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Functional magnetic resonance imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352610/neural-representation-of-octave-illusion-in-the-human-cortex-revealed-with-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#1
Keita Tanaka, Hiroki Kurasaki, Shinya Kuriki
The auditory "octave illusion" arises when dichotic tones, presented one octave apart, alternate rapidly between the ears. This study aimed to explore the link between the perception of illusory pitches and brain activity during presentation of dichotic tones. We conducted a behavioral study of how participants perceived binaural dichotic tones of octave illusions and classified them, based on the reported percepts, in an illusion (ILL) group, without an illusion (non-ILL) group, and others. We recorded brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging and analyzed the activation due to dichotic illusion tones...
January 8, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352524/effects-of-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-on-brain-response-to-high-calorie-food-cues-in-young-adults
#2
Shan Luo, Sydney G O'Connor, Britni R Belcher, Kathleen A Page
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity (PA) promotes weight maintenance, potentially because of its beneficial effects on feeding behavior regulation via diminished food cue reactivity within brain reward regions. This study examined how levels of PA and sedentary behavior (SB) relate to brain responses to food cues. METHODS: Participants (22 lean, 18 with obesity) completed three to five PA recalls over 2 months. Average minutes per day of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and SB were calculated...
January 19, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352498/autofocusing-based-phase-correction
#3
Alexander Loktyushin, Philipp Ehses, Bernhard Schölkopf, Klaus Scheffler
PURPOSE: Phase artifacts due to B0 inhomogeneity can severely degrade the quality of MR images. The artifacts are particularly prominent in long-TE scans and usually appear as ghosting and blur. We propose a retrospective phase correction method based on autofocusing. The proposed method uses raw data acquired with standard imaging sequences, and does not rely on navigators or external measures of field inhomogeneity. METHODS: We formulate and solve the optimization problem, where we seek the latent phase offsets that are associated with an optimal value of the image quality measure that is evaluated in the spatial domain...
January 19, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352176/renal-scattered-tubular-like-cells-confer-protective-effects-in-the-stenotic-murine-kidney-mediated-by-release-of-extracellular-vesicles
#4
Xiangyu Zou, Soon Hyo Kwon, Kai Jiang, Christopher M Ferguson, Amrutesh S Puranik, Xiangyang Zhu, Lilach O Lerman
To test the hypothesis that intrinsic renal scattered tubular cells (STC-like cells) contribute to repairing injured tubular epithelial cells (TEC) by releasing extracellular vesicle (EV). EV released from primary cultured pig STC-like cells were confirmed by electron microscopy. Antimycin-A (AMA)-induced injured proximal TEC (PK1 cells) were co-cultured with STC-like cells, STC-like cells-derived EV, or EV-free conditioned-medium for 3 days. Cellular injury, oxidative stress and mitochondrial function were assessed...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352154/resting-state-brain-networks-in-the-prairie-vole
#5
Juan J Ortiz, Wendy Portillo, Raul G Paredes, Larry J Young, Sarael Alcauter
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has shown the hierarchical organization of the human brain into large-scale complex networks, referred as resting state networks. This technique has turned into a promising translational research tool after the finding of similar resting state networks in non-human primates, rodents and other animal models of great value for neuroscience. Here, we demonstrate and characterize the presence of resting states networks in Microtus ochrogaster, the prairie vole, an extraordinary animal model to study complex human-like social behavior, with potential implications for the research of normal social development, addiction and neuropsychiatric disorders...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351872/low-cortical-iron-and-high-entorhinal-cortex-volume-promote-cognitive-functioning-in-the-oldest-old
#6
Jiri M G van Bergen, Xu Li, Frances C Quevenco, Anton F Gietl, Valerie Treyer, Sandra E Leh, Rafael Meyer, Alfred Buck, Philipp A Kaufmann, Roger M Nitsch, Peter C M van Zijl, Christoph Hock, Paul G Unschuld
The aging brain is characterized by an increased presence of neurodegenerative and vascular pathologies. However, there is substantial variation regarding the relationship between an individual's pathological burden and resulting cognitive impairment. To identify correlates of preserved cognitive functioning at highest age, the relationship between β-amyloid plaque load, presence of small vessel cerebrovascular disease (SVCD), iron-burden, and brain atrophy was investigated. Eighty cognitively unimpaired participants (44 oldest-old, aged 85-96 years; 36 younger-old, aged 55-80 years) were scanned by integrated positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging for assessing beta regional amyloid plaque load (18F-flutemetamol), white matter hyperintensities as an indicator of SVCD (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery-magnetic resonance imaging), and iron load (quantitative susceptibility mapping)...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351787/scl20a2-mutation-presenting-with-acute-ischemic-stroke-a-case-report
#7
Xiaoyu Zhang, Gaoting Ma, Zhangning Zhao, Meijia Zhu
BACKGROUND: Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a rare disorder characterized by distinctive bilateral brain calcification and variable clinical presentations. However, cerebrovascular attack was rarely reported in PFBC patients. We here reported a SLC20A2 mutation patient presenting with acute ischemic stroke. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56 years old man was transferred to our hospital because of 6 days of melena and 3 days of somnolence, agitation and mood changes...
