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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162627/a-therapeutic-combination-of-gpcr-modulators-that-protects-photoreceptors-from-degeneration
#1
Tivadar Orban, Henri Leinonen, Tamar Getter, Zhiqian Dong, Wenyu Sun, Songqi Gao, Alexander Veenstra, Hossein Heidari-Torkabadi, Timothy S Kern, Philip D Kiser, Krzysztof Palczewski
Degeneration of retinal photoreceptor cells can arise from environmental and/or genetic causes. Since photoreceptor cells, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), neurons and glial cells of the retina are intimately associated; all cell types eventually are affected by retinal degenerative diseases. Such diseases often originate either in rod and/or cone photoreceptor cells or the RPE. Of these, cone cells located in the central retina are especially important for daily human activity. Here we describe the protection of cone cells by a combination therapy consisting of the G protein-coupled receptor modulators metoprolol, tamsulosin, and bromocriptine...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160788/reliability-of-confocal-white-light-fundus-imaging-for-measurement-of-retina-pigment-epithelial-atrophy-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#2
Jianqin Lei, Mayss Al-Sheikh, Yue Shi, Akihito Uji, Wenying Fan, Siva Balasubramanian, SriniVas R Sadda
PURPOSE: To assess the reproducibility of confocal white-light color fundus photography (C-CFP) for the measurement of retinal pigment epithelial atrophy in comparison with confocal blue-light fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging and flash color fundus photography (F-CFP). METHODS: In this prospective study, eyes with age-related macular degeneration associated with evidence of retinal pigment epithelial atrophy were imaged by C-CFP, F-CFP, and FAF. Intergrader reproducibility of each modality was assessed by comparison of manual measurements by two expert graders...
November 16, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158871/effects-of-novel-nitric-oxide-releasing-molecules-against-oxidative-stress-on-retinal-pigmented-epithelial-cells
#3
Valeria Pittalà, Annamaria Fidilio, Francesca Lazzara, Chiara Bianca Maria Platania, Loredana Salerno, Roberta Foresti, Filippo Drago, Claudio Bucolo
Oxidative stress is a hallmark of retinal degenerations such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Enhancement of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity in the retina would exert beneficial effects by protecting cells from oxidative stress, therefore promoting cell survival. Because a crosstalk exists between nitric oxide (NO) and HO-1 in promotion of cell survival under oxidative stress, we designed novel NO-releasing molecules also capable to induce HO-1. Starting from curcumin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), two known HO-1 inducers, the molecules were chemically modified by acylation with 4-bromo-butanoyl chloride and 2-chloro-propanoyl chloride, respectively, and then treated in the dark with AgNO3 to obtain the nitrate derivatives VP10/12 and VP10/39...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157443/a-benchmark-study-of-automated-intra-retinal-cyst-segmentation-algorithms-using-optical-coherence-tomography-b-scans
#4
G N Girish, V A Anima, Abhishek R Kothari, P V Sudeep, Sohini Roychowdhury, Jeny Rajan
(BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES): Retinal cysts are formed by accumulation of fluid in the retina caused by leakages from inflammation or vitreous fractures. Analysis of the retinal cystic spaces holds significance in detection and treatment of several ocular diseases like age-related macular degeneration, diabetic macular edema etc. Thus, segmentation of intra-retinal cysts and quantification of cystic spaces are vital for retinal pathology and severity detection. In the recent years, automated segmentation of intra-retinal cysts using optical coherence tomography B-scans has gained significant importance in the field of retinal image analysis...
