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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549317/frontal-and-subcortical-grey-matter-reductions-in-ptsd
#1
Daniel C M O'Doherty, Ashleigh Tickell, Will Ryder, Charles Chan, Daniel F Hermens, Maxwell R Bennett, Jim Lagopoulos
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterised by a range of debilitating psychological, physical and cognitive symptoms. PTSD has been associated with grey matter atrophy in limbic and frontal cortical brain regions. However, previous studies have reported heterogeneous findings, with grey matter changes observed beyond limbic/frontal areas. Seventy-five adults were recruited from the community, 25 diagnosed with PTSD along with 25 healthy and 25 trauma exposed age and gender matched controls. Participants underwent clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging...
May 19, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548893/dynamic-decision-making-learning-processes-and-new-research-directions
#2
Cleotilde Gonzalez, Pegah Fakhari, Jerome Busemeyer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this manuscript is to provide a review of contemporary research and applications on dynamic decision making (DDM). BACKGROUND: Since early DDM studies, there has been little systematic progress in understanding decision making in complex, dynamic systems. Our review contributes to better understanding of decision making processes in dynamic tasks. METHOD: We discuss new research directions in DDM to highlight the value of simplification in the study of complex decision processes, divided into experimental and theoretical/computational approaches, and focus on problems involving control tasks and search-and-choice tasks...
May 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548882/finding-conducting-and-nurturing-science-a-virologist-s-memoir
#3
Anna Marie Ann Skalka Skalka
My laboratory investigations have been driven by an abiding interest in understanding the consequences of genetic rearrangement in evolution and disease, and in using viruses to elucidate fundamental mechanisms in biology. Starting with bacteriophages and moving to the retroviruses, my use of the tools of genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics has spanned more than half a century-from the time when DNA structure was just discovered to the present day of big data and epigenetics. Both riding and contributing to the successive waves of technology, my laboratory has elucidated fundamental mechanisms in DNA replication, repair, and recombination...
May 26, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548658/distinctive-microbiomes-and-metabolites-linked-with-weight-loss-after-gastric-bypass-but-not-gastric-banding
#4
Zehra Esra Ilhan, John K DiBaise, Nancy G Isern, David W Hoyt, Andrew K Marcus, Dae-Wook Kang, Michael D Crowell, Bruce E Rittmann, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) are anatomically different bariatric operations. RYGB achieves greater weight loss compared with LAGB. Changes in the gut microbiome have been documented after RYGB, but not LAGB, and the microbial contribution to sustainable surgical weight loss warrants further evaluation. We hypothesized that RYGB imposes greater changes on the microbiota and its metabolism than LAGB, and that the altered microbiota may contribute to greater weight loss...
May 26, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547999/a-long-term-self-managed-handwriting-intervention-for-people-with-parkinson-s-disease-results-from-the-control-group-of-a-phase-ii-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Johnny Collett, Marloes Franssen, Charlotte Winward, Hooshang Izadi, Andy Meaney, Wala Mahmoud, Marko Bogdanovic, Martin Tims, Derick Wade, Helen Dawes
OBJECTIVE: To report on the control group of a trial primarily designed to investigate exercise for improving mobility in people with Parkinson's disease (pwP). The control group undertook a handwriting intervention to control for attention and time spent practising a specific activity. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a two-arm parallel phase II randomized controlled trial with blind assessment. SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: PwP able to walk ⩾100 m and with no contraindication to exercise were recruited from the Thames Valley, UK, and randomized (1:1) to exercise or handwriting, via a concealed computer-generated list...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547738/implementing-health-promotion-activities-using-community-engaged-approaches-in-asian-american-faith-based-organizations-in-new-york-city-and-new-jersey
#6
S C Kwon, S Patel, C Choy, J Zanowiak, C Rideout, S Yi, L Wyatt, M D Taher, M J Garcia-Dia, S S Kim, T K Denholm, R Kavathe, N S Islam
Faith-based organizations (FBOs) (e.g., churches, mosques, and gurdwaras) can play a vital role in health promotion. The Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health for Asian Americans (REACH FAR) Project is implementing a multi-level and evidence-based health promotion and hypertension (HTN) control program in faith-based organizations serving Asian American (AA) communities (Bangladeshi, Filipino, Korean, Asian Indian) across multiple denominations (Christian, Muslim, and Sikh) in New York/New Jersey (NY/NJ)...
May 25, 2017: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547724/costs-associated-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-france
#7
Grèce Saba, Luiz Flavio Andrade, Jacques Gaillat, Pierre Bonnin, Christian Chidiac, Hajnal-Gabriela Illes, Henri Laurichesse, Jonathan Messika, Jean-Damien Ricard, Bruno Detournay, Patrick Petitpretz, Gérard de Pouvourville
OBJECTIVES: Pneumocost is a prospective study that aimed at documenting the costs of the management of patients hospitalized with a pneumococcal pneumonia and the post-discharge costs during a 6-month period in the French context. METHODS: Billing data were used to document hospital costs. Resource use during the follow-up period was collected through phone interviews at month 1, 3 and 6. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses were performed. We used generalized linear models with log-link functions to estimate parameters associated with hospital and follow-up costs of patients...
