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Functional magnetic resonance imaging

Michael K Yeung, Sophia L Sze, Jean Woo, Timothy Kwok, David H K Shum, Ruby Yu, Agnes S Chan
BACKGROUND: Some functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported altered activations in the frontal cortex during working memory (WM) performance in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but the findings have been mixed. The objective of the present study was to utilize near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), an alternative imaging technique, to examine neural processing during WM performance in individuals with MCI. METHODS: Twenty-six older adults with MCI (7 males; mean age 69...
October 27, 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Gianluca Pontone, Giuseppe Muscogiuri, Daniele Andreini, Andrea I Guaricci, Marco Guglielmo, Saima Mushtaq, Andrea Baggiano, Edoardo Conte, Virginia Beltrama, Andrea Annoni, Alberto Formenti, Elisabetta Mancini, Mark G Rabbat, Mauro Pepi
The increased number of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in developed countries is of great clinical relevance and involves a large burden of the healthcare system. The management of these patients is focused on relieving symptoms and improving clinical outcomes. Therefore the ideal test would provide the correct diagnosis and actionable information. To this aim, several non-invasive functional imaging modalities are usually used as gatekeeper to invasive coronary angiography (ICA), but their diagnostic yield remains low with limited accuracy when compared to obstructive CAD at the time of ICA or invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR)...
December 2016: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Anissa Abi-Dargham, Guillermo Horga
The field of medicine is moving toward the use of biomarkers for the optimization of individualized care. This is a particular challenge for the field of psychiatry, in which diagnosis is based on a descriptive collection of behaviors without the availability of any objective test to stratify patients. Neuroimaging techniques such as molecular imaging with positron-emission tomography (PET) or structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide an opportunity to bring psychiatry from an era of subjective descriptive classification into objective and tangible brain-based measures...
October 26, 2016: Nature Medicine
Jilly Naaijen, Saskia de Ruiter, Marcel P Zwiers, Jeffrey C Glennon, Sarah Durston, David J Lythgoe, Steven C R Williams, Tobias Banaschewski, Daniel Brandeis, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar
BACKGROUND: Compulsivity, the closely linked trait impulsivity and addictive behaviour are associated with several neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). All three disorders show impaired fronto-striatal functioning, which may be related to altered glutamatergic signalling. Genetic factors are also thought to play an important role in the aetiology of compulsivity-related disorders...
October 26, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
F Spencer Koerner, John R Anderson, Jon M Fincham, Robert E Kass
Many functional neuroimaging-based studies involve repetitions of a task that may require several phases, or states, of mental activity. An appealing idea is to use relevant brain regions to identify the states. We developed a novel change-point methodology that adapts to the repeated trial structure of such experiments by assuming the number of states stays fixed across similar trials while allowing the timing of change-points to change across trials. Model fitting is based on reversible-jump MCMC. Simulation studies verified its ability to identify change-points successfully...
October 26, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
Qiyong Gong, Xinyu Hu, William Pettersson-Yeo, Xin Xu, Su Lui, Nicolas Crossley, Min Wu, Hongyan Zhu, Andrea Mechelli
The neuroimaging literature provides compelling evidence for functional dysconnectivity in people with psychosis. However, it is likely that at least some of the observed alternations represent secondary effects of illness chronicity and/or antipsychotic medication. In addition, the extent to which these alterations are specific to psychosis or represent a trans-diagnostic feature of psychiatric illness remains unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the diagnostic specificity of functional dysconnectivity in drug-naïve first episode psychosis...
October 26, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Michael Dayan, G Olivito, M Molinari, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali, M Leggio
In recent years the cerebellum has been attributed amore important role in higher-level functions than previously believed. We examined a cohort of patients suffering from cerebellar atrophy resulting in ataxia, with two main objectives: first to investigate which regions of the cerebrum were affected by the cerebellar degeneration, and second to assess whether diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) metrics within the medial (MCP) and superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) - namely fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) - could be used as a biomarker in patients with this condition...
