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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733129/endocannabinoids-exert-cb1-receptor-mediated-neuroprotective-effects-in-models-of-neuronal-damage-induced-by-hiv-1-tat-protein
#1
Changqing Xu, Douglas J Hermes, Blessing Nwanguma, Ian R Jacobs, Kenneth Mackie, Somnath Mukhopadhyay, Aron H Lichtman, Bogna Ignatowska-Jankowska, Sylvia Fitting
In the era of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is considered a chronic disease that specifically targets the brain and causes HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Endocannabinoids (eCBs) elicit neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory actions in several central nervous system (CNS) disease models, but their effects in HAND remain unknown. HIV-1 does not infect neurons, but produces viral toxins, such as transactivator of transcription (Tat), that disrupt neuronal calcium equilibrium and give rise to synaptodendritic injuries and cell death, the former being highly correlated with HAND...
July 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729445/preferential-disruption-of-prefrontal-gabaergic-function-by-nanomolar-concentrations-of-the-%C3%AE-7nach-negative-modulator-kynurenic-acid
#2
Eden Flores-Barrera, Daniel R Thomases, Daryn K Cass, Ajay Bhandari, Robert Schwarcz, John P Bruno, Kuei Y Tseng
Increased concentrations of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are thought to contribute to the development of cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia. Although this view is consistent with pre-clinical studies showing a negative impact of prefrontal KYNA elevation on executive function, the mechanism underlying such a disruption remains unclear. Here we measured changes in local field potential responses to ventral hippocampal stimulation in vivo, and conducted whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices to reveal how nanomolar concentrations of KYNA alter synaptic transmission in the PFC of male adult rats...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729442/adaptive-encoding-of-outcome-prediction-by-prefrontal-cortex-ensembles-supports-behavioral-flexibility
#3
Alberto Del Arco, Junchol Park, Jesse Wood, Yunbok Kim, Bita Moghaddam
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to play a critical role in behavioral flexibility by monitoring action-outcome contingencies. How PFC ensembles represent shifts in behavior in response to changes in these contingencies remains unclear. We recorded single-unit activity and local field potentials (LFPs) in the dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC) of male rats during a set-shifting task that required them to update their behavior, among competing options, in response to changes in action-outcome contingencies. As behavior was updated, a subset of PFC ensembles encoded current trial outcome before the outcome was presented...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725184/sevoflurane-induces-coherent-slow-delta-oscillations-in-rats
#4
Jennifer A Guidera, Norman E Taylor, Justin T Lee, Ksenia Y Vlasov, JunZhu Pei, Emily P Stephen, J Patrick Mayo, Emery N Brown, Ken Solt
Although general anesthetics are routinely administered to surgical patients to induce loss of consciousness, the mechanisms underlying anesthetic-induced unconsciousness are not fully understood. In rats, we characterized changes in the extradural EEG and intracranial local field potentials (LFPs) within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), parietal cortex (PC), and central thalamus (CT) in response to progressively higher doses of the inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane. During induction with a low dose of sevoflurane, beta/low gamma (12-40 Hz) power increased in the frontal EEG and PFC, PC and CT LFPs, and PFC-CT and PFC-PFC LFP beta/low gamma coherence increased...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722140/erythrocyte-membrane-enveloped-perfluorocarbon-as-nanoscale-artificial-red-blood-cells-to-relieve-tumor-hypoxia-and-enhance-cancer-radiotherapy
#5
Min Gao, Chao Liang, Xuejiao Song, Qian Chen, Qiutong Jin, Chao Wang, Zhuang Liu
Hypoxia, a common feature within many types of solid tumors, is known to be closely associated with limited efficacy for cancer therapies, including radiotherapy (RT) in which oxygen is essential to promote radiation-induced cell damage. Here, an artificial nanoscale red-blood-cell system is designed by encapsulating perfluorocarbon (PFC), a commonly used artificial blood substitute, within biocompatible poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), obtaining PFC@PLGA nanoparticles, which are further coated with a red-blood-cell membrane (RBCM)...
July 19, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721589/recent-developments-in-polyfluoroalkyl-compounds-research-a-focus-on-human-environmental-health-impact-suggested-substitutes-and-removal-strategies
#6
John Baptist Nzukizi Mudumbi, Seteno Karabo Obed Ntwampe, Tandi Matsha, Lukhanyo Mekuto, Elie Fereche Itoba-Tombo
Between the late 1940s and early 1950s, humans manufactured polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) using electrochemical fluorination and telomerisation technologies, whereby hydrogen atoms are substituted by fluorine atoms, thus conferring unnatural and unique physicochemical properties to these compounds. Presently, there are wide ranges of PFCs, and owing to their bioaccumulative properties, they have been detected in various environmental matrices and in human sera. It has thus been suggested that they are hazardous...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721541/efficacy-and-safety-of-metallic-stents-in-comparison-to-plastic-stents-for-endoscopic-drainage-of-peripancreatic-fluid-collections-a-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Rajesh Panwar, Preet Mohinder Singh
Metallic stents are being increasingly used for endoscopic drainage of peripancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) but their superiority over plastic stents has not been proven. We carried out a meta-analysis to consolidate the results from available studies and to suggest evidence-based recommendations. Studies that compared plastic and metallic stents for endoscopic drainage of PFCs and published before October 2016 were searched. Comparisons were performed for clinical success, adverse events, salvage interventions, mortality, technical success and recurrence...
