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Functional magnetic resonance imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231626/default-mode-network-deactivation-to-smoking-cue-relative-to-food-cue-predicts-treatment-outcome-in-nicotine-use-disorder
#1
Claire E Wilcox, Eric D Claus, Vince D Calhoun, Srinivas Rachakonda, Rae A Littlewood, Jessica Mickey, Pamela B Arenella, Natalie Goodreau, Kent E Hutchison
Identifying predictors of treatment outcome for nicotine use disorders (NUDs) may help improve efficacy of established treatments, like varenicline. Brain reactivity to drug stimuli predicts relapse risk in nicotine and other substance use disorders in some studies. Activity in the default mode network (DMN) is affected by drug cues and other palatable cues, but its clinical significance is unclear. In this study, 143 individuals with NUD (male n = 91, ages 18-55 years) received a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan during a visual cue task during which they were presented with a series of smoking-related or food-related video clips prior to randomization to treatment with varenicline (n = 80) or placebo...
February 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231395/functional-connectivity-in-amygdalar-sensory-pre-motor-networks-at-rest-new-evidence-from-the-human-connectome-project
#2
Nicola Toschi, Andrea Duggento, Luca Passamonti
The word "e-motion" derives from the Latin word "ex-moveo" which literally means "moving away from something / somebody". Emotions are thus fundamental to prime action and goal-directed behavior with obvious implications for individual's survival. However, the brain mechanisms underlying the interactions between emotional and motor cortical systems remain poorly understood. A recent diffusion tensor imaging study in humans has reported the existence of direct anatomical connections between the amygdala and sensory/(pre)motor cortices, corroborating an initial observation in animal research...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230155/perceived-moral-traits-of-others-differentiate-the-neural-activation-that-underlies-inequity-aversion
#3
Hironori Nakatani, Akitoshi Ogawa, Chisato Suzuki, Takeshi Asamizuya, Kenichi Ueno, Kang Cheng, Kazuo Okanoya
We have a social preference to reduce inequity in the outcomes between oneself and others. Such a preference varies according to others. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging during an economic game to investigate how the perceived moral traits of others modulate the neural activities that underlie inequity-aversion. The participants unilaterally allocated money to three partners (good, neutral, and bad). During presentation of the good and neutral partners, the anterior region of the rostral medial frontal cortex (arMFC) showed increased functional connectivity with the caudate head and the anterior insula, respectively...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230070/an-fmri-compatible-force-measurement-system-for-the-evaluation-of-the-neural-correlates-of-step-initiation
#4
Andrea Cristina de Lima-Pardini, Raymundo Machado de Azevedo Neto, Daniel Boari Coelho, Catarina Costa Boffino, Sukhwinder S Shergill, Carolina de Oliveira Souza, Rachael Brant, Egberto Reis Barbosa, Ellison Fernando Cardoso, Luis Augusto Teixeira, Rajal G Cohen, Fay Bahling Horak, Edson Amaro
Knowledge of brain correlates of postural control is limited by the technical difficulties in performing controlled experiments with currently available neuroimaging methods. Here we present a system that allows the measurement of anticipatory postural adjustment of human legs to be synchronized with the acquisition of functional magnetic resonance imaging data. The device is composed of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) compatible force sensors able to measure the level of force applied by both feet. We tested the device in a group of healthy young subjects and a group of elderly subjects with Parkinson's disease using an event-related functional MRI (fMRI) experiment design...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229931/modulation-of-the-sensorimotor-system-by-sustained-manual-pressure-stimulation
#5
Pavel Hok, Jaroslav Opavský, Miroslav Kutín, Zbyněk Tüdös, Petr Kaňovský, Petr Hluštík
In Vojta physiotherapy, also known as reflex locomotion therapy, prolonged peripheral pressure stimulation induces complex generalized involuntary motor responses and modifies subsequent behavior, but its neurobiological basis remains unknown. We hypothesized that the stimulation would induce sensorimotor activation changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during sequential finger opposition. Thirty healthy volunteers (mean age 24.2) underwent two randomized fMRI sessions involving manual pressure stimulation applied either at the right lateral heel according to Vojta, or at the right lateral ankle (control site)...
February 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229841/-neuroimaging-and-blood-biomarkers-in-functional-prognosis-after-stroke
#6
REVIEW
João Paulo Branco, Joana Santos Costa, João Sargento-Freitas, Sandra Oliveira, Bruno Mendes, Jorge Laíns, João Pinheiro
INTRODUCTION: Stroke remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world and it is associated with an important long-term functional disability. Some neuroimaging resources and certain peripheral blood or cerebrospinal fluid proteins can give important information about etiology, therapeutic approach, follow-up and functional prognosis in acute ischemic stroke patients. However, among the scientific community, there is currently more interest in the stroke vital prognosis over the functional prognosis...
