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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149380/psa-kinetics-following-primary-focal-cryotherapy-hemiablation-in-organ-confined-prostate-cancer-patients
#1
Michael Kongnyuy, Shahidul Islam, Alfred K Mbah, Daniel M Halpern, Glenn T Werneburg, Kaitlin E Kosinski, Connie Chen, David J Habibian, Jeffrey T Schiff, Anthony T Corcoran, Aaron E Katz
PURPOSE: We aim to evaluate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) trends in post-primary focal cryotherapy (PFC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an institutional review board-approved retrospective study of PFC patients from 2010 to 2015. Patients with at least one post-PFC PSA were included in the study. Biochemical recurrence (BCR) was determined using the Phoenix criteria. PSA bounce was also assessed. We analyzed rates of change of PSA over time of post-PFC between BCR and no BCR groups...
November 17, 2017: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141359/-analysis-of-the-tibial-baseplate-coverage-and-symmetrical-tibial-prosthesis-in-primary-total-knee-arthroplasty
#2
C L Zhao, J P Wang, Z H Sun, M Li, J W Chen
Objective: To investigate the tibial baseplate coverage with symmnetrical tibial prosthesis in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: From August 2014 to February 2015, 39 patients (39 knees) with varus knee osteoarthritis were retrospective reviewed in Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Xiqing Hospital. Nine males and 30 females; aged 50 to 78 years (67±6 year). 3D tibia models of the knee were built with Mimics 10.01 software, simulated TKA surgeries were performed. The morphology of the proximal tibia was measured, including the mediolateral (ML), anteroposterior (AP) and medial and lateral tibial plateau AP dimensions...
November 7, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136106/cell-type-specific-burst-firing-interacts-with-theta-and-beta-activity-in-prefrontal-cortex-during-attention-states
#3
B Voloh, T Womelsdorf
Population-level theta and beta band activity in anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices (ACC/PFC) are prominent signatures of self-controlled, adaptive behaviors. But how these rhythmic activities are linked to cell-type specific activity has remained unclear. Here, we suggest such a cell-to-systems level linkage. We found that the rate of burst spiking events is enhanced particularly during attention states and that attention-specific burst spikes have a unique temporal relationship to local theta and beta band population-level activities...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135225/regional-variations-of-spontaneous-transient-adenosine-release-in-brain-slices
#4
Scott T Lee, B Jill Venton
Transient adenosine signaling has been recently discovered in vivo, where the concentration is on average 180 nM and the duration only 3-4 seconds. Characterizing transient adenosine release in brain slices would facilitate pharmacological experiments testing formation and function of adenosine. Here, the goal was to compare the frequency, concentration, and duration of transient events in rat brain slices from the pre-frontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (CA1), and thalamus using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry...
November 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132110/comprehensive-phospholipid-and-sphingomyelin-profiling-of-different-brain-regions-in-mouse-model-of-anxiety-disorder-using-online-two-dimensional-hilic-rp-lc-ms-method
#5
Róbert Berkecz, Ferenc Tömösi, Tímea Körmöczi, Viktor Szegedi, János Horváth, Tamás Janáky
A novel online system including two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (2D-LC/MS) was developed and applied for comprehensive phospholipid (PL) and sphingomyelin (SM) profiling of dorsal hippocampus (DHPC), ventral (VHPC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) brain regions in a mouse model of anxiety disorder. In the first dimension, lipid classes were distinguished by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), while the second dimensional separation of individual PL and SM species was achieved by reversed-phase (RP) chromatography...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131745/ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-updates-chosen-value-according-to-choice-set-size
#6
Juri Fujiwara, Nobuo Usui, Satoshi Eifuku, Toshio Iijima, Masato Taira, Ken-Ichiro Tsutsui, Philippe N Tobler
Having chosen an item typically increases the subjective value of the chosen item, and people generally enjoy making choices from larger choice sets. However, having too many items to choose from can reduce the value of chosen items, for example, because of conflict or choice difficulty. In this study, we investigated the effects of choice set size on behavioral and neural value updating (revaluation) of the chosen item. In the scanner, participants selected items from choice sets of various sizes (one, two, four, or eight items)...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131744/not-doomed-to-repeat-enhanced-mpfc-tracking-of-errors-promotes-adaptive-behavior-during-adolescence
#7
Ethan M McCormick, Eva H Telzer
Feedback information is one of the most powerful forces that promotes learning, providing guidance for changes to ongoing behavioral patterns. Previous examinations of feedback learning have largely relied on explicit feedback based on task performance. However, learning is not restricted to explicit feedback and likely involves other forms of more subtle feedback cues. One potential form of this kind of learning may involve internally generated feedback in response to error commission. Whether this error-related response prompts neural and behavioral adaptation that overlaps with, or is distinct from, those evoked by external feedback is largely unknown...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127718/-frontal-eye-field-in-prosimian-galagos-intracortical-microstimulation-and-tracing-studies
