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epigenetics in CKD

Jing Chen, Xiaoyan Zhang, Han Zhang, Tongqiang Liu, Hui Zhang, Jie Teng, Jun Ji, Xiaoqiang Ding
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a state of Klotho deficiency. The Klotho expression may be suppressed due to DNA hypermethylation in cancer cells so we have investigated the effects and possible mechanisms by which Klotho expression is regulated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). The vascular Klotho hypermethylation in radial arteries of patients with end-stage renal disease was described. Cultured HASMCs and 5/6-nephrectomized Sprague Dawley (SD) rats treated with indoxyl sulfate (IS) were used as in vitro and in vivo models, respectively...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Olga Ruiz-Andres, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Juan Antonio Moreno, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Adrian Mario Ramos, Ana Belén Sanz, Alberto Ortiz
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated to an increased risk of death, CKD progression and acute kidney injury (AKI) even from early stages, when glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is preserved. The link between early CKD and these risks is unclear, since there is no accumulation of uremic toxins. However, pathological albuminuria and kidney inflammation are frequent features of early CKD and the production of kidney protective factors may be decreased. Indeed, Klotho expression is already decreased in CKD category G1 (normal GFR)...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Szu Yuan Li, Katalin Susztak
An increasing amount of evidence suggests that metabolic alterations play a key role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) pathogenesis. In this issue of the JCI, Long et al. report that the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) taurine-upregulated 1 (Tug1) contributes to CKD development. The authors show that Tug1 regulates mitochondrial function in podocytes by epigenetic targeting of expression of the transcription factor PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α, encoded by Ppargc1a). Transgenic overexpression of Tug1 specifically in podocytes ameliorated diabetes-induced CKD in mice...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Qin Zhang, Shasha Yin, Lin Liu, Zhihong Liu, Wangsen Cao
Renal fibrosis is the hallmark of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and its development and progression are significantly affected by epigenetic modifications. Rhein, a plant-derived anthraquinone, displays strong anti-fibrosis properties, but its protective mode of action remains incompletely understood. Here we explore the mechanism of Rhein anti-renal fibrosis by investigating its regulation of Klotho, a known renal anti-fibrotic protein whose suppression after renal injury reportedly involves aberrant DNA methylation...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Björn Tampe, Ulrike Steinle, Désirée Tampe, Julienne L Carstens, Peter Korsten, Elisabeth M Zeisberg, Gerhard A Müller, Raghu Kalluri, Michael Zeisberg
Acute kidney injury (AKI) and progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) are intrinsically tied syndromes. In this regard, the acutely injured kidney often does not achieve its full regenerative capacity and AKI directly transitions into progressive CKD associated with tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Underlying mechanisms of such AKI-to-CKD progression are still incompletely understood and specific therapeutic interventions are still elusive. Because epigenetic modifications play a role in maintaining tissue fibrosis, we used a murine model of ischemia-reperfusion injury to determine whether aberrant promoter methylation of RASAL1 contributes causally to the switch between physiological regeneration and tubulointerstitial fibrogenesis, a hallmark of AKI-to-CKD progression...
September 27, 2016: Kidney International
Giovanni Musso, Maurizio Cassader, Solomon Cohney, Franco De Michieli, Silvia Pinach, Francesca Saba, Roberto Gambino
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). ESRD or CVD develop in a substantial proportion of patients with CKD receiving standard-of-care therapy, and mortality in CKD remains unchanged. These data suggest that key pathogenetic mechanisms underlying CKD progression go unaffected by current treatments. Growing evidence suggests that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and CKD share common pathogenetic mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets...
October 2016: Diabetes Care
Lyndsay A Harshman, Diana Zepeda-Orozco
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children is an irreversible process that, in some cases, may lead to end-stage renal disease. The majority of children with CKD have a congenital disorder of the kidney or urological tract arising from birth. There is strong evidence for both a genetic and epigenetic component to progression of CKD. Utilization of gene-mapping strategies, ranging from genome-wide association studies to single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis, serves to identify potential genetic variants that may lend to disease variation...
