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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636443/personal-protective-equipment-supply-chain-lessons-learned-from-recent-public-health-emergency-responses
#1
Anita Patel, Maryann M D'Alessandro, Karen J Ireland, W Greg Burel, Elaine B Wencil, Sonja A Rasmussen
Personal protective equipment (PPE) that protects healthcare workers from infection is a critical component of infection control strategies in healthcare settings. During a public health emergency response, protecting healthcare workers from infectious disease is essential, given that they provide clinical care to those who fall ill, have a high risk of exposure, and need to be assured of occupational safety. Like most goods in the United States, the PPE market supply is based on demand. The US PPE supply chain has minimal ability to rapidly surge production, resulting in challenges to meeting large unexpected increases in demand that might occur during a public health emergency...
May 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633067/microbial-electrosynthesis-of-butyrate-from-carbon-dioxide-production-and-extraction
#2
Pau Batlle-Vilanova, Ramon Ganigué, Sara Ramió-Pujol, Lluís Bañeras, Gerard Jiménez, Manuela Hidalgo, M Dolors Balaguer, Jesús Colprim, Sebastià Puig
To date acetate is the main product of microbial electrosynthesis (MES) from carbon dioxide (CO2). In this work a tubular bioelectrochemical system was used to carry out MES and enhance butyrate production over the other organic products. Batch tests were performed at a fixed cathode potential of -0.8V vs SHE. The reproducibility of the results according to previous experiments was validated in a preliminary test. According to the literature butyrate production could take place by chain elongation reactions at low pH and high hydrogen partial pressure (pH2)...
June 15, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632475/generic-substitution-of-antiretrovirals-patients-and-health-care-providers-opinions
#3
Jennifer A Kieran, Eimear O'Reilly, Siobhan O'Dea, Colm Bergin, Aisling O'Leary
There is interest in introducing generic antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) into high-income countries in order to maximise efficiency in health care budgets. Studies examining patients' and providers' knowledge and attitudes to generic substitution in HIV are few. This was a cross-sectional, observational study with a convenience sample of adult HIV-infected patients and health care providers (HCPs). Data on demographics, knowledge of generic medicine and facilitators of generic substitution were collected. Descriptive and univariate analysis was performed using SPSS V...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632178/an-increased-dietary-supply-of-medium-chain-fatty-acids-during-early-weaning-in-rodents-prevents-excessive-fat-accumulation-in-adulthood
#4
Bert J M van de Heijning, Annemarie Oosting, Diane Kegler, Eline M van der Beek
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are a directly and readily absorbed source of energy. Exposure early-in-life to increased MCFA levels might affect development and impact (lipid) metabolism later in life. We tested whether an increased MCFA intake early-in-life positively affects adult body composition and metabolic status when challenged by a western-style diet (WSD). Male offspring of C57Bl/6j mice and Wistar rats were fed a control diet (CTRL; 10 w% fat, 14% MCFA) or a medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) diet with 20% MCFA until postnatal (PN) day 42, whereupon animals were fed a WSD (10 w% fat) until PN day 98...
June 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629921/the-importance-of-vaccine-supply-chains-to-everyone-in-the-vaccine-world
#5
Bruce Y Lee, Leila A Haidari
While the focus of many in the vaccine world has been on developing new vaccines and measuring their effects on humans, failure to understand and properly address vaccine supply chain issues can greatly reduce the impact of any vaccine. Therefore, everyone involved in vaccine decision-making may want to take into account supply chains when making key decisions. In fact, considering supply chain issues long before a vaccine reaches the market can help design vaccines and vaccine programs that better match the system...
June 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627780/from-lithium-ion-to-sodium-ion-batteries-a-materials-perspective
#6
Prasant Kumar Nayak, Liangtao Yang, Wolfgang Brehm, Philipp Adelhelm
Mobile and stationary energy storage by rechargeable batteries is a topic of broad societal and economical relevance. Lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology is at the forefront of the development but a massively growing market will likely put severe pressure on resources and supply chains. Recently, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are being reconsidered with the aim of providing a lower-cost alternative that is less susceptible to resource and supply risks. On paper, the replacement of lithium by sodium in a battery seems straightforward at first but unpredictable surprises are often found in practice...