May 25, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546791/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-from-clostridium-difficile-to-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
Robert J Gianotti, Alan C Moss
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has evolved from a case report in the medical literature to the basis of major innovations in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and, potentially, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the clinical setting, FMT was noted to significantly lower the risk of recurrent CDI, likely by increasing microbial diversity and altering the metabolic environment in the intestinal tract of recipients. In parallel, advances in the ability to quantify and characterize microbial communities in fecal samples led to the association of IBD with a state of intestinal dysbiosis...
April 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546781/role-of-adult-asthma-education-in-improving-asthma-control-and-reducing-emergency-room-utilization-and-hospital-admissions-in-an-inner-city-hospital
#9
Rashmi Mishra, Muhammad Kashif, Sindhaghatta Venkatram, Teresa George, Kristina Luo, Gilda Diaz-Fuentes
Objective. Asthma education programs have been shown to decrease healthcare utilization and improve disease control and management. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the impact of an outpatient adult asthma education program in an inner city hospital caring for patients with low socioeconomic and educational status. Methods. An asthma education program was implemented in September 2014. Patients who received education from September 2014 to July 2015 were evaluated. Outcomes were compared for the same group of patients before and after education...
2017: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546547/bioturbation-as-a-key-driver-behind-the-dominance-of-bacteria-over-archaea-in-near-surface-sediment
#10
Xihan Chen, Thorbjørn Joest Andersen, Yuki Morono, Fumio Inagaki, Bo Barker Jørgensen, Mark Alexander Lever
The factors controlling the relative abundances of Archaea and Bacteria in marine sediments are poorly understood. We determined depth distributions of archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes by quantitative PCR at eight stations in Aarhus Bay, Denmark. Bacterial outnumber archaeal genes 10-60-fold in uppermost sediments that are irrigated and mixed by macrofauna. This bioturbation is indicated by visual observations of sediment color and faunal tracks, by porewater profiles of dissolved inorganic carbon and sulfate, and by distributions of unsupported (210)Pb and (137)Cs...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546455/objectively-measured-sedentary-time-and-cardiovascular-risk-factor-control-in-us-hispanics-latinos-with-diabetes-mellitus-results-from-the-hispanic-community-health-study-study-of-latinos-hchs-sol
#11
Xueyin Wang, Garrett Strizich, Simin Hua, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Christina Buelna, Linda C Gallo, Marc D Gellman, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Matthew J O'Brien, Mark Stoutenberg, Tao Wang, M Larissa Avilés-Santa, Robert C Kaplan, Qibin Qi
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor control is a cornerstone of diabetes mellitus management. Little is known about relationships of objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity with major CVD risk factor control in individuals with diabetes mellitus. We examined associations of objectively measured sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity with reaching major CVD risk factor control goals among US Hispanic/Latino adults with diabetes mellitus...
May 25, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546280/absolute-values-of-lung-function-explain-the-sex-difference-in-breathlessness-in-the-general-population
#12
Magnus Ekström, Linus Schiöler, Rune Grønseth, Ane Johannessen, Cecilie Svanes, Benedicte Leynaert, Deborah Jarvis, Thorarinn Gislason, Pascal Demoly, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Isabelle Pin, Angelo G Corsico, Bertil Forsberg, Joachim Heinrich, Dennis Nowak, Chantal Raherison-Semjen, Shyamali C Dharmage, Giulia Trucco, Isabel Urrutia, Jesús Martinez-Moratalla Rovira, José Luis Sánchez-Ramos, Christer Janson, Kjell Torén
Activity-related breathlessness is twice as common among females as males in the general population and is associated with adverse health outcomes. We tested whether this sex difference is explained by the lower absolute forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) or forced vital capacity (FVC) in females.This was a cross-sectional analysis of 3250 subjects (51% female) aged 38-67 years across 13 countries in the population-based third European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Activity-related breathlessness was measured using the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546079/pioneer-study-of-population-genetics-of-rhodnius-ecuadoriensis-hemiptera-reduviidae-from-the-central-coast-and-southern-andean-regions-of-ecuador
#13
Anita G Villacís, Paula L Marcet, César A Yumiseva, Ellen M Dotson, Michel Tibayrenc, Simone Frédérique Brenière, Mario J Grijalva
Effective control of Chagas disease vector populations requires a good understanding of the epidemiological components, including a reliable analysis of the genetic structure of vector populations. Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is the most widespread vector of Chagas disease in Ecuador, occupying domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic habitats. It is widely distributed in the central coast and southern highlands regions of Ecuador, two very different regions in terms of bio-geographical characteristics. To evaluate the genetic relationship among R...
