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retina, macular degeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786089/spectral-analysis-of-fundus-autofluorescence-pattern-as-a-tool-to-detect-early-stages-of-degeneration-in-the-retina-and-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#1
Tatiana B Feldman, Marina A Yakovleva, Andrey V Larichev, Patimat M Arbukhanova, Alexandra Sh Radchenko, Sergey A Borzenok, Vladimir A Kuzmin, Mikhail A Ostrovsky
PURPOSE: The aim of this work is the determination of quantitative diagnostic criteria based on the spectral characteristics of fundus autofluorescence to detect early stages of degeneration in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). METHODS: RPE cell suspension samples were obtained from the cadaver eyes with and without signs of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Fluorescence analysis at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm was performed. The fluorescence lifetimes of lipofuscin-granule fluorophores were measured by counting time-correlated photon method...
May 22, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778783/intra-vitreal-%C3%AE-b-crystallin-fused-to-elastin-like-polypeptide-provides-neuroprotection-in-a-mouse-model-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#2
Parameswaran G Sreekumar, Zhe Li, Wan Wang, Christine Spee, David R Hinton, Ram Kannan, J Andrew MacKay
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe and irreversible central vision loss, and the primary site of AMD pathology is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Geographic atrophy (GA) is an advanced form of AMD characterized by extensive RPE cell loss, subsequent degeneration of photoreceptors, and thinning of retina. This report describes the protective potential of a peptide derived from the αB crystallin protein using a sodium iodate (NaIO3 ) induced mouse model of GA. Systemic NaIO3 challenge causes degeneration of the RPE and neighboring photoreceptors, which have similarities to retinas of GA patients...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777261/mitochondrial-quality-control-in-amd-does-mitophagy-play-a-pivotal-role
#3
REVIEW
Juha M T Hyttinen, Johanna Viiri, Kai Kaarniranta, Janusz Błasiak
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the predominant cause of visual loss in old people in the developed world, whose incidence is increasing. This disease is caused by the decrease in macular function, due to the degeneration of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. The aged retina is characterised by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), impaired autophagy, and DNA damage that are linked to AMD pathogenesis. Mitophagy, a mitochondria-specific type of autophagy, is an essential part of mitochondrial quality control, the collective mechanism responsible for this organelle's homeostasis...
May 18, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772047/swept-source-oct-angiography-identifies-choroidal-neovascularization-arising-from-a-choroidal-nevus
#4
Abed Namavari, Fang Zheng, Elie H Motulsky, João R de Oliveira Dias, Giovanni Gregori, Philip J Rosenfeld
Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) was used to diagnose choroidal neovascularization (CNV) arising from a choroidal nevus. A 61-year-old woman initially presented with submacular hemorrhage. She was diagnosed with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and received three injections of bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA). At a follow-up visit, SS-OCTA showed that the CNV appeared to arise from an adjacent choroidal nevus. This is the first report of using SS-OCTA to diagnose CNV associated with a choroidal nevus masquerading as neovascular AMD...
May 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772044/a-phase-1-open-label-dose-escalation-trial-to-investigate-safety-and-tolerability-of-single-intravitreous-injections-of-icon-1-targeting-tissue-factor-in-wet-amd
#5
John A Wells, Christine R Gonzales, Brian B Berger, Victor H Gonzalez, Brian D Sippy, Gabriela Burian
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This phase 1 study evaluated the safety and tolerability of single intravitreous injections (IVIs) of ICON-1 (Iconic Therapeutics, South San Francisco, CA) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). ICON-1 is a modified factor VIIa protein linked with the Fc portion of a human immunoglobulin G1. The molecule binds tissue factor overexpressed on choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in AMD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Open-label, interventional, dose-escalation trial in 18 patients with CNV due to AMD, with six patients per dose cohort...
May 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772042/subfoveal-choroidal-thickness-as-a-potential-predictor-of-clinical-response-to-stereotactic-radiotherapy-for-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration
#6
Mahdy Ranjbar, Maximilian Kurz, Annekatrin Holzhey, Dirk Rades, Salvatore Grisanti
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) is a new adjuvant treatment modality that has been shown to reduce the need for repetitive intravitreal injections (IVIs) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). The authors aimed to determine baseline predictors of clinical response to SRT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational case series of patients with nAMD who underwent SRT and subsequently had at least 12 months of complete follow-up...
May 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772040/oct-angiography-helps-distinguish-between-proliferative-macular-telangiectasia-type-2-and-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration
#7
Fang Zheng, Elie H Motulsky, João Rafael de Oliveira Dias, Edith Pérez de López, Giovanni Gregori, Philip J Rosenfeld
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the advantage of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) for the diagnosis and management of proliferative macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel2) masquerading as neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is an observational cases series. Three patients referred with the diagnosis of neovascular AMD were identified in this retrospective study. In addition to color fundus, fluorescein angiography, and spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) imaging, SD-OCTA (AngioPlex; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) was performed...
