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Functional magnetic resonance imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434125/kidney-morphological-parameters-measured-using-noncontrast-enhanced-steady-state-free-precession-mri-with-spatially-selective-inversion-recovery-pulse-correlate-with-egfr-in-patients-with-advanced-ckd
#1
Tadashi Otsuka, Yoshikatsu Kaneko, Yuya Sato, Ryohei Kaseda, Ryuji Aoyagi, Suguru Yamamoto, Shin Goto, Ichiei Narita
BACKGROUND: It is well known that atrophic renal changes are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression, but conventional diagnostic imaging methods such as noncontrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been insufficient for precisely assessing kidney function because they cannot clearly distinguish between the medulla and cortex. Hence, here we used noncontrast-enhanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) MRI with a spatially selective inversion recovery (IR) pulse to improve visibility for renal corticomedullary differentiation and evaluated the association between morphological parameters and kidney function in patients with CKD...
April 22, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434104/mullerian-dysgenesis-a-critical-review-of-the-literature
#2
REVIEW
Souzana Choussein, Dimitrios Nasioudis, Dimitrios Schizas, Konstantinos P Economopoulos
PURPOSE: To present an update of the genetic, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome. METHODS: Studies were considered eligible if they have evaluated patients with MRKH syndrome. Eligible articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE bibliographical database from 1950 to August 2016. A purely descriptive approach was adopted concerning all outcomes examined by the individual studies. RESULTS: MRKH syndrome is defined as congenital aplasia of the upper vagina and impairment of uterine development in normal 46XX females...
April 22, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433483/functional-image-guided-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-planning-for-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#3
Uranchimeg Tsegmed, Tomoki Kimura, Takeo Nakashima, Yuko Nakamura, Toru Higaki, Nobuki Imano, Yoshiko Doi, Masahiro Kenjo, Shuichi Ozawa, Yuji Murakami, Kazuo Awai, Yasushi Nagata
The aim of the current planning study is to evaluate the ability of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI)-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) planning by using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques in sparing the functional liver tissues during SBRT for hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, 20 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were enrolled. Functional liver tissues were defined according to quantitative liver-spleen contrast ratios ≥ 1...
April 19, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433446/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-assess-the-neurobehavioral-impact-of-dysphotopsia-with-multifocal-intraocular-lenses
#4
Andreia M Rosa, Ângela C Miranda, Miguel Patrício, Colm McAlinden, Fátima L Silva, Joaquim N Murta, Miguel Castelo-Branco
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between dysphotopsia and neural responses in visual and higher-level cortical regions in patients who recently received multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) implants. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty patients 3 to 4 weeks after bilateral cataract surgery with diffractive IOL implantation and 15 age- and gender-matched control subjects. METHODS: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed when participants viewed low-contrast grating stimuli...
April 19, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433388/magnetic-resonance-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-analyses-indicate-heterogeneous-strains-along-human-medial-gastrocnemius-fascicles-caused-by-submaximal-plantar-flexion-activity
#5
Agah Karakuzu, Uluç Pamuk, Cengizhan Ozturk, Burak Acar, Can A Yucesoy
Sarcomere length changes are central to force production and excursion of skeletal muscle. Previous modeling indicates non-uniformity of that if mechanical interaction of muscle with its surrounding muscular and connective tissues is taken into account. Hence, quantifying length changes along the fascicles of activated human muscle in vivo is crucial, but this is lacking due to technical complexities. Combining magnetic resonance imaging deformation analyses and diffusion tensor imaging tractography, the aim was to test the hypothesis that submaximal plantar flexion activity at 15% MVC causes heterogeneous length changes along the fascicles of human medial gastrocnemius (GM) muscle...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433093/impact-of-a-common-genetic-variation-associated-with-putamen-volume-on-neural-mechanisms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#6
Bing Xu, Tianye Jia, Christine Macare, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Anna Cattrell, Patricia J Conrod, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Jürgen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Luise Poustka, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Gunter Schumann, Sylvane Desrivières
OBJECTIVE: In a recent genomewide association study of subcortical brain volumes, a common genetic variation at rs945270 was identified as having the strongest effect on putamen volume, a brain measurement linked to familial risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To determine whether rs945270 might be a genetic determinant of ADHD, its effects on ADHD-related symptoms and neural mechanisms of ADHD, such as response inhibition and reward sensitivity, were explored. METHOD: A large population sample of 1,834 14-year-old adolescents was used to test the effects of rs945270 on ADHD symptoms assessed through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and region-of-interest analyses of putamen activation by functional magnetic resonance imaging using the stop signal and monetary incentive delay tasks, assessing response inhibition and reward sensitivity, respectively...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433092/behavioral-and-neural-sustained-attention-deficits-in-disruptive-mood-dysregulation-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
David Pagliaccio, Jillian Lee Wiggins, Nancy E Adleman, Alexa Curhan, Susan Zhang, Kenneth E Towbin, Melissa A Brotman, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft
OBJECTIVE: Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), characterized by severe irritability, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid. This is the first study to characterize neural and behavioral similarities and differences in attentional functioning across these disorders. METHOD: Twenty-seven healthy volunteers, 31 patients with DMDD, and 25 patients with ADHD (8 to 18 years old) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging attention task...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432782/the-good-lies-altruistic-goals-modulate-processing-of-deception-in-the-anterior-insula
#8
Lijun Yin, Yang Hu, Dennis Dynowski, Jian Li, Bernd Weber
When it comes to lies, the beneficiaries of one's dishonesty play an important role in the decision-making process. Altruistic lies that are made with the intention of benefiting others are a specific type of lies and very common in real life. While it has been shown that altruistic goals influence (dis)honest behaviors, the neural substrates of this effect is still unknown. To reveal how the brain integrates altruistic goals into (dis)honest decisions, this study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural activity of participants in a real incentivized context while they were making (dis)honest decisions...
