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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549887/fluvoxamine-maleate-effects-on-dopamine-signaling-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-stressed-parkinsonian-rats-implications-for-learning-and-memory
#1
Ernest Dallé, Willie M U Daniels, Musa V Mabandla
Parkinson's disease (PD) is also associated with cognitive impairment and reduced extrinsic supply of dopamine (DA) to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In the present study, we looked at whether exposure to early life stress reduces DA and serotonin (5-HT) concentration in the PFC thus leading to enhanced cognitive impairment in a Parkinsonian rat model. Maternal separation was the stressor used to develop an animal model for early life stress that has chronic effects on brain and behavior. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the antidepressant Fluvoxamine maleate (FM) prior to a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion to model motor deficits in rats...
May 23, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547854/nucleus-accumbens-functional-connectivity-at-age-20-is-associated-with-trajectory-of-adolescent-cannabis-use-and-predicts-psychosocial-functioning-in-young-adulthood
#2
Sarah D Lichenstein, Samuel Musselman, Daniel S Shaw, Stephanie Sitnick, Erika E Forbes
AIMS: To identify trajectories of cannabis use across adolescence, 2) to measure the influence of cannabis use characteristics on functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and 3) to assess whether patterns of functional connectivity related to cannabis use are associated with psychosocial functioning 2 years later. DESIGN: The Pitt Mother & Child Project (PMCP) is a prospective, longitudinal study of male youth at high risk for psychopathology based on family income and gender...
May 26, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546312/prefrontal-dopamine-d1-and-d2-receptors-regulate-dissociable-aspects-of-decision-making-via-distinct-ventral-striatal-and-amygdalar-circuits
#3
Nicole L Jenni, Joshua D Larkin, Stan B Floresco
Mesocortical dopamine (DA) regulates a variety of cognitive functions via actions on D1 and/or D2 receptors. For example, risk/reward decision making is differentially modulated by these two receptors within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), with D2 receptors enabling flexible decision making and D1 receptors promoting persistence in choice biases. Yet, it is unclear how DA mediates opposing patterns of behavior by acting on different receptors within the same terminal region. We explored the possibility that DA may act on separate networks of PFC neurons that are modulated by D1 or D2 receptors and in turn interface with divergent downstream structures, such as the basolateral amygdala (BLA) or nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544426/the-catechol-o-methyltransferase-comt-val158met-genotype-modulates-working-memory-related-dorsolateral-prefrontal-response-and-performance-in-bipolar-disorder
#4
K W Miskowiak, H L Kjaerstad, M M Støttrup, A M Svendsen, K M Demant, L K Hoeffding, T M Werge, K E Burdick, K Domschke, A F Carvalho, E Vieta, M Vinberg, L V Kessing, H R Siebner, J Macoveanu
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive dysfunction affects a substantial proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and genetic-imaging paradigms may aid in the elucidation of mechanisms implicated in this symptomatic domain. The Val allele of the functional Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with reduced prefrontal cortex dopamine and exaggerated working memory-related prefrontal activity. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated for the first time whether the COMT Val158Met genotype modulates prefrontal activity during spatial working memory in BD...
May 23, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539423/mnemonic-encoding-and-cortical-organization-in-parietal-and-prefrontal-cortices
#5
Nicolas Y Masse, Jonathan M Hodnefield, David J Freedman
Persistent activity within the frontoparietal network is consistently observed during tasks which require working memory. However, the neural circuit mechanisms underlying persistent neuronal encoding within this network remain unresolved. Here, we ask how neural circuits support persistent activity by examining population recordings from posterior parietal (PPC) and prefrontal (PFC) cortices in two male monkeys that performed spatial and motion direction based tasks that required working memory. While spatially selective persistent activity was observed in both areas, robust selective persistent activity for motion direction was only observed in PFC...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536974/neonatal-immune-challenge-with-lipopolysaccharide-triggers-long-lasting-sex-and-age-related-behavioral-and-immune-neurotrophic-alterations-in-mice-relevance-to-autism-spectrum-disorders
#6
Charllyany Sabino Custódio, Bruna Stefânia Ferreira Mello, Adriano José Maia Chaves Filho, Camila Nayane de Carvalho Lima, Rafaela Carneiro Cordeiro, Fábio Miyajima, Gislaine Z Réus, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, Tatiana Barichello, João Quevedo, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira, David Freitas de Lucena, Danielle S Macedo
Early-life challenges, particularly infections and stress, are related to neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. Here, we conducted a wide range of behavioral tests in periadolescent (postnatal day (PN) 35) and adult (PN70) Swiss mice neonatally challenged with LPS on PN5 and -7, to unveil behavioral alterations triggered by LPS exposure. Immune and neurotrophic (brain-derived neurotrophic factor-BDNF) alterations were determined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HC), and hypothalamus (HT)...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536507/dopamine-modulates-delta-gamma-phase-amplitude-coupling-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-behaving-rats
#7
Victoria Andino-Pavlovsky, Annie C Souza, Robson Scheffer-Teixeira, Adriano B L Tort, Roberto Etchenique, Sidarta Ribeiro
Dopamine release and phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling (CFC) have independently been implicated in prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning. To causally investigate whether dopamine release affects phase-amplitude comodulation between different frequencies in local field potentials (LFP) recorded from the medial PFC (mPFC) of behaving rats, we used RuBiDopa, a light-sensitive caged compound that releases the neurotransmitter dopamine when irradiated with visible light. LFP power did not change in any frequency band after the application of light-uncaged dopamine, but significantly strengthened phase-amplitude comodulation between delta and gamma oscillations...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536051/altered-thalamo-cortical-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-smokers
#8
Chaoyan Wang, Jie Bai, Caihong Wang, Karen M von Deneen, Kai Yuan, Jingliang Cheng
The thalamus has widespread connections with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and modulates communication between the striatum and PFC, which is crucial to the neural mechanisms of smoking. However, relatively few studies focused on the thalamic resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns and their association with smoking behaviors in smokers. 24 young male smokers and 24 non-smokers were enrolled in our study. Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was used to assess the nicotine dependence level...
