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upper limb functions

R J Willcocks, W T Triplett, S C Forbes, H Arora, C R Senesac, D J Lott, T R Nicholson, W D Rooney, G A Walter, K Vandenborne
There is a pressing need for biomarkers and outcomes that can be used across disease stages in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), to facilitate the inclusion of a wider range of participants in clinical trials and to improve our understanding of the natural history of DMD. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) biomarkers show considerable promise in both the legs and forearms of individuals with DMD, but have not yet been examined in functionally important proximal upper extremity muscles such as the biceps brachii and deltoid...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Luke Osborn, Rahul Kaliki, Alcimar Soares, Nitish Thakor
Upper limb amputees lack the valuable tactile sensing that helps provide context about the surrounding environment. Here we utilize tactile information to provide active touch feedback to a prosthetic hand. First, we developed fingertip tactile sensors for producing biomimetic spiking responses for monitoring contact, release, and slip of an object grasped by a prosthetic hand. We convert the sensor output into pulses, mimicking the rapid and slowly adapting spiking responses of receptor afferents found in the human body...
April 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Anand Veeravagu, Amy Li, Lawrence M Shuer, Atman M Desai
BACKGROUND: Osteochondromas are the most frequent benign bone tumors, but only rarely occur along the spinal column and even more rarely induce symptoms from spinal cord compression. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: We report two adult patients, both with a history of hereditary multiple exostoses, who presented with cervical myelopathy secondary to osteochondromas. The first patient is a 22-year-old male with numbness and weakness of his right upper limb and neck pain. Radiological images revealed a bony tumor arising from the C3 lamina with evidence of severe spinal cord compression...
October 21, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Preeti Raghavan, Daniel Geller, Nina Guerrero, Viswanath Aluru, Joseph P Eimicke, Jeanne A Teresi, Gbenga Ogedegbe, Anna Palumbo, Alan Turry
: Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. It leads to a sudden and overwhelming disruption in one's physical body, and alters the stroke survivors' sense of self. Long-term recovery requires that bodily perception, social participation and sense of self are restored; this is challenging to achieve, particularly with a single intervention. However, rhythmic synchronization of movement to external stimuli facilitates sensorimotor coupling for movement recovery, enhances emotional engagement and has positive effects on interpersonal relationships...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Dayana P Rosa, John D Borstad, Lívia S Pogetti, Paula R Camargo
STUDY DESIGN: Parallel-group intervention with repeated measures. INTRODUCTION: Shortening of the pectoralis minor (PM) may contribute to alterations in scapular kinematics. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the effects of a stretching protocol on function, muscle length, and scapular kinematics in subjects with and without shoulder pain. METHODS: A sample of 25 patients with shoulder pain and 25 healthy subjects with PM tightness performed a daily stretching protocol for 6 weeks...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
Sarah A Moore, Ruth Da Silva, Madelaine Balaam, Lianne Brkic, Dan Jackson, Dan Jamieson, Thomas Ploetz, Helen Rodgers, Lisa Shaw, Frederike van Wijck, Christopher Price
BACKGROUND: Loss of upper limb function affects up to 85 % of acute stroke patients. Recovery of upper limb function requires regular intensive practise of specific upper limb tasks. To enhance intensity of practice interventions are being developed to encourage patients to undertake self-directed exercise practice. Most interventions do not translate well into everyday activities and stroke patients continue to find it difficult remembering integration of upper limb movements into daily activities...
October 21, 2016: Trials
Gentian Caco, Dhurata Golemi, Eriola Likaj
INTRODUCTION: The saphenous vein is commonly used as a vascular graft in peripheral artery surgery but rarely used for vascular access. The literature on straight configuration saphenous vein transposition to the popliteal artery is scarce. Here we present two cases of straight configuration saphenous vein transposition to the popliteal artery for vascular access, the surgical technique and respective follow-up. CASE REPORT: Two young men, aged 29 and 36 years, were chosen for lower-limb vascular access for hemodialysis...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Vascular Access
Emily Dalton, Natasha A Lannin, Kate Laver, Leo Ross, Stephen Ashford, Annie McCluskey, Anne Cusick
PURPOSE: The Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire is a patient reported outcome measure for evaluating upper limb function in people with musculoskeletal conditions. While the DASH has good psychometric properties when used with people with musculoskeletal conditions, it has not been tested with adults after stroke. METHODS: Data for n = 61 adults following stroke (aged 32-93 years, 44% male) were analyzed to test validity and reliability of the DASH for use with a stroke population...