October 26, 2016: Functional Neurology
Cindy T van Velthoven, Mark Dzietko, Michael F Wendland, Nikita Derugin, Joel Faustino, Cobi J Heijnen, Donna M Ferriero, Zinaida S Vexler
Cell therapy has emerged as a potential treatment for many neurodegenerative diseases including stroke and neonatal ischemic brain injury. Delayed intranasal administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) after experimental hypoxia-ischemia and after a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in neonatal rats has shown improvement in long-term functional outcomes, but the effects of MSCs on white matter injury (WMI) are insufficiently understood. In this study we used longitudinal T2-weighted (T2W) and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to characterize chronic injury after tMCAO induced in postnatal day 10 (P10) rats and examined the effects of delayed MSC administration on WMI, axonal coverage, and long-term somatosensory function...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Laura M Pidgeon, Madeleine Grealy, Alex H B Duffy, Laura Hay, Chris McTeague, Tijana Vuletic, Damien Coyle, Sam J Gilbert
INTRODUCTION: The generation of creative visual imagery contributes to technological and scientific innovation and production of visual art. The underlying cognitive and neural processes are, however, poorly understood. METHODS: This review synthesizes functional neuroimaging studies of visual creativity. Seven functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and 19 electroencephalography (EEG) studies were included, comprising 27 experiments and around 800 participants...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Qiang Li, Yong Xiao, Yinghui Li, Lei Li, Na Lu, Zhi Xu, Xiaodong Mou, Shenqin Mao, Wei Wang, Yonggui Yuan
INTRODUCTION: Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) is an illness that occurs over a long time and results in significant disruption in daily life. Clinically, SSD patients typically express complaints that involve a variety of organ systems. However, the neural mechanism of SSD remains poorly understood. METHODS: Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the characteristics of the regional basal brain function during resting state in patients with SSD...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Vincent Planche, Aurélie Ruet, Pierrick Coupé, Delphine Lamargue-Hamel, Mathilde Deloire, Bruno Pereira, José V Manjon, Fanny Munsch, Nicola Moscufo, Dominik S Meier, Charles Rg Guttmann, Vincent Dousset, Bruno Brochet, Thomas Tourdias
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could reveal early hippocampal damage and clinically relevant correlates of memory impairment in persons with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: A total of 37 persons with CIS, 32 with MS and 36 controls prospectively included from 2011 to 2014 were tested for cognitive performances and scanned with 3T-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess volumetric and DTI changes within the hippocampus, whole brain volume and T2-lesion load...
October 25, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Chad D Jensen, Kara M Duraccio, Kaylie A Carbine, Kimberly A Barnett, C Brock Kirwan
OBJECTIVE : To examine associations between motivational impact of palatable foods and neural activity in brain regions involved in inhibitory control among adolescents. METHODS : Thirty-four adolescents aged 14-20 years underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing images of high- and low-energy foods. Participants completed the Power of Food Scale (PFS). Whole-brain analyses of variance tested for neural activation differences and correlations between brain activation and PFS scores were tested...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability and most commonly presents with focal neurologic deficit within a specific vascular distribution. Several other conditions may present in a similar manner. OBJECTIVES: This review provides emergency providers with an understanding of stroke mimics, use of thrombolytics in these mimics, and keys to differentiate true stroke from mimic. DISCUSSION: Stroke has significant morbidity and mortality, and the American Heart Association emphasizes rapid recognition and aggressive treatment for patients with possible stroke-like symptoms, including thrombolytics...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Gulben Senturk, Basar Bilgic, Ali Bilgin Arslan, Ali Bayram, Hasmet Hanagasi, Hakan Gurvit, Murat Emre
BACKGROUND: Anosognosia is a common feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The brain substrates of anosognosia are not fully understood, and less is known about the cognitive substrates of anosognosia in prodromal and early stages of AD. METHODS: Fourty-seven patients with amnestic-type mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) (n = 26) and early-stage AD (n = 21) were included, and Clinical Insight Rating Scale and Anosognosia Questionnaire for Dementia (AQ-D) were used to assess anosognosia...