November 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229071/bilateral-vertebral-venous-sinus-thrombosis-causing-cervical-spinal-cord-compression-in-a-dog
#7
Kathryn E Rhue, Amanda R Taylor, Robert C Cole, Randolph L Winter
A 10-year-old male neutered mixed breed dog was evaluated for cervical hyperesthesia and tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and cervical spinal cord identified an extradural compressive lesion over the body of C2 caused by marked dilation of the vertebral venous sinuses. Following intravenous contrast administration both vertebral sinuses had heterogeneous contrast enhancement consistent with incomplete thrombi formation. An abdominal ultrasound also showed a distal aortic thrombus. A definitive cause for the thrombi formation was not identified, but the patient had several predisposing factors which may have contributed...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229041/hemispheric-asymmetry-in-myelin-after-stroke-is-related-to-motor-impairment-and-function
#8
Bimal Lakhani, Kathryn S Hayward, Lara A Boyd
The relationships between impairment, function, arm use and underlying brain structure following stroke remain unclear. Although diffusion weighted imaging is useful in broadly assessing white matter structure, it has limited utility in identifying specific underlying neurobiological components, such as myelin. The purpose of the present study was to explore relationships between myelination and impairment, function and activity in individuals with chronic stroke. Assessments of paretic upper-extremity impairment and function were administered, and 72-hour accelerometer based activity monitoring was conducted on 19 individuals with chronic stroke...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228942/effects-of-renal-denervation-on-vascular-remodelling-in-patients-with-heart-failure-and-preserved-ejection-fraction-a-randomised-control-trial
#9
Hitesh C Patel, Carl Hayward, Jennifer Keegan, Peter D Gatehouse, Ronak Rajani, Rajdeep S Khattar, Raad H Mohiaddin, Stuart D Rosen, Alexander R Lyon, Carlo di Mario
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of renal denervation (RDT) on micro- and macro-vascular function in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). DESIGN: A prospective, randomised, open-controlled trial with blinded end-point analysis. SETTING: A single-centre London teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five patients with HFpEF who were recruited into the RDT-PEF trial. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Macro-vascular: 24-h ambulatory pulse pressure, aorta distensibilty (from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), aorta pulse wave velocity (CMR), augmentation index (peripheral tonometry) and renal artery blood flow indices (renal MR)...
January 2017: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228622/a-case-of-hyperammonemia-with-obstructive-urinary-tract-infection-by-urease-producing-bacteria
#10
Toshiaki Goda, Kotaro Watanabe, Junya Kobayashi, Yasuharu Nagai, Nobuyuki Ohara, Daisuke Takahashi
A 79-year-old woman was admitted emergently for disturbance of consciousness. Her consciousness level was Japan coma scale 20, and she presented with hypermyotonia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid examination showed normal findings. Her blood tests showed an increased ammonia level of 291 μg/dl with normal liver function. We catheterized the bladder for urinary retention. Eight hours after admission, the blood level of ammonia decreased to 57 μg/dl and the patient's consciousness level improved...
February 22, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228584/high-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-early-to-late-middle-age-preserves-the-cortical-circuitry-associated-with-brain-heart-integration-during-volitional-exercise
#11
Katelyn N Wood, Torri A Luchyshyn, J Kevin Shoemaker
This study tested the hypothesis that high cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) preserves the cortical circuitry associated with cardiac arousal during exercise in middle to older-aged individuals. Observations of changes in heart rate (HR) and in cortical blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) images were made in 52 healthy, active individuals (45-73 years; 16 female) across a range of fitness (26-66mL/kg/min). Seven repeated bouts of isometric handgrip (IHG) at 40% MVC force were performed using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3-Tesla, with each contraction lasting 20 sec and separated by 40 sec of rest...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228422/elevated-reward-response-to-receipt-of-palatable-food-predicts-future-weight-variability-in-healthy-weight-adolescents
#12
Samantha R Winter, Sonja Yokum, Eric Stice, Karol Osipowicz, Michael R Lowe
Background: Both an elevated brain-reward-region response to palatable food and elevated weight variability have been shown to predict future weight gain.Objective: We examined whether the brain-reward response to food is related to future weight variability.Design: A total of 162 healthy-weight adolescents, who were aged 14-18 y at baseline, were enrolled in the study and were assessed annually over a 3-y follow-up period with 127 participants completing the final 3-y follow-up assessment. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tested whether the neural responses to a cue that signaled an impending milkshake receipt and the receipt of the milkshake predicted weight variability over the follow-up period...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228308/systematic-review-of-non-invasive-cardiovascular-imaging-in-the-diagnosis-of-constrictive-pericarditis
#13
Sivakumar Ardhanari, Bharath Yarlagadda, Vishal Parikh, Kevin C Dellsperger, Anand Chockalingam, Sudarshan Balla, Senthil Kumar
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis (CP) can be challenging. It can be nearly impossible to distinguish CP from other causes of right heart failure. Although various imaging modalities help in the diagnosis, no test is definitive. Several reviews have addressed the role of various imaging techniques in the diagnosis of CP but a systematic review has not yet been published. OBJECTIVE: Our intention was to study the ability of various non-invasive imaging modalities to diagnose CP in patients with surgically confirmed disease and to apply our findings to develop a clinically useful diagnostic algorithm...
