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Neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia

Claudio Liguori, Mariangela Pierantozzi, Agostino Chiaravalloti, Giulia M Sancesario, Nicola B Mercuri, Flaminia Franchini, Orazio Schillaci, Giuseppe Sancesario
Late-life depression (LLD) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are the two most frequent neuropsychiatric disorders affecting elderly. LLD and AD may clinically present with depressive and cognitive symptoms. Therefore, when cognitive decline is coupled with depression in the elderly, the differential diagnosis between LLD and AD could be challenging. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in a population of elderly patients affected by depression and dementia the usefulness of CSF AD biomarkers (tau proteins and β-amyloid42 -Aβ42 ) and 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (18FFDG-PET) in early differentiating LLD from AD...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Dawn Brooker, Simon Evans, Shirley Evans, Jennifer Bray, Francesca Lea Saibene, Claudia Scorolli, Dorota Szcześniak, Alessia d'Arma, Katarzyna M Urbańska, Teresa Atkinson, Elisabetta Farina, Joanna Rymaszewska, Rabih Chattat, Catherine Henderson, Amritpal Rehill, Iris Hendriks, Franka Meiland, Rose-Marie Dröes
OBJECTIVES: MEETINGDEM investigated whether the Dutch Meeting Centres Support Programme (MCSP) could be implemented in Italy, Poland, and the UK with comparable benefits. This paper reports on the impact on people living with dementia attending pilot Meeting Centres in the 3 countries. METHODS: Nine pilot Meeting Centres (MCs) participated (Italy-5, Poland-2, UK-2). Effectiveness of MCSP was compared with Usual Care (UC) on outcomes measuring behavioural and psychological symptoms (NPI), depression (CSDD), and quality of life (DQoL, QOL-AD), analysed by ANCOVAs in a 6-month pre-test/post-test controlled trial...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Raquel Baeta-Corral, Björn Johansson, Lydia Giménez-Llort
Coffee or caffeine has recently been suggested as prophylaxis for dementia. Although memory problems are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease, this dementia is also characterized by neuropsychiatric symptoms called Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD). The impact of preventive/therapeutic strategies on both cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms can be addressed in the 3xTg-AD mice, since they exhibit cognitive but also BPSD-like profiles. Here, we studied the long-term effects of a low dose of caffeine in male 3xTg-AD mice and as compared to age-matched non-transgenic (NTg) counterparts with normal aging...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Tau Ming Liew, Junhong Yu, Rathi Mahendran, Tze-Pin Ng, Ee-Heok Kua, Lei Feng
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) have been shown to increase the risk of neurocognitive disorders (NCD), leading to the recently-published criteria of mild behavioral impairment (MBI) to identify pre-dementia using NPS alone. However, MBI drew concerns about over-diagnosing subclinical psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the specificity of NPS in predicting NCD may be improved by considering NPS together with various domains of cognitive deficits...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Leonel T Takada, Mee-Ohk Kim, Stacy Metcalf, Ignacio Illán Gala, Michael D Geschwind
Genetic prion diseases (gPrDs) are caused by autosomal-dominant mutations in the prion protein gene (PRNP). Although the first PRNP mutations identified, and most since, are PRNP missense, octapeptide repeat insertions, deletion and nonsense mutations have now also been shown to cause gPrD. Based on clinicopathologic features of familial disease, gPrDs historically have been classified into three forms: familial Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease, and fatal familial insomnia...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Elizabeth G Birkenhäger-Gillesse, Boudewijn J Kollen, Wilco P Achterberg, Froukje Boersma, Lydia Jongman, Sytse U Zuidema
BACKGROUND: Dementia is often accompanied by neuropsychiatric symptoms. Psychotropic drugs for the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms are frequently used to manage these problems, but they are of limited effectiveness and can have serious side effects. Psychosocial interventions are advocated as first line treatment and may help to reduce psychotropic drug use. AIMS: To assess the effect of multidisciplinary psychosocial interventions in nursing homes on the psychotropic drug prescription rate...
