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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807619/neuroplasticity-related-mechanisms-underlying-the-antidepressant-like-effects-of%C3%A2-traditional-herbal-medicines
#1
REVIEW
Yafit Hirshler, Ravid Doron
Traditional herbal medicine can offer efficacious and safe alternative pharmacotherapies for depression. The ability of an herbal medicine to produce neuroadaptive processes, that enhance neuroplasticity and cellular resilience in response to chronic stress, may point to its antidepressant potential. We suggest that among many investigated herbal medicines, those that can enhance neuroplasticity may have stronger therapeutic potential. The current article presents a summary of traditional herbal medicines, which are thought to exert antidepressant-like effects in chronic stress models via neuroplasticity enhancement...
August 11, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806526/highly-selective-self-powered-sensing-platform-for-p-nitrophenol-detection-constructed-with-a-photocathode-based-photocatalytic-fuel-cell
#2
Kai Yan, Yaohua Yang, Yuhan Zhu, Jingdong Zhang
A photocathode-based photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) was fabricated and proposed as a self-powered sensor for p-nitrophenol (p-NP) detection. The PFC was comprised of a photocathode and an anode in separated chambers, which could generate suitable power output under photoirradiation to drive the sensing process. In this device, p-type PbS quantum dots-modified glass carbon electrode (GCE) served as the photocathode for the reduction of p-NP under photoirradiation while graphene-modified GCE was employed as the anode for the oxidation of ascorbic acid...
August 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805944/suppression-of-acute-and-anticipatory-nausea-by-peripherally-restricted-faah-inhibitor-in-animal-models-role-of-ppar%C3%AE-and-cb1-receptors
#3
Erin M Rock, Guillermo Moreno-Sanz, Cheryl L Limebeer, Gavin N Petrie, Roberto Angelini, Daniele Piomelli, Linda A Parker
To evaluate the ability of the peripherally restricted fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor, URB937 (cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3'-carbamoyl-6-hydroxybiphenyl-3-yl ester) to suppress acute and anticipatory nausea in rats, and to examine the pharmacological mechanism of such an effect. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We investigated the potential of URB937 to reduce the establishment of lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced conditioned gaping (a model of acute nausea) and to reduce the expression of contextually elicited conditioned gaping (a model of anticipatory nausea) in rats...
August 14, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803924/differential-regulation-of-the-tlr4-signalling-pathway-in-post-mortem-prefrontal-cortex-and-cerebellum-in-chronic-schizophrenia-relationship-with-sp-transcription-factors
#4
Karina S MacDowell, Raquel Pinacho, Juan C Leza, Joan Costa, Belén Ramos, Borja García Bueno
Alterations in innate immunity may underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is a master element of innate immunity. The specificity proteins (SPs), transcription factors recently implicated in SZ, are putative regulatory agents of this. This work was aimed at describing alterations in the TLR4 signalling pathway in postmortem brain prefrontal cortex (PFC) and cerebellum (CB) of 16 chronic SZ patients and 14 controls. The possible association of TLR4 pathway with SP1 and SP4 and SZ negative symptomatology is explored...
August 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803923/stress-induced-neural-reorganization-a-conceptual-framework-linking-depression-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Jennifer A Ross, Gediminas Gliebus, Elisabeth J Van Bockstaele
Chronic stress is a risk factor for a number of physiological disorders including cardiovascular disease, obesity and gastrointestinal disorders, as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. There are a number of underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms altered in the course of chronic stress, which may increase the vulnerability of individuals to develop psychiatric disorders such as depression, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). This is evident in the influence of stress on large-scale brain networks, including the resting state Default Mode Network (DMN), the effects of stress on neuronal circuitry and architecture, and the cellular and molecular adaptations to stress, which may render individuals with stress related psychiatric disorders more vulnerable to neurodegenerative disease later in life...
