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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150535/disparities-in-management-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-rural-south-africa-data-from-the-haalsi-study-health-and-aging-in-africa-longitudinal-studies-of-international-network-for-the-demographic-evaluation-of-populations-and-their-health-communities
#1
Thiago Veiga Jardim, Sheridan Reiger, Shafika Abrahams-Gessel, Nigel J Crowther, Alisha Wade, F Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Joshua Salomon, Stephen Tollman, Thomas A Gaziano
BACKGROUND: Optimal secondary prevention is critical for the reduction of repeated cardiovascular events, and the control of cardiovascular risk factors in this context is essential. Data on secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in sub-Saharan Africa are needed to inform intervention strategies with a particular focus on local disparities. The aim of this study was to assess CVD management in a rural community in northeast South Africa. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited adults aged ≥40 years residing in the Agincourt subdistrict of Mpumalanga province...
November 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150503/carbon-amendments-alter-microbial-community-structure-and-net-mercury-methylation-potential-in-sediments
#2
Geoff A Christensen, Anil C Somenahally, James G Moberly, Carrie M Miller, Andrew J King, Cynthia C Gilmour, Steven D Brown, Mircea Podar, Craig C Brandt, Scott C Brooks, Anthony V Palumbo, Judy D Wall, Dwayne A Elias
Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) is produced by anaerobic Bacteria and Archaea possessing the genes hgcAB, but it is unknown how organic substrate and electron acceptor availability impact the distribution and abundance of these organisms. We evaluated the impact of organic substrate amendments on mercury (Hg) methylation rates, microbial community structure, and the distribution of hgcAB(+) microbes with sediments. Sediment slurries were amended with short-chain fatty acids, alcohols, or a polysaccharide. Minimal increases in MeHg were observed following lactate, ethanol and methanol amendments while a significant decrease (∼70%) was observed with cellobiose incubations...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150310/zika-virus-in-french-polynesia-2013-14-anatomy-of-a-completed-outbreak
#3
REVIEW
Didier Musso, Hervé Bossin, Henri Pierre Mallet, Marianne Besnard, Julien Broult, Laure Baudouin, José Eduardo Levi, Ester C Sabino, Frederic Ghawche, Marion C Lanteri, David Baud
The Zika virus crisis exemplified the risk associated with emerging pathogens and was a reminder that preparedness for the worst-case scenario, although challenging, is needed. Herein, we review all data reported during the unexpected emergence of Zika virus in French Polynesia in late 2013. We focus on the new findings reported during this outbreak, especially the first description of severe neurological complications in adults and the retrospective description of CNS malformations in neonates, the isolation of Zika virus in semen, the potential for blood-transfusion transmission, mother-to-child transmission, and the development of new diagnostic assays...
November 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150198/comparative-effectiveness-of-extended-release-naltrexone-versus-buprenorphine-naloxone-for-opioid-relapse-prevention-x-bot-a-multicentre-open-label-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Joshua D Lee, Edward V Nunes, Patricia Novo, Ken Bachrach, Genie L Bailey, Snehal Bhatt, Sarah Farkas, Marc Fishman, Phoebe Gauthier, Candace C Hodgkins, Jacquie King, Robert Lindblad, David Liu, Abigail G Matthews, Jeanine May, K Michelle Peavy, Stephen Ross, Dagmar Salazar, Paul Schkolnik, Dikla Shmueli-Blumberg, Don Stablein, Geetha Subramaniam, John Rotrosen
BACKGROUND: Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), an opioid antagonist, and sublingual buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP-NX), a partial opioid agonist, are pharmacologically and conceptually distinct interventions to prevent opioid relapse. We aimed to estimate the difference in opioid relapse-free survival between XR-NTX and BUP-NX. METHODS: We initiated this 24 week, open-label, randomised controlled, comparative effectiveness trial at eight US community-based inpatient services and followed up participants as outpatients...
