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Xianyu Song, Shuangliang Zhao, Shenwen Fang, Yongzhang Ma, Ming Duan
The dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method is used to investigate the adsorption behavior of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers at the liquid/solid interface. The effect of molecular architecture on the self-assembled monolayer adsorption of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers on hydrophobic surfaces is elucidated by adsorption process, film properties, adsorption morphologies, respectively. The adsorption thicknesses on hydrophobic surfaces and diffusion coefficient as well as aggregation number of Pluronic copolymers in aqueous solution observed in our simulations agree well with previous experimental and numerical observations...
October 20, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Muhammad W Saif, Melissa Smith, Antonio Maloney
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the backbone of the chemotherapy regimens approved for treatment of many malignancies, especially colorectal cancer (CRC). The incidence of cardiotoxicity associated with 5-FU ranges between 1.5% to 18% and is most commonly manifested as anginal symptoms. Cardiomyopathy is very rarely reported with 5-FU and capecitabine. A 35-year-old Caucasian male with T3, N1, M0 rectal cancer after the initial neoadjuvant chemoradiation with 5FU/LV followed by surgical abdominoperineal resection (APR), began mFOLFOX6 in the adjuvant setting...
September 14, 2016: Curēus
Xiaojuan Dan, Chaodong Wang, Jinglin Zhang, Zhuqin Gu, Yongtao Zhou, Jinghong Ma, Piu Chan
INTRODUCTION: Prediction of depression in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) remains challenging. We investigated whether the common susceptible genetic variants for PD are associated with the risk and improves prediction of development of depression in PD (dPD). METHODS: 1134 individuals with a primary diagnosis of PD were recruited. Demographic information, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), and 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) were obtained...
September 29, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Khadija Sheikh, Fumin Guo, Dante P I Capaldi, Alexei Ouriadov, Rachel L Eddy, Sarah Svenningsen, Grace Parraga
PURPOSE: To develop and assess ultrashort echo-time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers of lung function in asthma patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty participants including 13 healthy volunteers and 17 asthmatics provided written informed consent to UTE and pulmonary function tests in addition to hyperpolarized-noble-gas 3T MRI and computed tomography (CT) for asthmatics only. The difference in MRI signal-intensity (SI) across four lung volumes (full-expiration, functional-residual-capacity [FRC], FRC+1L, and full-inspiration) was determined on a voxel-by-voxel basis to generate dynamic proton-density (DPD) maps...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Tarig Elraiyah, Calvin R Jerde, Shikshya Shrestha, Rentian Wu, Qian Nie, Nasra H Giama, Vivekananda Sarangi, Lewis R Roberts, Steven M Offer, Robert B Diasio
Clinical studies have identified specific genetic variants in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD, DPYD gene) as predictors of severe adverse toxicity to the commonly used chemotherapeutic 5-fluorouracil; however, these studies have focused on European and European-American populations. Our lab recently demonstrated that additional variants in non-European haplotypes are predictive of 5-FU toxicity. The objective of this study was to identify potential risk variants in an under-studied East African population relevant to our institution's catchment area...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Tongtao Yue, Shixin Li, Yan Xu, Xianren Zhang, Fang Huang
The receptor mediated endocytosis of nanoparticles (NPs) is known to be size and shape dependent but regulated by membrane properties, like tension, rigidity and especially membrane proteins. Compared with transmembrane receptors which directly bind ligands coated on NPs to provide the driving force for passive endocytosis, the hidden role of inner anchored membrane proteins (IAMPs), however, has been grossly neglected. Here, by applying the N-varied dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) techniques, we present the first simulation study on the interplay between wrapping of NPs and clustering of IAMPs...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Martin Walker, Mark R Wilson
A simple dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model is introduced, which can be used to represent a broad range of calamitic mesogens. The model allows for antiparallel association that occurs naturally in a number of mesogens with terminal dipoles, including the 4-n-alkyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (nCB) series. Favourable antiparallel interactions lead to the formation of SmAd phases in which the layer spacing is intermediate between monolayer and bilayer. The model is easily tuned to vary the strength of antiparallel association and the SmA layer spacing, and to give either isotropic-smectic or isotropic-nematic-smectic phase sequences...