October 21, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Faisal R Jahangiri, Sami Al Eissa, Samir Sayegh, Fahad Al Helal, Shomoukh A Al-Sharif, Monerah M Annaim, Sheryar Muhammad, Tanweer Aziz
A 16-year-old male patient with Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and a back deformity since birth presented with severe kyphoscoliosis. The patient was neurologically intact but had respiratory and cardiac insufficiencies. A two-stage vertebral column resection (VCR) at T9-T10 with multiple level fusion with multimodality intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) was planned.  During the first stage, pedicle screws were placed at multiple spinal levels above and below the VCR level. Upper and lower somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), transcranial electrical motor evoked potentials (TCeMEP), and electromyography were monitored continuously and showed no significant changes...
August 31, 2016: Curēus
Antonietta Stango, Kamya Yekeh Yazdandoost, Francesco Negro, Dario Farina
Wireless implanted devices can be used to interface patients with disabilities with the aim of restoring impaired motor functions. Implanted devices that record and transmit electromyographic (EMG) signals have been applied for the control of active prostheses. This simulation study investigates the propagation losses and the absorption rate of a wireless radio frequency link for in-to-on body communication in the medical implant communication service (MICS) frequency band to control myoelectric upper limb prostheses...
2016: PloS One
Abhishek Jaywant, Jennifer Barredo, David C Ahern, Linda Resnik
The Trail Making Test (TMT) and written version of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) assess attention, processing speed, and executive functions but their utility is limited in populations with upper limb dysfunction. Oral versions of the TMT and SDMT exist, but a systematic review of their psychometric properties and clinical utility has not been conducted, which was the goal of this study. Searches were conducted in PubMed and PsycINFO, test manuals, and the reference lists of included articles. Four measures were identified: the SDMT-oral, oral TMT-A, oral TMT-B, and the Mental Alternation Test (MAT)...
October 18, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Elena Bartoloni, Giacomo Pucci, Francesca Cannarile, Francesca Battista, Alessia Alunno, Marco Giuliani, Giacomo Cafaro, Roberto Gerli, Giuseppe Schillaci
Although microvascular disease is a hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc), a higher prevalence of macrovascular disease and a poorer related prognosis have been reported in SSc than in the general population. The simultaneous assessment of prognostically relevant functional properties of larger and smaller arteries, and their effects on central hemodynamics, has never been performed in SSc using the state-of-the-art techniques. Thirty-four women with SSc (aged 61±15 years, disease duration 17±12 years, and blood pressure 123/70±18/11 mm Hg) and 34 healthy women individually matched by age and mean arterial pressure underwent the determination of carotid-femoral (aortic) and carotid-radial (upper limb) pulse wave velocity (a direct measure of arterial stiffness), aortic augmentation (a measure of the contribution of reflected wave to central pulse pressure), and aortobrachial pulse pressure amplification (brachial/aortic pulse pressure) through applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor)...
October 17, 2016: Hypertension
Gianina Ravenscroft, Nataliya Di Donato, Gabriele Hahn, Mark R Davis, Paul D Craven, Gemma Poke, Katherine R Neas, Teresa M Neuhann, William B Dobyns, Nigel G Laing
Autosomal dominantly inherited mutations of BICD2 are associated with congenital-onset spinal muscular atrophy characterised by lower limb predominance. A few cases have also showed upper motor neuron pathology, including presenting with features resembling hereditary spastic paraplegia. The age-of-onset for the published families is usually at birth but also included cases with childhood- and adult-onset disease. In this report we described two isolated probands that presented in utero with features associated with reduced fetal movements...
