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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782908/deficits-in-temporal-order-memory-induced-by-interferon-alpha-ifn-%C3%AE-treatment-are-rescued-by-aerobic-exercise
#1
Sally Barlow, Briana Fahey, Kimberley J Smith, Johannes Passecker, Andrea Della-Chiesa, Vincent Hok, Jennifer S Day, Charlotte K Callaghan, Shane M O'Mara
Patients receiving cytokine immunotherapy with IFN-α frequently present with neuropsychiatric consequences and cognitive impairments, including a profound depressive-like symptomatology. While the neurobiological substrates of the dysfunction that leads to adverse events in IFN-α-treated patients remains ill-defined, dysfunctions of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are strong possibilities. To date, hippocampal deficits have been well-characterised; there does however remain a lack of insight into the nature of prefrontal participation...
May 18, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780318/the-aerobic-and-cognitive-exercise-study-aces-for-community-dwelling-older-adults-with-or-at-risk-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci-neuropsychological-neurobiological-and-neuroimaging-outcomes-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Cay Anderson-Hanley, Nicole M Barcelos, Earl A Zimmerman, Robert W Gillen, Mina Dunnam, Brian D Cohen, Vadim Yerokhin, Kenneth E Miller, David J Hayes, Paul J Arciero, Molly Maloney, Arthur F Kramer
Prior research has found that cognitive benefits of physical exercise and brain health in older adults may be enhanced when mental exercise is interactive simultaneously, as in exergaming. It is unclear whether the cognitive benefit can be maximized by increasing the degree of mental challenge during exercise. This randomized clinical trial (RCT), the Aerobic and Cognitive Exercise Study (ACES) sought to replicate and extend prior findings of added cognitive benefit from exergaming to those with or at risk for mild cognitive impairment (MCI)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778804/emotion-introspection-and-regulation-in-depression
#3
Uwe Herwig, Sarah Opialla, Katja Cattapan, Thomas C Wetter, Lutz Jäncke, Annette B Brühl
Depressed patients suffer from an impairment to voluntarily influence and regulate their unpleasant emotional state. Strengthening the mental ability to interfere with dysfunctional emotion processing may be beneficial in treating depression. According to models of emotion processing this may be done by successful down-regulation of enhanced amygdala activity. We investigated short periods of intentional emotion-introspection compared with cognitive self-reflection as two domains of self-awareness in terms of effects on emotion regulation...
May 9, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774500/thalamocortical-dysconnectivity-in-premenstrual-syndrome
#4
Peng Liu, Ying Wei, Hai Liao, Yingying Fan, Ru Li, Nana Feng, Gaoxiong Duan, Demao Deng, Wei Qin
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a menstrual cycle-related disorder. Although the precise pathophysiology is not fully understood, it is increasingly believed that the central nervous system plays a vital role in the development of PMS. The aim of this study is to elucidate specific functional connectivity between the thalamus and cerebral cortex. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were obtained from 20 PMS patients and 21 healthy controls (HCs). Seed-based functional connectivity between the thalamus and six cortical regions of interest, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), posterior parietal cortex, somatosensory cortex, motor cortex/supplementary motor area, temporal and occipital lobe, was adopted to identify specific thalamocortical connectivity in the two groups...
May 17, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770780/placement-of-lumen-apposing-metal-stents-to-drain-pseudocysts-and-walled-off-pancreatic-necrosis-can-be-safely-performed-on-an-outpatient-basis-a-multicenter-study
#5
Douglas G Adler, Janak Shah, Jose Nieto, Kenneth Binmoeller, Yasser Bhat, Linda Jo Taylor, Ali A Siddiqui
Backgrounds and Objectives: No study on the use of lumen-apposing fully covered self-expanding metal stent (LAMS) to drain pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) has evaluated outcomes of patients in the outpatient setting. The objective of this multicenter study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes, success rate, and adverse events of the LAMS for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided transmural drainage of patients with symptomatic PFCs on an inpatient versus an outpatient basis. Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective study conducted at 4 tertiary care centers...