November 14, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149914/testing-the-effectiveness-of-a-motivational-interviewing-based-brief-intervention-for-substance-use-as-an-adjunct-to-usual-care-in-community-based-aids-service-organizations-study-protocol-for-a-multisite-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Bryan R Garner, Heather J Gotham, Stephen J Tueller, Elizabeth L Ball, David Kaiser, Patricia Stilen, Kathryn Speck, Denna Vandersloot, Traci R Rieckmann, Michael Chaple, Erika G Martin, Steve Martino
BACKGROUND: In 2010, the first comprehensive National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States was released and included three goals: (1) reducing the number of people who become infected with HIV, (2) increasing access to care and improving health outcomes for people living with HIV, and (3) reducing HIV-related health disparities and health inequities. In 2013, as part of its effort to help address the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funded a type 2 effectiveness-implementation hybrid trial titled the Substance Abuse Treatment to HIV Care (SAT2HIV) Project...
November 17, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149665/a-study-of-microbial-communities-on-terracotta-separator-and-on-biocathode-of-air-breathing-microbial-fuel-cells
#6
Laura Rago, Sarah Zecchin, Stefania Marzorati, Andrea Goglio, Lucia Cavalca, Pierangela Cristiani, Andrea Schievano
Recently, terracotta has attracted interest as low-cost and biocompatible material to build separators in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the influence of a non-conductive material like terracotta on electroactive microbiological communities remains substantially unexplored. This study aims at describing the microbial pools developed from two different seed inocula (bovine and swine sewage) in terracotta-based air-breathing MFC. A statistical approach on microbiological data confirmed different community enrichment in the MFCs, depending mainly on the inoculum...
November 11, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149640/change-to-ecosystem-properties-through-changing-the-dominant-species-impact-of-pteridium-aquilinum-control-and-heathland-restoration-treatments-on-selected-soil-properties
#7
G Milligan, K E Booth, E S Cox, R J Pakeman, M G Le Duc, L Connor, S Blackbird, R H Marrs
It is well known that soils are influenced by the plant species that grow in them. Here we consider the effects of management-induced changes to plant communities and their soils during restoration within a 20-year manipulative experiment where the aim was to change a late-successional community dominated by the weed, Pteridium aquilinum, to an earlier-successional grass-heath one. The ecological restoration treatments altered the above- and below-ground components of the community substantially. Untreated plots maintained a dense Pteridium cover with little understory vegetation, cutting treatments produce significant reductions of Pteridium, whereas herbicide (asulam) produced significant immediate reductions in Pteridium but regressed towards the untreated plots within 10 years...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149311/beyond-the-crisis-did-the-ebola-epidemic-improve-resilience-of-liberia-s-health-system
#8
Emilia J Ling, Elysia Larson, Rose Jallah Macauley, Yvonne Kodl, Brian VanDeBogert, Saye Baawo, Margaret E Kruk
Resilience was widely identified as a critical attribute for strong health systems following the 2014-15 West Africa Ebola epidemic. In Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea, struggles to control the disease and suspension of the operation of many health services demonstrated that health systems must plan for resilience long before a crisis. However, the operational elements of resilience and ways that a crisis experience can shape resilience are not well described in the literature. To understand how a health system adapts to crisis and how the priorities of different health system actors influence this response we conducted interviews with global, national, and local respondents in Liberia between July and September 2015 (n = 108), several months after the country was first declared Ebola-free...
November 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148639/institutional-delivery-services-utilization-by-women-of-childbearing-age-in-south-west-showa-zone-oromia-region
#9
Assefa Seme, Abera Seifu
Introduction: Institutional delivery is very low in Ethiopia, particularly in Oromia where less than one-third of antenatal care attendees utilize the services. This study assessed the magnitude of institutional delivery and associated factors in South West Showa Zone of Oromia. Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted in 2010. A stratified cluster sampling technique used to select study districts, villages and households. Four hundred thirty childbearing women with at least one birth in the past 5 years preceding the survey were interviewed...