March 2016: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
Amaryllis H Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M Van Craenenbroeck, Katrijn Van Ackeren, Vicky Y Hoymans, Gert A Verpooten, Christiaan J Vrints, Marie M Couttenye
BACKGROUND: Exercise intolerance is an important feature in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is prognostic for both increased morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms in predialysis CKD. This study aimed to gain more insight into the role of vascular dysfunction in the exercise intolerance of predialysis CKD. In addition, vascular-related microRNAs (miRNAs)-as epigenetic regulators of exercise capacity-were analysed. METHODS: Sixty-three patients with CKD stages 1-5 and 18 healthy controls were included...
August 18, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Giovanni Musso, Franco De Michieli, Daria Bongiovanni, Renato Parente, Luciana Framarin, Nicola Leone, Mara Berrutti, Roberto Gambino, Maurizio Cassader, Solomon Cohney, Elena Paschetta
Epidemiological data set an association between the prevalence and severity of NAFLD and the incidence and stage of chronic kidney disease(CKD); furthermore, NASH-related cirrhosis has a higher risk of renal failure, a greater necessity for simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation(SLKT) and a poorer renal outcome than cirrhosis of other etiologies even after SLKT. These data suggest NASH and CKD share common proinflammatory and profibrotic mechanisms of progression, which are incompletely targeted by current treatments...
August 10, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Robert L Chevalier
There is an alarming global increase in the incidence of end-stage kidney disease, for which early biomarkers and effective treatment options are lacking. Largely based on the histology of the end-stage kidney and on the model of unilateral ureteral obstruction, current investigation is focused on the pathogenesis of renal interstitial fibrosis as a central mechanism in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is now recognized that cumulative episodes of acute kidney injury (AKI) can lead to CKD, and, conversely, CKD is a risk factor for AKI...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Xiao-Ming Meng, David J Nikolic-Paterson, Hui Yao Lan
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is the primary factor that drives fibrosis in most, if not all, forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Inhibition of the TGF-β isoform, TGF-β1, or its downstream signalling pathways substantially limits renal fibrosis in a wide range of disease models whereas overexpression of TGF-β1 induces renal fibrosis. TGF-β1 can induce renal fibrosis via activation of both canonical (Smad-based) and non-canonical (non-Smad-based) signalling pathways, which result in activation of myofibroblasts, excessive production of extracellular matrix (ECM) and inhibition of ECM degradation...
June 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Carlos E Palant, Richard L Amdur, Lakhmir S Chawla
Recent controlled trials, epidemiological analyses and basic research studies offer a comprehensive view of the short and long-term clinical repercussion of de novo acute kidney injury or AKI. While most post-AKI patients recover their baseline renal function, a significant number, approximately ~20% of those affected, will go on to develop long term illness characterized by an increase in late stage CKD, cardiovascular complications, and increased death rates. When AKI occurs in hospitalized patients, selected demographic and laboratory results can be incorporated into risk calculators that identify those at higher risk for long-term complications...
2016: Contributions to Nephrology
Nirupama Chandel, Ashwani Malhotra, Pravin C Singhal
Illicit drug abuse is highly prevalent and serves as a powerful co-factor for HIV exacerbation. Epigenetic alterations in drug abuse and HIV infection determine expression of several critical genes such as vitamin D receptor (VDR), which participates in proliferation, differentiation, cell death under both physiological and pathological conditions. On that account, active vitamin D, the ligand of VDR, is used as an adjuvant therapy to control infection, slow down progression of chronic kidney diseases, and cancer chemotherapy...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kati Richter, Anja Konzack, Taina Pihlajaniemi, Ritva Heljasvaara, Thomas Kietzmann
Fibrosis is one of the most prevalent features of age-related diseases like obesity, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic kidney disease, or cardiomyopathy and affects millions of people in all countries. Although the understanding about the pathophysiology of fibrosis has improved a lot during the recent years, a number of mechanisms still remain unknown. Although TGF-β1 signaling, loss of metabolic homeostasis and chronic low-grade inflammation appear to play important roles in the pathogenesis of fibrosis, recent evidence indicates that oxidative stress and the antioxidant system may also be crucial for fibrosis development and persistence...