January 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155757/dissection-of-human-retina-and-rpe-choroid-for-proteomic-analysis
#5
Thiago Cabral, Marcus A Toral, Gabriel Velez, James E DiCarlo, Anuradha M Gore, MaryAnn Mahajan, Stephen H Tsang, Alexander G Bassuk, Vinit B Mahajan
The human retina is composed of the sensory neuroretina and the underlying retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), which is firmly complexed to the vascular choroid layer. Different regions of the retina are anatomically and molecularly distinct, facilitating unique functions and demonstrating differential susceptibility to disease. Proteomic analysis of each of these regions and layers can provide vital insights into the molecular process of many diseases, including Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD), diabetes mellitus, and glaucoma...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145690/-visual-analysis-of-retinal-oct-data
#6
Martin Röhlig, Anselm Jünemann, Dagmar-Christiane Fischer, Ruby Kala Prakasam, Oliver Stachs, Heidrun Schumann
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables noninvasive high-resolution 3D imaging of the human retina, and thus plays a fundamental role in ophthalmology. Via OCT examination, even subtle retinal changes can be captured, which occur in very early stages of different diseases (e.g., glaucoma, diabetes mellitus, or age-related macular degeneration). Yet, analyzing the resulting data is challenging. Conventionally, OCT data are strongly aggregated via automated methods. While this reduces the amount of information to be analyzed, it also makes it difficult, if not impossible, to identify small and localized retinal changes...
November 16, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135322/retinal-structure-in-pre-clinical-age-related-macular-degeneration
#7
S Nusinowitz, Y Wang, P Kim, S Habib, R Baron, Y Conley, M Gorin
PURPOSE: To determine, if there are identifiable retinal structural changes associated with genetic risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-three subjects (range 51.5 to 68.9 years) participated in this prospective study. Subjects were recruited based on the presence of a family history of AMD in one or both parents. All participants underwent a complete ophthalmic exam and imagery for staging of disease severity and genetic testing to assess genetic risk for AMD development...
November 14, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133122/involvement-of-cannabinoid-receptor-type-2-in-light-induced-degeneration-of-cells-from-mouse-retinal-cell-line-in-vitro-and-mouse-photoreceptors-in-vivo
#8
Tomoyo Imamura, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Yuki Inoue, Tomohiro Otsuka, Yuta Ohno, Shiho Ogami, Shinsaku Yamane, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideaki Hara
Earlier studies showed that the expressions of the agonists of the cannabinoid receptors are reduced in the vitreous humor of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and the cannabinoid type 2 receptor is present in the retinas of rats and monkeys. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the cannabinoid type 2 receptor is involved in the light-induced death of cultured 661W cells, an immortalized murine retinal cell line, and in the light-induced retinal degeneration in mice. Time-dependent changes in the expression and location of retinal cannabinoid type 2 receptor were determined by Western blot and immunostaining...
November 10, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110945/the-progression-of-geographic-atrophy-secondary-to-age-related-macular-degeneration
#9
REVIEW
Monika Fleckenstein, Paul Mitchell, K Bailey Freund, SriniVas Sadda, Frank G Holz, Christopher Brittain, Erin C Henry, Daniela Ferrara
Geographic atrophy (GA) is an advanced form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) that leads to progressive and irreversible loss of visual function. Geographic atrophy is defined by the presence of sharply demarcated atrophic lesions of the outer retina, resulting from loss of photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and underlying choriocapillaris. These lesions typically appear first in the perifoveal macula, initially sparing the foveal center, and over time often expand and coalesce to include the fovea...
October 27, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110609/bmp3-is-required-for-integrity-of-blood-brain-barrier-by-promoting-pericyte-coverage-in-zebrafish-embryos
#10
D Lei, X Jin, L Wen, H Dai, Z Ye, G Wang
BACKGROUND: The compromise of blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity is often associated with human hemorrhage stroke and neurodegeneration diseases, including retina diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Brain pericytes play pivotal roles in regulation and maintenance of BBB integrity. However, the mechanisms underlying brain pericyte development to establish BBB integrity remain unclear. METHODS: zebrafish transgenic lines Tg(flk1:GFP; gata1:dsRed), Tg(flk1:GFP), Tg(fli1:GFP) and Tg(BRE:GFP) were used in this work...
