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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633521/consideration-of-natural-sources-in-a-bacteria-tmdl-lines-of-evidence-including-beach-microbial-source-tracking
#1
Kelly D Goodwin, Alexander Schriewer, Andrew Jirik, Kathryn Curtis, Andrea Crumpacker
Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) stipulations remained unmet at a southern California beach despite a suite of management actions carried out since 2001, prompting exploration of a Natural Sources Exclusion (NSE) provision within the TMDL. Quantitative Microbial Source Tracking (MST) was employed from 2012-2015 to inventory sources of natural and anthropogenic fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). Data suggested FIB exceedances could be traced to gulls based on gull marker prevalence and correlations with FIB concentrations in seawater, sand and eelgrass...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629061/paclitaxel-hydroxyapatite-composite-coatings-on-titanium-alloy-for-biomedical-applications
#2
Yu-Liang Lai, Shuei-Bin Lai, Shiow-Kang Yen
In order to reduce the side effects of chemotherapy, target therapies have been spotlighted. In this study, paclitaxel, the drug for cancer treatment, is electrochemically deposited on Ti alloy as vascular stents for the tumor localized therapy by sustaining drug releasing to achieve the cancer cells apoptosis or the prevention of cancer metastasis. In the experiment, cathodic polarization tests coupled with electrochemical reactions were analyzed to speculate the deposition mechanism, and the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), focused ion beam (FIB) system and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to observe the surface morphology and analyze constituent elements...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629038/electrospinning-of-pva-sericin-nanofiber-and-the-effect-on-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-a549-cells
#3
Shanshan Yan, Xiuchun Li, Jing Dai, Yiqun Wang, Binbin Wang, Yi Lu, Jianlin Shi, Pengyu Huang, Jinkang Gong, Yuan Yao
This research aims to investigate the cell-nanomaterial interaction between epithelial-mesenchymal transition of A549 cell and electrospinning nanofibers composed of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/silk sericin (SS). The electrospinning of regenerated nanofiber was performed with water as a spinning solvent and glutaraldehyde as a chemical cross-linker. Solution concentration, applied voltage and spin distances as well as other parameters were optimized to generate fine nanofibers with smooth surface in good homogeneity...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625259/-antithrombin-iii-for-early-diagnosis-of-dic-in-sepsis-patients-a-retrospective-analysis-with-445-patients
#4
Yanjing Xu, Ran Zhu, Yini Sun, Xin Li, Xiaochun Ma
OBJECTIVE: To investigated the role of antithrombin III (AT-III) levels in the early diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in patients with sepsis and the predictive effect of AT-III on the development of DIC. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted. Patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University from January to December in 2015 were enrolled. The patients were divided into sepsis group and non-sepsis group according to the diagnostic criteria of sepsis...
February 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625240/-dynamic-changes-of-complement-level-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-and-its-relationships-with-myocardial-injury
#5
Aihong Shao, Xin Qi, Qi Li, Wenjun Jia, Liping Wei, Wenguang Hou, Yanfang Qi, Yue Liu
OBJECTIVE: To study relationships between myocardial injury and the levels of serum complement C3, C4 and C5b-9 in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: A retrospectively analysis was conducted. 170 ACS patients [including 110 cases of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 60 cases of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS)] with ischemic chest pain or chest discomfort onset within the prior 12 hours admitted to the cardiology department of Tianjin Union Medicine Center from January 2014 to July 2016 were enrolled...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618039/serum-galectin-9-levels-are-correlated-to-liver-fibrosis-regardless-of-chronic-inflammation-or-hepatocellular-carcinoma-complications
#6
Koji Fujita, Toshiro Niki, Takako Nomura, Kyoko Oura, Tomoko Tadokoro, Teppei Sakamoto, Joji Tani, Hirohito Yoneyama, Asahiro Morishita, Noriyuki Kuroda, Takeshi Arai, Naoki Nishimoto, Takashi Himoto, Mitsuomi Hirashima, Tsutomu Masaki