May 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527954/sex-differences-in-the-effect-of-chronic-mild-stress-on-mouse-prefrontal-cortical-bdnf-levels-a-role-of-major-ovarian-hormones
#9
Bhanu Chandra Karisetty, Pranav Chintamani Joshi, Arvind Kumar, Sumana Chakravarty
Depression induced by stress is affected by sex, age and hormonal status of the animal and also by duration and type of the stressors. Moreover, higher prevalence of depression and comorbidities in women than men implies the need to include the sex variable in studies on animal models of depression. The present study was therefore initiated to evaluate the effect of sex and ovarian hormones on depression-like phenotypes in mice exposed to a 21-day Chronic Variable Mild Stress (CVMS) paradigm. Adult male, intact female and, ovariectomized (OVX) female mice exposed to CVMS displayed despair behavior, a depression-like phenotype, in all the groups...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527953/audiovisual-speech-integration-in-the-superior-temporal-region-is-dysfunctional-in-dyslexia
#10
REVIEW
Zheng Ye, Jascha Rüsseler, Ivonne Gerth, Thomas F Münte
Dyslexia is an impairment of reading and spelling that affects both children and adults even after many years of schooling. Dyslexic readers have deficits in the integration of auditory and visual inputs but the neural mechanisms of the deficits are still unclear. This fMRI study examined the neural processing of auditorily presented German numbers 0-9 and videos of lip movements of a German native speaker voicing numbers 0-9 in unimodal (auditory or visual) and bimodal (always congruent) conditions in dyslexic readers and their matched fluent readers...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527693/two-hit-model-of-schizophrenia-induced-by-neonatal-immune-activation-and-peripubertal-stress-in-rats-study-of-sex-differences-and-brain-oxidative-alterations
#11
Aline Santos Monte, Bruna Stefânia Ferreira Mello, Vládia Célia Moreira Borella, Tatiane da Silva Araujo, Francisco Eliclécio Rodrigues da Silva, Francisca Cléa F de Sousa, Antônio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira, Clarissa Severino Gama, Mary V Seeman, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, David Freitas De Lucena, Danielle Macêdo
Schizophrenia is considered to be a developmental disorder with distinctive sex differences. Aiming to simulate the vulnerability of the third trimester of human pregnancy to the developmental course of schizophrenia, an animal model was developed, using neonatal poly(I:C) as a first-hit, and peripubertal stress as a second-hit, i.e. a two-hit model. Since, to date, there have been no references to sex differences in the two-hit model, our study sought to determine sex influences on the development of behavior and brain oxidative change in adult rats submitted to neonatal exposure to poly(I:C) on postnatal days 5-7 as well as peripubertal unpredictable stress (PUS)...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527112/inhalation-of-roman-chamomile-essential-oil-attenuates-depressive-like-behaviors-in-wistar-kyoto-rats
#12
Yingying Kong, Ting Wang, Rong Wang, Yichuan Ma, Shanshan Song, Juan Liu, Weiwei Hu, Shengtian Li
The idea of aromatherapy, using essential oils, has been considered as an alternative antidepressant treatment. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Roman chamomile essential oil inhalation for two weeks on depressive-like behaviors in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. We found that inhalation of either Roman chamomile or one of its main components α-pinene, attenuated depressive-like behavior in WKY rats in the forced swim test. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation analysis (iTRAQ), we found that inhalation of α-pinene increased expression of proteins that are involved in oxidative phosphorylation, such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6C-2, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7A2, ATPase inhibitor in the hippocampus, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6C-2, ATP synthase subunit e, Acyl carrier protein, and Cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 6 in the PFC (prefrontal cortex)...
