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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323898/perfluorocarbon-reduces-cell-damage-from-blast-injury-by-inhibiting-signal-paths-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mapk-and-bcl-2-bax-signaling-pathway-in-a549-cells
#1
Zhaorui Zhang, Zhixin Liang, Huaidong Li, Chunsun Li, Zhen Yang, Yanqin Li, Danyang She, Lu Cao, Wenjie Wang, Changlin Liu, Liangan Chen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Blast lung injury is a common type of blast injury and has very high mortality. Therefore, research to identify medical therapies for blast injury is important. Perfluorocarbon (PFC) is used to improve gas exchange in diseased lungs and has anti-inflammatory functions in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine whether PFC reduces damage to A549 cells caused by blast injury and to elucidate its possible mechanisms of action. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A549 alveolar epithelial cells exposed to blast waves were treated with and without PFC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319784/use-of-a-mixed-method-approach-to-evaluate-the-implementation-of-retention-promotion-strategies-in-the-new-york-state-wic-program
#2
Jackson P Sekhobo, Sanya R Peck, Youjung Byun, Marie A K Allsopp, MaryEllen K Holbrook, Lynn S Edmunds, Chengxuan Yu
This research assessed the implementation of strategies piloted at 10 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) clinics aimed at increasing retention in the program, by enhancing participants' shopping experiences. Under WIC Retention Promotion Study: Keep, Reconnect, Thrive (WIC RPS), clinics were recruited and assigned to implement one or a combination of strategies: a standardized Shopping Orientation (SO) curriculum, a Guided Shopping Tour (GST), and a Pictorial Foods Card (PFC) from November 2012 through August 2013...
March 6, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319749/antidepressant-activity-of-zinc-further-evidence-for-the-involvement-of-the-serotonergic-system
#3
Bernadeta Szewczyk, Katarzyna Kotarska, Agata Siwek, Łukasz Olech, Katarzyna Kuter
BACKGROUND: The present study sought to further evaluate the role of the serotonergic system especially the postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1AR) in the mechanism of antidepressant action of zinc. METHODS: Messenger RNA (mRNA), protein level, and 5-HT1AR density as well as the rate of monoamine (dopamine, DA, and serotonin) metabolism in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (Hp) of rats subjected to acute and chronic (21days) zinc (5mg Zn/kg) treatment were measured...
January 19, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314819/depressive-like-behaviors-are-regulated-by-nox1-nadph-oxidase-by-redox-modification-of-nmda-receptor-1
#4
Masakazu Ibi, Junjie Liu, Noriaki Arakawa, Shiho Kitaoka, Ai Kawaji, Ken-Ichi Matsuda, Kazumi Iwata, Misaki Matsumoto, Masato Katsuyama, Kai Zhu, Satoshi Teramukai, Tomoyuki Furuyashiki, Chihiro Yabe-Nishimura
Involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been suggested in the development of psychiatric disorders. NOX1 is a non-phagocytic form of NADPH oxidase whose expression in the nervous system is negligible compared with other NOX isoforms. However, NOX1-derived ROS increase inflammatory pain and tolerance to opioid analgesia. To clarify the role of NOX1 in the brain, we examined depressive-like behaviors in mice deficient in Nox1 (Nox1(-/Y)). Depressive-like behaviors induced by chronic social defeat stress or administration of corticosterone (CORT) were significantly ameliorated in Nox1(-/Y) Generation of ROS was significantly elevated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of mice administrated with CORT, while NOX1 mRNA was up-regulated only in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) among brain areas responsible for emotional behaviors...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314129/crack-cocaine-inhalation-induces-schizophrenia-like-symptoms-and-molecular-alterations-in-mice-prefrontal-cortex
#5
Lorena Bianchine Areal, Alice Laschuk Herlinger, Fabrício Souza Pelição, Cristina Martins-Silva, Rita Gomes Wanderley Pires
Crack cocaine (crack) addiction represents a major social and health burden, especially seeing as users are more prone to engage in criminal and violent acts. Crack users show a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities - particularly antisocial personality disorders - when compared to powder cocaine users. They also develop cognitive deficits related mainly to executive functions, including working memory. It is noteworthy that stimulant drugs can induce psychotic states, which appear to mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia among users...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301191/assessing-future-care-preparation-in-late-life-two-short-measures
#6
Silvia Sörensen, Benjamin P Chapman, Paul R Duberstein, Martin Pinquart, Jeffrey M Lyness
The purpose of this article is to introduce 2 short forms of the previously published measure of preparation for future care (PFC). Community-dwelling older adults ages 65-94 who had completed the 29-item Preparation for Future Care Needs scale were randomly divided into scale development (n = 697) and scale validation (n = 690) samples. Fifteen items were selected using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on the scale development and scale validation samples, respectively. Consistent with PFC theory, the 5 subscales of the original long-form measure (Awareness, Gathering Information, Decision Making, Concrete Planning, Avoidance of Care Planning) were maintained...