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Chronic liver diseases (CLDs) progress from chronic inflammation to fibrosis to tumorigenesis. Galectin-9, a β-galactoside-specific animal lectin, is indicated to contribute to all three steps of progression. The aim of this study was to determine which of the three steps was most dominant in elevating the serum galectin-9 concentration and to test the possibility of galectin-9 as a serum biomarker. METHODS: Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis (CH), liver cirrhosis (LC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or alcoholic liver disease who provided informed consent were enrolled in this study...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617830/on-treatment-decrease-of-nkg2d-correlates-to-early-emergence-of-clinically-evident-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-interferon-free-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-c
#7
Po-Sung Chu, Nobuhiro Nakamoto, Nobuhito Taniki, Keisuke Ojiro, Takeru Amiya, Yuko Makita, Hiroko Murata, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Shunsuke Shiba, Rei Miyake, Tadashi Katayama, Aya Ugamura, Akihiko Ikura, Karin Takeda, Hirotoshi Ebinuma, Hidetsugu Saito, Takanori Kanai
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Interferon (IFN)- free direct antiviral agents (DAAs) with rapid HCV eradication might evoke immunological reconstitutions, and some early recurrences of HCC after IFN-free DAAs have been reported. This study aimed to investigate whether natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) predicts early emergence of HCC after IFN-free DAAs. METHODS: We conducted a clinical practice-based observational study of 101 patients infected with genotype 1 HCV who received IFN-free (DAAs), and stratified them into those who did or did not develop early (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615303/favouring-modulation-of-circulating-lipoproteins-and-lipid-loading-capacity-by-direct-antiviral-agents-grazoprevir-elbasvir-or-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-treatment-against-chronic-hcv-infection
#8
Hung-Yu Sun, Pin-Nan Cheng, Chiung-Ying Tseng, Wei-Jen Tsai, Yen-Cheng Chiu, Kung-Chia Young
OBJECTIVE: Lipid homoeostasis is disturbed in patients with HCV infection. Direct-acting antiviral agent (DAA) treatment eradicates chronic HCV viraemia, but the dynamics of lipid components remain elusive. This study investigates the clinical manifestation and mechanistic relevance of plasma triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (Chol), lipoproteins and apolipoproteins (apos) after DAA treatment. DESIGN: Twenty-four patients with chronic genotype 1 (GT1) HCV treated with elbasvir/grazoprevir or ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for 12 weeks, and followed-up thereafter, were recruited...
June 14, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607450/new-noninvasive-index-for-predicting-liver-fibrosis-in-asian-patients-with-chronic-viral-hepatitis
#9
Hung-Wei Wang, Cheng-Yuan Peng, Hsueh-Chou Lai, Wen-Pang Su, Chia-Hsin Lin, Po-Heng Chuang, Sheng-Hung Chen, Ching-Hsiang Chen, Wei-Fan Hsu, Guan-Tarn Huang
We developed an optimal noninvasive index comprising routine laboratory parameters for predicting cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. This study included 992 CHB patients and 1,284 CHC patients who received liver biopsy. We developed the new index, named modified Fibrosis-4 (mFIB-4) according to four independent variables of the model: age, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and platelet count. The formula of the mFIB-4 index is 10 × Age(years) × AST(U/L)/Platelet count(10(9)/L) × AST(U/L)...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604274/routine-prophylactic-antimicrobial-use-is-associated-with-increased-phenotypic-and-genotypic-resistance-in-commensal-escherichia-coli-isolates-recovered-from-healthy-fattening-pigs-on-farms-in-thailand
#10
Kittitat Lugsomya, Thanitta Chatsuwan, Waree Niyomtham, Padet Tummaruk, David J Hampson, Nuvee Prapasarakul
This study examined antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles in commensal Escherichia coli derived from healthy fattening pigs in Thai farms that used prophylactic antimicrobials (in-feed tiamulin fumarate and amoxicillin) [PAs], therapeutic antimicrobials (injectable enrofloxacin or gentamicin) [TAs], or no antimicrobials [NAs]. Commensal E. coli were used as a proxy for overall AMR on the farms. There was a high level of multidrug resistance in all three categories of farm, with isolates showing resistance to β-lactams (amoxicillin, ampicillin, and piperacillin) and tetracyclines (tetracycline), and commonly possessing tetA, blaTEM, and plasmid replicons FIB and F...