November 5, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103793/consensus-definition-for-atrophy-associated-with-age-related-macular-degeneration-on-oct-classification-of-atrophy-report-3
#11
Srinivas R Sadda, Robyn Guymer, Frank G Holz, Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg, Christine A Curcio, Alan C Bird, Barbara A Blodi, Ferdinando Bottoni, Usha Chakravarthy, Emily Y Chew, Karl Csaky, Ronald P Danis, Monika Fleckenstein, K Bailey Freund, Juan Grunwald, Carel B Hoyng, Glenn J Jaffe, Sandra Liakopoulos, Jordi M Monés, Daniel Pauleikhoff, Philip J Rosenfeld, David Sarraf, Richard F Spaide, Ramin Tadayoni, Adnan Tufail, Sebastian Wolf, Giovanni Staurenghi
PURPOSE: To develop consensus terminology and criteria for defining atrophy based on OCT findings in the setting of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: Consensus meeting. PARTICIPANTS: Panel of retina specialists, image reading center experts, retinal histologists, and optics engineers. METHODS: As part of the Classification of Atrophy Meetings (CAM) program, an international group of experts surveyed the existing literature, performed a masked analysis of longitudinal multimodal imaging for a series of eyes with AMD, and reviewed the results of this analysis to define areas of agreement and disagreement...
November 2, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098642/oxidation-induced-increase-in-photoreactivity-of-bovine-retinal-lipid-extract
#12
A Koscielniak, M Serafin, M Duda, T Oles, A Zadlo, A Broniec, O Berdeaux, S Gregoire, L Bretillon, T Sarna, A Pawlak
The mammalian retina contains a high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) (DHA), which are highly susceptible to oxidation. It has been shown that one of the products of DHA oxidation-carboxyethylpyrrole (CEP), generated in situ, causes modifications of retinal proteins and induces inflammation response in the outer retina. These contributing factors may play a role in the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). It is also possible that some of the lipid oxidation products are photoreactive, and upon irradiation with blue light may generate reactive oxygen species...
November 2, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095872/multi-categorical-deep-learning-neural-network-to-classify-retinal-images-a-pilot-study-employing-small-database
#13
Joon Yul Choi, Tae Keun Yoo, Jeong Gi Seo, Jiyong Kwak, Terry Taewoong Um, Tyler Hyungtaek Rim
Deep learning emerges as a powerful tool for analyzing medical images. Retinal disease detection by using computer-aided diagnosis from fundus image has emerged as a new method. We applied deep learning convolutional neural network by using MatConvNet for an automated detection of multiple retinal diseases with fundus photographs involved in STructured Analysis of the REtina (STARE) database. Dataset was built by expanding data on 10 categories, including normal retina and nine retinal diseases. The optimal outcomes were acquired by using a random forest transfer learning based on VGG-19 architecture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093709/age-related-macular-degeneration-a-connection-between-human-herpes-virus-6a-induced-cd46-downregulation-and-complement-activation
#14
Walter Fierz
Viruses are able to interfere with the immune system by docking to receptors on host cells that are important for proper functioning of the immune system. A well-known example is the human immunodeficiency virus that uses CD4 cell surface molecules to enter host lymphocytes and thereby deleteriously destroying the helper cell population of the immune system. A more complicated mechanism is seen in multiple sclerosis (MS) where human herpes virus-6A (HHV-6A) infects astrocytes by docking to the CD46 surface receptor...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084330/characterizing-the-natural-history-of-visual-function-in-choroideremia-using-microperimetry-and-multimodal-retinal-imaging
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jasleen K Jolly, Kanmin Xue, Thomas L Edwards, Markus Groppe, Robert E MacLaren
Purpose: Centripetal retinal degeneration in choroideremia (CHM) leads to early visual field restriction and late central vision loss. The latter marks an acute decline in quality of life but visual prognostication remains challenging. We investigated visual function in CHM by correlating best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), microperimetry and multimodal imaging. Methods: Fifty-six consecutive CHM patients attending Oxford Eye Hospital were examined with BCVA, 10-2 microperimetry, optical coherence tomography, and fundus autofluorescence (AF)...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079450/the-expanded-spectrum-of-perifoveal-exudative-vascular-anomalous-complex
#16
Riccardo Sacconi, K Bailey Freund, Lawrence A Yannuzzi, Rosa Dolz-Marco, Eric Souied, Vittorio Capuano, Oudy Semoun, Nopasak Phasukkijwatana, David Sarraf, Adriano Carnevali, Lea Querques, Francesco Bandello, Giuseppe Querques
PURPOSE: to expand our understanding of the uncommon entity, referred to as perifoveal exudative vascular anomalous complex (PEVAC) by describing multimodal imaging findings, including optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCT-A). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with PEVAC were identified at 4 retina referral centers worldwide and underwent complete ophthalmologic examination including structural OCT, OCT-A, fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA)...