December 2015: Redox Biology
Jasmina Djordjevic Jocic, Rade Cukuranovic, Predrag Jovanovic, Vidosava Djordjevic, Marija Mihajlovic, Dragan Bogdanovic, Jovana Cukuranovic-Kokoris, Vladisav Stefanovic
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the ocular fundus pathology in patients with Balkan endemic nephropathy (BN) and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). METHODS: The study included 51 patients with BN from the South Morava River region in Serbia, and 102 subjects with different stages of chronic renal diseases, matched according to age and gender, obtained from a database used in a recently published study. All patients had visited Outpatient Department of the Clinic of Nephrology, Clinical Center Nis...
October 2015: International Urology and Nephrology
Venkateswar R Surabhi, Christine O Menias, Verghese George, Eduardo Matta, Ravi K Kaza, Joseph Hasapes
OBJECTIVE: Congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) encompass a spectrum of anomalies that result from genetic, epigenetic, environmental, and molecular signal aberrations at key stages of urinary tract development. CAKUT can be seen incidentally on cross-sectional imaging of the abdomen or can be a cause for adult-onset chronic kidney disease, posing new challenges for nephrologists, urologists, and radiologists. CONCLUSION: Awareness of CAKUT and familiarity with their imaging findings permit optimal patient management and thorough workup to prevent hypertension and progression from CAKUT to renal failure...
September 2015: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Masanori Tamaki, Aika Hagiwara, Kazutoshi Miyashita, Shu Wakino, Hiroyuki Inoue, Kentaro Fujii, Chikako Fujii, Masaaki Sato, Masanori Mitsuishi, Ayako Muraki, Koichi Hayashi, Toshio Doi, Hiroshi Itoh
Because a physical decline correlates with an increased risk of a wide range of disease and morbidity, an improvement of physical performance is expected to bring significant clinical benefits. The primary cause of physical decline in 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6Nx) chronic kidney disease model mice has been regarded as a decrease in muscle mass; however, our recent study showed that a decrease in muscle mitochondria plays a critical role. In the present study, we examined the effects of a gastric hormone ghrelin, which has been reported to promote muscle mitochondrial oxidation, on the physical decline in the chronic kidney disease model mice, focusing on the epigenetic modulations of a mitochondrial activator gene, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)...
October 2015: Endocrinology
Sathnur Pushpakumar, Sourav Kundu, Nithya Narayanan, Utpal Sen
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Emerging studies suggest that epigenetic mechanisms contribute to the development and progression of fibrosis in CKD. HHcy and its intermediates are known to alter the DNA methylation pattern, which is a critical regulator of epigenetic information. In this study, we hypothesized that HHcy causes renovascular remodeling by DNA hypermethylation, leading to glomerulosclerosis. We also evaluated whether the DNA methylation inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza) could modulate extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism and reduce renovascular fibrosis...
November 2015: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Kaori Hayashi, Hiroyuki Sasamura, Mari Nakamura, Yusuke Sakamaki, Tatsuhiko Azegami, Hideyo Oguchi, Hirobumi Tokuyama, Shu Wakino, Koichi Hayashi, Hiroshi Itoh
Proteinuria is a central component of chronic kidney disease and an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Kidney podocytes have an essential role as a filtration barrier against proteinuria. Kruppel-like Factor 4 (KLF4) is expressed in podocytes and decreased in glomerular diseases leading to methylation of the nephrin promoter, decreased nephrin expression and proteinuria. Treatment with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) reduced methylation of the nephrin promoter in murine glomeruli of an adriamycin nephropathy model with recovery of KLF4 expression and a decrease in albuminuria...
October 2015: Kidney International
Roxana Rodríguez-Romo, Nathan Berman, Arturo Gómez, Norma A Bobadilla
Epigenetic modifications have emerged as a new, important contributor to gene expression regulation in both normal and pathophysiological conditions. Epigenetics have been studied in many diseases and conditions such as acute kidney Injury (AKI), a syndrome with a high prevalence that carries a poor prognosis with increased morbidity and mortality. In addition, it has recently been shown that AKI increases the risk for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The specific molecular mechanisms by which AKI increases the risk of CKD and end stage renal disease (ESRD) remain unknown, although there is new evidence supporting a role of epigenetic changes...
May 25, 2015: Nephrology
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