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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794849/scaffolds-for-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cell-transplantation-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#1
REVIEW
Corina E White, Ronke M Olabisi
In several retinal degenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, the retinal pigment epithelium, a highly functionalized cell monolayer, becomes dysfunctional. These retinal diseases are marked by early retinal pigment epithelium dysfunction reducing its ability to maintain a healthy retina, hence making the retinal pigment epithelium an attractive target for treatment. Cell therapies, including bolus cell injections, have been investigated with mixed results. Since bolus cell injection does not promote the proper monolayer architecture, scaffolds seeded with retinal pigment epithelium cells and then implanted have been increasingly investigated...
January 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782506/an-inducible-form-of-nrf2-confers-enhanced-protection-against-acute-oxidative-stresses-in-rpe-cells
#2
Khiem T Vu, John D Hulleman
Increasing evidence suggests that overt oxidative stress within the retina plays an important role in the progression of age-related retinal decline, and in particular, in the disease age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2) is a master transcription factor that upregulates numerous of antioxidant/detoxification genes. Nrf2(-/-) mice develop progressive retinal degeneration that includes the formation of drusen-like deposits, lipofuscin, and sub-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) deposition of inflammatory proteins...
August 4, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768994/influx-transport-of-cationic-drug-at-the-blood-retinal-barrier-impact-on-the-retinal-delivery-of-neuroprotectants
#3
Yoshiyuki Kubo, Shin-Ichi Akanuma, Ken-Ichi Hosoya
The retina is a tissue essential for vision, and the blood-retina barrier (BRB) helps to maintain an optimal microenvironment for the neural system in the retina. Recent findings concerning the BRB showed the involvement of transporters at the inner and outer BRB in drug and nutrient transport, suggesting their utility in the development of novel drug delivery systems to the retina. An in vitro-in vivo relationship study of permeability suggested the influx transport of verapamil, a cationic drug, across the BRB, and further in vivo and in vitro studies of cationic drugs, such as verapamil, propranolol and clonidine, revealed the involvement of carrier-mediated process in their influx transport at the BRB...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763559/adiponectin-mediates-dietary-omega-3-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-protection-against-choroidal-neovascularization-in-mice
#4
Zhongjie Fu, Raffael Liegl, Zhongxiao Wang, Yan Gong, Chi-Hsiu Liu, Ye Sun, Bertan Cakir, Samuel B Burnim, Steven S Meng, Chatarina Löfqvist, John Paul SanGiovanni, Ann Hellström, Lois E H Smith
Purpose: Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of legal blindness in the elderly. Diets with omega3-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid (ω3-LCPUFA) correlate with a decreased risk of AMD. Dietary ω3-LCPUFA versus ω6-LCPUFA inhibits mouse ocular neovascularization, but the underlying mechanism needs further exploration. The aim of this study was to investigate if adiponectin (APN) mediated ω3-LCPUFA suppression of neovessels in AMD. Methods: The mouse laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) model was used to mimic some of the inflammatory aspect of AMD...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760679/amelioration-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-retinal-inflammatory-responses-by-a-lxr-agonist-to901317-is-associated-with-inhibition-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-and-nlrp3-inflammasome
#5
Chunyan Lei, Ru Lin, Jiaming Wang, Lifei Tao, Xinyu Fu, Yiguo Qiu, Bo Lei
Amyloid β (Aβ) is a pathogenic peptide associated with many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The retinal inflammation in response to Aβ is implicated in the pathogenesis of several ocular diseases including age-related macular degeneration, Alzheimer's-related optic neuropathy and glaucoma. In the present study, we found that a single intravitreal injection of oligomeric Aβ1-40 in mouse activated the NLRP3 inflammasome and the NF-κB signaling, induced the production of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6...
July 29, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760677/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-a-comprehensive-review-of-current-methods-and-clinical-applications
#6
REVIEW
Amir H Kashani, Chieh-Li Chen, Jin K Gahm, Fang Zheng, Grace M Richter, Philip J Rosenfeld, Yonggang Shi, Ruikang K Wang
OCT has revolutionized the practice of ophthalmology over the past 10-20 years. Advances in OCT technology have allowed for the creation of novel OCT-based methods. OCT-Angiography (OCTA) is one such method that has rapidly gained clinical acceptance since it was approved by the FDA in late 2016. OCTA images are based on the variable backscattering of light from the vascular and neurosensory tissue in the retina. Since the intensity and phase of backscattered light from retinal tissue varies based on the intrinsic movement of the tissue (e...