July 18, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721053/reduced-prefrontal-activation-during-verbal-fluency-task-in-chronic-insomnia-disorder-a-multichannel-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#8
Jing-Jing Sun, Xiao-Min Liu, Chen-Yu Shen, Xiao-Qian Zhang, Gao-Xiang Sun, Kun Feng, Bo Xu, Xia-Jin Ren, Xiang-Yun Ma, Po-Zi Liu
PURPOSE: Daytime complaints such as memory and attention deficits and failure to accomplish daily tasks are common in insomnia patients. However, objective psychological tests to detect cognitive impairment are equivocal. Neural function associated with cognitive performance may explain the discrepancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic response patterns of patients with chronic insomnia disorder (CID) using the noninvasive and low-cost functional neuroimaging technique of multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in order to identify changes of neural function associated with cognitive performance...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720317/dcc-receptors-drive-prefrontal-cortex-maturation-by-determining-dopamine-axon%C3%A2-targeting-in-adolescence
#9
Lauren M Reynolds, Matthew Pokinko, Angélica Torres-Berrío, Santiago Cuesta, Laura C Lambert, Esther Del Cid Pellitero, Michael Wodzinski, Colleen Manitt, Paul Krimpenfort, Bryan Kolb, Cecilia Flores
BACKGROUND: Dopaminergic input to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) increases throughout adolescence and, by establishing precisely localized synapses, calibrates cognitive function. However, why and how mesocortical dopamine axon density increases across adolescence remains unknown. METHODS: We used a developmental application of axon-initiated recombination to label and track the growth of dopamine axons across adolescence in mice. We then paired this recombination with cell-specific knockdown of the netrin-1 receptor DCC to determine its role in adolescent dopamine axon growth...
June 16, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718955/an-electrochemiluminescent-method-for-glutamate-measurement-in-small-microdialysate-samples-in-asphyxiated-young-rats
#10
Jorge Ortega-Ibarra, Silvia López-Pérez, Alberto Morales-Villagrán
Glutamate (Glu) quantification has been performed by a combination of intracerebral microdialysis through which the samples are obtained and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); its measurement requires a large expenditure of time (15-30 min per sample) and special training. Therefore, an alternative method is presented here, based on the electrochemiluminescence produced by the use of an enzymatic reactor, containing glutamate-oxidase, mixed and incubated with microdialysate from dorsal striatum (DS) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of young rats asphyxiated during the neonatal period, under a global asphyxia model in order to test this method...
July 18, 2017: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715880/effects-of-acute-high-intensity-resistance-exercise-on-cognitive-function-and-oxygenation-in-prefrontal-cortex
#11
Hyukki Chang, Kyungae Kim, Yu-Jin Jung, Morimasa Kato
PURPOSE: Moderate-intensity exercise is known to be the best effective intensity to enhance cognitive function, including memory and learning. However, the effects of high-intensity exercise in comparison with moderate- intensity exercise on cognitive function remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-intensity resistance exercise on cognitive function. METHODS: Thirty-six healthy female college students volunteered to participate in this study...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714806/loss-of-control-over-the-ethanol-consumption-differential-transcriptional-regulation-in-prefrontal-cortex
#12
Carolina de Paiva Lima, Daniel Almeida da Silva E Silva, Samara Damasceno, Andrea Frozino Ribeiro, Cristiane S Rocha, Alexandre H Berenguer de Matos, Diego Correia, Roseli Boerngen-Lacerda, Ana Lúcia Brunialti Godard
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a complex multifactorial disease with heritability of ∼50% and corresponds to the state in which the body triggers a reinforcement or reward compulsive behavior due to ethanol consumption, even when faced with negative consequences. Although several studies have shown the impact of high ethanol intake on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) gene expression, few have addressed the relationship between the patterns of gene expression underlying the compulsive behaviour associated with relapsing...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714714/no-evidence-for-enhancements-to-visual-working-memory-with-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-to-prefrontal-or-posterior-parietal-cortices
#13
Matthew K Robison, William P McGuirk, Nash Unsworth
The present study examined the relative contributions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) to visual working memory. Evidence from a number of different techniques has led to the theory that the PFC controls access to working memory (i.e., filtering), determining which information is encoded and maintained for later use whereas the parietal cortex determines how much information is held at 1 given time, regardless of relevance (i.e., capacity; McNab & Klingberg, 2008; Vogel, McCollough, & Machizawa, 2005)...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714434/altered-interoceptive-activation-before-during-and-after-aversive-breathing-load-in-women-remitted-from-anorexia-nervosa
#14
L A Berner, A N Simmons, C E Wierenga, A Bischoff-Grethe, M P Paulus, U F Bailer, A V Ely, W H Kaye
BACKGROUND: The neural mechanisms of anorexia nervosa (AN), a severe and chronic psychiatric illness, are still poorly understood. Altered body state processing, or interoception, has been documented in AN, and disturbances in aversive interoception may contribute to distorted body perception, extreme dietary restriction, and anxiety. As prior data implicate a potential mismatch between interoceptive expectation and experience in AN, we examined whether AN is associated with altered brain activation before, during, and after an unpleasant interoceptive state change...