May 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767815/the-effect-of-glatiramer-acetate-on-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-thickness-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-a-longitudinal-optical-coherence-tomography-study
#8
Robert Zivadinov, Eleonora Tavazzi, Jesper Hagemeier, Ellen Carl, David Hojnacki, Channa Kolb, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman
BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technique that allows for the assessment of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) and total macular volume (TMV), which reflect neuroaxonal integrity within the retina. As such it has been used in multiple sclerosis (MS) to study neurodegeneration. Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a widely used treatment for MS, which is suggested to have a possible neuroprotective role. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess RFNLT and TMV changes in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients who started treatment with GA and were followed for a 24-month period...
May 16, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767720/functional-analyses-of-rare-genetic-variants-in-complement-component-c9-identified-in-patients-with-age-related-macular-degeneration
#9
Mariann Kremlitzka, Maartje J Geerlings, Sarah de Jong, Bjorn Bakker, Sara C Nilsson, Sascha Fauser, Carel B Hoyng, Eiko K de Jong, Anneke I den Hollander, Anna M Blom
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive disease of the central retina and the leading cause of irreversible vision loss in the western world. The involvement of abnormal complement activation in AMD has been suggested by association of variants in genes encoding complement proteins with disease development. A low-frequency variant (p.P167S) in the complement component C9 (C9) gene was recently shown to be highly associated with AMD, however its functional outcome remains largely unexplored. In this study, we reveal five novel rare genetic variants (p...
May 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766021/transduction-patterns-of-adeno-associated-viral-vectors-in-a-laser-induced-choroidal-neovascularization-mouse-model
#10
Si Hyung Lee, Ye Seul Kim, Seung Kwan Nah, Hee Jong Kim, Ha Yan Park, Jin Young Yang, Keerang Park, Tae Kwann Park
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector is a promising platform technology for ocular gene therapy. Recently clinical successes to treat choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in wet type age-related macular degeneration have been reported. However, because pathologic conditions of the retina may alter the tropism of viral vectors, it is necessary to evaluate the transduction efficiency of different serotypes of AAV vectors in the retinas with CNVs. Here, we show the patterns and efficacy of transduction of AAV2, -5, and -8 vectors in a laser-induced CNV mouse model...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762536/proteomics-of-human-retinal-pigment-epithelium-rpe-cells
#11
REVIEW
Sarka Beranova-Giorgianni, Francesco Giorgianni
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are specialized, multifunctional cells in the retina that form a monolayer of cuboidal, polarized cells adjoining the photoreceptor cells. The RPE are a critical component of the blood-retinal barrier, and they play essential functional roles for maintenance of retinal homeostasis and for support and health of photoreceptors. Age-dependent, progressive dysfunction and death of RPE cells and the resultant loss of photoreceptors contribute significantly to the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other retinal degenerative diseases...
May 15, 2018: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760571/multiple-extrafoveal-macular-holes-following-internal-limiting-membrane-peeling
#12
Nazimul Hussain, Sandip Mitra
Objective: Internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling has been the standard of treatment for macular holes. Besides, causing retinal nerve fiber layer surface abnormality, postoperative extrafoveal multiple retinal holes is a rare phenomenon following ILM peeling. We report an unusual complication of eight extrafoveal macular holes occurring following ILM peeling. Case presentation: A 60-year-old male presented with complaints of decreased and distorted vision in the right eye...
2018: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760528/lrrtm4-c538y-novel-gene-mutation-is-associated-with-hereditary-macular-degeneration-with-novel-dysfunction-of-on-type-bipolar-cells
#13
Yuichi Kawamura, Akiko Suga, Takuro Fujimaki, Kazutoshi Yoshitake, Kazushige Tsunoda, Akira Murakami, Takeshi Iwata
The macula is a unique structure in higher primates, where cone and rod photoreceptors show highest density in the fovea and the surrounding area, respectively. The hereditary macular dystrophies represent a heterozygous group of rare disorders characterized by central visual loss and atrophy of the macula and surrounding retina. Here we report an atypical absence of ON-type bipolar cell response in a Japanese patient with autosomal dominant macular dystrophy (adMD). To identify a causal genetic mutation for the adMD, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on four affected and four-non affected members of the family for three generations, and identified a novel p...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757338/automated-segmentation-of-the-choroid-in-edi-oct-images-with-retinal-pathology-using-convolution-neural-networks
#14
Min Chen, Jiancong Wang, Ipek Oguz, Brian L VanderBeek, James C Gee
The choroid plays a critical role in maintaining the portions of the eye responsible for vision. Specific alterations in the choroid have been associated with several disease states, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), central serous choroiretinopathy, retinitis pigmentosa and diabetes. In addition, choroid thickness measures have been shown as a predictive biomarker for treatment response and visual function. Where several approaches currently exist for segmenting the choroid in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of healthy retina, very few are capable of addressing images with retinal pathology...