June 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621879/bactericidal-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-induces-oxidative-stress-in-escherichia-coli-through-a-block-in-respiratory-chain-and-increase-in-central-carbon-catabolism
#7
Des R Kashyap, Marcin Kuzma, Dominik A Kowalczyk, Dipika Gupta, Roman Dziarski
Mammalian Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins (PGRPs) kill both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria through simultaneous induction of oxidative, thiol, and metal stress responses in bacteria. However, metabolic pathways through which PGRPs induce these bactericidal stress responses are unknown. We screened Keio collection of Escherichia coli deletion mutants and revealed that deleting genes for respiratory chain flavoproteins or for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle resulted in increased resistance of E. coli to PGRP killing...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620281/inhibition-of-the-mitochondrial-glutamate-carrier-slc25a22-in-astrocytes-leads-to-intracellular-glutamate-accumulation
#8
Emmanuelle Goubert, Yanina Mircheva, Francesco M Lasorsa, Christophe Melon, Emanuela Profilo, Julie Sutera, Hélène Becq, Ferdinando Palmieri, Luigi Palmieri, Laurent Aniksztejn, Florence Molinari
The solute carrier family 25 (SLC25) drives the import of a large diversity of metabolites into mitochondria, a key cellular structure involved in many metabolic functions. Mutations of the mitochondrial glutamate carrier SLC25A22 (also named GC1) have been identified in early epileptic encephalopathy (EEE) and migrating partial seizures in infancy (MPSI) but the pathophysiological mechanism of GC1 deficiency is still unknown, hampered by the absence of an in vivo model. This carrier is mainly expressed in astrocytes and is the principal gate for glutamate entry into mitochondria...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619076/effectiveness-and-equity-of-the-tanzania-national-voucher-scheme-for-mosquito-nets-over-10%C3%A2-years-of-implementation
#9
Karen Kramer, Renata Mandike, Rose Nathan, Ally Mohamed, Matthew Lynch, Nick Brown, Ally Mnzava, Wilhelmina Rimisho, Christian Lengeler
BACKGROUND: The Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS) was a public private partnership managed by the Ministry of Health that provided pregnant women and infants with highly subsidized (long-lasting) insecticide-treated nets between 2004 and 2014. It was implemented in the context of the National Insecticide Treated Nets (NATNETS) Programme and was the main keep up strategy for vulnerable populations. CASE DESCRIPTION: The programme design was adjusted considerably over time to incorporate new evidence, shifting public health policies, and changing donor priorities...
June 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615721/spatio-temporal-variability-of-trace-elements-fingerprints-in-cockle-cerastoderma-edule-shells-and-its-relevance-for-tracing-geographic-origin
#10
Fernando Ricardo, Tânia Pimentel, Luciana Génio, Ricardo Calado
Understanding spatio-temporal variability of trace elements fingerprints (TEF) in bivalve shells is paramount to determine the discrimination power of this analytical approach and secure traceability along supply chains. Spatio-temporal variability of TEF was assessed in cockle (Cerastoderma edule) shells using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Four elemental ratios (Mg/Ca, Mn/Ca, Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca) were measured from the shells of specimens originating from eight different ecosystems along the Portuguese coast, as well as from four different areas, within one of them, over two consecutive years (2013 and 2014)...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612312/chemical-and-microbial-characteristics-of-municipal-drinking-water-supply-systems-in-the-canadian-arctic
#11
Kiley Daley, Lisbeth Truelstrup Hansen, Rob C Jamieson, Jenny L Hayward, Greg S Piorkowski, Wendy Krkosek, Graham A Gagnon, Heather Castleden, Kristen MacNeil, Joanna Poltarowicz, Emmalina Corriveau, Amy Jackson, Justine Lywood, Yannan Huang
Drinking water in the vast Arctic Canadian territory of Nunavut is sourced from surface water lakes or rivers and transferred to man-made or natural reservoirs. The raw water is at a minimum treated by chlorination and distributed to customers either by trucks delivering to a water storage tank inside buildings or through a piped distribution system. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and microbial drinking water quality from source to tap in three hamlets (Coral Harbour, Pond Inlet and Pangnirtung-each has a population of <2000) on trucked service, and in Iqaluit (population ~6700), which uses a combination of trucked and piped water conveyance...
June 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609663/investigation-of-nanotoxicological-effects-of-nanostructured-hydroxyapatite-to-microalgae-pseudokirchneriella-subcapitata
#12
Flávia F Pereira, Elaine C Paris, Joana D Bresolin, Milene M Foschini, Marcos D Ferreira, Daniel S Corrêa
The advance of nanotechnology has enabled the development of materials with optimized properties for applications in agriculture and environment. For instance, nanotechnology-based fertilizers, such as the candidate hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), can potentially increase the food production by rationally supplying phosphorous to crops, although with inferior mobility in the environment (when compared to the soluble counterparts), avoiding eutrophication. Nonetheless, the widespread consumption of nanofertilizers also raises concern about feasible deleterious effects caused by their release in the environment, which ultimately imposes risks to aquatic biota and human health...
June 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608462/progress-and-challenges-associated-with-halal-authentication-of-consumer-packaged-goods
#13
REVIEW
Premanandh Jagadeesan, Samara Bin Salem
BACKGROUND: Abusive business practices are increasingly evident in consumer packaged goods. Although consumers have the right to protect themselves against such practices, rapid urbanization and industrialization results in greater distance between producers and consumers resulting in serious concerns on the supply chain. The operational complexities surrounding the halal authenticity possess serious challenges on the integrity of the consumer packaged goods. This article attempts to address the progress and challenges associated with halal authentication...