July 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713915/concurrent-administration-of-thyroxine-and-donepezil-induces-plastic-changes-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-adult-hypothyroid-rats
#15
Fen Wang, Zhangbi Wu, Xiaoxue Zha, Yaojun Cai, Bo Wu, Xuemei Jia, Defa Zhu
The aim of the present study was to observe the effects of the concurrent administration of thyroxine (T4) and an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, donepezil (DON), on the hypothyroidism‑induced ultrastructural changes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in adult rats. The acetylcholine (ACh) content and AChE activity was assessed, as well as the expressions of synaptotagmin‑1 (syt‑1) and SNAP‑25 were analyzed in the rats. Adding 0.05% propylthiouracil to rats' drinking water induced a hypothyroid rat model...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709732/medial-geniculate-neurons-show-diverse-effects-in-response-to-electrical-stimulation-of-prefrontal-cortex
#16
K M Barry, D Robertson, W H A M Mulders
Phantom perceptions have been proposed to arise due to dysfunctional sensory gating at the level of the thalamus. Recently, it has been suggested that tinnitus, a phantom perception of sound, may arise from altered cortico-limbic circuitry and its connection with the auditory thalamus, the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). Indeed, some elements of this cortico-limbic circuitry, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as elements of the auditory pathway, have been shown to be altered in humans with tinnitus...
July 8, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709310/phase-field-crystal-investigation-of-the-morphology-of-a-steady-state-dendrite-tip-on-the-atomic-scale
#17
Sai Tang, Jincheng Wang, Junjie Li, Zhijun Wang, Yaolin Guo, Can Guo, Yaohe Zhou
Through phase-field-crystal (PFC) simulations, we investigated, on the atomic scale, the crucial role played by interface energy anisotropy and growth driving force during the morphological evolution of a dendrite tip at low growth driving force. In the layer-by-layer growth manner, the interface energy anisotropy drives the forefront of the dendrite tip to evolve to be highly similar to the corner of the corresponding equilibrium crystal from the aspects of atom configuration and morphology, and thus affects greatly the formation and growth of a steady-state dendrite tip...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707571/how-do-you-see-me-the-neural-basis-of-motivated-meta-perception
#18
Taru Flagan, Jeanette A Mumford, Jennifer S Beer
We cannot see the minds of others, yet people often spontaneously interpret how they are viewed by other people (i.e., meta-perceptions) and often in a self-flattering manner. Very little is known about the neural associations of meta-perceptions, but a likely candidate is the ventromedial pFC (VMPFC). VMPFC has been associated with both self- and other-perception as well as motivated self-perception. Does this function extend to meta-perceptions? The current study examined neural activity while participants made meta-perceptive interpretations in various social scenarios...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706064/history-of-winning-remodels-thalamo-pfc-circuit-to-reinforce-social-dominance
#19
Tingting Zhou, Hong Zhu, Zhengxiao Fan, Fei Wang, Yang Chen, Hexing Liang, Zhongfei Yang, Lu Zhang, Longnian Lin, Yang Zhan, Zheng Wang, Hailan Hu
Mental strength and history of winning play an important role in the determination of social dominance. However, the neural circuits mediating these intrinsic and extrinsic factors have remained unclear. Working in mice, we identified a dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) neural population showing "effort"-related firing during moment-to-moment competition in the dominance tube test. Activation or inhibition of the dmPFC induces instant winning or losing, respectively. In vivo optogenetic-based long-term potentiation and depression experiments establish that the mediodorsal thalamic input to the dmPFC mediates long-lasting changes in the social dominance status that are affected by history of winning...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705472/adolescent-social-isolation-affects-schizophrenia-like-behavior-and-astrocyte-biomarkers-in-the-pfc-of-adult-rats
#20
Lan Sun, Li Min, Hao Zhou, Man Li, Feng Shao, Weiwen Wang
Social isolation is regarded as a cause of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Animal models of schizophrenia are constructed by repeated early environment deprivation as an important paradigm to reveal its pathological mechanism. Male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to either social-rearing (SR) or isolated-rearing (IR) groups during postnatal days (PNDs) 21-34. On PND 56, all rats underwent behavioral testing including locomotor activity, anxiety-related behaviors in an open field and prepulse inhibition (PPI)...
July 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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