September 2017: Fetal, infant and ophthalmic medical image analysis: International Workshop, FIFI 2017, and 4th International Workshop, OMIA 2017, held in conjunction with MICCAI 2017, Québec City, QC, Canada, September 14, Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748595/crispr-lbcpf1-prevents-choroidal-neovascularization-in-a-mouse-model-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#15
Taeyoung Koo, Sung Wook Park, Dong Hyun Jo, Daesik Kim, Jin Hyoung Kim, Hee-Yeon Cho, Jeungeun Kim, Jeong Hun Kim, Jin-Soo Kim
LbCpf1, derived from Lachnospiraceae bacterium ND2006, is a CRISPR RNA-guided endonuclease and holds promise for therapeutic applications. Here we show that LbCpf1 can be used for therapeutic gene editing in a mouse model of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The intravitreal delivery of LbCpf1, targeted to two angiogenesis-associated genes encoding vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) and hypoxia inducing factor 1a (Hif1a), using adeno-associated virus, led to efficient gene disruption with no apparent off-target effects in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells...
May 10, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748512/protective-effect-of-highly-polymeric-a-type-proanthocyanidins-from-seed-shells-of-japanese-horse-chestnut-aesculus-turbinata-blume-against-light-induced-oxidative-damage-in-rat-retina
#16
Tomoe Ishihara, Sachiko Kaidzu, Hideto Kimura, Yasurou Koyama, Yotaro Matsuoka, Akihiro Ohira
Retinal tissue is exposed to oxidative stress caused by visible light. Light-damaged rat used in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) studies clarified that antioxidants decrease retinal light damage. Albino rats were exposed to 5000 Lux light for 12 h with oral administration of the polyphenolic compounds fraction (PF) from the seed shells of Japanese horse chestnut (30 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg body weight: BW). To evaluate the protective effects against light damage, electroretinograms (ERGs), the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness, the antioxidant activity of plasma, oxidized retinal lipids, and the detection of apoptosis were examined...
May 10, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743491/classical-and-alternative-complement-activation-on-photoreceptor-outer-segments-drives-monocyte-dependent-retinal-atrophy
#17
Kenneth J Katschke, Hongkang Xi, Christian Cox, Tom Truong, Yann Malato, Wyne P Lee, Brent McKenzie, Rommel Arceo, Jianhua Tao, Linda Rangell, Mike Reichelt, Lauri Diehl, Justin Elstrott, Robby M Weimer, Menno van Lookeren Campagne
Geographic atrophy (GA), the advanced form of dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), is characterized by progressive loss of retinal pigment epithelium cells and photoreceptors in the setting of characteristic extracellular deposits and remains a serious unmet medical need. While genetic predisposition to AMD is dominated by polymorphisms in complement genes, it remains unclear how complement activation contributes to retinal atrophy. Here we demonstrate that complement is activated on photoreceptor outer segments (POS) in the retina peripheral to atrophic lesions associated with GA...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736323/thermal-stimulation-of-the-retina-reduces-bruch-s-membrane-thickness-in-age-related-macular-degeneration-mouse-models
#18
Jan Tode, Elisabeth Richert, Stefan Koinzer, Alexa Klettner, Claus von der Burchard, Ralf Brinkmann, Ralph Lucius, Johann Roider
Purpose: To investigate the effect of thermal stimulation of the retina (TS-R) on Bruch's membrane (BrM) thickness in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) mouse models as a novel concept for the prophylaxis and treatment of dry AMD. Methods: Two knockout AMD mouse models, B6.129P2-Apoetm1Unc /J (ApoE-/-) and B6.129X1-Nfe2I2tm1Ywk /J (NRF2-/-), were chosen. One randomized eye of each mouse in four different groups (two of different age, two of different genotype) of five mice was treated by TS-R (532 nm, 10-ms duration, 50-μm spot size), the fellow eye served as control...
May 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735674/defective-phagosome-motility-and-degradation-in-cell-nonautonomous-rpe-pathogenesis-of-a-dominant-macular-degeneration
#19
Julian Esteve-Rudd, Roni A Hazim, Tanja Diemer, Antonio E Paniagua, Stefanie Volland, Ankita Umapathy, David S Williams
Stargardt macular dystrophy 3 (STGD3) is caused by dominant mutations in the ELOVL4 gene. Like other macular degenerations, pathogenesis within the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) appears to contribute to the loss of photoreceptors from the central retina. However, the RPE does not express ELOVL4 , suggesting photoreceptor cell loss in STGD3 occurs through two cell nonautonomous events: mutant photoreceptors first affect RPE cell pathogenesis, and then, second, RPE dysfunction leads to photoreceptor cell death...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734810/theoretical-insights-into-the-retinal-dynamics-of-vegf-in-patients-treated-with-ranibizumab-based-on-an-ocular-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model
#20
Laurence A Hutton-Smith, Eamonn A Gaffney, Helen M Byrne, Antonello Caruso, Philip K Maini, Norman Alan Mazer
Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD) results from the pathological angiogenesis of choroidal capillaries, which leak fluid within or below the macular region of the retina. The current standard of care for treating wet AMD utilizes intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF antibodies or antibody fragments to suppress ocular VEGF levels. While VEGF suppression has been demonstrated in wet AMD patients by serial measurements of free-VEGF concentrations in aqueous humor samples, it is presumed that anti-VEGF molecules also permeate across the inner limiting membrane (ILM) of the retina as well as the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and suppress VEGF-levels in the retina and/or choroidal regions...
May 7, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
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