna Yu, Hong Guo, Yangyang Zhang, Yaobin Song, Erxu Pi, Chenliang Yu, Lei Zhang, Ming Dong, Bingsong Zheng, Huizhong Wang, Chenjia Shen, Chung-Jui Tsai
Taxol is currently a valuable anticancer drug; however, the accumulated mixture of taxoids can vary greatly among Taxus species. So far, there is very little genomic information for the genus Taxus, except for Taxus baccata. Transcriptome analysis is a powerful approach to explore the different regulatory mechanisms underlying the taxoid biosynthesis pathway in Taxus species. First, we quantified the variation in the taxoid contents between Taxus media and Taxus mairei. The contents of paclitaxel and 10-deacetylpaclitaxel in T...
July 17, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982180/integrating-strategic-and-tactical-decisions-in-livestock-supply-chain-using-bi-level-programming-case-study-iran-poultry-supply-chain
#15
Ebrahim Teimoury, Armin Jabbarzadeh, Mohammadhosein Babaei
Inventory management has frequently been targeted by researchers as one of the most pivotal problems in supply chain management. With the expansion of research studies on inventory management in supply chains, perishable inventory has been introduced and its fundamental differences from non-perishable inventory have been emphasized. This article presents livestock as a type of inventory that has been less studied in the literature. Differences between different inventory types, affect various levels of strategic, tactical and operational decision-making...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980029/-current-cases-of-falsified-medicinal-products-within-the-competence-of-the-federal-institute-for-drugs-and-medical-devices-bfarm-case-studies-and-extent
#16
REVIEW
Marcus Wittstock, Norbert Paeschke
The nature of a falsification of a medicinal product can vary a lot. Therefore the means to detect them and the potential risk to patient safety can also be very different. The whole range of falsification will be described using observed cases from the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM).Based on the relatively low number of detected cases of falsified medicines, the legal supply chain can still be regarded as safe. It has to be assumed that in the illegal supply chain, e. g. illegal internet trade, the majority of the offered medicinal products are not only falsifications due to illegal trade but because they are completely falsified...
October 4, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980025/-the-working-group-of-enforcement-officers-wgeo-the-european-network-of-drug-regulatory-authorities-to-combat-pharmaceutical-crime
#17
REVIEW
Marcus Wittstock, Renz Streit
Ten years ago the Heads of Medicines Agencies (HMA) officially founded the Working Group of Enforcement Officers (WGEO), a European working group to reduce falsifications of human and veterinarian medicinal products in the legal and illegal supply chain. Police, customs and other international organisations are also represented in the WGEO. Partner organisations are for example the Directorate General for Health and Food Safety of the European Commission, the European Medicines Agency (EMA), the European Police Office (Europol), the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol), the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare (EDQM) and the World Health Organization (WHO)...
October 4, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978634/the-infarcted-myocardium-solicits-gm-csf-for-the-detrimental-oversupply-of-inflammatory-leukocytes
#18
Atsushi Anzai, Jennifer L Choi, Shun He, Ashley M Fenn, Manfred Nairz, Sara Rattik, Cameron S McAlpine, John E Mindur, Christopher T Chan, Yoshiko Iwamoto, Benoit Tricot, Gregory R Wojtkiewicz, Ralph Weissleder, Peter Libby, Matthias Nahrendorf, James R Stone, Burkhard Becher, Filip K Swirski
Myocardial infarction (MI) elicits massive inflammatory leukocyte recruitment to the heart. Here, we hypothesized that excessive leukocyte invasion leads to heart failure and death during acute myocardial ischemia. We found that shortly and transiently after onset of ischemia, human and mouse cardiac fibroblasts produce granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) that acts locally and distally to generate and recruit inflammatory and proteolytic cells. In the heart, fibroblast-derived GM-CSF alerts its neighboring myeloid cells to attract neutrophils and monocytes...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978293/hiv-antiretroviral-medication-stock-outs-in-ghana-contributors-and-consequences
#19
Rebecca A Poku, Adobea Yaa Owusu, Patricia Dolan Mullen, Christine Markham, Sheryl A McCurdy
Drug stock-outs are an unfortunate yet common reality for patients living in low and middle income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where trouble with consistent stock of antiretroviral medications (ARVs) continues. Our study takes a snapshot of this problem in Ghana. Although the country launched its antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme in 2003, progress toward realising the full benefit of ART for treated individuals has been limited, in part, because of stock-outs. In Ghana's Greater Accra region, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 women living with HIV (WLHIV) and 15 individuals with a history of HIV-related work in government or non-governmental organisations, or healthcare facilities...
September 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974507/isolated-ascites-in-a-newborn-with-apple-peel-jejunal-atresia
#20
Otilia Osmulikevici, Elizabeth Renji, Bruce Jaffray, Nicholas Embleton
Isolated fetal ascites was diagnosed at 20 weeks in a primiparous woman with no significant medical history. Progressive fetal ascites worsened after 28 weeks and resulted in fetal hydroceles. Delivery was by caesarian section at 33 weeks, preceded by reduction of fetal ascites under ultrasound guidance. Following delivery, the baby required further reduction of abdominal fluid and endotracheal intubation to provide respiratory support. An extensive set of investigations, including metabolic and genetic screening, was performed; all results were negative...
October 3, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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