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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211103/impaired-learning-and-memory-in-rats-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-involvement-with-the-imbalance-of-nesfatin-1-abundance-and-copine-6-expression
#1
Zheng Chen, Ya-Yun Xu, Rui Wu, Yin-Xiu Han, Yue Yu, Jin-Fang Ge, Fei-Hu Chen
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease, resulting not only in liver dysfunction, glucose and lipid metabolism disorder, but also in neuropsychiatric damage. In the present study, a NAFLD rat model was established via feeding of a high-fat diet, and the behavior was observed via the open field test (OFT), the sucrose preference test (SPT), the elevated plus maze (EPM), the forced swimming test (FST), and the Morris water maze (MWM). The plasma concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected using chemiluminescence technique...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210848/prefrontal-hippocampal-coupling-by-theta-rhythm-and-by-2-5%C3%A2-hz-oscillation-in-the-delta-band-the-role-of-the-nucleus-reuniens-of-the-thalamus
#2
Alexis Roy, Frans Pettersson Svensson, Amna Mazeh, Bernat Kocsis
Rhythmic synchronizations of hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) at theta frequencies (4-8 Hz) are thought to mediate key cognitive functions, and disruptions of HC-PFC coupling were implicated in psychiatric diseases. Theta coupling is thought to represent a HC-to-PFC drive transmitted via the well-described unidirectional HC projection to PFC. In comparison, communication in the PFC-to-HC direction is less understood, partly because no known direct anatomical connection exists. Two recent findings, i...
February 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210821/p-f-c-sigma-%C3%A2-cruciate-retaining-fixed-bearing-versus-mobile-bearing-knee-arthroplasty-a-prospective-comparative-study-with-minimum-10-year-follow-up
#3
O Riaz, A Aqil, G Sisodia, G Chakrabarty
AIMS: To prospectively compare long-term clinical and radiological outcomes following a cruciate retaining fixed-bearing (FB) and a mobile-bearing (MB) primary total knee replacement (TKR). METHODS: We prospectively reviewed 113 TKRs in 99 patients (14 bilateral) with a PFC sigma cruciate retaining rotating platform system, at an average follow-up of 11.1 years (range 10-12). Results were contrasted with those from 89 TKRs in 72 patients (17 bilateral) with a PFC sigma cruciate fixed-bearing prosthesis, at an average follow-up of 12...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209774/methyl-donor-supplementation-alters-cognitive-performance-and-motivation-in-female-offspring-from-high-fat-diet-fed-dams
#4
Sarah E McKee, Nicola M Grissom, Christopher T Herdt, Teresa M Reyes
During gestation, fetal nutrition is entirely dependent on maternal diet. Maternal consumption of excess fat during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of neurologic disorders in offspring, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia. In a mouse model, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed offspring have cognitive and executive function deficits as well as whole-genome DNA and promoter-specific hypomethylation in multiple brain regions. Dietary methyl donor supplementation during pregnancy or adulthood has been used to alter DNA methylation and behavior...
February 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208094/a-simple-strategy-to-refine-cu2o-photocatalytic-capacity-for-refractory-pollutants-removal-roles-of-oxygen-reduction-and-fe-ii-chemistry
#5
Ai-Yong Zhang, Yuan-Yi He, Tan Lin, Nai-Hui Huang, Qiao Xu, Jing-Wei Feng
Visible-light-driven photocatalysis is a promising technology for advanced water treatment, but it usually exhibits a low efficiency. Cu2O is a low-cost semiconductor with narrow band gap, high absorption coefficient and suitable conduction band, but suffers from low charge mobility, poor quantum yield and weak catalytic performance. Herein, the Cu2O catalytic capacity for refractory pollutants degradation is drastically improved by a simple and effective strategy. By virtue of the synergistic effects between photocatalysis and Fenton, a novel and efficient photocatalysis-driven Fenton system, PFC, is originally proposed and experimentally validated using Cu2O/Nano-C hybrids...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203201/modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-cortex-needs-to-understand-all-the-players
#6
REVIEW
Claire N J Meunier, Pascal Chameau, Philippe M Fossier
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in cognitive tasks such as working memory, decision making, risk assessment and regulation of attention. These functions performed by the PFC are supposed to rely on rhythmic electrical activity generated by neuronal network oscillations determined by a precise balance between excitation and inhibition balance (E/I balance) resulting from the coordinated activities of recurrent excitation and feedback and feedforward inhibition. Functional alterations in PFC functions have been associated with cognitive deficits in several pathologies such as major depression, anxiety and schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199912/in-patients-suffering-from-major-depressive-disorders-quantitative-eeg-showed-favorable-changes-in-left-and-right-prefrontal-cortex
#7
Mohammad Haghighi, Sebastian Ludyga, Boshra Rahimi, Leila Jahangard, Mohammad Ahmadpanah, Saadat Torabian, Farzaneh Esnaashari, Marzieh Nazaribadie, Hafez Bajoghli, Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from major depressive disorders (MDD) report anhedonia, low concentration and lack of goal-oriented behavior. Data from imaging and quantitative EEG (QEEG) studies show an asymmetry in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), with lower left as compared to right PFC-activity, associated with specific depression-related behavior. Cordance is a QEEG measurement, which combines absolute and relative power of EEG-spectra with strong correlations with regional perfusion...