April 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432767/categorical-learning-revealed-in-activity-pattern-of-left-fusiform-cortex
#9
Jessica E Goold, Ming Meng
The brain is organized such that it encodes and maintains category information about thousands of objects. However, how learning shapes these neural representations of object categories is unknown. The present study focuses on faces, examining whether: (1) Enhanced categorical discrimination or (2) Feature analysis enhances face/non-face categorization in the brain. Stimuli ranged from non-faces to faces with two-toned Mooney images used for testing and gray-scale images used for training. The stimulus set was specifically chosen because it has a true categorical boundary between faces and non-faces but the stimuli surrounding that boundary have very similar features, making the boundary harder to learn...
April 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432605/cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-heart-failure-where-the-alphabet-begins
#10
REVIEW
Ahmed Aljizeeri, Abdulbaset Sulaiman, Naji Alhulaimi, Ahmed Alsaileek, Mouaz H Al-Mallah
Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging has become a cornerstone in the evaluation of heart failure. It provides a comprehensive evaluation by answering all the pertinent clinical questions across the full pathological spectrum of heart failure. Nowadays, CMR is considered the gold standard in evaluation of ventricular volumes, wall motion and systolic function. Through its unique ability of tissue characterization, it provides incremental diagnostic and prognostic information and thus has emerged as a comprehensive imaging modality in heart failure...
April 22, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432469/renal-findings-in-patients-with-mulibrey-nanism
#11
Johanna Sivunen, Susann Karlberg, Jouko Lohi, Niklas Karlberg, Marita Lipsanen-Nyman, Hannu Jalanko
BACKGROUND: Mulibrey nanism (MUL) is a rare inherited disease caused by genetic defects affecting peroxisomal TRIM37 protein. MUL affects multiple organs, leading to growth retardation and early onset type 2 diabetes. We aimed to characterize the structure and function of kidneys and the urinary tract in a large cohort of Finnish MUL patients. METHODS: Ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and autopsy findings of the kidneys and urinary tract from 101 MUL patients were retrospectively analyzed...
April 22, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432222/low-expression-of-hexokinase-2-is-associated-with-false-negative-fdg-positron-emission-tomography-in-multiple-myeloma
#12
Leo Rasche, Edgardo Angtuaco, James E McDonald, Amy Buros, Caleb Stein, Charlotte Pawlyn, Sharmilan Thanendrarajan, Carolina Schinke, Rohan Samant, Shmuel Yaccoby, Brian Walker, Joshua Epstein, Maurizio Zangari, Frits van Rhee, Tobias Meissner, Hartmut Goldschmidt, Kari Hemminki, Richard Houlston, Bart Barlogie, Faith E Davies, Gareth J Morgan, Niels Weinhold
18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging with background signal suppression (DWIBS) are two powerful functional imaging modalities in the evaluation of the malignant plasma cell (PC) disease multiple myeloma (MM). Preliminary observations have suggested that MM patients with extensive disease according to DWIBS may be reported as being disease-free on FDG-PET ("PET-false-negative"). The aim of this study was to describe the proportion of PET-false-negativity in a representative set of 227 newly diagnosed MM patients with simultaneous assessment of FDG-PET and DWIBS, and to identify tumor-intrinsic features associated with this pattern...
April 21, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432004/impact-of-right-ventricular-side-branch-occlusion-during-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-of-chronic-total-occlusions-on-right-ventricular-function
#13
Pepijn A van Diemen, Wynand J Stuijfzand, Stefan P Biesbroek, Pieter G Raijmakers, Roel S Driessen, Stefan P Schumacher, Alexander Nap, Albert C van Rossum, Niels van Royen, Robin Nijveldt, Paul Knaapen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of right ventricular side branch (RVB) occlusion, during percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) of the right coronary artery (RCA), on right ventricular (RV) function. BACKGROUND: Developments in PCI techniques have expanded PCI CTO feasibility. However, the utilization of dissection and reentry techniques and extensive stent implantation increases the risk of coronary side branch occlusion...