July 28, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756707/emerging-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-antagonists-to-treat-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration
#7
Rehan M Hussain, Thomas A Ciulla
Evolving anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatments for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) include long acting agents, combination strategies involving new pathways, topical agents, sustained-release, and genetic therapy strategies. Areas covered: Brolucizumab and abicipar pegol have smaller molecular size, facilitating higher concentrations and potentially longer duration than current anti-VEGF agents. Agents being combined with anti-VEGFs include OPT-302 (to inhibit VEGF-C and VEGF-D); pegpleranib and rinucumab (to inhibit platelet derived growth factor, PDGF - but both failed to show consistently improved visual outcomes compared to anti-VEGF monotherapy); and RG7716, ARP-1536 and nesvacumab (to activate the Tie-2 tyrosine kinase receptor, which reduces permeability)...
August 4, 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756618/antioxidant-vitamin-and-mineral-supplements-for-slowing-the-progression-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#8
REVIEW
Jennifer R Evans, John G Lawrenson
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that antioxidants may prevent cellular damage in the retina by reacting with free radicals that are produced in the process of light absorption. Higher dietary levels of antioxidant vitamins and minerals may reduce the risk of progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antioxidant vitamin or mineral supplementation on the progression of AMD in people with AMD...
July 31, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752371/retinal-dystrophy-and-subretinal-drusenoid-deposits-in-female-choroideremia-carriers
#9
Vittoria Murro, Dario Pasquale Mucciolo, Ilaria Passerini, Simona Palchetti, Andrea Sodi, Gianni Virgili, Stanislao Rizzo
PURPOSE: To describe clinical and molecular characteristics in a group of Italian female choroideremia (CHM) carriers and report fundus patterns. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 11 female carriers belonging to six CHM families examined at the Regional Reference Center for Hereditary Retinal Degenerations at the Eye Clinic in Florence. We took into consideration patients with a comprehensive ophthalmological examination, fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), full field electro-retinography (ERG), and visual field (VF)...
July 27, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750559/suppression-of-choroidal-neovascularization-in-mice-by-subretinal-delivery-of-multigenic-lentiviral-vectors-encoding-anti-angiogenic-micrornas
#10
Anne Louise Askou, Josephine Natalia Esther Benckendorff, Andreas Holmgaard, Tina Storm, Lars Aagaard, Toke Bek, Jacob Giehm Mikkelsen, Thomas Juhl Corydon
Lentivirus-based vectors have been used for the development of potent gene therapies. Here, we present application of a multigenic lentiviral vector (LV) producing multiple anti-angiogenic microRNAs following subretinal delivery in a laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) mouse model. This versatile LV, carrying back-to-back RNApolII-driven expression cassettes, enables combined expression of microRNAs targeting vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) mRNA, and fluorescent reporters. In addition, by including a vitelliform macular dystrophy 2 (VMD2) promoter, expression of microRNAs is restricted to the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells...
July 27, 2017: Human Gene Therapy Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738845/lutein-and-zeaxanthin-isomers-modulates-lipid-metabolism-and-the-inflammatory-state-of-retina-in-obesity-induced-high-fat-diet-rodent-model
#11
Mehmet Tuzcu, Cemal Orhan, Omer Ersin Muz, Nurhan Sahin, Vijaya Juturu, Kazım Sahin
BACKGROUND: Several studies associated high-fat intakes with a high incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Lutein and Zeaxanthin isomers (L/Zi) may counteract reactive oxygen species produced by oxidative stress. The present study was conducted to determine the possible effects of L/Zi administration on lipid profile, protein genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammation pathways in the obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rodents. METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups as follows: (i) Control, (ii) Control + L/Zi, (iii) High Fat Diet (HFD), and (iv) HFD+ L/Z...
July 24, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738764/neuroprotection-by-endo-cannabinoids-in-glaucoma-and-retinal-neurodegenerative-diseases
#12
Cinzia Rapino, Daniel Tortolani, Lucia Scipioni, Mauro Maccarrone
Emerging neuroprotective strategies are being explored to preserve the retina from degeneration, that occurs in eye pathologies like glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinitis pigmentosa. Incidentally, neuroprotection of retina is a defending mechanism designed to prevent or delay neuronal cell death, and to maintain neural function following an initial insult, thus avoiding loss of vision. Numerous studies have investigated potential neuroprotective properties of plant-derived phytocannabinoids, as well as of their endogenous counterparts collectively termed endocannabinoids (eCBs), in several degenerative diseases of the retina...
July 24, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735646/hyperhomocysteinemia-and-age-related-macular-degeneration-role-of-inflammatory-mediators-and-pyroptosis-a-proposal
#13
Mahavir Singh, Suresh C Tyagi
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and pyroptosis cause irreversible vascular changes in the eyes leading to central vision loss in patients. It is the most common eye disease affecting millions of people aged 50years or older, and is slowly becoming a major health problem worldwide. The disease mainly affects macula lutea, an oval-shaped pigmented area surrounding fovea near the center of retina, a region responsible for visual acuity. It is fairly a complex disease as genetics of patients, environmental triggers as well as risk factors such as age, family history of CVDs, diabetes, gender, obesity, race, hyperopia, iris color, smoking, diabetes, exposure to sun light and pyroptosis have all been clubbed together as probable causes of macular degeneration...