January 19, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350784/novel-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-cmr-oxygenation-approaches-in-understanding-pathophysiology-of-cardiac-diseases
#8
Karthigesh Sree Raman, Gaetano Nucifora, Joseph B Selvanayagam
Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMR) permits accurate phenotyping of many cardiac diseases. CMR's inherent advantages are its non-invasive nature, lack of ionizing radiation and high accuracy and reproducibility. Furthermore, it is able to assess many aspects of cardiac anatomy, structure and function. Specifically, it can characterize myocardial tissue, myocardial function, myocardial mass, myocardial blood flow/perfusion, irreversible and reversible injury, all with a high degree of accuracy and reproducibility...
January 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350637/clinical-utility-of-eco-color-power-doppler-ultrasonography-and-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-interpretation-and-quantification-of-joint-synovitis-a-review
#9
Marina Carotti, Vittoria Galeazzi, Francesca Catucci, Marcello Zappia, Francesco Arrigoni, Antonio Barile, Andrea Giovagnoni
With the introduction of new biologics such as anti-TNF-alpha antibodies and other therapies in the treatment of inflammatory arthritis, capable of halting joint destruction and functional disability, there are new pressures on diagnostic and prognostic imaging. Early demonstration of pre-erosive inflammatory features and monitoring of the long-term effects of treatment are becoming increasingly important. Early detection of synovitis offers advantages in terms of allowing early instigation of therapy and may allow the identification of those patients displaying more aggressive disease who might benefit from early intervention with expensive DMARD therapy...
January 19, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350556/rehabilitation-of-a-young-athlete-with-extension-based-low-back-pain-addressing-motor-control-impairments-and-central-sensitization
#10
John J Winslow, Mark Jackson, Andrew Getzin, Michael Costello
OBJECTIVE:   To describe the conservative management of a young athlete with extension-based (EB) low back pain (LBP). BACKGROUND:   We present the case of a 15-year-old female high school gymnast with a 4-year history of EB LBP. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a healed spondylolysis and significant lumbar multifidi muscle (LMM) atrophy with fatty infiltrate. She had several courses of outpatient orthopaedic rehabilitation that focused on core muscle strengthening (improving activation and strength of the LMM and transversus abdominus muscle in a neutral pelvic position) without long-lasting improvement...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350437/diffusion-tensor-imaging-mri-of-sickle-cell-kidney-disease-initial-results-and-comparison-with-iron-deposition
#11
Shannon B Donnola, Connie M Piccone, Lan Lu, Joshua Batesole, Jane Little, Katherine M Dell, Chris A Flask
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs in over one-third of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and can progress to end-stage renal disease. Unfortunately, current clinical assessments of kidney function are insensitive to early-stage CKD. Previous studies have shown that diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can sensitively detect regional renal microstructural changes associated with early-stage CKD. However, previous MRI studies in patients with SCD have been largely limited to the detection of renal iron deposition assessed by T2 * relaxometry...
January 19, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350375/neurological-recovery-after-traumatic-cauda-equina-syndrome-due-to-glass-fragments-an-unusual-case
#12
Mehmet Şenoğlu, Ali Karadağ, Çağlar Türk, Füsun Demirçivi Özer
Penetrating spinal injuries with foreign bodies are exceedingly rare. To date, pathological problems due to glass fragments in the spinal canal have rarely been reported. In this report, the case presenting with a back laceration, leg pain, and leg weakness was found to have glass frag-ments in the spinal canal at the L2-L3 level by lumbar computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. After L2 total laminectomy and retrieval of the glass fragments, the dura was re-paired. The patient was discharged from the hospital after complete neurological recovery...
January 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350288/correction-to-attenuation-of-cortical-activity-triggering-descending-pain-inhibition-in-chronic-low-back-pain-patients-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#13
Yohei Matsuo, Jiro Kurata, Miho Sekiguchi, Katsuhiro Yoshida, Takuya Nikaido, Shin-Ichi Konno
Inadvertently, the Fig. 7 was published incorrectly in the original publication of the article. The correct figure should be as below.