October 7, 2016: Soft Matter
Martin Walker, Mark R Wilson
Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations are used to model the aqueous self-assembly of three variants of the non-ionic triphenylene-based chromonic mesogen, TP6EO2M. In the variants studied, one to three of the six methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) chains of TP6EO2M are replaced by short hydrophobic-lipophobic chains, causing a remarkable change in the structure of the mesophases formed. In the 100 wt% limit, corresponding to pure thermotropic phases, complex columnar phases arise, in which the underlying hexagonal packing is supplemented by additional order resulting from microphase separation of hydrophobic-lipophobic regions...
September 26, 2016: Soft Matter
Christine E Vaudo, Brigitte Gil, Kari Galuski, Corinne Zarwan, Francis W Nugent
5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is an antimetabolite pyridine analogue used for the treatment of solid tumors. Early toxicities may occur at standard doses of 5-FU due to dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency. Uridine triacetate, approved by the FDA in 2015, is an oral prodrug of uridine, a pharmacologic antidote for 5-FU toxicity. To our knowledge, this is the first case report that documents the clinical course of a patient treated with uridine triacetate for the reversal of early-onset 5-FU toxicity negative for DPD mutations...
September 26, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Xiaofang Zhang, Wenjing Lin, Liyang Wen, Na Yao, Shuyu Nie, Lijuan Zhang
Unimolecular polymeric micelles have several features, such as thermodynamic stability, small particle size, biocompatibility, and the ability to internalize hydrophobic molecules. These micelles have recently attracted significant attention in various applications, such as nano-reactors, catalysis, and drug delivery. However, few attempts have explored the formation mechanisms and conditions of unimolecular micelles due to limited experimental techniques. In this study, a unimolecular micelle system formed from β-cyclodextrin-graft-{poly(lactide)-block-poly(2-(dimethylamino) ethyl multimethacrylate)-block-poly[oligo (2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) methacrylate]} β-CD-g-(PLA-b-PDMAEMA-b-PEtOxMA) star-like block copolymers in aqueous media was investigated by dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to explore the formation process of unimolecular micelles...
September 29, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ye Zhu, Chenglin Yi, Qiong Hu, Wei Wei, Xiaoya Liu
In this study, a series of random copolymer poly(acrylic acid-co-styrene) (P(AA-co-St)) and block copolymer poly(acrylic acid)-b-polystyrene (PAA-b-PSt) with similar chemical composition but different chain microstructure were synthesized. The self-assembly behavior of random and block copolymers in selective solvent was investigated, and the structural evaluation of random and block copolymers micelles was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurement, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
September 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Caili Zhang, Suqin Zhu, Haohao Wu, Abdul-Nabi Jatt, Yurong Pan, Mingyong Zeng
Fish skin has both positive and negative effects on the shelf-life of the fish. This study aimed to investigate the spoilage process of the skin and flesh of refrigerated farmed turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) with vacuum packaging. Microbial community changes were analyzed by combining culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. The results indicated that the shelf-life of vacuum-packaged refrigerated turbot was 16 d; skin mucus was the interference factor of turbot quality. The culture-dependent analysis demonstrated that the total viable counts and the population of H2 S-producing bacteria, Pseudomonas spp...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Klaus Kessler, Jason J Braithwaite
INTRODUCTION: Hallucinations that involve shifts in the subjectively experienced location of the self, have been termed "out-of-body experiences" (OBEs). Early psychiatric accounts cast OBEs as a specific instance of depersonalisation and derealisation disorder (DPD-DR). However, during feelings of alienation and lack of body realism in DPD-DR the self is experienced within the physical body. Deliberate forms of "disembodiment" enable humans to imagine another's visuo-spatial perspective taking (VPT), thus, if a strong relationship between deliberate and spontaneous forms of disembodiment could be revealed, then uncontrolled OBEs could be "the other side of the coin" of a uniquely human capacity...