March 16, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297840/phase-field-crystal-model-for-ordered-crystals
#7
Eli Alster, K R Elder, Jeffrey J Hoyt, Peter W Voorhees
We describe a general method to model multicomponent ordered crystals using the phase-field-crystal (PFC) formalism. As a test case, a generic B2 compound is investigated. We are able to produce a line of either first-order or second-order order-disorder phase transitions, features that have not been incorporated in existing PFC approaches. Further, it is found that the only elastic constant for B2 that depends on ordering is C_{11}. This B2 model is then used to study antiphase boundaries (APBs). The APBs are shown to reproduce classical mean-field results...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295046/transcriptomic-immaturity-of-the-hippocampus-and-prefrontal-cortex-in-patients-with-alcoholism
#8
Tomoyuki Murano, Hisatsugu Koshimizu, Hideo Hagihara, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
Alcoholism, which is defined as the recurring harmful use of alcohol despite its negative consequences, has a lifetime prevalence of 17.8%. Previous studies have shown that chronic alcohol consumption disrupts various brain functions and behaviours. However, the precise mechanisms that underlie alcoholism are currently unclear. Recently, we discovered "pseudo-immature" brain cell states of the dentate gyrus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) in mouse models of psychotic disorders and epileptic seizure. Similar pseudo-immaturity has been observed in patients with psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294713/attention-to-distinct-goal-relevant-features-differentially-guides-semantic-knowledge-retrieval
#9
Gavin K Hanson, Evangelia G Chrysikou
A critical aspect of conceptual knowledge is the selective activation of goal-relevant aspects of meaning. Although the contributions of ventrolateral prefrontal and posterior temporal areas to semantic cognition are well established, the precise role of posterior parietal cortex in semantic control remains unknown. Here, we examined whether this region modulates attention to goal-relevant features within semantic memory, according to the same principles that determine the salience of task-relevant object properties during visual attention...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294131/structural-and-functional-plasticity-within-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-prefrontal-cortex-associated-with-time-dependent-increases-in-food-cue-seeking-behavior
#10
Paige M Dingess, Rebecca A Darling, Rifka C Derman, Shaun S Wulff, Melissa L Hunter, Carrie R Ferrario, Travis E Brown
Urges to consume food can be driven by stimuli in the environment that are associated with previous food experience. Identifying adaptations within brain reward circuits that facilitate cue-induced food seeking is critical for understanding and preventing the overconsumption of food and subsequent weight gain. Utilizing electrophysiological, biochemical, and DiI labeling we examined functional and structural changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) associated with time-dependent increases in food craving ('incubation of craving')...
March 15, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293263/saikosaponin-a-alleviates-symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-through-downregulation-of-dat-and-enhancing-bdnf-expression-in-spontaneous-hypertensive-rats
#11
Sun Jichao, Han Xinmin, Ren Xianguo, Yin Dongqi, Zhou Rongyi, Lei Shuang, You Yue, Song Yuchen, Ying Jingnan
The disturbed dopamine availability and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression are due in part to be associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we investigated the therapeutical effect of saikosaponin a (SSa) isolated from Bupleurum Chinese DC, against spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model of ADHD. Methylphenidate and SSa were orally administered for 3 weeks. Activity was assessed by open-field test and Morris water maze test. Dopamine (DA) and BDNF were determined in specific brain regions...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293062/near-infrared-spectroscopy-reveals-abnormal-hemodynamics-in-the-left-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-of-menopausal-depression-patients
#12
Xiang-Yun Ma, Yong-Jun Wang, Bo Xu, Kun Feng, Gao-Xiang Sun, Xiao-Qian Zhang, Xiao-Min Liu, Chen-Yu Shen, Xia-Jin Ren, Jing-Jing Sun, Po-Zi Liu
Background/Objective. Menopausal depression (MD) is characterized by depressive symptoms along with hormonal fluctuations. We investigate brain function alteration between major depressive disorder (MDD) and MD. Methods. The difference in oxygenated hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) for the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was compared retrospectively among 90 females presented with 30 MDD, 30 MD, and 30 healthy controls (HCs) using verbal fluency task (VFT) with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Results. We observed a significant difference in Oxy-Hb alteration in the left dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) using VFT with NIRS (channel 18, P = 0...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290074/abnormal-brain-white-matter-network-in-young-smokers-a-graph-theory-analysis-study
#13
Yajuan Zhang, Min Li, Ruonan Wang, Yanzhi Bi, Yangding Li, Zhang Yi, Jixin Liu, Dahua Yu, Kai Yuan
Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies had investigated the white matter (WM) integrity abnormalities in some specific fiber bundles in smokers. However, little is known about the changes in topological organization of WM structural network in young smokers. In current study, we acquired DTI datasets from 58 male young smokers and 51 matched nonsmokers and constructed the WM networks by the deterministic fiber tracking approach. Graph theoretical analysis was used to compare the topological parameters of WM network (global and nodal) and the inter-regional fractional anisotropy (FA) weighted WM connections between groups...