January 2017: Ethiopian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148565/tobacco-cessation-interventions-for-young-people
#10
REVIEW
Thomas R Fanshawe, William Halliwell, Nicola Lindson, Paul Aveyard, Jonathan Livingstone-Banks, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce
BACKGROUND: Most tobacco control programmes for adolescents are based around prevention of uptake, but teenage smoking is still common. It is unclear if interventions that are effective for adults can also help adolescents to quit. This is the update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of strategies that help young people to stop smoking tobacco. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register in June 2017...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148298/understanding-patient-requirements-for-technology-systems-that-support-pain-management-in-palliative-care-services-a-qualitative-study
#11
Matthew J Allsop, Sally Taylor, Michael I Bennett, Bridgette M Bewick
Approaches to pain management using electronic systems are being developed for use in palliative care. This article explores palliative care patients' perspectives on managing and talking about pain, the role of technology in their lives and how technology could support pain management. Face-to-face interviews were used to understand patient needs and concerns to inform how electronic systems are developed. A total of 13 interviews took place with a convenience sample of community-based patients with advanced cancer receiving palliative care through a hospice...
November 1, 2017: Health Informatics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148074/salutogenic-healthy-aging-programme-embracement-shape-for-senior-only-households-a-study-protocol
#12
Betsy Seah, Yanika Kowitlawakul, Srinivasan Chokkanathan, Jeane Jin Yi Fong, Geir Arild Espnes, Emily Ang, Wenru Wang
AIMS: To evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-dimensional community-based health promotion and risk prevention program, named Salutogenic Healthy Aging Program Embracement (SHAPE) for senior-only households in Singapore. BACKGROUND: In view of aging population and its significant impacts on economy, societal structure and policy-making, healthy aging emerges as an important concept in maintaining health through the engagement of health-promoting behaviour and risk-prevention actions in older people...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147865/changes-of-gut-microbiota-structure-and-morphology-in-weaned-piglets-treated-with-fresh-fermented-soybean-meal
#13
Zhengjun Xie, Luansha Hu, Yuan Li, Shijie Geng, Saisai Cheng, Xiongfeng Fu, Shoumei Zhao, Xinyan Han
This study investigated the effects of dietary fresh fermented soybean meal (FSM) on the intestinal microbiota and metabolites, bacterial enzyme activity and intestinal morphology of weaning piglets. A total of 64 weaned piglets were randomly allocated into two treatments. A corn-soybean-based diet was used as the control and other treatment was fed the same basal diet containing 15% fresh FSM. The feeding trial lasted for 21 days. Bacterial community structure and diversity in the cecum and colon were assessed using pyrosequencing-based analysis...
November 16, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146890/effectiveness-of-topical-green-tea-against-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-cases-of-primary-pyoderma-an-open-controlled-trial
#14
Nagaraju Umashankar, Belliappa Pemmanda, P Gopkumar, A J Hemalatha, Priya K Sundar, H V Prashanth
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial activity of green tea against Staphylococcus aureus both in vitro and in vivo has been reported recently. Studies on clinical efficacy and safety of green tea as antibacterial agent against S. aureus in human cases are rare. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of topical green tea on primary pyoderma caused by S. aureus. We also attempted to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of green tea against S...
November 14, 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146658/views-of-commissioners-managers-and-healthcare-professionals-on-the-nhs-health-check-programme-a-systematic-review
#15
Katie Mills, Emma Harte, Adam Martin, Calum MacLure, Simon J Griffin, Jonathan Mant, Catherine Meads, Catherine L Saunders, Fiona M Walter, Juliet A Usher-Smith
OBJECTIVE: To synthesise data concerning the views of commissioners, managers and healthcare professionals towards the National Health Service (NHS) Health Check programme in general and the challenges faced when implementing it in practice. DESIGN: A systematic review of surveys and interview studies with a descriptive analysis of quantitative data and thematic synthesis of qualitative data. DATA SOURCES: An electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Embase, Health Management Information Consortium, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Global Health, PsycInfo, Web of Science, OpenGrey, the Cochrane Library, NHS Evidence, Google Scholar, Google, ClinicalTrials...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146642/-when-it-goes-back-to-my-normal-i-suppose-a-qualitative-study-using-online-focus-groups-to-explore-perceptions-of-control-among-people-with-eczema-and-parents-of-children-with-eczema-in-the-uk
#16
Laura M Howells, Joanne R Chalmers, Fiona Cowdell, Sonia Ratib, Miriam Santer, Kim S Thomas
OBJECTIVE: To inform the development of a core outcome set for eczema by engaging with people with eczema and parents of children with eczema to understand their experiences and understanding of the concept 'eczema control'. DESIGN: 37 participants took part in a total of six semi-structured online focus groups held in a typed chatroom with 5-7 participants per group. Three groups involved adults with eczema and three groups involved parents of children with eczema...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146601/airway-microbiota-across-age-and-disease-spectrum-in-cystic-fibrosis
#17
Edith T Zemanick, Brandie D Wagner, Charles E Robertson, Richard C Ahrens, James F Chmiel, John P Clancy, Ronald L Gibson, William T Harris, Geoffrey Kurland, Theresa A Laguna, Susanna A McColley, Karen McCoy, George Retsch-Bogart, Kurtis T Sobush, Pamela L Zeitlin, Mark J Stevens, Frank J Accurso, Scott D Sagel, J Kirk Harris
Our objectives were to characterise the microbiota in cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and determine its relationship to inflammation and disease status.BALF from paediatric and adult CF patients and paediatric disease controls undergoing clinically indicated bronchoscopy was analysed for total bacterial load and for microbiota by 16S rDNA sequencing.We examined 191 BALF samples (146 CF and 45 disease controls) from 13 CF centres. In CF patients aged <2 years, nontraditional taxa (e...