May 17, 2018: Endoscopic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762100/top-down-control-of-alpha-phase-adjustment-in-anticipation-of-temporally-predictable-visual-stimuli
#6
Rodolfo Solís-Vivanco, Ole Jensen, Mathilde Bonnefond
Alpha oscillations (8-14 Hz) are proposed to represent an active mechanism of functional inhibition of neuronal processing. Specifically, alpha oscillations are associated with pulses of inhibition repeating every ∼100 msec. Whether alpha phase, similar to alpha power, is under top-down control remains unclear. Moreover, the sources of such putative top-down phase control are unknown. We designed a cross-modal (visual/auditory) attention study in which we used magnetoencephalography to record the brain activity from 34 healthy participants...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761010/central-cholinergic-system-mediates-working-memory-deficit-induced-by-anesthesia-surgery-in-adult-mice
#7
Xiao Zhang, Xuliang Jiang, Lili Huang, Weitian Tian, Xuemei Chen, Xiyao Gu, Weifeng Yu, Jie Tian, Diansan Su
Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is consistently associated with increased morbidity and mortality, which has become a major concern of patients and caregivers. Although POCD occurs mainly in aged patients, it happens at any age. Previous studies demonstrated that anesthesia/surgery had no effects on reference memory of adult mice. However, whether it impairs working memory remains unclear. Working memory deficit would result in many deficits of executive function...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760409/histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-ms-275-restores-social-and-synaptic-function-in-a-shank3-deficient-mouse-model-of-autism
#8
Kaijie Ma, Luye Qin, Emmanuel Matas, Lara J Duffney, Aiyi Liu, Zhen Yan
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social deficits and repetitive behaviors. Genetic screening has identified synaptic, transcriptional, and chromatin genes disrupted in autistic patients. Haploinsufficiency of Shank3, which encodes a scaffold protein at glutamatergic synapses, is causally linked to autism. Using a Shank3-deficient mouse model that exhibits prominent autism-like phenotypes, we have found that histone acetylation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is abnormally low, which can be reversed by MS-275 (also known as Entinostat, SNDX-275), a class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that is selectively potent in PFC...
April 19, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759944/testing-assumptions-on-prefrontal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-comparison-of-electrode-montages-using-multimodal-fmri
#9
Jana Wörsching, Frank Padberg, Stephan Goerigk, Irmgard Heinz, Christine Bauer, Christian Plewnia, Alkomiet Hasan, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Daniel Keeser
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been widely applied in cognitive neurosciences and advocated as a therapeutic intervention, e.g. in major depressive disorder. Although several targets and protocols have been suggested, comparative studies of tDCS parameters, particularly electrode montages and their cortical targets, are still lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated a priori hypotheses on specific effects of prefrontal-tDCS montages by using multimodal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in healthy participants...
May 4, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758731/combining-phase-field-crystal-methods-with-a-cahn-hilliard-model-for-binary-alloys
#10
Ananya Renuka Balakrishna, W Craig Carter
Diffusion-induced phase transitions typically change the lattice symmetry of the host material. In battery electrodes, for example, Li ions (diffusing species) are inserted between layers in a crystalline electrode material (host). This diffusion induces lattice distortions and defect formations in the electrode. The structural changes to the lattice symmetry affect the host material's properties. Here, we propose a 2D theoretical framework that couples a Cahn-Hilliard (CH) model, which describes the composition field of a diffusing species, with a phase-field crystal (PFC) model, which describes the host-material lattice symmetry...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758669/classical-nucleation-theory-in-the-phase-field-crystal-model
#11
Paul Jreidini, Gabriel Kocher, Nikolas Provatas
A full understanding of polycrystalline materials requires studying the process of nucleation, a thermally activated phase transition that typically occurs at atomistic scales. The numerical modeling of this process is problematic for traditional numerical techniques: commonly used phase-field methods' resolution does not extend to the atomic scales at which nucleation takes places, while atomistic methods such as molecular dynamics are incapable of scaling to the mesoscale regime where late-stage growth and structure formation takes place following earlier nucleation...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756310/folate-receptor-targeted-19-f-mr-molecular-imaging-and-proliferation-evaluation-of-lung-cancer
#12
Xiuan Xu, Yuling Yan, Fang Liu, Lina Wu, Mengping Shao, Kai Wang, Xilin Sun, Yingbo Li, Ernest Sanyare Warmann Beinpuo, Baozhong Shen
BACKGROUND: Folate receptors (FRs) hold great potential as important diagnostic and prognostic biological marker for cancer. PURPOSE: To assess the targeted capability of the FR-targeted perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoparticles and to assess in vivo the relationship between FR expression and tumor proliferation with fluorine-19 (19 F) MR molecular imaging. STUDY TYPE: Prospective animal cancer model. ANIMAL MODEL: H460 (n = 14) and A549 (n = 14) nude mice subcutaneous tumor models...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753887/peri-adolescent-drinking-of-ethanol-and-or-nicotine-modulates-astroglial-glutamate-transporters-and-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-1-in-female-alcohol-preferring-rats
#13
Fawaz Alasmari, Richard L Bell, P S S Rao, Alaa M Hammad, Youssef Sari
Impairment in glutamate neurotransmission mediates the development of dependence upon nicotine (NIC) and ethanol (EtOH). Previous work indicated that continuous access to EtOH or phasic exposure to NIC reduces expression of the glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT) but not the glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST). Additionally, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) expression was affected following exposure to EtOH or NIC. However, little is known about the effects of EtOH and NIC co-consumption on GLT-1, xCT, GLAST, and mGluR1 expression...