June 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607186/alloy-and-composition-dependence-of-hydrogen-embrittlement-susceptibility-in-high-strength-steel-fasteners
#14
S V Brahimi, S Yue, K R Sriraman
High-strength steel fasteners characterized by tensile strengths above 1100 MPa are often used in critical applications where a failure can have catastrophic consequences. Preventing hydrogen embrittlement (HE) failure is a fundamental concern implicating the entire fastener supply chain. Research is typically conducted under idealized conditions that cannot be translated into know-how prescribed in fastener industry standards and practices. Additionally, inconsistencies and even contradictions in fastener industry standards have led to much confusion and many preventable or misdiagnosed fastener failures...
July 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607181/clean-energy-and-the-hydrogen-economy
#15
N P Brandon, Z Kurban
In recent years, new-found interest in the hydrogen economy from both industry and academia has helped to shed light on its potential. Hydrogen can enable an energy revolution by providing much needed flexibility in renewable energy systems. As a clean energy carrier, hydrogen offers a range of benefits for simultaneously decarbonizing the transport, residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Hydrogen is shown here to have synergies with other low-carbon alternatives, and can enable a more cost-effective transition to de-carbonized and cleaner energy systems...
July 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604328/the-status-of-vaccine-availability-and-associated-factors-in-tshwane-government-clinics
#16
Ntombenhle Judith Ngcobo, Mercy G Kamupira
BACKGROUND: Vaccines have greatly contributed to the control of vaccine-preventable diseases and to human development. Efforts by many countries to introduce new vaccines are a significant move towards achieving the sustainable development goal for health. However, effective vaccine supply chains that ensure an uninterrupted supply of vaccines are pivotal to attaining universal access to life-saving vaccines and sustainable development. The introduction of new vaccines puts a strain on supply chains; South Africa (SA) is no exception, as there are indications of vaccine stock-outs in clinics...
May 24, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601760/synthesis-of-imidazolium-containing-mono-methacrylates-as-polymerizable-antibacterial-agents-for-acrylic-bone-cements
#17
Wenbin Zhu, Fang Liu, Jingwei He
With the aim to prepare antibacterial acrylic bone cements, a series of imidazolium-containg mono-methacrylates with N-alkyl chain length varied from 10 to 18 (MEIM-x) were synthesized as polymerizable antibacterial agents through a two-step reaction. The structures of the monomers were confirmed by (1)H NMR. Methyl methacrylate in the liquid compoent of cements was partially replaced by MEIM-x to prepare bone cements with 5wt% of MEIM-x. Properties of prepared cements like antibacterial activity, doughing time, curing parameters including maximum temperature (Tmax) and setting time (tset), flexual strength (FS) and modulus (FM), compressive strength (CS) and fluid uptake (FU) in Ringer's solution were investigated...
June 8, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600790/removal-of-cr-vi-by-surfactant-modified-auricularia-auricula-spent-substrate-biosorption-condition-and-mechanism
#18
Liying Dong, Yu Jin, Tao Song, Jinsong Liang, Xin Bai, Sumei Yu, Chunying Teng, Xin Wang, Juanjuan Qu, Xiaomei Huang
Auricularia auricula spent substrate (AASS) modified by didodecyldimethylammonium bromide(DDAB) was used as adsorbent to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. Based on a single-factor experiment and response surface methodology, the optimal conditions were adsorbent dosage of 1.5 g/L, pH value of 4.0, initial Cr(VI) concentration of 19 mg/L, temperature of 25 °C, biosorption time of 120 min, rotational speed of 150 r/min, respectively, under which biosorption capacity could reach 12.16 mg/g compared with unmodified AASS (6...
June 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599126/effect-of-water-management-and-silicon-on-germination-growth-phosphorus-and-arsenic-uptake-in-rice
#19
Zahida Zia, Hafiz Faiq Bakhat, Zulfiqar Ahmad Saqib, Ghulam Mustafa Shah, Shah Fahad, Muhammad Rizwan Ashraf, Hafiz Mohkum Hammad, Wajid Naseem, Muhammad Shahid
Silicon (Si) is the 2nd most abundant element in soil which is known to enhance stress tolerance in wide variety of crops. Arsenic (As), a toxic metalloid enters into the human food chain through contaminated water and food or feed. To alleviate the deleterious effect of As on human health, it is a need of time to find out an effective strategy to reduce the As accumulation in the food chain. The experiments were conducted during September-December 2014, and 2016 to optimize Si concentration for rice (Oryza sativa L...
June 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598967/mitochondrial-respiration-and-ros-emission-during-%C3%AE-oxidation-in-the-heart-an-experimental-computational-study
#20
Sonia Cortassa, Steven J Sollott, Miguel A Aon
Lipids are main fuels for cellular energy and mitochondria their major oxidation site. Yet unknown is to what extent the fuel role of lipids is influenced by their uncoupling effects, and how this affects mitochondrial energetics, redox balance and the emission of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Employing a combined experimental-computational approach, we comparatively analyze β-oxidation of palmitoyl CoA (PCoA) in isolated heart mitochondria from Sham and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic (T1DM) guinea pigs (GPs)...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
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