August 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803453/repeated-exposure-to-two-stressors-in-sequence-demonstrates-that-corticosterone-and-pvn-interleukin-1%C3%AE-responses-habituate-independently
#6
Dennis F Lovelock, Terrence Deak
A wide range of stress-related pathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder are thought to arise from aberrant or maladaptive forms of stress adaptation. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis readily adapts to repeated stressor exposure, yet little is known about adaptation in neuroimmune responses to repeated or sequential stress challenges. In Experiment 1, rats were exposed to ten days of restraint alone (60 min daily), forced swim alone (30 min daily), or daily sequential exposure to restraint (60 min) followed immediately by forced swim (30 minutes), termed sequential stress exposure...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802914/forced-but-not-free-choice-nicotine-during-lactation-alters-maternal-behaviour-and-noradrenergic-system-of-pups-impact-on-social-behaviour-of-adolescent-isolated-male-rats
#7
Doriana Chirico, Emilia Romano, Marco Famele, Rosa Draisci, Rosanna Mancinelli, Tiziana Pascucci, Walter Adriani
Adverse effects of nicotine during pregnancy have been greatly studied, while nowadays few works are focused on consequences of maternal tobacco smoking after birth. The present study investigated the behavioural and early neurochemical effects of nicotine treatment during first weeks of post-natal life in rats. We used "free choice" treatment (H2O+NIC dams could drink from two bottles, containing 10mg/L nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt, or water) versus "forced choice" (NIC+NIC mothers could drink from two bottles both containing nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt, range from 0...
August 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802646/involvement-of-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-erk-in-the-short-and-long-lasting-antidepressant-like-activity-of-nmda-receptor-antagonists-zinc-and-ro-25-6981-in-the-forced-swim-test-in-rats
#8
Bartłomiej Pochwat, Anna Rafało-Ulińska, Helena Domin, Paulina Misztak, Gabriel Nowak, Bernadeta Szewczyk
Short and long acting NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonists exert their antidepressant-like effects by activating signaling pathways involved in the synthesis of synaptic proteins and formation of new synaptic connections in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats. The blockade of the ERK pathway abolishes ketamine and Ro 25-6981 antidepressant potency. However, the role of ERK in the antidepressant-like activity of short acting NMDAR antagonists is still unclear. More puzzling is the fact that the precise role of ERK role in the short and long lasting effects of long-acting NMDAR antagonists is unknown...
August 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800414/global-distribution-of-perfluorochemicals-pfcs-in-potential-human-exposure-source-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Jun-Meng Jian, Ying Guo, Lixi Zeng, Liu Liang-Ying, Xingwen Lu, Fei Wang, Eddy Y Zeng
Human exposure to perfluorochemicals (PFCs) has attracted mounting attention due to their potential harmful effects. Breathing, dietary intake, and drinking are believed to be the main routes for PFC entering into human body. Thus, we profiled PFC compositions and concentrations in indoor air and dust, food, and drinking water with detailed analysis of literature data published after 2010. Concentrations of PFCs in air and dust samples collected from home, office, and vehicle were outlined. The results showed that neutral PFCs (e...
August 8, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799121/3-t-multiparametric-mri-characteristics-of-prostate-cancer-patients-suspicious-for-biochemical-recurrence-after-primary-focal-cryosurgery-hemiablation
#10
Michael Kongnyuy, Daniel M Halpern, Corinne C Liu, Kaitlin E Kosinski, David J Habibian, Anthony T Corcoran, Aaron E Katz
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to report on multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) characteristics of post-primary focal cryosurgery (PFC) patients suspected of biochemical recurrence (BCR) by the Phoenix criteria. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients at our institution who had undergone PFC. Prostate-specific antigen nadir was determined using 2 or more post-PFC values. Suspicion of BCR was determined using the Phoenix criteria (nadir + 2 ng/ml). At the discretion of the physician, pre-and post-PFC 3-T mpMRIs were obtained and in a few cases biopsies were performed...
