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Neuropsychological symptoms of dementia

Cecilia U D Stenfors, Linda M Hanson, Töres Theorell, Walter S Osika
Objective: Executive cognitive functioning is essential in private and working life and is sensitive to stress and aging. Cardiovascular (CV) health factors are related to cognitive decline and dementia, but there is relatively few studies of the role of CV autonomic regulation, a key component in stress responses and risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and executive processes. An emerging pattern of results from previous studies suggest that different executive processes may be differentially associated with CV autonomic regulation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Alexander Frizell Santillo, Karl Lundblad, Markus Nilsson, Maria Landqvist Waldö, Danielle van Westen, Jimmy Lätt, Erik Blennow Nordström, Susanna Vestberg, Olof Lindberg, Christer Nilsson
Disinhibition is an important symptom in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the clinico-anatomical underpinnings remain controversial. We explored the anatomical correlates of disinhibition in neurodegenerative disease using the perspective of grey and white matter imaging. Disinhibition was assessed with a neuropsychological test and a caregiver information-based clinical rating scale in 21 patients with prefrontal syndromes due to behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (n = 12) or progressive supranuclear palsy (n = 9), and healthy controls (n = 25)...
2016: PloS One
Simone Reppermund, Rachael C Birch, John D Crawford, Jacqueline Wesson, Brian Draper, Nicole A Kochan, Julian N Trollor, Katharina Luttenberger, Henry Brodaty, Perminder S Sachdev
OBJECTIVES: The distinction between dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) relies upon the evaluation of independence in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Self- and informant reports are prone to bias. Clinician-based performance tests are limited by long administration times, restricted access, or inadequate validation. To close this gap, we developed and validated a performance-based measure of IADL, the Sydney Test of Activities of Daily Living in Memory Disorders (STAM)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Jurgita Kuzmickienė, Gintaras Kaubrys
BACKGROUND The primary manifestation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is decline in memory. Dysexecutive symptoms have tremendous impact on functional activities and quality of life. Data regarding frontal-executive dysfunction in mild AD are controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and specific features of executive dysfunction in mild AD based on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) results. MATERIAL AND METHODS Fifty newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve, mild, late-onset AD patients (MMSE ≥20, AD group) and 25 control subjects (CG group) were recruited in this prospective, cross-sectional study...
October 8, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Vitor H Pereira, Patrício S Costa, Nadine C Santos, Pedro G Cunha, Margarida Correia-Neves, Joana A Palha, Nuno Sousa
Background: Adult height, weight, and adiposity measures have been suggested by some studies to be predictors of depression, cognitive impairment, and dementia. However, the presence of confounding factors and the lack of a thorough neuropsychological evaluation in many of these studies have precluded a definitive conclusion about the influence of anthropometric measures in cognition and depression. In this study we aimed to assess the value of height, weight, and abdominal perimeter to predict cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in aged individuals...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Thomas Leyhe, Charles F Reynolds, Tobias Melcher, Christoph Linnemann, Stefan Klöppel, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Bruno Dubois, Simone Lista, Harald Hampel
Late-life depression is frequently associated with cognitive impairment. Depressive symptoms are often associated with or even precede a dementia syndrome. Moreover, depressive disorders increase the risk of persistence for mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Here, we present both the current state of evidence and future perspectives regarding the integration and value of clinical assessments, neuropsychological, neurochemical, and neuroimaging biomarkers for the etiological classification of the dementia versus the depression syndrome and for the prognosis of depression relating to dementia risk...
September 28, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Judith A Boel, Vincent J J Odekerken, Ben A Schmand, Gert J Geurtsen, Danielle C Cath, Martijn Figee, Pepijn van den Munckhof, Rob J de Haan, P Richard Schuurman, Rob M A de Bie
BACKGROUND: Effects on non-motor symptoms, mainly cognitive and psychiatric side effects, could influence the decision for either globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) or subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: 1) To compare cognitive and psychiatric outcomes 3 years after GPi DBS versus STN DBS, and 2) to report on occurrence of suicidal ideation, psychiatric diagnoses, social functioning, and marital satisfaction 3 years after DBS...
September 19, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Andreas Johnen, Lisa Brandstetter, Christian Kärgel, Heinz Wiendl, Hubertus Lohmann, Thomas Duning
Limb apraxia denotes a cognitive impairment of gesture production. Lesion studies in patients with stroke point towards distinct neural processing streams for limb imitation and object-pantomime within left parietal and temporal cortex, respectively. Despite its frequent occurrence as an early symptom in both, Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), neural correlates of limb apraxia within these patient groups remain unexplored. Using voxel-based morphometry and multiple regression models, associations between limb apraxia and gray matter (GM) volume were investigated in 36 dementia patients (18 AD, 18 bvFTD) in early disease stages...
August 26, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
G Pusswald, D Moser, M Pflüger, A Gleiss, E Auff, E Stögmann, P Dal-Bianco, J Lehrner
BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important issue in the context of dementia care. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between HRQOL and depressive symptoms in patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer´s disease (AD). METHODS: In this cross-sectional, observational study, a control group and four experimental groups (SCD, non-amnestic MCI, amnesticMCI, AD) were compared...