April 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431740/getting-a-grip-on-reality-grasping-movements-directed-to-real-objects-and-images-rely-on-dissociable-neural-representations
#14
Erez Freud, Scott N Macdonald, Juan Chen, Derek J Quinlan, Melvyn A Goodale, Jody C Culham
In the current era of touchscreen technology, humans commonly execute visually guided actions directed to two-dimensional (2D) images of objects. Although real, three-dimensional (3D), objects and images of the same objects share high degree of visual similarity, they differ fundamentally in the actions that can be performed on them. Indeed, previous behavioral studies have suggested that simulated grasping of images relies on different representations than actual grasping of real 3D objects. Yet the neural underpinnings of this phenomena have not been investigated...
March 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431605/global-brain-atrophy-and-metabolic-dysfunction-in-lgi1-encephalitis-a-prospective-multimodal-mri-study
#15
Monika Szots, Morten Blaabjerg, Gergely Orsi, Pernille Iversen, Daniel Kondziella, Camilla G Madsen, Ellen Garde, Peter O Magnusson, Peter Barsi, Ferenc Nagy, Hartwig R Siebner, Zsolt Illes
BACKGROUND: Chronic cognitive deficits are frequent in leucin-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein (LGI1) encephalitis. We examined structural and metabolic brain abnormalities following LGI1 encephalitis and correlated findings with acute and follow-up clinical outcomes. METHODS: Nine patients underwent prospective multimodal 3 Tesla MRI 33.1±18months after disease onset, including automated volumetry, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431323/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-developmental-stuttering-relations-with-previous-neurophysiological-research-and-future-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
P Busan, P P Battaglini, M Sommer
Developmental stuttering (DS) is a disruption of the rhythm of speech, and affected people may be unable to execute fluent voluntary speech. There are still questions about the exact causes of DS. Evidence suggests there are differences in the structure and functioning of motor systems used for preparing, executing, and controlling motor acts, especially when they are speech related. Much research has been obtained using neuroimaging methods, ranging from functional magnetic resonance to diffusion tensor imaging and electroencephalography/magnetoencephalography...
April 3, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431292/cannabis-and-cue-induced-craving-in-cocaine-dependent-individuals-a-pilot-study
#17
K Giasson-Gariépy, S Potvin, M Ghabrash, J Bruneau, D Jutras-Aswad
BACKGROUND: Cannabis consumption is common among cocaine users; however, little is known about its effect on cocaine craving. The objective of this study was to assess whether cannabis co-use is associated with lower cue-induced cocaine craving in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals. METHODS: Data from twenty-eight cocaine-dependent men were analyzed in this pilot study. Cocaine-dependent subjects (n=12) were compared with cocaine-dependent subjects who also abused or were dependent on cannabis (n=16)...
March 30, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431000/left-brain-asymmetry-of-the-planum-temporale-in-a-nonhominid-primate-redefining-the-origin-of-brain-specialization-for-language
#18
Damien Marie, Muriel Roth, Romain Lacoste, Bruno Nazarian, Alice Bertello, Jean-Luc Anton, William D Hopkins, Konstantina Margiotoudi, Scott A Love, Adrien Meguerditchian
The planum temporale (PT) is a critical region of the language functional network in the human brain showing a striking size asymmetry toward the left hemisphere. Historically considered as a structural landmark of the left-brain specialization for language, a similar anatomical bias has been described in great apes but never in monkeys-indicating that this brain landmark might be unique to Hominidae evolution. In the present in vivo magnetic resonance imaging study, we show clearly for the first time in a nonhominid primate species, an Old World monkey, a left size predominance of the PT among 96 olive baboons (Papio anubis), using manual delineation of this region in each individual hemisphere...
April 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430974/using-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-undamaged-brain-to-identify-lesion-sites-that-predict-language-outcome-after-stroke
#19
Diego L Lorca-Puls, Andrea Gajardo-Vidal, Mohamed L Seghier, Alexander P Leff, Varun Sethi, Susan Prejawa, Thomas M H Hope, Joseph T Devlin, Cathy J Price
Transcranial magnetic stimulation focused on either the left anterior supramarginal gyrus or opercular part of the left inferior frontal gyrus has been reported to transiently impair the ability to perform phonological more than semantic tasks. Here we tested whether phonological processing abilities were also impaired following lesions to these regions in right-handed, English speaking adults, who were investigated at least 1 year after a left-hemisphere stroke. When our regions of interest were limited to 0...
April 18, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429537/preliminary-findings-on-the-safety-of-1-5-and-3-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-cardiac-pacemaker-patients
#20
V F van Dijk, P P H M Delnoy, J J J Smit, R A Ramdat Misier, A Elvan, H W van Es, B J W M Rensing, G Raciti, L V A Boersma
INTRODUCTION: Modern pacemakers are designed to allow patients to undergo Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) under a set of specific conditions. Aim of this study is to provide confirmatory evidence of safety and performance of a new pacing system (ImageReady™, Boston Scientific) in patients undergoing 1.5 and 3 Tesla(T) MRI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two prospective, non-randomized, single-arm studies were designed to provide confirmatory data of no impact of MRI on device function, lead parameters and patient conditions in subjects implanted with the system undergoing a clinically non-indicated 1...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
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