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Sazid Zamal Hoque, D V Anand, B S V Patnaik
Understanding the dynamics of red blood cell (RBC) motion under in-silico conditions is central to the development of cost effective diagnostic tools. Specifically, unraveling the relationship between the rheological properties and the nature of shape change in the RBC (healthy or infected) can be extremely useful. In case of malarial infection, RBC progressively loses its deformability and tends to occlude the microvessel. In the present study, detailed mesoscopic simulations are performed to investigate the deformation dynamics of a RBC in flow through a constricted channel...
May 23, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Suzan Gonçalves Rosa, César Augusto Brüning, Ana Paula Pesarico, Ana Cristina Guerra de Souza, Cristina Wayne Nogueira
Appropriate treatment of pain requires analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs generally associated with undesirable side effects and not fully effective in a significant proportion of patients. Organoselenium compounds elicit a plenty of pharmacological effects in different animal models. Among these compounds, the 2,2`-dipyridyl diselenide (DPD) has a potent antioxidant effect and low toxicity. In this way, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible DPD antinociceptive effect and its mechanism of action, as well as the safety of the compound...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Eiji Hishinuma, Yoko Narita, Sakae Saito, Masamitsu Maekawa, Fumika Akai, Yuya Nakanishi, Jun Yasuda, Masao Nagasaki, Masayuki Yamamoto, Hiroaki Yamaguchi, Nariyasu Mano, Noriyasu Hirasawa, Masahiro Hiratsuka
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD, EC, encoded by the DPYD gene, is the rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation pathway of endogenous pyrimidine and fluoropyrimidine drugs such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). DPD catalyzes the reduction of uracil, thymine, and 5-FU. In Caucasians, DPYD mutations, including DPYD*2A, DPYD*13, c.2846A>T, and 1129-5923C>G/hapB3, are known to contribute to interindividual variations in the toxicity of 5-FU. However, none of these DPYD polymorphisms have been identified in the Asian population...
May 16, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Amrita Singh, Anirban Chakraborti, Awaneesh Singh
We present the results from dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations of phase separation dynamics in ternary (ABC) fluids mixture in d = 3 where components A and B represent the simple fluids, and component C represents a polymeric fluid. Here, we study the role of polymeric fluid (C) on domain morphology by varying composition ratio, polymer chain length, and polymer stiffness. We observe that the system under consideration lies in the same dynamical universality class as a simple ternary fluids mixture...
May 14, 2018: Soft Matter
Wakako Yano, Tatsushi Yokogawa, Takeshi Wakasa, Keisuke Yamamura, Akio Fujioka, Kunihiro Yoshisue, Eiji Matsushima, Seiji Miyahara, Hitoshi Miyakoshi, Junko Taguchi, Khoon Tee Chong, Yayoi Takao, Masayoshi Fukuoka, Kenichi Matsuo
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is an antimetabolite and exerts antitumor activity via intracellularly and physiologically complicated metabolic pathways. In this study, we designed a novel small molecule inhibitor, TAS-114, which targets the intercellular metabolism of 5-FU to enhance antitumor activity and modulates catabolic pathway to improve the systemic availability of 5-FU. TAS-114 strongly and competitively inhibited deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase), a gatekeeper protein preventing aberrant base incorporation into DNA, and enhanced the cytotoxicity of fluoropyrimidines in cancer cells; however, it had little intrinsic activity...
May 10, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Yankui Zhang, Bin Ba, Daming Wang, Wei Geng, Haiyun Xu
Direct position determination (DPD) is currently a hot topic in wireless localization research as it is more accurate than traditional two-step positioning. However, current DPD algorithms are all based on uniform arrays, which have an insufficient degree of freedom and limited estimation accuracy. To improve the DPD accuracy, this paper introduces a coprime array to the position model of multiple non-circular sources with a moving array. To maximize the advantages of this coprime array, we reconstruct the covariance matrix by vectorization, apply a spatial smoothing technique, and converge the subspace data from each measuring position to establish the cost function...
May 8, 2018: Sensors
Tor Gunnar Værnes, Jan Ivar Røssberg, Paul Møller
BACKGROUND: Basic self-disturbance (BSD) is proposed to constitute the clinical core of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including prodromal states and schizotypy. Anomalous self-experiences (ASEs) are suggested as phenotypic variants of BSD, representing markers of schizophrenia vulnerability. However, ASEs are not restricted to the schizophrenia spectrum, but may also occur in non-psychotic states like depersonalization disorder (DPD). It is unclear to what extent the prevalence and nature of ASEs are differing between the two conditions...