May 22, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545917/comparison-of-oral-antibiotic-failure-rates-in-post-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-patients-versus-controls
#14
David J Roy, Diana R Langworthy, Kristina M Thurber, Paul A Lorentz, Ross A Dierkhising, Manpreet S Mundi
BACKGROUND: Due to the malabsorptive nature of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), there is a potential for impaired absorption of oral medications. Clinical outcomes of patients who receive oral antibiotics after RYGB have not been adequately described in the literature. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was composite therapeutic failure. Secondary objectives included comparing failure rates between antibiotic classes and at various time points since RYGB. SETTING: University hospital, United States...
March 29, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545758/the-role-of-affect-management-for-hiv-risk-reduction-for-youth-in-alternative-schools
#15
Larry K Brown, Laura Whiteley, Christopher D Houck, Lacey K Craker, Ashley Lowery, Nancy Beausoleil, Geri Donenberg
OBJECTIVE: Adolescents in alternative schools for behavioral and emotional problems have an earlier sexual onset and higher rates of sexual risk than their peers. They also often have difficulty managing strong emotions, which can impair sexual decision making. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention programs for these adolescents may be most effective if skills for coping with strong emotions during sexual situations are included. METHOD: This article reports the 6-month outcomes of a three-arm randomized controlled trial comparing an HIV prevention intervention with affect management (AM) to a standard, skills-based HIV prevention intervention (SB), and a general health promotion intervention (HP)...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545756/cognitive-behavioral-family-treatment-for-suicide-attempt-prevention-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Joan Rosenbaum Asarnow, Jennifer L Hughes, Kalina N Babeva, Catherine A Sugar
OBJECTIVE: Suicide is a leading cause of death. New data indicate alarming increases in suicide death rates, yet no treatments with replicated efficacy or effectiveness exist for youths with self-harm presentations, a high-risk group for both fatal and nonfatal suicide attempts. We addressed this gap by evaluating Safe Alternatives for Teens and Youths (SAFETY), a cognitive-behavioral, dialectical behavior therapy-informed family treatment designed to promote safety. METHOD: Randomized controlled trial for adolescents (12-18 years of age) with recent (past 3 months) suicide attempts or other self-harm...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545582/gender-differences-in-hypertension-awareness-antihypertensive-use-and-blood-pressure-control-in-bangladeshi-adults-findings-from-a-national-cross-sectional-survey
#17
Muntasirur Rahman, Gail Williams, Abdullah Al Mamun
BACKGROUND: Bangladesh is facing an epidemiological transition with a growing burden of non-communicable diseases. Traditionally, hypertension and associated complications in women receive less recognition, and there is a dearth of related publications. The study aims to explore gender differences in high blood pressure awareness and antihypertensive use in Bangladeshi adults at the community level. Another objective is to identify factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension among antihypertensive users...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545514/a-coordinated-pcp-cardiologist-telemedicine-model-pctm-in-china-s-community-hypertension-care-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Lei Xu, Wei-Yi Fang, Fu Zhu, Hong-Guang Zhang, Kai Liu
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and its control rate has remained low worldwide. Studies have found that telemonitoring blood pressure (BP) helped control hypertension in randomized controlled trials. However, little is known about its effect in a structured primary care model in which primary care physicians (PCPs) are partnering with cardiology specialists in electronic healthcare data sharing and medical interventions. This study aims to identify the effects of a coordinated PCP-cardiologist model that applies telemedicine tools to facilitate community hypertension control in China...
May 25, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545506/development-and-evaluation-of-two-web-based-interventions-for-the-promotion-of-physical-activity-in-older-adults-study-protocol-for-a-community-based-controlled-intervention-trial
#19
Saskia Muellmann, Inna Bragina, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage, Eric Rost, Sonia Lippke, Jochen Meyer, Jochen Schnauber, Merlin Wasmann, Merle Toborg, Frauke Koppelin, Tilman Brand, Hajo Zeeb, Claudia R Pischke
BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity (PA) is a key contributor to healthy ageing. However, despite known health benefits, only one third of older adults in Germany reach the PA levels recommended for persons aged 65 years and above by the World Health Organization. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of two web-based interventions for the initiation and maintenance of regular PA (i.e., intervention groups 1 and 2) compared to a delayed intervention control group of older adults aged 65 to 75 years...
May 25, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545498/feasibility-of-a-systematic-comprehensive-one-to-one-training-scoot-program-for-new-scooter-users-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-control-trial
#20
W Ben Mortenson, Sharon Jang, Charlie H Goldsmith, Laura Hurd Clarke, Sandra Hobson, Richelle Emery
BACKGROUND: Mobility scooters can facilitate community participation among individuals with mobility limitations. However, accidents are a serious concern with scooter use. Scooter training has been recommended to improve safety, but there are currently few validated programs available. Therefore, we developed a Systematic, Comprehensive, One-to-One Training (SCOOT) program for scooter users. We will conduct a study to evaluate the outcomes produced by the provision SCOOT. METHODS: This feasibility study will use a mixed-methods, rater-blinded, randomized control trial, with a two-step wedge design...
May 25, 2017: Trials
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