October 26, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Maryna Lapotka, María Ruz, Alberto Salamanca Ballesteros, Olga Ocón Hernández
PURPOSE: This study describes a new methodology-the cold pressor gel test (CPGT)-for delivering an accessible experimental pain stimulus, which is reproducible and safe for functional MRI (fMRI). METHODS: The cold pressor test was modified to put safety precautions into the CPGT. The material used is cool gelled water with a thickening product, which provides a stable temperature at 0.2 °C. Thirteen women with chronic pelvic pain were scanned using a 3 Tesla (T) MR scanner equipped with a 12-channel head coil...
October 25, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Michael Hanke, Nico Adelhöfer, Daniel Kottke, Vittorio Iacovella, Ayan Sengupta, Falko R Kaule, Roland Nigbur, Alexander Q Waite, Florian Baumgartner, Jörg Stadler
Here we present an update of the studyforrest ( dataset that complements the previously released functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for natural language processing with a new two-hour 3 Tesla fMRI acquisition while 15 of the original participants were shown an audio-visual version of the stimulus motion picture. We demonstrate with two validation analyses that these new data support modeling specific properties of the complex natural stimulus, as well as a substantial within-subject BOLD response congruency in brain areas related to the processing of auditory inputs, speech, and narrative when compared to the existing fMRI data for audio-only stimulation...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Data
Thiru M Annaswamy, Jared Worchel
We report a patient with a previously undiagnosed spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) who became acutely paraplegic following a lumbar epidural steroid injection for lumbar spinal stenosis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple flow voids and serpentine vessels on the cord surface with cord edema extending from T3 through the conus. Spinal angiography confirmed an SDAVF fed by the left lateral sacral artery, which was subsequently endovascularly embolized, and the patient had a partial return of function...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Hui Shen, Desmond K P Chau, Jianpo Su, Ling-Li Zeng, Weixiong Jiang, Jufang He, Jintu Fan, Dewen Hu
Brain responses to facial attractiveness induced by facial proportions are investigated by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in 41 young adults (22 males and 19 females). The subjects underwent fMRI while they were presented with computer-generated, yet realistic face images, which had varying facial proportions, but the same neutral facial expression, baldhead and skin tone, as stimuli. Statistical parametric mapping with parametric modulation was used to explore the brain regions with the response modulated by facial attractiveness ratings (ARs)...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kathleen Vancleef, Raf Meesen, Stephan P Swinnen, Hakuei Fujiyama
Previously, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) has resulted in improved performance in simple motor tasks. For a complex bimanual movement, studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation indicated the involvement of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) as well as left M1. Here we investigated the relative effect of up-regulating the cortical function in left DLPFC and left M1 with tDCS. Participants practised a complex bimanual task over four days while receiving either of five stimulation protocols: anodal tDCS applied over M1, anodal tDCS over DLPFC, sham tDCS over M1, sham tDCS over DLPFC, or no stimulation...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Gianluca Coppola, Antonio Di Renzo, Emanuele Tinelli, Chiara Lepre, Cherubino Di Lorenzo, Giorgio Di Lorenzo, Marco Scapeccia, Vincenzo Parisi, Mariano Serrao, Claudio Colonnese, Jean Schoenen, Francesco Pierelli
BACKGROUND: Resting state magnetic resonance imaging allows studying functionally interconnected brain networks. Here we were aimed to verify functional connectivity between brain networks at rest and its relationship with thalamic microstructure in migraine without aura (MO) patients between attacks. METHODS: Eighteen patients with untreated MO underwent 3 T MRI scans and were compared to a group of 19 healthy volunteers (HV). We used MRI to collect resting state data among two selected resting state networks, identified using group independent component (IC) analysis...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
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