September 19, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Kai Ren, Xiao-Ming Gong, Rong Zhang, Xiu-Hui Chen
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of virtual reality (VR) training on the gross motor function of the lower limb and the fine motor function of the upper limb in children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy. METHODS: Thirty-five children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy were randomly assigned to VR training group (n=19) and conventional training group (n=16). The conventional training group received conventional physical therapy and occupational therapy for three months...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Mei-Yun Liaw, Lin-Yi Wang, Ya-Ping Pong, Yu-Chin Tsai, Yu-Chi Huang, Tsung-Hsun Yang, Meng-Chih Lin
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, perceived dyspnea, degree of fatigue, and activity of daily living with motor function and neurological status in stroke patients with stable congestive heart failure (CHF).This was a cohort study in a tertiary care medical center. Stroke patients with CHF and exertional dyspnea (New York Heart Association class I-III) were recruited. The baseline characteristics included duration of disease, Brunnstrom stage, spirometry, resting heart rate, resting oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), Borg scale, fatigue scale, and Barthel index...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jae W Chung, Edward Ofori, Gaurav Misra, Christopher W Hess, David E Vaillancourt
: Accurate motor performance may depend on the scaling of distinct oscillatory activity within the motor cortex and effective neural communication between the motor cortex and other brain areas. Oscillatory activity within the beta-band (13-30Hz) has been suggested to provide distinct functional roles for attention and sensorimotor control, yet it remains unclear how beta-band and other oscillatory activity within and between cortical regions is coordinated to enhance motor performance...
October 13, 2016: NeuroImage
Bérangère Gohy, Engy Ali, Rafael Van den Bergh, Erin Schillberg, Masood Nasim, Muhammad Mahmood Naimi, Sophia Cheréstal, Pauline Falipou, Eric Weerts, Peter Skelton, Catherine Van Overloop, Miguel Trelles
BACKGROUND: In Afghanistan, Médecins Sans Frontières provided specialised trauma care in Kunduz Trauma Centre (KTC), including physiotherapy. In this study, we describe the development of an adapted functional score for patient outcome monitoring, and document the rehabilitation care provided and patient outcomes in relation to this functional score. METHODS: A descriptive cohort study was done, including all patients admitted in the KTC inpatient department (IPD) between January and June 2015...
October 13, 2016: International Health
Valeriya Gritsenko, Russell L Hardesty, Mathew T Boots, Sergiy Yakovenko
Neural control of movement can only be realized though the interaction between the mechanical properties of the limb and the environment. Thus, a fundamental question is whether anatomy has evolved to simplify neural control by shaping these interactions in a beneficial way. This inductive data-driven study analyzed the patterns of muscle actions across multiple joints using the musculoskeletal model of the human upper limb. This model was used to calculate muscle lengths across the full range of motion of the arm and examined the correlations between these values between all pairs of muscles...
2016: PloS One
Gavin Giovannoni, Jeffrey A Cohen, Alasdair J Coles, Hans-Peter Hartung, Eva Havrdova, Krzysztof W Selmaj, David H Margolin, Stephen L Lake, Susan M Kaup, Michael A Panzara, D Alastair S Compston
OBJECTIVE: To characterize effects of alemtuzumab treatment on measures of disability improvement in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) with inadequate response (≥1 relapse) to prior therapy. METHODS: Comparison of Alemtuzumab and Rebif Efficacy in Multiple Sclerosis (CARE-MS) II, a 2-year randomized, rater-blinded, active-controlled, head-to-head, phase 3 trial, compared efficacy and safety of alemtuzumab 12 mg with subcutaneous interferon-β-1a (SC IFN-β-1a) 44 μg in patients with RRMS...
October 12, 2016: Neurology
Craig P Smith, Raymond F Reynolds
When using our arms to interact with the world, unintended body motion can introduce movement error. A mechanism which could detect and compensate for such motion would be beneficial. Observations of arm movements evoked by vestibular stimulation provide some support for this mechanism. However, the physiological function underlying these artificially-evoked movements is unclear from previous research. For such a mechanism to be functional, it should only operate when the arm is being controlled in an earth-fixed rather than body-fixed reference frame...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Physiology
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