February 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199893/decreased-cingulate-cortex-activation-during-cognitive-control-processing-in-bipolar-disorder
#8
Staci A Gruber, M Kathryn Dahlgren, Kelly A Sagar, Atilla Gonenc, Lesley Norris, Bruce M Cohen, Dost Ongur, Kathryn E Lewandowski
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are well-documented in patients with bipolar disorder (BPD) and may impact the efficacy of psychotherapy. Cognitive control, a form of executive functioning, is often used therapeutically to shift patients' thoughts and behaviors from automatic, maladaptive responses to adaptive coping strategies. This study examined cognitive control processing in patients with BPD using the Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT). METHOD: Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with BPD and 21 healthy control (HC) subjects completed the MSIT with concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198409/electrical-stimulation-using-conductive-polymer-polypyrrole-counters-reduced-neurite-outgrowth-of-primary-prefrontal-cortical-neurons-from-nrg1-ko-and-disc1-li-mice
#9
Qingsheng Zhang, Dorna Esrafilzadeh, Jeremy M Crook, Robert Kapsa, Elise M Stewart, Eva Tomaskovic-Crook, Gordon G Wallace, Xu-Feng Huang
Deficits in neurite outgrowth, possibly involving dysregulation of risk genes neuregulin-1 (NRG1) and disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) have been implicated in psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Electrical stimulation using conductive polymers has been shown to stimulate neurite outgrowth of differentiating human neural stem cells. This study investigated the use of the electroactive conductive polymer polypyrrole (Ppy) to counter impaired neurite outgrowth of primary pre-frontal cortical (PFC) neurons from NRG1-knock out (NRG1-KO) and DISC1-locus impairment (DISC1-LI) mice...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197092/bci-control-of-heuristic-search-algorithms
#10
Marc Cavazza, Gabor Aranyi, Fred Charles
The ability to develop Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) to Intelligent Systems would offer new perspectives in terms of human supervision of complex Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems, as well as supporting new types of applications. In this article, we introduce a basic mechanism for the control of heuristic search through fNIRS-based BCI. The rationale is that heuristic search is not only a basic AI mechanism but also one still at the heart of many different AI systems. We investigate how users' mental disposition can be harnessed to influence the performance of heuristic search algorithm through a mechanism of precision-complexity exchange...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192749/ascorbic-acid-ameliorates-behavioural-deficits-and-neuropathological-alterations-in-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Olayemi Joseph Olajide, Emmanuel Olusola Yawson, Ismail Temitayo Gbadamosi, Tolulope Timothy Arogundade, Ezra Lambe, Kosisochukwu Obasi, Ismail Tayo Lawal, Abdulmumin Ibrahim, Kehinde Yomi Ogunrinola
Exploring the links between neural pathobiology and behavioural deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and investigating substances with known therapeutic advantages over subcellular mechanisms underlying these dysfunctions could advance the development of potent therapeutic molecules for AD treatment. Here we investigated the efficacy of ascorbic acid (AA) in reversing aluminium chloride (AlCl3)-induced behavioural deficits and neurotoxic cascades within prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus of rats. A group of rats administered oral AlCl3 (100mg/kg) daily for 15days showed degenerative changes characterised by significant weight loss, reduced exploratory/working memory, frontal-dependent motor deficits, cognitive decline, memory dysfunction and anxiety during behavioural assessments compared to control...
February 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190729/a-functional-gradient-in-the-rodent-prefrontal-cortex-supports-behavioral-inhibition
#12
Stefanie Hardung, Robert Epple, Zoe Jäckel, David Eriksson, Cem Uran, Verena Senn, Lihi Gibor, Ofer Yizhar, Ilka Diester
The ability to plan and execute appropriately timed responses to external stimuli is based on a well-orchestrated balance between movement initiation and inhibition. In impulse control disorders involving the prefrontal cortex (PFC) [1], this balance is disturbed, emphasizing the critical role that PFC plays in appropriately timing actions [2-4]. Here, we employed optogenetic and electrophysiological techniques to systematically analyze the functional role of five key subareas of the rat medial PFC (mPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in action control [5-9]...
February 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190471/plant-lectins-conbr-and-cfl-modulate-expression-toll-like-receptors-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-and-reduce-the-bacterial-burden-in-macrophages-infected-with-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#13
Jec Batista, M T Ralph, R V Vaz, Pfc Souza, A B Silva, Dco Nascimento, L T Souza, M V Ramos, P Mastroeni, J V Lima-Filho
BACKGROUND: Plant lectins have long been used in biomedical research as immunomodulators against tumor cells and microbial infections. PURPOSE: To test the ability of plant lectins ConBr (Canavalia brasiliensis) and CFL (Cratylia argentea) to activate antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities of murine peritoneal macrophages (pMØ) infected with a virulent strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STm). METHODS: We incubated pMØ with non-toxic amounts of ConBr and CFL either before (preventive schedule) or after (curative schedule) exposure to STm...