August 31, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Thomas Gregor Issac, Suresh Kumar Korada, Karru Venkata Ravi Teja, Mariamma Philip
INTRODUCTION: About 20-50% of relatively young onset dementia belongs to frontotemporal type. Most of these patients are diagnosed as psychiatric illness as their memory and instrumental activities of daily living remain unaltered till late and most of these patients do not qualify for dementia by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria. In this study, we analyzed the behavioral symptoms in our patients with radiologically and neuropsychologically proven as probable behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (FTD)...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Hernando Santamaría-García, Pablo Reyes, Adolfo García, Sandra Baéz, Angela Martinez, José Manuel Santacruz, Andrea Slachevsky, Mariano Sigman, Diana Matallana, Agustín Ibañez
BACKGROUND: Previous works highlight the neurocognitive differences between apathetic and disinhibited clinical presentations of the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). However, little is known regarding how the early presentation (i.e., first symptom) is associated to the neurocognitive correlates of the disease's clinical presentation at future stages of disease. OBJECTIVES: We analyzed the neurocognitive correlates of patients with bvFTD who debuted with apathy or disinhibition as first symptom of disease...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
S Notzon, J Alferink, V Arolt
Late-onset depression (LOD) is defined as depression manifesting for the first time in later life. Up to now, there has been no exact definition of the lower age limit for LOD. Psychopathological symptoms of LOD do not fundamentally differ from depression in other phases of life; however, cognitive deficits are typically more pronounced. The LOD is associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. Imaging studies show reduction in gray matter volume and white matter lesions caused by vascular diseases...
September 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Meghan K Mattos, Beth E Snitz, Jennifer H Lingler, Lora E Burke, Lorraine M Novosel, Susan M Sereika
PURPOSE: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a well-recognized risk state for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. MCI is rapidly increasing among older adults in general and has not yet been examined in older adults within the Appalachian region. Our objective was to compare MCI symptom severity among older rural and urban Appalachian adults with MCI at an initial neuropsychological testing visit. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive study of older Appalachian adults with MCI was conducted using data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Rural Health
Mar Martínez-Moreno, Noemí Cerulla, Gloria Chico, María Quintana, Maite Garolera
BACKGROUND: The benefit of cognitive stimulation (CS) treatments in dementia is unequal. This study has sought to identify cognitive and functional measurements before and after the treatment which are indicative of a better response to a one-year CS program. METHOD: A retrospective observational study was conducted between 2004 and 2012 in a sample of 60 users diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) who followed a one-year CS program and underwent a cognitive and functional assessment before and after the intervention...
August 9, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Jennifer Middelstädt, Ann-Kristin Folkerts, Sabrina Blawath, Elke Kalbe
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence demonstrates the efficacy of cognitive stimulation (CS) in individuals with dementia. However, conducting studies in nursing homes engenders specific challenges that have limited the data gathered on this topic so far. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effects of CS on cognition, quality of life (QoL), behavioral symptoms, and activities of daily life in persons with dementia living in nursing homes...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
R Woodbridge, M P Sullivan, E Harding, S Crutch, K J Gilhooly, Mlm Gilhooly, A McIntyre, L Wilson
Difficulty with everyday activities is a key symptom and defining feature of dementia, relating to subjective reports of well-being and overall quality of life. One way to support individuals in their daily activities is by modifying the physical environment to make it easier to interact with during activity performance. This systematic review explores the range of studies available using physical environmental strategies to support performance in everyday activities for people with dementia. Seventy-two relevant studies were identified by the search...
August 4, 2016: Dementia
Ana Natalia Seubert-Ravelo, M Guillermina Yáñez-Téllez, Hermelinda Salgado-Ceballos, Rodrigo Erick Escartín-Pérez, Gabriel Adolfo Neri-Nani, Salvador Velázquez-Osuna
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Few studies have described mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and cognitive characteristics in early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD). This study describes attention/working memory, language, memory, visuospatial abilities, executive function, and frequency of MCI and dementia in EOPD. METHODS: Eighty-one EOPD patients were administered neuropsychological tests and the Beck Depression Inventory. Scores were compared with age/education-appropriate norms and were correlated to years of disease progression and severity of motor symptoms...
2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Atsushi Takeda, Haruna Tamano, Ryusuke Nishio, Taku Murakami
Dietary zinc deficiency increases glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex via enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity and induces neuropsychological symptoms, i.e., behavioral abnormality. Behavioral abnormality is due to the increase in glucocorticoid secretion rather than disturbance of brain zinc homeostasis, which occurs after the increase in glucocorticoid secretion. A major target of glucocorticoids is the hippocampus and their actions are often associated with disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission, which may be linked to behavioral abnormality, such as depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior under zinc deficiency...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alireza Atri
This chapter reviews clinical applications and imaging findings useful in medical practice relating to neurodegenerative cognitive/dementing disorders. The preponderance of evidence and consensus guidelines support an essential role of multitiered neuroimaging in the evaluation and management of neurodegenerative cognitive/dementia syndrome that range in severity from mild impairments to frank dementia. Additionally, imaging features are incorporated in updated clinical and research diagnostic criteria for most dementias, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Frontotemporal Lobar Degenerations/Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD), and Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI)...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Kamalini G Ranasinghe, Katherine P Rankin, Peter S Pressman, David C Perry, Iryna V Lobach, William W Seeley, Giovanni Coppola, Anna M Karydas, Lea T Grinberg, Tal Shany-Ur, Suzee E Lee, Gil D Rabinovici, Howard J Rosen, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Adam L Boxer, Zachary A Miller, Winston Chiong, Mary DeMay, Joel H Kramer, Katherine L Possin, Virginia E Sturm, Brianne M Bettcher, Michael Neylan, Diana D Zackey, Lauren A Nguyen, Robin Ketelle, Nikolas Block, Teresa Q Wu, Alison Dallich, Natanya Russek, Alyssa Caplan, Daniel H Geschwind, Keith A Vossel, Bruce L Miller
IMPORTANCE: Clearer delineation of the phenotypic heterogeneity within behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) will help uncover underlying biological mechanisms and improve clinicians' ability to predict disease course and to design targeted management strategies. OBJECTIVE: To identify subtypes of bvFTD syndrome based on distinctive patterns of atrophy defined by selective vulnerability of specific functional networks targeted in bvFTD using statistical classification approaches...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
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