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Neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079675/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-dementia
#1
Orestes V Forlenza, Júlia Cunha Loureiro, Marcos Vasconcelos Pais, Florindo Stella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present article addresses intriguing questions related to the clinical intervention in distinct neuropsychiatric syndromes of patients with dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: We reviewed 154 articles published between 2015 and 2016 targeting psychopharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions, and safety-tolerability concerns. We selected 115 articles addressing the purpose of this study. Of these, 33 were chosen because they were dedicated to subtopics: agitation (42), depression (33), apathy (18), sleep disorders/anxiety (8), and psychosis (4)...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067961/quality-of-life-in-relation-to-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-alzheimer-s-disease-5-year-prospective-alsova-cohort-study
#2
Kristiina Hongisto, Ilona Hallikainen, Tuomas Selander, Soili Törmälehto, Saku Väätäinen, Janne Martikainen, Tarja Välimäki, Sirpa Hartikainen, Jaana Suhonen, Anne M Koivisto
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) with self- and caregiver-rated Quality of Life (QoL) for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) during a 5-year follow-up. METHODS: The ALSOVA 5-year follow-up study included, at baseline, 236 patients with either very mild (Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) 0.5), or mild (CDR 1) AD, together with their caregivers from three Finnish hospital districts. QoL was evaluated using patient self-reported, and caregiver-rated, QoL in AD (QoL-AD) scores...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067736/alzheimer-s-disease-and-exercise-a-literature-review
#3
Shane P Cass
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that impairs memory and cognitive judgment. It is the leading cause of dementia in late adult life and is associated with a significant social burden and increased morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Because of mixed effectiveness of medications, exercise has been considered as a treatment for pre-clinical AD, late stage AD, and as a prevention strategy. Exercise appears to improve brain blood flow, increase hippocampal volume, and improve neurogenesis...
January 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063022/identification-of-a-syndrome-class-of-neuropsychiatric-adverse-reactions-to-mefloquine-from-latent-class-modeling-of-fda-adverse-event-reporting-system-data
#4
Remington L Nevin, Jeannie-Marie Leoutsakos
INTRODUCTION: Although mefloquine use is known to be associated with a risk of severe neuropsychiatric adverse reactions that are often preceded by prodromal symptoms, specific combinations of neurologic or psychiatric reactions associated with mefloquine use are not well described in the literature. This study sought to identify a distinct neuropsychiatric syndrome class associated with mefloquine use in reports of adverse events. METHODS: Latent class modeling of US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data was performed using indicators defined by the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities neurologic and psychiatric high-level group terms, in a study dataset of FAERS reports (n = 5332) of reactions to common antimalarial drugs...
January 6, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059789/the-mild-behavioral-impairment-checklist%C3%A2-mbi-c-a-rating-scale-for%C3%A2-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in%C3%A2-pre-dementia-populations
#5
Zahinoor Ismail, Luis Agüera-Ortiz, Henry Brodaty, Alicja Cieslak, Jeffrey Cummings, Corinne E Fischer, Serge Gauthier, Yonas E Geda, Nathan Herrmann, Jamila Kanji, Krista L Lanctôt, David S Miller, Moyra E Mortby, Chiadi U Onyike, Paul B Rosenberg, Eric E Smith, Gwenn S Smith, David L Sultzer, Constantine Lyketsos
BACKGROUND: Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) is a construct that describes the emergence at ≥50 years of age of sustained and impactful neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), as a precursor to cognitive decline and dementia. MBI describes NPS of any severity, which are not captured by traditional psychiatric nosology, persist for at least 6 months, and occur in advance of or in concert with mild cognitive impairment. While the detection and description of MBI has been operationalized in the International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment - Alzheimer's Association (ISTAART-AA) research diagnostic criteria, there is no instrument that accurately reflects MBI as described...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035931/psychotropic-polypharmacy-in-patients-with%C3%A2-dementia-prevalence-and-predictors
#6
Ane Nørgaard, Christina Jensen-Dahm, Christiane Gasse, Elsebet Steno Hansen, Gunhild Waldemar
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotics and other psychotropics are frequently used to treat neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with dementia, even though the evidence for effect is limited. Concerns have been raised about the safety of antipsychotics, but concomitant use of multiple psychotropic drug classes (psychotropic polypharmacy) may also pose a risk for patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with use of psychotropic polypharmacy in patients with dementia...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035924/the-effect-of-the-association-between-donepezil-and-choline-alphoscerate-on-behavioral-disturbances-in-alzheimer-s-disease-interim-results-of-the-ascomalva-trial
#7
Anna Carotenuto, Raffaele Rea, Enea Traini, Angiola Maria Fasanaro, Giovanna Ricci, Valentino Manzo, Francesco Amenta
BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are a group of psychological reactions, psychiatric symptoms, and behaviors commonly found in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Four clusters of BPSD have been described: mood disorders (depression, anxiety, and apathy), psychotic symptoms (delusions and hallucinations), aberrant motor behaviors (pacing, wandering, and other purposeless behaviors), and inappropriate behaviors (agitation, disinhibition, and euphoria). Most of them are attributed to acetylcholine deficiency...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017516/inappropriate-sexual-behaviors-among-community-dwelling-patients-with-dementia
#8
Marco Canevelli, Flaminia Lucchini, Carlo Garofalo, Giuseppina Talarico, Alessandro Trebbastoni, Fabrizia D'Antonio, Letizia Imbriano, Patrizia Velotti, Carlo de Lena, Marina Gasparini, Giuseppe Bruno
OBJECTIVE: Inappropriate sexual behaviors (ISBs) represent challenging and stressful manifestations of dementia and are highly burdening for patients, families, and healthcare providers. Nevertheless, ISBs have so far attracted limited clinical and scientific interest compared with other neuropsychiatric symptoms occurring in dementing illnesses. The authors aimed to systematically investigate the prevalence and characteristics of ISBs in a population of patients with dementia attending a memory clinic...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005562/neuropsychological-testing-in-pathologically-verified-alzheimer-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia-how-well-do-the-uniform-data-set-measures-differentiate-between-diseases
#9
Aaron R Ritter, Gabriel C Leger, Justin B Miller, Sarah J Banks
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Differences in cognition between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer disease (AD) are well described in clinical cohorts, but have rarely been confirmed in studies with pathologic verification. For emerging therapeutics to succeed, determining underlying pathology early in the disease course is increasingly important. Neuropsychological evaluation is an important component of the diagnostic workup for AD and FTD. Patients with FTD are thought to have greater deficits in language and executive function while patients with AD are more likely to have deficits in memory...
December 21, 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001137/covert-medications-act-of-compassion-or-conspiracy-of-silence
#10
Robert C Macauley
As the population in the United States gets older, more people suffer from dementia, which often causes neuropsychiatric symptoms such as agitation and paranoia. This can lead patients to refuse medications, prompting consideration of covert administration (that is, concealing medication in food or drink). While many condemn this practice as paternalistic, deceptive, and potentially harmful, the end result of assuming the "moral high ground" can be increased suffering for patients and families. This article addresses common criticisms of covert medication and presents a detailed algorithm by which to determine whether the practice is ethically permissible in specific cases...
2016: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999539/an-overview-of-systematic-reviews-of-ginkgo-biloba-extracts-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#11
REVIEW
Hong-Feng Zhang, Li-Bo Huang, Yan-Biao Zhong, Qi-Hui Zhou, Hui-Lin Wang, Guo-Qing Zheng, Yan Lin
Ginkgo biloba extracts (GBEs) have been recommended to improve cognitive function and to prevent cognitive decline, but earlier evidence was inconclusive. Here, we evaluated all systematic reviews of GBEs for prevention of cognitive decline, and intervention of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Six databases from their inception to September 2015 were searched. Ten systematic reviews were identified, including reviews about Alzheimer's disease (n = 3), about vascular dementia (n = 1), about both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia (n = 2), about Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and mixed dementia (n = 3), and a review about MCI (n = 1)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983551/benefits-of-occupational-therapy-in-dementia-patients-findings-from-a-real-world-observational-study
#12
Clément Pimouguet, Mléanie Le Goff, Jérôme Wittwer, Jean-François Dartigues, Catherine Helmer
BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in developing non-pharmacological approaches in dementia. Clinical efficacy occupational therapy (OT) under routine care conditions has not been investigated yet. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the short-term effects of OT in patients with dementia; and to identify factors related to greater benefit. METHODS: Patients referred to OT were evaluated before starting a 3-month intervention and at 3 and 6 months later...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943639/genetic-prion-disease-experience-of-a-rapidly-progressive-dementia-center-in-the-united-states-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#13
REVIEW
Leonel T Takada, Mee-Ohk Kim, Ross W Cleveland, Katherine Wong, Sven A Forner, Ignacio Illán Gala, Jamie C Fong, Michael D Geschwind
Although prion diseases are generally thought to present as rapidly progressive dementias with survival of only a few months, the phenotypic spectrum for genetic prion diseases (gPrDs) is much broader. The majority have a rapid decline with short survival, but many patients with gPrDs present as slowly progressive ataxic or parkinsonian disorders with progression over a few to several years. A few very rare mutations even present as neuropsychiatric disorders, sometimes with systemic symptoms such as gastrointestinal disorders and neuropathy, progressing over years to decades...