August 10, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783519/antimanic-activity-of-minocycline-in-a-gbr12909-induced-model-of-mania-in-mice-possible-role-of-antioxidant-and-neurotrophic-mechanisms
#11
Ana Isabelle G de Queiroz, Adriano José Maia Chaves Filho, Tatiane da Silva Araújo, Camila Nayane Carvalho Lima, Michel de Jesus Souza Machado, André F Carvalho, Silvania Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, David Freitas de Lucena, João Quevedo, Danielle Macedo
BACKGROUND: Mania/hypomania is the cardinal feature of bipolar disorder. Recently, single administration of the dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor, GBR12909, was related to mania-like alterations. In the present study we aimed at testing behavioral and brain oxidant/neurotrophic alterations induced by the repeated administration of GBR12909 and its prevention/reversal by the mood stabilizing drugs, lithium (Li) and valproate (VAL) as well as by the neuroprotective drug, minocycline (Mino)...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778021/neural-correlates-of-obstacle-negotiation-in-older-adults-an-fnirs-study
#12
Michelle Chen, Sarah Pillemer, Sarah England, Meltem Izzetoglu, Jeannette R Mahoney, Roee Holtzer
Older adults are less efficient at avoiding obstacles compared to young adults, especially under attention-demanding conditions. Using functional near-infrared-spectroscopy (fNIRS), recent studies implicated the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in cognitive control of locomotion, notably under dual-task walking conditions. The neural substrates underlying Obstacle Negotiation (ON), however, have not been established. The current study determined the role of the PFC in ON during walking in seniors. Non-demented older adults (n=90; mean age=78...
July 18, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777058/causal-evidence-from-humans-for-the-role-of-mediodorsal-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-in-working-memory
#13
Jari Peräkylä, Lihua Sun, Kai Lehtimäki, Jukka Peltola, Juha Öhman, Timo Möttönen, Keith H Ogawa, Kaisa M Hartikainen
The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD) with its extensive connections to the lateral pFC has been implicated in human working memory and executive functions. However, this understanding is based solely on indirect evidence from human lesion and imaging studies and animal studies. Direct, causal evidence from humans is missing. To obtain direct evidence for MD's role in humans, we studied patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) for refractory epilepsy. This treatment is thought to prevent the generalization of a seizure by disrupting the functioning of the patient's anterior nuclei of the thalamus (ANT) with high-frequency electric stimulation...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770022/neuroprotective-and-memory-enhancing-effect-of-the-combined-extract-of-purple-waxy-corn-cob-and-pandan-in-ovariectomized-rats
#14
Woranan Kirisattayakul, Jintanaporn Wattanathorn, Sittichai Iamsaard, Jinatta Jittiwat, Bhalang Suriharn, Kamol Lertrat
The neuroprotectant and memory enhancer supplement for menopause is required due to the side effects of hormone replacement therapy. Since purple waxy corn cob and pandan leaves exert antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition (AChEI) effects, we hypothesized that the combined extract of both plants (PCP) might provide synergistic effect leading to the improved brain damage and memory impairment in experimental menopause. To test this hypothesis, female Wistar rats were ovariectomized bilaterally and orally given various doses of the functional drink at doses of 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg for 28 days...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769056/increased-epha4-ephexin1-signaling-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-plays-a-role-in-depression-like-phenotype
#15
Ji-Chun Zhang, Wei Yao, Youge Qu, Mayumi Nakamura, Chao Dong, Chun Yang, Qian Ren, Min Ma, Mei Han, Yukihiko Shirayama, Akiko Hayashi-Takagi, Kenji Hashimoto
Accumulating evidence suggests a role of the ephrin receptor EphA4 and the downstream protein ephexin1 in synaptic plasticity, which is implicated in depression. We examined whether EphA4-ephexin1 signaling plays a role in the pathophysiology of depression, and the antidepressant-like effect of EphA4 inhibitor rhynchophylline. We found increased ratios of p-EphA4/EphA4 and p-ephexin1/ephexin1 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus but not in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), of susceptible mice after social defeat stress...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767232/rna-polymerase-tags-to-monitor-multidimensional-protein-protein-interactions-reveal-pharmacological-engagement-of-bcl-2-proteins