May 10, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753198/prefrontal-alterations-in-gabaergic-and-glutamatergic-gene-expression-in-relation-to-depression-and-suicide
#14
J Zhao, R W H Verwer, S-F Gao, X-R Qi, P J Lucassen, H W Kessels, D F Swaab
People that committed suicide were reported to have enhanced levels of gene transcripts for synaptic proteins in their prefrontal cortex (PFC). Given the close association of suicide with major depressive disorder (MDD), we here assessed whether these changes are related to suicide or rather to depression per se. We used quantitative PCR to determine mRNA levels of 32 genes encoding for proteins directly involved in glutamatergic or GABAergic synaptic transmission in postmortem samples of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753050/sex-specific-differences-in-corticosterone-secretion-behavioral-phenotypes-and-expression-of-trkb-t1-and-trkb-fl-receptor-isoforms-impact-of-systemic-trkb-inhibition-and-combinatory-stress-exposure-in-adolescence
#15
Idu Azogu, Jacky Liang, Helene Plamondon
Stress exposure has been implicated in the development of mood disorders, although little is known about the lasting effects of repeated stress during the adolescent period on sex-specific differences in endocrine and plasticity-signaling responses in adulthood. Using a 10-day combinatory stress paradigm (postnatal day (PND) 26 to 35), we examined sex-specific impact of adolescent stress and inhibition of tyrosine-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor (ANA-12; 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) on 1) adolescent blood corticosterone levels, 2) adult locomotion and anxiety behavior, and 3) region-specific differences in endogenous TrkB full-length (TrkB...
May 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752611/comparison-of-electroacupuncture-and-mild-warm-moxibustion-on-brain-gut-function-in-patients-with-constipation-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Ji-Meng Zhao, Jin-Hua Lu, Xiao-Jun Yin, Lu-Yi Wu, Chun-Hui Bao, Xing-Kui Chen, Yue-Hua Chen, Wei-Jun Tang, Xiao-Ming Jin, Huan-Gan Wu, Yin Shi
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) and mild-warm moxibustion (Mox) therapies for constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (C-IBS) patients. METHODS: Sixty C-IBS patients were assigned to 2 groups by simple randomized method, i.e. EA group (30 cases) and Mox group (30 cases). Both EA and Mox treatments were performed on bilateral Tianshu (ST 25) and Shangjuxu (ST 37) for 30 min each time, 6 times per week, for 4 consecutive weeks...
May 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746907/oscillatory-networks-of-high-level-mental-alignment-a-perspective-taking-meg-study
#17
R A Seymour, H Wang, G Rippon, K Kessler
Mentally imagining another's perspective is a high-level social process, reliant on manipulating internal representations of the self in an embodied manner. Recently Wang et al. (2016) showed that theta-band (3-7 Hz) brain oscillations within the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ) and brain regions coding for motor/body schema contribute to the process of perspective-taking. Using a similar paradigm, we set out to unravel the extended functional brain network in detail. Increasing the angle between self and other perspective was accompanied by longer reaction times and increases in theta power within rTPJ, right lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)...
May 7, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744956/imaging-resilience-and-recovery-in-alcohol-dependence
#18
REVIEW
Katrin Charlet, Annika Rosenthal, Falk W Lohoff, Andreas Heinz, Anne Beck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Resilience and recovery are of increasing importance in the field of alcohol dependence (AD). This paper describes how imaging studies in man can be used to assess the neurobiological correlates of resilience and, if longitudinal, of disease trajectories, progression rates and markers for recovery to inform treatment and prevention options. METHODS: Original articles on recovery and resilience in alcohol addiction and its neurobiological correlates were identified from 'PubMed' and have been analyzed and condensed within a systematic literature review...
May 9, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740871/the-neuropeptide-12-n-pep-12-improves-recognition-memory-and-neuronal-plasticity-of-the-limbic-system-in-old-rats
#19
Elizabeth Monserrat Hernández-Hernández, Karen Caporal Hernandez, Rubén Antonio Vázquez-Roque, Alfonso Díaz, Fidel de la Cruz, Benjamin Florán, Gonzalo Flores
Aging is a stage of life where cognitive and motor functions are impaired. This is because oxidative and inflammatory processes exacerbate neurodegeneration, which affects dendritic morphology and neuronal communication of limbic regions with memory loss. Recently, the use of trophic substances has been proposed to prevent neuronal deterioration. The neuropeptide-12 (N-PEP-12) has been evaluated in elderly patients with dementia, showing improvements in cognitive tasks due to acts as a neurotrophic factor. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of N-PEP-12 on motor activity and recognition memory, as well as its effects on dendritic morphology and the immunoreactivity of GFAP, Synaptophysin, and BDNF in neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal hippocampus (DH) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of aged rats...
May 8, 2018: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739891/quantitative-assessment-of-prefrontal-cortex-in-humans-relative-to-nonhuman-primates
#20
Chad J Donahue, Matthew F Glasser, Todd M Preuss, James K Rilling, David C Van Essen
Humans have the largest cerebral cortex among primates. The question of whether association cortex, particularly prefrontal cortex (PFC), is disproportionately larger in humans compared with nonhuman primates is controversial: Some studies report that human PFC is relatively larger, whereas others report a more uniform PFC scaling. We address this controversy using MRI-derived cortical surfaces of many individual humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. We present two parcellation-based PFC delineations based on cytoarchitecture and function and show that a previously used morphological surrogate (cortex anterior to the genu of the corpus callosum) substantially underestimates PFC extent, especially in humans...
May 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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