January 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917740/delirium-superimposed-on-dementia-phenomenological-differences-between-patients-with-and-without-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-in-a-specialized-delirium-unit
#14
Jennifer Abengaña, Mei Sian Chong, Laura Tay
BACKGROUND: Overlap between neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia and delirium complicates diagnosis of delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD). This study sought to examine differences in delirium presentation and outcomes between DSD patients with and without pre-existing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of older adults with DSD admitted to a specialized delirium unit (December 2010-August 2012)...
December 5, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912905/effects-of-aromatherapy-on-agitation-and-related-caregiver-burden-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-dementia-a-pilot-study
#15
Tugce Turten Kaymaz, Leyla Ozdemir
We examined the effects of aromatherapy on agitation in patients with dementia and evaluated related caregiver burden. Patients and their caregivers from two hospitals in Turkey were selected and divided into an intervention group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 14). Patients were stratified according to their dementia phase and intake of antipsychotic medication. The intervention group received aromatherapy via massage and inhalation at home for 4 weeks. The control group received no intervention. Data were collected using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) and the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI)...
November 29, 2016: Geriatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911311/risk-factors-and-pathological-substrates-associated-with-agitation-aggression-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-preliminary-study-using-nacc-data
#16
Simrin Sennik, Tom A Schweizer, Corinne E Fischer, David G Munoz
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A number of studies have targeted psychosis, i.e., hallucinations and delusions in AD, but few have assessed agitation/aggression in AD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors and pathological substrates associated with presence [A(+)] and absence [A(-)] of agitation/aggression (A) in autopsy-confirmed AD. METHODS: Data was collected from the UDS data as of 2015 on the NACC database...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899689/herbal-medicine-for-management-of-the-behavioural-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-bpsd-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Anna J Hyde, Brian H May, Lin Dong, Mei Feng, Shaonan Liu, Xinfeng Guo, Anthony Lin Zhang, Chuanjian Lu, Charlie Changli Xue
Management of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia remains a challenge worldwide. Herbal medicines may play a role in the development of new interventions. To determine effects of herbal medicines for management of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, meta-analysis was conducted of 31 controlled trials (3613 participants). Frequently tested herbal medicines were the Ginkgo biloba leaf extract EGb 761 (seven studies) and the multi-ingredient formula Yokukansan (eight studies)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890543/hearing-care-intervention-for-persons-with-dementia-a-pilot-study
#18
Sara K Mamo, Olivia Nirmalasari, Carrie L Nieman, Matthew K McNabney, Allison Simpson, Esther S Oh, Frank R Lin
OBJECTIVE: Hearing loss is a commonly unmet need among adults with dementia that may exacerbate common dementia-related behavioral symptoms. Accessing traditional audiology services for hearing loss is a challenge because of high cost and time commitment. To improve accessibility and affordability of hearing treatment for persons with dementia, there is a need for unique service delivery models. The purpose of this study is to test a novel hearing intervention for persons with dementia and family caregivers delivered in outpatient settings...
January 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870597/exercise-training-for-persons-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-caregivers-a-review-of-dyadic-exercise-interventions
#19
Guillaume Lamotte, Raj C Shah, Orly Lazarov, Daniel M Corcos
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and the prevalence will increase dramatically in the next decades. Although exercise has shown benefits for people with dementia due to AD as well as their caregivers, the impact of a dyadic exercise intervention including both groups as study participants remains to be determined. The authors review the current clinical evidence for dyadic exercise interventions, which are exercise regimens applied to both the person with dementia and the caregiver...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862176/inflammasomes-hormesis-and-antioxidants-in-neuroinflammation-role-of-nrlp3-in-alzheimer-disease
#20
REVIEW
Manuela Pennisi, Rosalia Crupi, Rosanna Di Paola, Maria Laura Ontario, Rita Bella, Edward J Calabrese, Roberto Crea, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Vittorio Calabrese
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder leading to cognitive decline, neuropsychiatric symptoms, disability, caregiver burden, and premature death. It represents the most prevalent cause of dementia, and its incidence rates exponentially increase with increasing age. The number of Americans living with AD is rapidly increasing. An estimated 5.4 million Americans of all ages have AD in 2016. One in nine people aged 65 and older has AD, and by midcentury, someone in the United States will develop the disease every 33 sec...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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