February 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187586/descriptions-of-three-new-species-of-i-uranotaenia-i-pseudoficalbia-diptera-culicidae-from-india
#14
R Natarajan, A R Rajavel, P Jambulingam
Female and male adults, male genitalia, pupa and larva of Uranotaenia (Pseudoficalbia) maikalensis, Ur. (Pfc.) dandakaranyensis and Ur. (Pfc.) satpuraensis, three new mosquito species, are described from India.
February 2, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185964/experimental-occlusal-disharmony-a-promoting-factor-for-anxiety-in-rats-under-chronic-psychological-stress
#15
Xuan Tang, Jian Li, Ting Jiang, Shu-Hui Han, Dong-Yuan Yao
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinically, patients under chronic psychological stress (PS) appear to be more susceptible to occlusal disharmony (OD) compared with those without PS. OD was proved to introduce anxiety-like stress. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate whether OD would affect psychological stress-induced anxiety and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Chronic PS was induced by a communication box, and OD was produced by bonding a 0.3mm-thick crown on the right maxillary first molar of male Sprague-Dawley rats...
February 7, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185898/sirt2-inhibition-modulate-glutamate-and-serotonin-systems-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-induces-antidepressant-like-action
#16
Mercedes Erburu, Irene Muñoz-Cobo, Teresa Díaz-Perdigon, Paolo Mellini, Takayoshi Suzuki, Elena Puerta, Rosa M Tordera
Growing evidence suggests that changes in histone acetylation in specific sites of the chromatin modulate neuronal plasticity and contribute to antidepressant-like action. Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is a class III NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase involved in transcriptional repression of genes regulating synaptic plasticity. Importantly, a key role for the glutamate system in prefrontal cortex (PFC) synaptic plasticity changes induced by antidepressants has been suggested. Here, we asked whether SIRT2 could be a pharmacological target for depression therapy...
February 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182906/ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-encodes-a-latent-estimate-of-cumulative-reward
#17
Keno Juechems, Jan Balaguer, Maria Ruz, Christopher Summerfield
Humans and other animals accumulate resources, or wealth, by making successive risky decisions. If and how risk attitudes vary with wealth remains an open question. Here humans accumulated reward by accepting or rejecting successive monetary gambles within arbitrarily defined temporal contexts. Risk preferences changed substantially toward risk aversion as reward accumulated within a context, and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC) tracked the latent growth of cumulative economic outcomes...
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181127/role-of-bedside-pancreatic-scores-and-c-reactive-protein-in-predicting-pancreatic-fluid-collections-and-necrosis
#18
Doraiswami Babu Vinish, Vishnu Abishek, K Sujatha, S Arulprakash, Rajkumar Solomon, P Ganesh
BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis is a disease with variable outcome; the course of the disease can be modified by early aggressive management in patients with severe pancreatitis. Easily calculable pancreatic scores and investigations can help to triage these patients. We aimed to determine the role of bedside index for severity in acute pancreatitis (BISAP), harmless acute pancreatitis score (HAPS), and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) scores on day of admission and C-reactive protein (CRP) at 48 h for predicting the presence of pancreatic fluid collection (PFC) and necrosis on CT scans done at 72 h...
February 9, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178594/the-effects-of-fluoride-based-fire-fighting-foams-on-soil-microbiota-activity-and-plant-growth-during-natural-attenuation-of-perfluorinated-compounds
#19
Renato Nallin Montagnolli, Paulo Renato Matos Lopes, Jaqueline Matos Cruz, Elis Marina Turini Claro, Gabriela Mercuri Quiterio, Ederio Dino Bidoia
The use of fluoride based foams increases the effectiveness of fire-fighting operations, but they are also accompanied by major drawbacks regarding environmental safety of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). The main concern with PFCs release is due to their well-known persistence and bioaccumulative potential, as they have been detected in many environmental samples. There is a significant knowledge gap on PFC toxicity to plants, even though such data could be useful towards bioremediation procedures. It is consensus that a realistic assessment of fire-fighting foam toxicity should cover as many test organisms as possible, however, few studies combine the performance of ecotoxicological tests with a detailed study of microbial communities in soil contaminated with firefighting foams...
January 30, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176853/quantifying-tumor-associated-macrophages-in-breast-cancer-a-comparison-of-iron-and-fluorine-based-mri-cell-tracking
#20
Ashley V Makela, Jeffrey M Gaudet, Paula J Foster
Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are associated with tumor growth and metastasis. MRI can detect TAMs labeled with iron oxide (USPIO) or perfluorocarbon (PFC) agents. This study compared these two cell tracking approaches for imaging TAMs in vivo. 4T1 tumors were imaged with MRI at 4 days or 3 weeks post cell implantation after intravenous (i.v.) administration of either USPIO or PFC. Signal loss was detected within tumors at both time points post USPIO. Images acquired at 4 days demonstrated signal loss encompassing the entire tumor and around the periphery at 3 weeks...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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