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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441905/dopamine-dysregulation-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-relates-to-cognitive-deficits-in-the-sub-chronic-pcp-model-for-schizophrenia-a-preliminary-investigation
#1
Samantha L McLean, Michael K Harte, Joanna C Neill, Andrew Mj Young
RATIONALE: Dopamine dysregulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Sub-chronic phencyclidine (scPCP) treatment produces cognitive impairments in rodents and is a thoroughly validated animal model for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of PFC dopamine in scPCP-induced deficits in a cognitive task of relevance to the disorder, novel object recognition (NOR). METHODS: Twelve adult female Lister Hooded rats received scPCP (2 mg/kg) or vehicle via the intraperitoneal route twice daily for 7 days, followed by 7 days washout...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440239/feasibility-safety-and-outcomes-of-a-single-step-endoscopic-ultrasonography-guided-drainage-of-pancreatic-fluid-collections-without-fluoroscopy-using-a-novel-electrocautery-enhanced-lumen-apposing-self-expanding-metal-stent
#2
Joseph Yoo, Linda Yan, Raza Hasan, Saana Somalya, Jose Nieto, Ali A Siddiqui
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are currently limited data available regarding the safety of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) using the lumen-apposing metal stent without fluoroscopic guidance. This study aims to evaluate clinical outcomes and safety of EUS-guided drainage of PFC using the electrocautery-enhanced lumen-apposing metal stents (EC-LAMSs) without fluoroscopic guidance. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study on patients with symptomatic PFC who underwent EUS-guided drainage using EC-LAMS without fluoroscopy...
March 2017: Endoscopic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438613/stress-altered-synaptic-plasticity-and-damp-signaling-in-the-hippocampus-pfc-axis-elucidating-the-significance-of-igf-1-igf-1r-camkii%C3%AE-expression-in-neural-changes-associated-with-a-prolonged-exposure-therapy
#3
Olalekan M Ogundele, Philip J Ebenezer, Charles C Lee, Joseph Francis
Traumatic stress patients showed significant improvement in behavior after a prolonged exposure to an unrelated stimulus. This treatment method attempts to promote extinction of the fear memory associated with the initial traumatic experience. However, the subsequent prolonged exposure to such stimulus creates an additional layer of neural stress. Although the mechanism remains unclear, prolonged exposure therapy (PET) likely involve changes in synaptic plasticity, neurotransmitter function and inflammation; especially in parts of the brain concerned with the formation and retrieval of fear memory (Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex: PFC)...
April 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438093/tyramide-signal-amplification-permits-immunohistochemical-analyses-of-androgen-receptors-in-the-rat-prefrontal-cortex
#4
Katelyn L Low, Chunqi Ma, Kiran K Soma
Research on neural androgen receptors (ARs) has traditionally focused on brain regions that regulate reproductive and aggressive behaviors, such as the hypothalamus and amygdala. Although many cells in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) also express ARs, the number of ARs per cell appears to be much lower, and thus, AR immunostaining is often hard to detect and quantify in the PFC. Here, we demonstrate that biotin tyramide signal amplification (TSA) dramatically increases AR immunoreactivity in the rat brain, including critical regions of the PFC such as the medial PFC (mPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)...
May 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436445/cortical-thickness-and-subcortical-gray-matter-volume-in-pediatric-anxiety-disorders
#5
Andrea L Gold, Elizabeth R Steuber, Lauren K White, Jennifer Pacheco, Jessica F Sachs, David Pagliaccio, Erin Berman, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine
Perturbations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, and amygdala are implicated in the development of anxiety disorders. However, most structural neuroimaging studies of patients with anxiety disorders utilize adult samples, and the few studies in youths examine small samples, primarily with volume-based measures. This study tested the hypothesis that cortical thickness of PFC regions and gray matter volume of the hippocampus and amygdala differ between pediatric anxiety disorder patients and healthy volunteers (HVs)...
April 24, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436234/comparison-of-hemodynamic-responses-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-according-to-differences-in-self-efficacy
#6
Kazuki Hirao
Although self-efficacy has been used extensively in the field of nursing (e.g., as an outcome measure of nursing interventions), its underlying nature is poorly understood. Investigation of the relationship between self-efficacy and brain activation will help explain the fundamental nature of self-efficacy. In this study, we compared prefrontal activation measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) across 89 undergraduate students categorized into three groups based on their General Self-Efficacy Scale scores: low self-efficacy ( n = 59), moderate self-efficacy ( n = 17), and high self-efficacy ( n = 13)...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435932/default-mode-network-subsystems-are-differentially-disrupted-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#7
Danielle R Miller, Scott M Hayes, Jasmeet P Hayes, Jeffrey M Spielberg, Ginette Lafleche, Mieke Verfaellie
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by debilitating re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms following trauma exposure. Recent evidence suggests that individuals with PTSD show disrupted functional connectivity in the default mode network, an intrinsic network that consists of a midline core, a medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem, and a dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) subsystem. The present study examined whether functional connectivity in these subsystems is differentially disrupted in PTSD...