August 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728188/diagnosing-choroidal-neovascularization-in-asymptomatic-individuals-using-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#14
Michael M Park, Carl B Rebhun, Emily D Cole, Ricardo N Louzada, Eduardo A Novais, Fareed Rifai, A Yasin Alibhai, Jay S Duker, Nadia K Waheed
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a noninvasive, rapid imaging technique that generates angiographic images without intravenous dye injections. Cross-sectional studies have described the presence of asymptomatic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This case report describes the OCT features on longitudinal follow-up of a patient who started with unilateral asymptomatic CNV and eventually developed symptomatic exudative AMD...
July 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723848/progression-of-macular-atrophy-in-eyes-with-type-1-neovascularization-and-age-related-macular-degeneration-receiving-long-term-intravitreal-anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-therapy-an-optical-coherence-tomographic-angiography-analysis
#15
Joseph G Christenbury, Nopasak Phasukkijwatana, Fatimah Gilani, K Baily Freund, SriniVas Sadda, David Sarraf
PURPOSE: To evaluate the size and location of macular atrophy in eyes with Type-1 neovascularization (NV) and age-related macular degeneration receiving chronic intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. METHODS: A retrospective review of a case series of 27 eyes with Type-1 NV and retinal pigment epithelial detachment (PED) having a minimum of 12 months follow-up was performed. Demographic information and visual acuity at baseline and the final follow-up were collected...
July 18, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715590/optical-coherence-tomography-features-preceding-the-onset-of-advanced-age-related-macular-degeneration
#16
Daniela Ferrara, Rachel E Silver, Ricardo N Louzada, Eduardo A Novais, Giliann K Collins, Johanna M Seddon
Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive disease with multifactorial etiology. There is a need to identify clinical features that are harbingers of advanced disease. We evaluated morphologic features of the retina and choroid on optical coherence tomography (OCT) to determine if they predict progression to advanced disease. Methods: Progressors transitioned from early or intermediate AMD to advanced disease (n = 40 eyes), and were matched on baseline AMD grade and follow-up interval to nonprogressors who did not develop advanced AMD (n = 40 eyes)...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707091/-fluorescein-indocyanine-green-and-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-patients-with-native-exudative-age-related-macular-degeneration
#17
L J B Pauleikhoff, K Blobner, K Wehrmann, N Feucht, C P Lohmann, M Maier
INTRODUCTION: The newly developed optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) has provided new means to depict the vascular plexus in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). If these images are to be used as a basis for therapeutic decisions, it is of vital importance to classify choroidal neovascularization (CNV) as either classical or occult. This study aimed at comparing the findings in OCT-A imaging of CNV with the traditional multimodal imaging through fluorescein angiography (FLA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA)...
July 13, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706282/retinal-degeneration-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-measured-by-optical-coherence-tomography-and-scanning-laser-polarimetry
#18
Birthe Stemplewitz, Robert Kromer, Eik Vettorazzi, Ute Hidding, Andreas Frings, Carsten Buhmann
This cross-sectional study compared the retinal morphology between patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and healthy controls. (The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) around the optic disc and the retina in the macular area of 22 PSP patients and 151 controls were investigated by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Additionally, the RNFL and the nerve fiber index (NFI) were measured by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP). Results of RNFL measurements with SD-OCT and SLP were compared to assess diagnostic discriminatory power...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689265/aerobic-glycolysis-hypothesis-through-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-in-exudative-age-related-macular-degeneration
#19
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
Exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by molecular mechanisms responsible for the initiation of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Inflammatory processes are associated with upregulation of the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway in exudative AMD. We focus this review on the link between WNT/beta-catenin pathway activation and neovascular progression in exudative AMD through activation of aerobic glycolysis for production of angiogenic factors. Increased WNT/beta-catenin pathway involves hexokinase 2 (HK2) and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2)...
August 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663874/automated-intraretinal-segmentation-of-sd-oct-images-in-normal-and-age-related-macular-degeneration-eyes
#20
Luis de Sisternes, Gowtham Jonna, Jason Moss, Michael F Marmor, Theodore Leng, Daniel L Rubin
This work introduces and evaluates an automated intra-retinal segmentation method for spectral-domain optical coherence (SD-OCT) retinal images. While quantitative assessment of retinal features in SD-OCT data is important, manual segmentation is extremely time-consuming and subjective. We address challenges that have hindered prior automated methods, including poor performance with diseased retinas relative to healthy retinas, and data smoothing that obscures image features such as small retinal drusen. Our novel segmentation approach is based on the iterative adaptation of a weighted median process, wherein a three-dimensional weighting function is defined according to image intensity and gradient properties, and a set of smoothness constraints and pre-defined rules are considered...
March 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
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