June 12, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595980/significance-of-beach-geomorphology-on-fecal-indicator-bacteria-levels
#11
Allison Donahue, Zhixuan Feng, Elizabeth Kelly, Ad Reniers, Helena M Solo-Gabriele
Large databases of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurements are available for coastal waters. With the assistance of satellite imagery, we illustrated the power of assessing data for many sites by evaluating beach features such as geomorphology, distance from rivers and canals, presence of piers and causeways, and degree of urbanization coupled with the enterococci FIB database for the state of Florida. We found that beach geomorphology was the primary characteristic associated with enterococci levels that exceeded regulatory guidelines...
June 5, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589339/a-simple-scoring-system-using-type-iv-collagen-7s-and-aspartate-aminotransferase-for-diagnosing-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-related-fibrosis
#12
Takeshi Okanoue, Hayao Ebise, Toshihiro Kai, Masayuki Mizuno, Toshihide Shima, Junji Ichihara, Mikio Aoki
BACKGROUND: Recently we reported novel noninvasive scoring systems for diagnosing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and related fibrosis, namely FM-NASH index and FM-fibro index. They are highly accurate, however, they contain some items not widely used in clinical practice and require six or more items to diagnose both NASH and related fibrosis. By focusing on widely used items, we tried to identify convenient markers in common with the both diagnoses. METHODS: To explore the markers for NASH and related fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, we used data of 24 clinical items in our previous report...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586172/comparison-of-laboratory-tests-ultrasound-or-mre-to-detect-fibrosis-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-meta-analysis
#13
Guangqin Xiao, Sixian Zhu, Xiao Xiao, Lunan Yan, Jiayin Yang, Gang Wu
Many noninvasive methods for diagnosing liver fibrosis (LF) have been proposed. To determine the best method for diagnosing LF in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis to compare the performance of APRI, FIB-4, BARD score, NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), FibroScan, shear wave elastography (SWE) and magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for diagnosing LF in NAFLD. We compared the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and AUROC of these noninvasive methods for detecting significant fibrosis (SF), advanced fibrosis (AF), and cirrhosis...
June 6, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582658/a-method-to-improve-the-quality-of-2-5-dimensional-micro-and-nano-structures-produced-by-focused-ion-beam-machining
#14
Daniele De Felicis, Muhammad Zeeshan Mughal, Edoardo Bemporad
The present work deals with a new technique to produce complex micro- and nano-scale patterns with high accuracy by FIB micro machining. The proposed method is related to the production of stream file, which is optimized through a software interface. A unique sampling approach is used to optimize the conversion from a 3D meshed CAD object to the focused ion beam (FIB) digital to analogue converter (DAC). The method uses a novel scan strategy, sensitive to the pattern local geometry and size, to define the optimal ion beam path, dwell time and the scanning pitch...
May 31, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581248/non-invasive-tests-for-liver-disease-severity-and-the-hepatocellular-carcinoma-risk-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-with-low-level-viremia
#15
Namyoung Paik, Dong Hyun Sinn, Ji Hyun Lee, In Soo Oh, Jung Hee Kim, Wonseok Kang, Geum-Youn Gwak, Yong-Han Paik, Moon Seok Choi, Joon Hyeok Lee, Kwang Cheol Koh, Seung Woon Paik
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We tested whether non-invasive tests for liver disease severity can stratify hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients showing low level viremia (LLV, HBV DNA < 2,000 IU/mL). METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 1,006 chronic hepatitis B patients showing persistently LLV, defined by at least two consecutive assessments in the year before enrollment, was assessed for HCC development. Two non-invasive serum biomarkers, the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) and the Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4), were tested...