January 13, 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435083/subchronic-glucocorticoids-glutathione-depletion-and-a-postpartum-model-elevate-monoamine-oxidase-a-activity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-rats
#8
Sofia Raitsin, Junchao Tong, Stephen Kish, Xin Xu, Lilia Magomedova, Carolyn Cummins, Ana C Andreazza, Gustavo Scola, Glen Baker, Jeffrey H Meyer
Recent human brain imaging studies implicate dysregulation of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), in particular in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). This study investigates the influence of four alterations underlying important pathologies of MDD, namely, chronic elevation of glucocorticoid levels, glutathione depletion, changes in female gonadal sex hormones and serotonin concentration fluctuation, on MAO-A and MAO-B activity in rats...
April 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435022/maternal-separation-induced-hippocampal-changes-in-cadherin-1-cdh-1-mrna-and-on-recognition-memory-in-adolescent-mice
#9
Lucas Araújo de Azeredo, Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva, Thiago Wendt Viola, Saulo Gantes Tractenberg, Anderson Centeno da Silva, Rodrigo Orso, Nadja Schröder, Timothy William Bredy, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira
In rodents, disruption of mother-infant attachment induced by maternal separation (MS) is associated with recognition memory impairment and long-term neurobiological consequences. Particularly stress-induced modifications have been associated to disruption of cadherin (CDH) adhesion function, which plays an important role in remodeling of neuronal connection and synaptic plasticity. This study investigated the sex-dependent effect of MS on recognition memory and mRNA levels of classical type I and type II CDH and the related β -catenin (β -Cat) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of late adolescent mice...
April 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433652/ketamine-potentiates-oxidative-stress-and-influences-behaviour-and-inflammation-in-response-to-lipolysaccharide-lps-exposure-in-early-life
#10
Gislaine Z Réus, Lutiana R Simões, Gabriela D Colpo, Giselli Scaini, Jean P Oses, Jaqueline S Generoso, Alan R Prossin, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk, João Quevedo, Tatiana Barichello
Immune activation (IA) during the early neonatal period is a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injected in neonates lead to behavioral and brain changes that persist to adult life. We investigated oxidative stress, levels of cytokines, and the locomotor activity of IA in a schizophrenia animal model in which neonatal male Wistar rats were administered with an injection of LPS (50 μg/kg) on postnatal day 3 and different doses of ketamine (5, 15 and 25 mg/kg) for 7 days during adulthood...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432136/selective-modulation-of-the-pupil-light-reflex-by-prefrontal-cortex-microstimulation
#11
R Becket Ebitz, Tirin Moore
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to flexibly regulate sensorimotor responses. One way the PFC regulates sensorimotor transformations is to modulate activity in other circuits. However, the scope of that control remains unknown: it remains unclear whether the prefrontal cortex can modulate basic reflexes. One canonical example of a central reflex is the pupil light reflex (PLR): the automatic constriction of the pupil in response to luminance increments. Unlike pupil size, which depends the interaction of multiple physiological and neuromodulatory influences, the PLR reflects the action of a simple brainstem circuit...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430041/integrative-modeling-of-pfc
#12
William H Alexander, Eliana Vassena, James Deraeve, Zachary D Langford
pFC is generally regarded as a region critical for abstract reasoning and high-level cognitive behaviors. As such, it has become the focus of intense research involving a wide variety of subdisciplines of neuroscience and employing a diverse range of methods. However, even as the amount of data on pFC has increased exponentially, it appears that progress toward understanding the general function of the region across a broad array of contexts has not kept pace. Effects observed in pFC are legion, and their interpretations are generally informed by a particular perspective or methodology with little regard with how those effects may apply more broadly...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424389/-brodmann-areas-8-and-9-including-the-frontal-eye-field
#13
Masataka Watanabe
Based on cytoarchitectonic analyses, Brodmann assigned numbers 8 and 9 to certain areas of the dorsal and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) in humans and monkeys. Petrides and Pandya re-analyzed the cytoarchitectures of the human and monkey PFCs, and proposed slightly different brain maps for both species. They assigned numbers 8, 9 and 9/46 to the areas that were originally named areas 8 and 9. Areas 8 and 9 have both lateral and medial regions respectively. The lateral area 8 is important for conditional discrimination learning...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422445/transcriptional-profiling-of-shr-ncrl-prefrontal-cortex-reveals-hyperactivity-associated-genes-responsive-to-amphetamine-challenge
#14
Irene Joy I Dela Peña, Ike Dela Peña, June Bryan de la Peña, Hee Jin Kim, Aeree Sohn, Chan Young Shin, Doug Hyun Han, Bung-Nyun Kim, Jong Hoon Ryu, Jae Hoon Cheong
Several studies suggest a strong genetic component of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inappropriate levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Determining specific genetic risk variants for each symptom dimension of ADHD may aid in the identification of the biological risk factors of the disorder. In this study, we explored the potential genetic underpinnings of the hyperactive phenotype of ADHD. To this end, we examined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of SHR/NCrl, an animal model of ADHD, compared with its genetic control, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NCrl) rat and the Wistar rat, strain used to represent the "normal" heterogeneous population...