May 16, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523228/resting-state-and-personality-component-bis-bas-predict-the-brain-activity-eeg-and-fnirs-measure-in-response-to-emotional-cues
#13
Michela Balconi, Maria E Vanutelli, Elisabetta Grippa
INTRODUCTION: The present study explored the role of resting state and personality component (BIS/BAS measure) on prefrontal cortical responsiveness to emotional cues. Indeed, we supposed that lateralized resting activity (right vs. left) and approach (BAS) versus avoidance (BIS) attitude may explain the successive emotional processing within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) based on the stimulus valence (positive and negative emotional cues). METHODS: Hemodynamic (functional near-infrared spectroscopy, fNIRS) and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures were considered...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522735/d3-receptors-regulate-excitability-in-a-unique-class-of-prefrontal-pyramidal-cell
#14
Rebecca L Clarkson, Alayna T Liptak, Steven M Gee, Vikaas S Sohal, Kevin J Bender
The D3 dopamine receptor, a member of the Gi-coupled D2-family of dopamine receptors, is expressed throughout limbic circuits affected in neuropsychiatric disorders, including prefrontal cortex. These receptors are important for prefrontal executive function, as pharmacological and genetic manipulations that affect prefrontal D3 receptors alter anxiety, social interaction, and reversal learning. And yet, the mechanisms by which D3 receptors regulate prefrontal circuits, and whether D3 receptors regulate specific prefrontal subnetworks, remain unknown...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518002/cognitive-evaluation-of-israeli-air-force-pilot-cadets
#15
Shirley Gordon, Chen Goren, Erez Carmon, Leah Shelef
OBJECTIVE: In aviation psychology, there is a constant need for the cognitive evaluation of pilots as part of operational fitness and safety criteria. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with comparison between the performance of Israeli Air Force pilot cadets (N = 318) and U.S. Air Force pilot training candidates (N = 512) as assessed by a cognitive battery was undertaken. The data of the comparison group was collected from Callister, King, and Retzlaff, as published in 1996...
April 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512446/neuroprotective-roles-of-l-cysteine-in-attenuating-early-brain-injury-and-improving-synaptic-density-via-the-cbs-h2s-pathway-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#16
Tong Li, Lingxiao Wang, Quan Hu, Song Liu, Xuemei Bai, Yunkai Xie, Tiantian Zhang, Shishi Bo, Xiangqian Gao, Shuhua Wu, Gang Li, Zhen Wang
l-Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid and substrate for cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) in the central nervous system. We previously reported that NaHS, an H2S donor, significantly alleviated brain damage after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats. However, the potential therapeutic value of l-cysteine and the molecular mechanism supporting these beneficial effects have not been determined. This study was designed to investigate whether l-cysteine could attenuate early brain injury following SAH and improve synaptic function by releasing endogenous H2S...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512401/increased-gamma-connectivity-in-the-human-prefrontal-cortex-during-the-bereitschaftspotential
#17
Kisun Kim, June Sic Kim, Chun Kee Chung
The Bereitschaftspotential (BP) is a slow negative cortical potential preceding voluntary movement. Since movement preparation is dependent upon the synchronous activity of a variety of neurons, BP may develop through the exchange of information among motor-related neurons. However, the relationship between BP and information flow is not yet well-known. In the present study, we aimed to investigate how the connectivity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) changes during the occurrence of BP. Electrocorticography (ECoG) was recorded in five patients with epilepsy...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511465/digging-deeper-into-the-patello-femoral-joint-patello-femoral-composite-a-new-dimension-for-overstuffing-of-patello-femoral-joint
#18
Vikram Kishor Kandhari, Mohan M Desai, Surendar S Bava, Roshan N Wade
INTRODUCTION: Patello-femoral complications are the most common complications in postoperative Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) patients especially overstuffing of Patello - Femoral Joint (PFJ). So, to study the effects of overstuffing of PFJ in postoperative TKA patients we put forth a new dimension - "PATELLO - FEMORAL COMPOSITE (PFC)". This is the maximum distance between anterior cortical line of femur shaft and the anterior cortex of patella with knee in full extension. AIM: To calculate chances of overstuffing of PFJ in postoperative TKA patients and document the effect of overstuffing of PFJ on the passive knee Range of Motion (ROM) in post- op TKA patients...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509934/the-role-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-freezing-of-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease-insights-from-a-deep-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-exploratory-study
#19
Moria Dagan, Talia Herman, Anat Mirelman, Nir Giladi, Jeffrey M Hausdorff
Freezing of Gait (FOG) is one of the most debilitating gait impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD), leading to increased fall risk and reduced health-related quality of life. The utility of parkinsonian medications is often limited in the case of FOG and it frequently becomes dopamine resistant. Recent studies have suggested that pre-frontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction contributes to FOG; however, most previous findings provide only indirect evidence. To better understand the role of the PFC, we aimed to investigate the impact of high frequency, deep, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (drTMS) of the medial PFC on FOG and its mediators...
May 16, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509906/therapeutic-efficacy-of-atypical-antipsychotic-drugs-by-targeting-multiple-stress-related-metabolic-pathways
#20
H L Cai, P Jiang, Q Y Tan, R L Dang, M M Tang, Y Xue, Y Deng, B K Zhang, P F Fang, P Xu, D X Xiang, H D Li, J K Yao
Schizophrenia (SZ) is considered to be a multifactorial brain disorder with defects involving many biochemical pathways. Patients with SZ show variable responses to current pharmacological treatments of SZ because of the heterogeneity of this disorder. Stress has a significant role in the pathophysiological pathways and therapeutic responses of SZ. Atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) can modulate the stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and exert therapeutic effects on stress by targeting the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus...
May 16, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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