November 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146566/improving-transition-to-employment-for-youth-with-physical-disabilities-protocol-for-a-peer-electronic-mentoring-intervention
#18
Sally Lindsay, Jennifer Stinson, Mary Stergiou-Kita, Joanne Leck
BACKGROUND: Although youth with disabilities have much to gain from employment readiness programs, they are often excluded from or have limited access to vocational programs. One encouraging approach to address gaps in vocational programming is through peer electronic mentoring (e-mentoring), which may facilitate a smoother transition to adulthood by offering support to enhance coping skills. Despite the increase in online communities, little is known about their impact on vocational mentoring for youth with physical disabilities and their parents...
November 16, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146565/development-and-usability-testing-of-a-computer-tailored-decision-support-tool-for-lung-cancer-screening-study-protocol
#19
Lisa Carter-Harris, Robert Skipworth Comer, Anurag Goyal, Emilee Christine Vode, Nasser Hanna, DuyKhanh Ceppa, Susan M Rawl
BACKGROUND: Awareness of lung cancer screening remains low in the screening-eligible population, and when patients visit their clinician never having heard of lung cancer screening, engaging in shared decision making to arrive at an informed decision can be a challenge. Therefore, methods to effectively support both patients and clinicians to engage in these important discussions are essential. To facilitate shared decision making about lung cancer screening, effective methods to prepare patients to have these important discussions with their clinician are needed...
November 16, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146401/neratinib-after-trastuzumab-based-adjuvant-therapy-in-her2-positive-breast-cancer-extenet-5-year-analysis-of-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-3-trial
#20
Miguel Martin, Frankie A Holmes, Bent Ejlertsen, Suzette Delaloge, Beverly Moy, Hiroji Iwata, Gunter von Minckwitz, Stephen K L Chia, Janine Mansi, Carlos H Barrios, Michael Gnant, Zorica Tomašević, Neelima Denduluri, Robert Šeparović, Erhan Gokmen, Anna Bashford, Manuel Ruiz Borrego, Sung-Bae Kim, Erik Hugger Jakobsen, Audrone Ciceniene, Kenichi Inoue, Friedrich Overkamp, Joan B Heijns, Anne C Armstrong, John S Link, Anil Abraham Joy, Richard Bryce, Alvin Wong, Susan Moran, Bin Yao, Feng Xu, Alan Auerbach, Marc Buyse, Arlene Chan
BACKGROUND: ExteNET showed that 1 year of neratinib, an irreversible pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor, significantly improves 2-year invasive disease-free survival after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in women with HER2-positive breast cancer. We report updated efficacy outcomes from a protocol-defined 5-year follow-up sensitivity analysis and long-term toxicity findings. METHODS: In this ongoing randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, eligible women aged 18 years or older (≥20 years in Japan) with stage 1-3c (modified to stage 2-3c in February, 2010) operable breast cancer, who had completed neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab with no evidence of disease recurrence or metastatic disease at study entry...
November 13, 2017: Lancet Oncology
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