#8
Iwona Stepniewska, Pierre Pouget, Jon H Kaas
The frontal eye field (FEF) in prosimian primates was identified as a small cortical region, above and anterior to the anterior frontal sulcus, from which saccadic eye movements were evoked with electrical stimulation. Tracer injections revealed FEF connections with cortical and subcortical structures participating in higher order visual processing. Ipsilateral cortical connections were the densest with adjoining parts of the dorsal premotor and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Label in a region corresponding to supplementary eye field (SEF) of other primates, suggests the existence of SEF in galagos...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127235/cardiac-performance-is-limited-by-oxygen-delivery-to-the-mitochondria-in-the-crystalloid-perfused-working-heart
#9
Sarah Kuzmiak-Glancy, Raul Covian, Armel N Femnou, Brian Glancy, Rafael Jaimes, Anastasia M Wengrowski, Kara Garrott, Stephanie French, Robert S Balaban, Matthew W Kay
The left ventricular (LV) working, crystalloid-perfused heart is used extensively to evaluate basic cardiac function, pathophysiology, and pharmacology. Crystalloid-perfused hearts may be limited by oxygen delivery, as adding oxygen carriers increases myoglobin oxygenation and improves myocardial function. However, whether decreased myoglobin oxygen saturation impacts oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) is unresolved since myoglobin has a much lower affinity for oxygen than cytochrome c oxidase (COX). In the present study, a laboratory-based synthesis of an affordable perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion was developed to increase perfusate oxygen-carrying capacity without impeding optical absorbance assessments...
November 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126372/exercise-improves-recognition-memory-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-for-rats-modelling-vascular-dementia
#10
Juntao Dong, Jingpu Zhao, Yangyang Lin, Huiying Liang, Xiaokuo He, Xiuyuan Zheng, Minghong Sui, Zhiqiang Zhuang, Tiebin Yan
OBJECTIVES: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) may induce involuntary exercise and make beneficial effects on vascular dementia (VD) by strengthening the BDNF-pCREB-mediated pathway and hippocampal plasticity. Whether FES improves recognition memory and synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was investigated by establishing a VD model. METHODS: The VD rats were administered with two weeks of voluntary exercise, forced exercise, or involuntary exercise induced with FES...
November 10, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125875/drug-abusers-have-impaired-cerebral-oxygenation-and-cognition-during-exercise
#11
Kell Grandjean da Costa, Vanessa Soares Rachetti, Weslley Quirino Alves da Silva, Daniel Aranha Rego Cabral, Daniel Gomes da Silva Machado, Eduardo Caldas Costa, Rodrigo Menezes Forti, Rickson Coelho Mesquita, Hassan Mohamed Elsangedy, Alexandre Hideki Okano, Eduardo Bodnariuc Fontes
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Substance Use Disorder (SUD) have lower baseline metabolic activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) associated with impairment of cognitive functions in decision-making and inhibitory control. Aerobic exercise has shown to improve PFC function and cognitive performance, however, its effects on SUD individuals remain unclear. PURPOSE: To verify the cognitive performance and oxygenation of the PFC during an incremental exercise in SUD individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122692/blockade-of-platelet-activating-factor-receptor-attenuates-abnormal-behaviors-induced-by-phencyclidine-in-mice-through-down-regulation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#12
The-Vinh Tran, Se Jin Park, Eun-Joo Shin, Hai-Quyen Tran, Ji Hoon Jeong, Choon-Gon Jang, Yu Jeung Lee, Seung-Yeol Nah, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Hyoung-Chun Kim
Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammation is one of the important etiologic factors of abusive and neuropsychiatric disorders. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is potent proinflammatory lipid mediat1or and plays a pivotal role in neuroinflammatory disorders through the specific PAF receptor (PAF-R). Phencyclidine (PCP) induces a psychotomimetic state that closely resembles schizophrenia. Here, we investigated the role of PAF-R in the abnormal behaviors induced by PCP in mice. Repeated treatment with PCP resulted in a significant increase in PAF-R gene expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and in the hippocampus...
November 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121545/higher-order-cognitive-training-effects-on-processing-speed-related-neural-activity-a-randomized-trial
#13
Michael A Motes, Uma S Yezhuvath, Sina Aslan, Jeffrey S Spence, Bart Rypma, Sandra B Chapman
Higher-order cognitive training has shown to enhance performance in older adults, but the neural mechanisms underlying performance enhancement have yet to be fully disambiguated. This randomized trial examined changes in processing speed and processing speed-related neural activity in older participants (57-71 years of age) who underwent cognitive training (CT, N = 12) compared with wait-listed (WLC, N = 15) or exercise-training active (AC, N = 14) controls. The cognitive training taught cognitive control functions of strategic attention, integrative reasoning, and innovation over 12 weeks...