March 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Rainbow Th Ho, Ted Ct Fong, C Y Sing, Pandora Ht Lee, Alice Bk Leung, Kitty Sm Chung, Janet Kl Kwok
The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a group music intervention in managing behavioral and psychological symptoms in Chinese elderly with dementia. This cluster randomized trial recruited 73 elderly participants with moderate dementia from 10 elderly residential homes and assigned them to the intervention ( n = 40) and control ( n = 33) group. The intervention included 16 half-hour sessions of music intervention with multi-sensory components over eight weeks and control group received standard care...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Lais Lopes Delfino, Ricardo Shoiti Komatsu, Caroline Komatsu, Anita Liberalesso Neri, Meire Cachioni
This study aims to investigate the association between management and communication strategies and the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms presented by elderly people with Alzheimer's disease. One hundred and thirty-four family caregivers answered a questionnaire with socio-demographic data and questions regarding the care context, the Small Communication Strategies Scale, the Dementia Management Strategy Scale, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Caregivers used the criticism management strategy more when the elderly presented hallucination, agitation, depression, anxiety, irritability, nighttime behavior, and appetite abnormalities...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Iris Zahirovic, Gustav Torisson, Carina Wattmo, Elisabet Londos
BACKGROUND: Elderly persons with a dementia diagnosis often suffer from different neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) such as delusions, hallucinations, depression, anxiety, irritability and agitation. Currently, the medical treatment for NPS consists mostly of psychotropic medication such as hypnotics/sedatives, anxiolytics and antipsychotics. In elderly persons with dementia, usage of antipsychotics is less appropriate because of the risk of side effects such as parkinsonism, rapid cognitive decline, cerebrovascular events and finally mortality...
February 17, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Moyra Elizabeth Mortby, Constantine G Lyketsos, Yonas E Geda, Zahinoor Ismail
This Special Issue provides a systematic examination of the neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) and non-cognitive prodromes of dementia, with an eye toward validating the construct of mild behavioral impairment (MBI).
February 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Fernando E Taragano, Ricardo F Allegri, Silvina L Heisecke, María I Martelli, Mónica L Feldman, Viviana Sánchez, Virginia A García, Graciela Tufro, Diego M Castro, Patricio Perez Leguizamón, Verónica Guelar, Eva Ruotolo, Cecilia Zegarra, Carol Dillon
BACKGROUND: There is insufficient available information on behavioral changes in the absence of cognitive impairment as factors increasing the risk of conversion to dementia. OBJECTIVE: To observe and analyze patients with mild behavioral impairment (MBI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and a psychiatry group (PG) to compare the risk of progression to dementia. METHODS: From 677 initially assessed ≥60-year-old patients, a series of 348 patients was studied for a five-year period until censoring or conversion to dementia: 96 with MBI, 87 with MCI, and 165 with general psychiatry disorders, including 4 subgroups: Anxiety, Depression, Psychosis and Others...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Klaas van der Spek, Raymond T C M Koopmans, Martin Smalbrugge, Marjorie H J M G Nelissen-Vrancken, Roland B Wetzels, Claudia H W Smeets, Erica de Vries, Steven Teerenstra, Sytse U Zuidema, Debby L Gerritsen
Objective: We studied the efficacy of biannual structured medication reviews to improve the appropriateness of psychotropic drug (PD) prescriptions for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home patients with dementia. Study Design and Setting: In this randomised controlled trial, the intervention encompassed a structured multidisciplinary medication review by physician, pharmacist and nurse. During this 18-month study, the patient's medical files were assessed every 6 months...