January 19, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350087/segmentation-of-tongue-shapes-during-vowel-production-in-magnetic-resonance-images-based-on-statistical-modelling
#14
Jessica C Delmoral, Sandra M Rua Ventura, João Manuel Rs Tavares
Quantification of the anatomic and functional aspects of the tongue is pertinent to analyse the mechanisms involved in speech production. Speech requires dynamic and complex articulation of the vocal tract organs, and the tongue is one of the main articulators during speech production. Magnetic resonance imaging has been widely used in speech-related studies. Moreover, the segmentation of such images of speech organs is required to extract reliable statistical data. However, standard solutions to analyse a large set of articulatory images have not yet been established...
January 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349382/intravascular-ultrasound-as-a-novel-tool-for-the-diagnosis-and-targeted-treatment-of-functional-popliteal-artery-entrapment-syndrome
#15
Anna E Boniakowski, Frank Davis, Dani Campbell, Minhajuddin Khaja, Katherine A Gallagher
Functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome can be difficult to diagnose, as the imaging modalities presently employed are designed to detect anatomic entrapment. We describe a novel imaging technique to aid in diagnosis in this cohort. A 22-year-old cyclist presented with exercise-limiting claudication. Magnetic resonance angiography with provocative maneuvers was nondiagnostic. Digital subtraction angiography revealed long-segment occlusion of the popliteal artery with plantar flexion; however, the specific site of compression remained unclear...
June 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases and Innovative Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349038/abnormal-neural-hierarchy-in-processing-of-verbal-information-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#16
Yulia Lerner, Maya Bleich-Cohen, Shimrit Solnik-Knirsh, Galit Yogev-Seligmann, Tamir Eisenstein, Waheed Madah, Alon Shamir, Talma Hendler, Ilana Kremer
Previous research indicates abnormal comprehension of verbal information in patients with schizophrenia. Yet the neural mechanism underlying the breakdown of verbal information processing in schizophrenia is poorly understood. Imaging studies in healthy populations have shown a network of brain areas involved in hierarchical processing of verbal information over time. Here, we identified critical aspects of this hierarchy, examining patients with schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined various levels of information comprehension elicited by naturally presented verbal stimuli; from a set of randomly shuffled words to an intact story...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349037/family-history-of-alcoholism-and-the-human-brain-response-to-oral-sucrose
#17
William J A Eiler, Mario Dzemidzic, Christina M Soeurt, Claire R Carron, Brandon G Oberlin, Robert V Considine, Jaroslaw Harezlak, David A Kareken
A heightened hedonic response to sweet tastes has been associated with increased alcohol preference and alcohol consumption in both humans and animals. The principal goal of this study was to examine blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation to high- and low-concentration sweet solutions in subjects who are either positive (FHP) or negative (FHN) for a family history of alcoholism. Seventy-four non-treatment seeking, community-recruited, healthy volunteers (22.8 ± 1.6 SD years; 43% men) rated a range of sucrose concentrations in a taste test and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during oral delivery of water, 0...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348041/executive-dysfunction-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-is-associated-with-a-failure-to-modulate-frontoparietal-insular-hub-architecture
#18
Charles J Lynch, Andrew L Breeden, Xiaozhen You, Ruth Ludlum, William D Gaillard, Lauren Kenworthy, Chandan J Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Comorbid executive dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a barrier to adaptive functioning, despite remittance of core social-communication symptoms. Network models of ASD address core symptoms but not comorbid executive dysfunction. Following recent demonstrations in healthy adults that, with increasing executive demands, hubs embedded within frontoparietal-insular control networks interact with a more diverse set of networks, we hypothesized that the capability of hubs to do so is perturbed in ASD and predicts executive behavior...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348040/negative-valence-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-the-relationship-between-amygdala-activity-selective-attention-and-co-occurring-anxiety
#19
John D Herrington, Brenna B Maddox, Alana J McVey, Martin E Franklin, Benjamin E Yerys, Judith S Miller, Robert T Schultz
BACKGROUND: A critical agenda of the National Institutes of Health Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative is establishing whether domains within the RDoC matrix are truly transdiagnostic. Rates of anxiety disorders are elevated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but it is unclear whether the same mechanisms contribute to anxiety in individuals with and without ASD. As changes in selective attention are a hallmark of anxiety disorders in non-ASD samples, the identification of these changes in ASD would support the transdiagnostic nature of anxiety...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347046/cortical-geometry-as-a-determinant-of-brain-activity-eigenmodes-neural-field-analysis
#20
Natasha C Gabay, P A Robinson
Perturbation analysis of neural field theory is used to derive eigenmodes of neural activity on a cortical hemisphere, which have previously been calculated numerically and found to be close analogs of spherical harmonics, despite heavy cortical folding. The present perturbation method treats cortical folding as a first-order perturbation from a spherical geometry. The first nine spatial eigenmodes on a population-averaged cortical hemisphere are derived and compared with previous numerical solutions. These eigenmodes contribute most to brain activity patterns such as those seen in electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
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