#16
Jinyue Pu, Jeffrey A Dewey, Abbas Hadji, James L LaBelle, Bryan C Dickinson
We report the development of a new technology for monitoring multidimensional protein-protein interactions (PPIs) inside live mammalian cells using split RNA polymerase (RNAP) tags. In this new system, a protein-of-interest is tagged with an N-terminal split RNAP (RNAPN), and multiple potential binding partners are each fused to orthogonal C-terminal RNAPs (RNAPC). Assembly of RNAPN with each RNAPC is highly dependent on interactions between the tagged proteins. Each PPI-mediated RNAPN-RNAPC assembly transcribes from a separate promoter on a supplied DNA substrate, thereby generating a unique RNA output signal for each PPI...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766895/pancreatic-fat-content-assessed-by-1-h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-is-correlated-with-insulin-resistance-but-not-with-insulin-secretion-in-japanese-subjects-with-normal-glucose-tolerance
#17
Hisako Komada, Kazuhiko Sakaguchi, Yushi Hirota, Anna Sou, Tomoaki Nakamura, Katsusuke Kyotani, Hideaki Kawamitsu, Kazuro Sugimura, Yoko Okuno, Wataru Ogawa
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Whereas some clinical studies have shown that excessive fat accumulation in the pancreas is associated with impairment of insulin secretion, others have not found such an association. (1) H-Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) allows quantitative fat analysis in various tissues including the pancreas. The pathological relevance of pancreatic fat content (PFC) in Japanese individuals remains unclear, however. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed PFC in 30 Japanese subjects with normal glucose tolerance by (1) H-MRS and then investigated the relations between PFC and indexes of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity-resistance determined by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756869/converging-prefronto-insula-amygdala-pathways-in-negative-emotion-regulation-in%C3%A2-marmoset-monkeys
#18
Yoshiro Shiba, Lydia Oikonomidis, Stephen Sawiak, Tim D Fryer, Young T Hong, Gemma Cockcroft, Andrea M Santangelo, Angela C Roberts
BACKGROUND: Impaired regulation of emotional responses to potential threat is a core feature of affective disorders. However, while the subcortical circuitry responsible for processing and expression of fear has been well characterized, the top-down control of this circuitry is less well understood. Our recent studies demonstrated that heightened emotionality, as measured both physiologically and behaviorally, during conditioned fear and innate/social threat was induced, independently, by excitotoxic lesions of either the anterior orbitofrontal cortex (antOFC) or ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)...
June 23, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756461/adolescent-stress-leads-to-glutamatergic-disturbance-through-dopaminergic-abnormalities-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-genetically-vulnerable-mice
#19
Yurie Matsumoto, Minae Niwa, Akihiro Mouri, Yukihiro Noda, Takeshi Fukushima, Norio Ozaki, Toshitaka Nabeshima
BACKGROUND: Stress during the adolescent period influences postnatal maturation and behavioral patterns in adulthood. Adolescent stress-induced molecular and functional changes in neurons are the key clinical features of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we exposed genetically vulnerable mice to isolation stress to examine the molecular changes in the glutamatergic system involving N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors via dopaminergic disturbance in the prefrontal cortex (PFc)...
July 29, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754348/neural-correlates-of-familial-obesity-risk-and-overweight-in-adolescence
#20
Susan Carnell, Leora Benson, Ku-Yu Virginia Chang, Zhishun Wang, Yuankai Huo, Allan Geliebter, Bradley S Peterson
BACKGROUND: Rates of adolescent obesity and overweight are high. The offspring of overweight parents are at increased risk of becoming obese later in life. Investigating neural correlates of familial obesity risk and current overweight status in adolescence could help identify biomarkers that predict future obesity and that may serve as novel targets for obesity interventions. OBJECTIVE: Our primary aim was to use functional MRI to compare neural responses to words denoting high or low energy density (ED) foods and non-foods, in currently lean adolescents at higher compared with lower familial risk for obesity, and in overweight compared with lean adolescents...
July 25, 2017: NeuroImage
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