August 10, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Björn Pilebro, Sandra Arvidsson, Per Lindqvist, Torbjörn Sundström, Per Westermark, Gunnar Antoni, Ole Suhr, Jens Sörensen
BACKGROUND: DPD scintigraphy has been advocated for imaging cardiac amyloid in ATTR amyloidosis. PET utilizing (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) is the gold standard for imaging brain amyloid in Alzheimer's disease. PIB was recently shown to identify cardiac amyloidosis in both AL and ATTR amyloidosis. In the ATTR population, two types of amyloid fibrils exist, one containing fragmented and full-length TTR (type A) and the other only full-length TTR (type B). The aim of this study was to further evaluate PIB-PET in patients with hereditary ATTR amyloidosis...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Ling Fang, Yi Jiang, Yuxian Yang, Yuqiong Zheng, Jin Zheng, Hong Jiang, Shengqi Zhang, Lifang Lin, Jieting Zheng, Shuyao Zhang, Xiaowen Zhuang
Fluorouracil (5-FU) has been wildly used as a primary medication in the treatment of solid tumors including colorectal cancer. The treatment efficacy and toxicity of 5-FU varies greatly among individuals, suggesting a need for individualized regimen for cancer patients. The present study analyzed the blood concentration of 5-FU and its therapeutic efficacy and toxicity, evaluated the relationship of AUC (area under the plasma concentration-time curve), and the protein expression of DPD (dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase) and TS (thymidylate synthetase), and therapeutic efficacy and toxicity...
September 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Didier Meulendijks, Annemieke Cats, Jos H Beijnen, Jan H M Schellens
Fluoropyrimidines remain the cornerstone of treatment for different types of cancer, and are used by an estimated two million patients annually. The toxicity associated with fluoropyrimidine therapy is substantial, however, and affects around 30% of the patients, with 0.5-1% suffering fatal toxicity. Activity of the main 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) metabolic enzyme, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), is the key determinant of 5-FU pharmacology, and accounts for around 80% of 5-FU catabolism. There is a consistent relationship between DPD activity and 5-FU exposure on the one hand, and risk of severe and potentially lethal fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity on the other hand...
August 13, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Rentian Wu, Qian Nie, Erin E Tapper, Calvin R Jerde, Garrett S Dunlap, Shikshya Shrestha, Tarig A Elraiyah, Steven M Offer, Robert B Diasio
The antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the most widely used chemotherapy drugs. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is a major determinant of 5-FU response and toxicity. While DPYD variants may affect 5-FU metabolism, they do not completely explain the reported variability in DPD function or the resultant differences in treatment response. Here, we report that H3K27 tri-methylation (H3K27me3) at the DPYD promoter regulated by Ezh2 and UTX suppresses DPYD expression by inhibiting transcription factor PU...
August 30, 2016: Cancer Research
Yang Zhou, Yixue Li, Wen Qian, Bi He
Based on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) methods and experimental data, we used an empirical relationship between the DPD temperature and the real temperature to build a model that describes the viscosity of molten TNT fluids. The errors in the predicted viscosity based on this model were no more than 2.3 %. We also studied the steady-state shear rheological behavior of molten TNT fluids containing nanoparticles ("nanofluids"). The dependence of the nanofluid viscosity on the temperature was found to satisfy an Arrhenius-type equation, η = Ae (B/T) , where B, the flow activation energy, depends on particle content, size, and shape...
September 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Adriano Maida, Annika Zota, Kim A Sjøberg, Jonas Schumacher, Tjeerd P Sijmonsma, Anja Pfenninger, Marie M Christensen, Thomas Gantert, Jessica Fuhrmeister, Ulrike Rothermel, Dieter Schmoll, Mathias Heikenwälder, Juan L Iovanna, Kerstin Stemmer, Bente Kiens, Stephan Herzig, Adam J Rose
Dietary protein intake is linked to an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although dietary protein dilution (DPD) can slow the progression of some aging-related disorders, whether this strategy affects the development and risk for obesity-associated metabolic disease such as T2D is unclear. Here, we determined that DPD in mice and humans increases serum markers of metabolic health. In lean mice, DPD promoted metabolic inefficiency by increasing carbohydrate and fat oxidation. In nutritional and polygenic murine models of obesity, DPD prevented and curtailed the development of impaired glucose homeostasis independently of obesity and food intake...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Ya Liu, Olga Kuksenok, Ximin He, Michael Aizenberg, Joanna Aizenberg, Anna C Balazs
We use computational modeling to design a device that can controllably trap and release particles in solution in response to variations in temperature. The system exploits the thermo-responsive properties of end-grafted fibers and the underlying gel substrate. The fibers mimic the temperature-dependent behavior of biological aptamers, which form a hairpin structure at low temperatures (T) and unfold at higher T, consequently losing their binding affinity. The gel substrate exhibits a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and thus, expands at low temperatures and contracts at higher T...
August 22, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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