October 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117722/endoscopic-ultrasound-guided-pancreatic-fluid-collections-transmural-drainage-outcomes-in-100-consecutive-cases-of-pseudocysts-and-walled-off-necrosis-a-single-centre-experience-from-the-united-kingdom
#14
Chander Shekhar, Ben Maher, Colm Forde, Brinder Singh Mahon
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage is a minimally invasive first-line modality for the drainage of pancreatic fluid collection (PFC) resulting in a shorter hospital stay and less morbidity compared with surgical cystogastrostomy. Our aim is to evaluate potential differences in the outcomes of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided transmural drainage (EUS-TD) drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst (PP) and walled-off necrosis (WON). METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive EUS-guided drainages of PFC utilising EUS reports; clinical notes and imaging with follow-up (FU) to 12 months...
November 9, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117549/prefrontal-cortex-drives-distinct-projection-neurons-in-the-basolateral-amygdala
#15
Laura M McGarry, Adam G Carter
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) regulates emotional behavior via top-down control of the basolateral amygdala (BLA). However, the influence of PFC inputs on the different projection pathways within the BLA remains largely unexplored. Here, we combine whole-cell recordings and optogenetics to study these cell-type specific connections in mouse BLA. We characterize PFC inputs onto three distinct populations of BLA neurons that project to the PFC, ventral hippocampus, or nucleus accumbens. We find that PFC-evoked synaptic responses are strongest at amygdala-cortical and amygdala-hippocampal neurons and much weaker at amygdala-striatal neurons...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116470/sex-differences-in-trauma-related-psychopathology-a-critical-review-of-neuroimaging-literature-2014-2017
#16
REVIEW
Liat Helpman, Xi Zhu, Benjamin Suarez-Jimenez, Amit Lazarov, Catherine Monk, Yuval Neria
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sex differences in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of trauma-related psychopathology have long been documented. Multiple underlying mechanisms have been examined, both psychosocial and biological. Among the most promising biological mechanisms are neural substrates of trauma-related psychopathology that have been uncovered in recent years. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuroimaging studies of sex-related heterogeneity published over the past 3 years (2014-2017) demonstrate an interaction between sex and type, timing, and load of trauma exposure...
November 8, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114204/acute-ethanol-administration-upregulates-synaptic-%C3%AE-4-subunit-of-neuronal-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-within-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-amygdala
#17
Josephine R Tarren, Henry A Lester, Arnauld Belmer, Selena E Bartlett
Alcohol and nicotine are two of the most frequently abused drugs, with their comorbidity well described. Previous data show that chronic exposure to nicotine upregulates high-affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in several brain areas. Effects of ethanol on specific brain nAChR subtypes within the mesolimbic dopaminergic (DA) pathway may be a key element in the comorbidity of ethanol and nicotine. However, it is unknown how alcohol affects the abundance of these receptor proteins. In the present study, we measured the effect of acute binge ethanol on nAChR α4 subunit levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), and amygdala (Amg) by western blot analysis using a knock-in mouse line, generated with a normally functioning α4 nAChR subunit tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114072/neural-representations-of-hierarchical-rule-sets-the-human-control-system-represents-rules-irrespective-of-the-hierarchical-level-they-belong-to
#18
Doris Pischedda, Kai Görgen, John-Dylan Haynes, Carlo Reverberi
Humans use rules to organize their actions to achieve specific goals. While simple rules that link a sensory stimulus to one response may suffice in some situations, often the application of multiple, hierarchically-organized rules is required. Recent theories suggest that progressively higher level rules are encoded along an anterior-to-posterior gradient within PFC. While some work supports the existence of such a functional gradient, other studies argue for a lesser degree of specialization within PFC.We used fMRI to investigate whether rules at different hierarchical levels are represented at distinct locations in the brain or encoded by a single system...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114071/working-memory-and-decision-making-in-a-fronto-parietal-circuit-model
#19
John D Murray, Jorge Jaramillo, Xiao-Jing Wang
Working memory (WM) and decision making (DM) are fundamental cognitive functions involving a distributed interacting network of brain areas, with the posterior parietal and prefrontal cortices (PPC and PFC) at the core. However, the shared and distinct roles of these areas and the nature of their coordination in cognitive function remain poorly understood. Biophysically-based computational models of cortical circuits have provided insights into the mechanisms supporting these functions, yet they have primarily focused on the local microcircuit level, raising questions about the principles for distributed cognitive computation in multi-regional networks...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113642/prefrontal-thalamic-anatomical-connectivity-and-executive-cognitive-function-in-schizophrenia
#20
Monica Giraldo-Chica, Baxter P Rogers, Stephen M Damon, Bennett A Landman, Neil D Woodward
BACKGROUND: Executive cognitive functions, including working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition, are impaired in schizophrenia. Executive functions rely on coordinated information processing between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and thalamus, particularly the mediodorsal nucleus. This raises the possibility that anatomical connectivity between the PFC and mediodorsal thalamus may be 1) reduced in schizophrenia and 2) related to deficits in executive function. The current investigation tested these hypotheses...
September 28, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
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