January 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228060/resuscitation-with-lyophilized-plasma-is-safe-and-improves-neurologic-recovery-in-a-long-term-survival-model-of-swine-subjected-to-traumatic-brain-injury-hemorrhagic-shock-and-polytrauma
#14
Patrick E Georgoff, Vahagn C Nikolian, Ihab Halaweish, Kiril Chtraklin, Peter J Bruhn, Hassan Eidy, Monica Rasmussen, Yongqing Li, Ashok Srinivasan, Hasan B Alam
We have previously shown that fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and lyophilized plasma decrease brain lesion size and improve neurologic recovery in a swine model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS). In this study, we examine whether these findings can be validated in a clinically relevant model of severe TBI, HS, and polytrauma. Female Yorkshire swine were subjected to TBI (controlled cortical impact), hemorrhage (40% volume), grade III liver and splenic injuries, rib fracture, and rectus abdominis crush...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227771/tracking-intrinsic-connectivity-brain-network-features-during-successive-pseudo-resting-states-and-interoceptive-task-fmri
#15
Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini, Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini, Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini
Advanced multivariate analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data based on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contras have revealed that the human brain organizes its activities into multiple intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs). Several fMRI studies have evaluated the modulations of these networks during different cognitive or emotional tasks using blind source separation techniques particularly the independent component analysis (ICA). In this exploratory study, we applied ICA methodology to examine ICN modulations under different interoceptive conditions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227770/randomness-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-matrices
#16
Victor M Vergara, Vince Calhoun, Victor M Vergara, Vince Calhoun, Vince Calhoun, Victor M Vergara
Separate brain regions exhibit synchronous intrinsic activity used to assess connectivity patterns known to appear among brain areas. Connectivity is evaluated from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measuring the blood oxygen level dependent signal (BOLD) signal. Extensive research has revealed a distinctive pattern of connectivity among brain areas that can be visualized through a functional connectivity matrix (FCM) matrix. As in any measurement, BOLD signals are subject to contamination from noise and nuisances unrelated to brain's intrinsic activity...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227769/identifying-the-effects-of-visceral-interoception-on-human-brain-connectome-a-multivariate-analysis-of-covariance-of-fmri-data
#17
Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini, Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini, Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini
Sources of variations in the neural circuitry of the human brain and interrelationship between intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are still a matter of debate and ongoing research. Here, we applied a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) based on high-dimensional independent component analysis (ICA) to identify the effects of interoception and related variables on human brain connectome. Fifteen healthy right-handed subjects (all females, age range 21 - 48 years; mean age = 30.3, SD = 8.7 years) underwent a blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that included continuous intravesical saline infusion and drainage...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227768/measures-of-the-brain-functional-network-that-correlate-with-alzheimer-s-neuropsychological-test-scores-an-fmri-and-graph-analysis-study
#18
Soroosh Golbabaei, Amin Dadashi, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh, Soroosh Golbabaei, Amin Dadashi, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh, Soroosh Golbabaei, Amin Dadashi, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh
Neural degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) leads to structural topology deformation that in turn changes brain functionality. The main aim of the present study is to find the brain's functional connectivity network (FCN) correlates of Alzheimer's psychological test scores. To this end, the brain's FCN is extracted from the resting state functional magnetic resonance images (rs-fMRI) of healthy controls and patients with AD and represented as a graph. Then, network measures are calculated from the graphs...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227689/robotic-system-with-multiplex-power-transmission-for-mri-guided-percutaneous-interventions
#19
Yang Wang, Sungmin Kim, Everette C Burdette, Peter Kazanzides, Iulian Iordachita, Yang Wang, Sungmin Kim, Everette C Burdette, Peter Kazanzides, Iulian Iordachita, Sungmin Kim, Peter Kazanzides, Everette C Burdette, Iulian Iordachita, Yang Wang
In minimally invasive prostate percutaneous interventions, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) compatible robotic assistive systems developed over the years tend to have multiple degrees of freedom (DOF) to accomplish complex surgical tasks. This paper presents a novel design of an MRI-compatible transmission that allows one driving motor to control a multiplexed DOF robot system. The transmission could reduce the number of motors in the system, while maintaining the functionality of the system, by controlling each motion sequentially rather than simultaneously...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227424/atrioventricular-junction-avj-motion-tracking-a-software-tool-with-itk-vtk-qt
#20
Pengdong Xiao, Shuang Leng, Xiaodan Zhao, Hua Zou, Ru San Tan, Philip Wong, Liang Zhong, Pengdong Xiao, Shuang Leng, Xiaodan Zhao, Hua Zou, Ru San Tan, Philip Wong, Liang Zhong, Ru San Tan, Pengdong Xiao, Philip Wong, Hua Zou, Shuang Leng, Liang Zhong, Xiaodan Zhao
The quantitative measurement of the Atrioventricular Junction (AVJ) motion is an important index for ventricular functions of one cardiac cycle including systole and diastole. In this paper, a software tool that can conduct AVJ motion tracking from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) images is presented by using Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit (ITK), The Visualization Toolkit (VTK) and Qt. The software tool is written in C++ by using Visual Studio Community 2013 integrated development environment (IDE) containing both an editor and a Microsoft complier...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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