April 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421533/changes-in-the-prefrontal-glutamatergic-and-parvalbumin-systems-of-mice-exposed-to-unpredictable-chronic-stress
#15
Ryan Shepard, Laurence Coutellier
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is highly sensitive to the effects of stress, a known risk factor of mood disorders including anxiety and depression. Abnormalities in PFC functioning have been well described in humans displaying stress-induced depressive symptoms, and hypoactivity of the PFC is now recognized to be a key feature of the depressed brain. However, little is known about the causes and mechanisms leading to this altered prefrontal functional activity in the context of stress-related mood disorders. We previously showed that unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) in mice increases prefrontal expression of parvalbumin (PV), an activity-dependent calcium-binding albumin protein expressed in a specific subtype of GABAergic neurons, highlighting a potential mechanism through which chronic stress leads to hypofunction of the PFC...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419874/oral-administration-of-a-specific-kynurenic-acid-synthesis-kat-ii-inhibitor-attenuates-evoked-glutamate-release-in-rat-prefrontal-cortex
#16
D M Bortz, H-Q Wu, R Schwarcz, J P Bruno
Cognitive deficits represent core symptoms in schizophrenia (SZ) and predict patient outcome; however, they remain poorly treated by current antipsychotic drugs. Elevated levels of the endogenous alpha7 nicotinic receptor negative allosteric modulator and NMDA receptor antagonist, kynurenic acid (KYNA), are commonly seen in post-mortem tissue and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with SZ. When acutely or chronically elevated in rodents, KYNA produces cognitive deficits similar to those seen in the disease, making down-regulation of KYNA, via inhibition of kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II), a potential treatment strategy...
April 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419642/nicotine-induced-molecular-alterations-are-modulated-by-gabab-receptor-activity
#17
Andres P Varani, Valeria T Pedrón, Amira J Aon, Christian Höcht, Gabriela B Acosta, Bernhard Bettler, Graciela N Balerio
It has been demonstrated that GABAB receptors modulate nicotine (NIC) reward effect; nevertheless, the mechanism implicated is not well known. In this regard, we evaluated the involvement of GABAB receptors on the behavioral, neurochemical, biochemical and molecular alterations associated with the rewarding effects induced by NIC in mice, from a pharmacological and genetic approach. NIC-induced rewarding properties (0.5 mg/kg, subcutaneously, sc) were evaluated by conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm...
April 17, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419438/dinosaur-tail-sign-a-useful-spinal-mri-finding-indicative-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-leakage
#18
Keita Sakurai, Masafumi Kanoto, Motoo Nakagawa, Masashi Shimohira, Aya M Tokumaru, Masashi Kameyama, Keigo Shimoji, Satoru Morimoto, Noriyuki Matsukawa, Minoru Nishio, Yuta Shibamoto
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the imaging characteristics and diagnostic utility of the "Dinosaur tail sign" in the diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. BACKGROUND: The authors propose the "Dinosaur tail sign," defined as a combination of the dorsal epidural hyperintensities, fat tissue, spinal cord, and cauda equine on lumbosacral sagittal fat-suppressed T2-weighted image (FST2WI), as a sensitive indicator for diagnosing CSF leakage. METHODS: Imaging characteristics of the "Dinosaur tail sign" was evaluated in seven spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) and 23 iatrogenic CSF leakage (ICSFL) patients...
April 16, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413778/family-history-and-apoe4-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease-impact-the-neural-correlates-of-episodic-memory-by-early-midlife
#19
M N Rajah, L M K Wallace, E Ankudowich, E H Yu, A Swierkot, R Patel, M M Chakravarty, D Naumova, J Pruessner, R Joober, S Gauthier, S Pasvanis
Episodic memory impairment is a consistent, pronounced deficit in pre-clinical stages of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Individuals with risk factors for AD exhibit altered brain function several decades prior to the onset of AD-related symptoms. In the current event-related fMRI study of spatial context memory we tested the hypothesis that middle-aged adults (MA; 40-58 yrs) with a family history of late onset AD (MA+ FH), or a combined + FH and apolipoprotein E ε4 allele risk factors for AD (MA+ FH + APOE4), will exhibit differences in encoding and retrieval-related brain activity, compared to - FH - APOE4 MA controls...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411429/degradation-of-refractory-organic-compounds-by-photocatalytic-fuel-cell-with-solar-responsive-wo3-fto-photoanode-and-air-breathing-cathode
#20
Shan Xie, Ke Ouyang
A novel solar responsive photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) consisted of a WO3/FTO photoanode and an air-breathing cathode was successfully prepared for simultaneous pollutant degradation and power production. The as-prepared PFC system exhibited outstanding photocurrent performances, which were attributed to the combined effects of the large specific surface area and the improved oxygen transportation by air-breathing cathode design, as well as the enhanced light absorption by transparent FTO substrate. Oxytetracycline hydrochloride was used as the model compound in this paper, and parametric effects on the PFC performances were deeply investigated...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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