March 13, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289693/cav1-2-channels-mediate-persistent-chronic-stress-induced-behavioral-deficits-that-are-associated-with-prefrontal-cortex-activation-of-the-p25-cdk5-glucocorticoid-receptor-pathway
#14
Charlotte C Bavley, Delaney K Fischer, Bryant K Rizzo, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha
Chronic stress is known to precipitate and exacerbate neuropsychiatric symptoms, and exposure to stress is particularly pathological in individuals with certain genetic predispositions. Recent genome wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene CACNA1C, which codes for the Cav1.2 subunit of the L-type calcium channel (LTCC), as a common risk variant for multiple neuropsychiatric conditions. Cav1.2 channels mediate experience-dependent changes in gene expression and long-term synaptic plasticity through activation of downstream calcium signaling pathways...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288855/alterations-in-prefrontal-connectivity-in-schizophrenia-assessed-using-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#15
Vicente Molina, Alba Lubeiro, Oscar Soto, Margarita Rodriguez, Aldara Álvarez, Rebeca Hernández, Rodrigo de Luis-García
BACKGROUND: Spatial and biological characteristics of structural frontal disconnectivity in schizophrenia remain incompletely understood. Simultaneous streamline count (SC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) analyses may yield relevant complementary information to this end. METHODS: Using 3T diffusion magnetic resonance imaging both SC and FA were calculated for the tracts linking lateral and medial subregions of prefrontal cortex (PFC) to cingulate, hippocampus, caudate and thalamus in 27 schizophrenia patients (14 first-episodes) and 27 controls...
March 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288807/the-role-of-nidopallium-caudolaterale-in-the-goal-directed-behavior-of-pigeons
#16
Xinyu Liu, Hong Wan, Shan Li, Zhigang Shang, Li Shi
Avian nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL) is believed to be analogue to the mammalian prefrontal cortex (PFC), a key brain region for guiding goal-directed behavior. But the role of NCL during goal-directed behavior remains unclear. To investigate whether the pigeon NCL participate in the goal-directed behavior, we recorded single-units from the NCL of four pigeons as they performing goal-directed decision-making task in a plus-maze. During the decision-making process, the firing rates of NCL neurons significantly increased and they are associated with the choice of the upcoming movement...
March 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287187/similarities-and-differences-of-functional-connectivity-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-adolescent-and-young-adult-with-major-depressive-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#17
Shengnan Wei, Fay Womer, Haiyang Geng, Xiaowei Jiang, Qian Zhou, Miao Chang, Yifang Zhou, Yanqing Tang, Fei Wang
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia (SZ) are considered two distinct psychiatric disorders. Yet, they have considerable overlap in symptomatology and clinical features, particularly in the initial phases of illness. The amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC) appear to have critical roles in these disorders; however, abnormalities appear to manifest differently. In our study forty-nine drug-naïve, first-episode MDD, 45 drug-naïve, first-episode SZ, and 50 healthy control (HC) participants from 13 to 30 years old underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285490/review-of-54-cases-of-prolonged-field-care
#18
Erik DeSoucy, Stacy Shackelford, Joseph J DuBose, Seth Zweben, Stephen C Rush, Russ S Kotwal, Harold R Montgomery, Sean Keenan
BACKGROUND: Prolonged field care (PFC) is field medical care applied beyond doctrinal planning time-lines. As current and future medical operations must include deliberate and contingency planning for such events, data are lacking to support efforts. A case review was conducted to define the epidemiology, environment, and operational factors that affect PFC outcomes. METHODS: A survey distributed to US military medical providers solicited details of PFC encounters lasting more than 4 hours and included patient demographics, environmental descriptors, provider training, modes of transportation, injuries, mechanism of injury, vital signs, treatments, equipment and resources used, duration of PFC, and morbidity and mortality status on delivery to the next level of care...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283561/alteration-of-neuronal-excitability-and-short-term-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-a-mouse-model-of-mental-illness
#19
Gregg W Crabtree, Ziyi Sun, Mirna Kvajo, Jantine Ac Broek, Karine Fénelon, Heather McKellar, Lan Xiao, Bin Xu, Sabine Bahn, James M O'Donnell, Joseph A Gogos
Employing a genetic mouse model that faithfully recapitulates a DISC1 genetic alteration strongly associated with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, we examined the impact of this mutation within the prefrontal cortex. Although cortical layering, cytoarchitecture and proteome were found to be largely unaffected, electrophysiological examination of the mPFC revealed both neuronal hyper-excitability and alterations in short-term synaptic plasticity consistent with enhanced neurotransmitter release...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273278/catechol-o-methyltransferase-comt-polymorphisms-modulate-working-memory-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-and-healthy-controls
#20
Camila T Matsuzaka, Denise Christofolini, Vanessa K Ota, Ary Gadelha, Arthur A Berberian, Cristiano Noto, Diego R Mazzotti, Leticia M Spindola, Patricia N Moretti, Marilia A C Smith, Maria I Melaragno, Sintia I Belangero, Rodrigo A Bressan
Objective: Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia, related to dopaminergic dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). It is hypothesized that functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene could mediate the relationship between cognition and dopamine activity in the PFC. Other COMT SNPs could also play a role. Methods: We evaluated the role of three COMT SNPs (rs737865, rs165599, and rs4680) in schizophrenia and their impact on three working memory tasks...
March 2, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
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