October 24, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060314/network-mediated-responses-of-on-ganglion-cells-to-electric-stimulation-become-less-consistent-across-trials-during-retinal-degeneration
#17
Jae-Ik Lee, Shelley I Fried, Maesoon Im
Microelectronic retinal prostheses are being developed to restore sight in individuals blinded by outer retinal degenerative diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. Unfortunately, the quality of vision restored by these devices is still limited. To improve the quality of elicited vision, our group studies the responses of retinal neurons to electric stimulation. Our previous work showed that responses mediated through the retinal network are reproducible with high temporal precision, even for spikes that occur >100 ms after stimulus onset...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057386/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-oct-angiography-to-detect-choroidal-neovascularization
#18
Ambar Faridi, Yali Jia, Simon S Gao, David Huang, Kavita V Bhavsar, David J Wilson, Andrew Sill, Christina J Flaxel, Thomas S Hwang, Andreas K Lauer, Steven T Bailey
PURPOSE: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in the detection of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: Prospective case series. SUBJECTS: Prospective series of seventy-two eyes were studied, which included eyes with treatment-naive CNV due to AMD, non-neovascular AMD, and normal controls. METHODS: All eyes underwent OCTA with a spectral domain (SD) OCT (Optovue, Inc...
July 2017: Ophthalmology retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055734/development-of-copolymeric-nanoparticles-of-hypocrellin-b-enhanced-phototoxic-effect-and-ocular-distribution
#19
Venkateshwaran Krishnaswami, Chandrasekar Ponnusamy, Senthilkumar Sankareswaran, Muthuselvam Paulsamy, Madi Madiyalakan, Rajaguru Palanisamy, Ruckmani Kandasamy, Subramanian Natesan
In the present work, we have developed a photosensitizer hypocrellin B (HB) and nano silver loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles with improved singlet oxygen production for enhanced photodynamic effect for the efficient treatment of age related macular degeneration. Random copolymer (PLGA-TPGS) synthesized by ring opening and bulk polymerization was characterized by IR, (1)H NMR and TGA analysis. HBS-CP-NPs prepared by nanoprecipitation techniques were spherical shaped 89.6-753.6nm size particles with negative zeta potential...
October 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055730/-management-of-wet-amd-in-france-in-2015
#20
J Zerbib, A Bourhis, P L Cornut, F De Bats, V Gualino, J Halfon, H Massé, M Srour, M Streho, S Tick, B Wolff, N San Nicolas
PURPOSE AND CONTEXT: Intravitreal administration of anti-VEGF agents, available in France since 2007, allows stabilization and improvement in visual acuity in wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the past few years, the management of this disease has evolved in terms of both diagnostic methods and treatment schedules, which have been adapted to the pathophysiology of AMD. The goal of this survey, performed in a representative sample of French ophthalmologists, was to describe the evolution of medical practices one year after a similar survey (Massé et al...
November 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
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