June 5, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578937/active-hcv-infection-is-associated-with-increased-circulating-levels-of-interferon-gamma-ifn-%C3%AE-inducible-protein-10-ip-10-soluble-cd163-and-inflammatory-monocytes-regardless-of-liver-fibrosis-and-hiv-coinfection
#16
Claudia Mascia, Miriam Lichtner, Paola Zuccalà, Serena Vita, Tiziana Tieghi, Raffaella Marocco, Stefano Savinelli, Raffaella Rossi, Marco Iannetta, Michela Campagna, Francesco Schiavone, Fabio Mengoni, Gianluca Russo, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Vincenzo Vullo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), soluble (s) CD163 and sCD14 play an important role in the pathogenesis of HCV and HIV infection and are involved in inflammation and liver fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate at a single time point, plasma soluble biomarkers and inflammatory monocytes subsets in different groups of subjects: (i) HIV monoinfected patients on suppressive ART; (ii) HIV/HCV coinfected patients on ART, with undetectable HIV viremia (including either subjects who had active HCV replication or those who cleared HCV); (iii) HCV monoinfected individual with active viral replication...
May 31, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578727/focused-ion-beam-preparation-of-specimens-for-micro-electro-mechanical-system-based-transmission-electron-microscopy-heating-experiments
#17
Sriram Vijayan, Joerg R Jinschek, Stephan Kujawa, Jens Greiser, Mark Aindow
Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based heating holders offer exceptional control of temperature and heating/cooling rates for transmission electron microscopy experiments. The use of such devices is relatively straightforward for nano-particulate samples, but the preparation of specimens from bulk samples by focused ion beam (FIB) milling presents significant challenges. These include: poor mechanical integrity and site selectivity of the specimen, ion beam damage to the specimen and/or MEMS device during thinning, and difficulties in transferring the specimen onto the MEMS device...
June 5, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575039/assessment-of-pathologic-increase-in-liver-stiffness-enables-earlier-diagnosis-of-cfld-results-from-a-prospective-longitudinal-cohort-study
#18
Victoria Klotter, Caroline Gunchick, Enno Siemers, Timo Rath, Helge Hudel, Lutz Naehrlich, Martin Roderfeld, Elke Roeb
About 30% of patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) develop CF-associated liver disease (CFLD). Recent studies have shown that transient elastography (TE), as a method to quantify liver stiffness, allows non-invasive diagnosis of CFLD in adults and children with CF. Within this study we aimed to prospectively identify patients at risk for development of CFLD by longitudinal analysis of liver stiffness and fibrosis scores in a 5-year follow-up. 36 pediatric and 16 adult patients with initial liver stiffness below the cut-off value indicative of CFLD (6...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572039/ast-to-platelet-ratio-index-and-fibrosis-4-calculator-scores-for-non-invasive-assessment-of-hepatic-fibrosis-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
Noam Peleg, Assaf Issachar, Orly Sneh-Arbib, Amir Shlomai
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver fibrosis is the single most important prognostic factor in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The predictive value of the AST to Platelet Ratio Index (APRI) score, originally developed for fibrosis assessment in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients, is much less known in the context of NAFLD patients. METHODS: We retrospectively compared the performance of APRI and fibrosis 4 calculator (FIB-4) scores in NAFLD patients with documented liver biopsies, to their performance in chronic HCV patients...
May 11, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571985/host-pathogen-interactions-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells-and-hela-cells-by-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-subclinical-bovine-mastitis
#20
Ivana G Castilho, Stéfani Thais Alves Dantas, Hélio Langoni, João P Araújo, Ary Fernandes, Fernanda C L Alvarenga, Leandro Maia, Didier Q Cagnini, Vera L M Rall
Staphylococcus aureus is a common pathogen that causes subclinical bovine mastitis due to several virulence factors. In this study, we analyzed S. aureus isolates collected from the milk of cows with subclinical mastitis that had 8 possible combinations of bap, icaA, and icaD genes, to determine their capacity to produce biofilm on biotic (bovine primary mammary epithelial cells and HeLa cells) and abiotic (polystyrene microplates) surfaces, and their ability to adhere to and invade these cells. We also characterized isolates for microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM) and agr genes, and for their susceptibility to cefquinome sulfate in the presence of biofilm...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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