February 8, 2018: Age and Ageing
Tyler S Kaster, Daniel M Blumberger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Seth A Gale, Diler Acar, Kirk R Daffner
Dementia is any decline in cognition that is significant enough to interfere with independent, daily functioning. Dementia is best characterized as a syndrome rather than as one particular disease. The causes of dementia are myriad and include primary neurologic, neuropsychiatric, and medical conditions. It is common for multiple diseases to contribute to any one patient's dementia syndrome. Neurodegenerative dementias, like Alzheimer disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, are most common in the elderly, while traumatic brain injury and brain tumors are common causes in younger adults...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Britt Appelhof, Christian Bakker, Jeannette C L Van Duinen-van Den IJssel, Sandra A Zwijsen, Martin Smalbrugge, Frans R J Verhey, Marjolein E de Vugt, Sytse U Zuidema, Raymond T C M Koopmans
OBJECTIVE: The aims of the current study are (1) to explore the differences in neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) between young-onset dementia (YOD) and late-onset dementia (LOD), and (2) to investigate whether the possible differences can be attributed to differences in dementia subtype, gender, psychotropic drug use (PDU), or dementia severity. METHOD: Three hundred and eighty-six nursing home (NH) residents with YOD and 350 with LOD were included. Multilevel modeling was used to compare NPS between the groups ...
February 9, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Yukiko Suzuki, Hiroaki Kazui, Kenji Yoshiyama, Shingo Azuma, Hideki Kanemoto, Shunsuke Sato, Takashi Suehiro, Manabu Ikeda
BACKGROUND: It is assumed that care services effectively reduce behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). However, it is unclear which care services are effective for reducing specific BPSD. The aim of this study was to clarify which care services were recognized by care specialists as being effective for reducing each of 11 BPSD. METHODS: We sent unsigned questionnaires to care specialists in Japan. The questionnaires asked specialists to choose from 12 kinds of care services the most, second-most, and third-most effective service for reducing each of 11 BPSD...
February 7, 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Jonathan T Stewart, Susan K Schultz
With the growing care needs for the older population at the end of their lives, there has been a substantial increase in attention to the management of the patient with dementia in hospice and palliative care services. This article reviews issues in access to care and the optimal management of the patient with dementia, particularly in the context of neuropsychiatric complexities. Special issues such as delirium, cachexia, behavioral symptoms, and pain management are addressed. Future challenges in research such as the development of better prognostic models are noted as well as the importance of attention to access to care...
March 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Suhong Chen, Kai Lin, Hanxiao Wang, Miyae Yamakawa, Kiyoko Makimoto, Xiaoyan Liao
BACKGROUND: With the increasing number of dementia patients in China, there is a pressing need for a reliable and valid Chinese instrument that can measure neuropsychiatric symptoms in institutionalized dementia patients. This study examined the reliability and structural validity of the Chinese version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Nursing Home version (NPI-NH), in a sample of institutionalized dementia patients in China. METHODS: A total of 112 residents with dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating = 1: 10...
February 6, 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Clive Ballard, Anne Corbett, Martin Orrell, Gareth Williams, Esme Moniz-Cook, Renee Romeo, Bob Woods, Lucy Garrod, Ingelin Testad, Barbara Woodward-Carlton, Jennifer Wenborn, Martin Knapp, Jane Fossey
BACKGROUND: Agitation is a common, challenging symptom affecting large numbers of people with dementia and impacting on quality of life (QoL). There is an urgent need for evidence-based, cost-effective psychosocial interventions to improve these outcomes, particularly in the absence of safe, effective pharmacological therapies. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a person-centred care and psychosocial intervention incorporating an antipsychotic review, WHELD, on QoL, agitation, and antipsychotic use in people with dementia living in nursing homes, and to determine its cost...
February 2018: PLoS Medicine
Kelvin K F Tsoi, Joyce Y C Chan, Yiu-Ming Ng, Mia M Y Lee, Timothy C Y Kwok, Samuel Y S Wong
BACKGROUND: Music therapy is demonstrated to be effective to relieve the agitation among people with dementia, but the comparative effectiveness of methods of music engagement for people with dementia is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects on cognitive functions and behavioral symptoms between interactive and receptive music therapies for people with dementia. METHODS: Prospective studies evaluating interactive and receptive music therapies were identified from the OVID databases, included MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL...
January 25, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
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