May 4, 2018: Psychopathology
Akito Makino, Hideko Takagi, Yoshimasa Takahashi, Naoki Hase, Hiroyuki Sugiyama, Kei Yamana, Tsunefumi Kobayashi
Abaloparatide (ABL) is a novel synthetic peptide analog of parathyroid hormone-related protein. In previous reports, intermittent ABL administration showed robust bone mineral density (BMD) increase and reduced the incidence of fractures in patients with osteoporosis, while its calcemic effect was reduced, as compared with teriparatide (TPTD), a parathyroid hormone N-terminal fragment. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of ABL on bone anabolism and bone turnover as compared with TPTD. In ovariectomized (OVX) rats, ABL increased the bone strength and BMD of lumbar spine by intermittent administration similar to TPTD...
May 3, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Jian Gao, Rui Zhen, Hai Liao, Wenquan Zhuang, Wenbo Guo
Numerous studies concerning hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) have been conducted by adopting regimens containing 5-fluorouracil (FU), with a favourable efficacy compared with conventional transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation (TACE) treatment; however, the detailed mechanism of HAIC remains unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate peripheral concentration time curves of 5-FU administered through the hepatic artery, which may additionally explain the mechanism of action of HAIC. A total of 10 eligible patients underwent transcatheter arterial embolization and a 2-day HAIC treatment regimen using a folinic acid, fluorouracil and oxaliplatin regimen...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
Kibaek Lee, Yea-Won Kim, Seonki Lee, Sang Hyun Lee, Chang Hyun Nahm, Hyeokpil Kwon, Pyung-Kyu Park, Kwang-Ho Choo, Ismail Koyuncu, Anja Drews, Chung-Hak Lee, Jung-Kee Lee
Bacterial quorum quenching (QQ) by means of degrading signaling molecules has been applied to anti-biofouling strategy in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for wastewater treatment. However, the target signaling molecules have been limited to N-acyl homoserine lactones participating in intra-species quorum sensing. Here, an approach to disrupt autoinducer-2 (AI-2) signaling molecules participating in inter-species quorum sensing, was pursued as a next-generation anti-biofouling strategy in an MBR for wastewater treatment...
May 1, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Veronique Saey, Jonathan Tang, Richard Ducatelle, Siska Croubels, Siegrid De Baere, Stijn Schauvliege, Gunther van Loon, Koen Chiers
BACKGROUND: Friesian horses are known for their high inbreeding rate resulting in several genetic diseases such as hydrocephaly and dwarfism. This last decade, several studies focused on two other presumed hereditary traits in Friesian horses: megaoesophagus and aortic rupture. The pathogenesis of these diseases remains obscure but an important role of collagen has been hypothesized. The purpose of this study was to examine possible breed-related differences in collagen catabolism. Urinary specimens from Friesian (n = 17, median age 10 years old) and Warmblood horses (n = 17, median age 10 years old) were assessed for mature collagen cross-links, i...
April 25, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Lingxia Hao, Lin Lin, Jian Zhou
In this work, the self-assembled behaviors of zwitterionic copolymer docosahexaenoic acid-b-poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate)-b-poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) (DHA- PBLG-PCB) and the loading and release mechanism of the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) was investigated via computer simulations. The effects of polymer concentration, drug content and pH on polymeric micelles were explored by dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. Simulation results show that DHA-PBLG15-PCB10 can self-assemble into core-shell micelles; in addition, the drug-loaded micelles have a pH-responsive feature...
April 25, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
André B P van Kuilenburg, Maja Tarailo-Graovac, Judith Meijer, Britt Drogemoller, Jerry Vockley, Dirk Maurer, Doreen Dobritzsch, Colin J Ross, Wyeth Wasserman, Rutger Meinsma, Lida Zoetekouw, Clara D M van Karnebeek
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency is associated with a variable clinical presentation. A family with three DPD deficient patients presented with unusual clinical phenotypes including pregnancy-induced symptoms, transient visual impairment, severe developmental delay, cortical blindness and delayed myelination in the brain. DPYD Sanger sequencing showed heterozygosity for the c.1905+1G > A mutation and a novel missense variant c.1700G > A (p.G456E). The recombinantly-expressed p.G456E DPD variant showed increased temperature lability probably caused by structural rearrangements within the DPD protein...
April 24, 2018: Human Mutation
Gokhan Kacar
Simulation results for polyethylene glycol by employing a multi-scale approach combining mesoscopic and atomistic scales to characterize its structural, material and thermal properties in dry and wet environments are reported. After a meso-structure is created, DPD simulations with explicit hydrogen bond attraction are run for a molecular understanding of PEG oligomers. The meso-structure is analysed by the end-to-end distance and radius of gyration values, where we notice that water has an effect that makes the chains more flexible compared to the dry material, i...
April 24, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Giorgio Treglia, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Francesco Bertagna, Bouke P C Hazenberg, Paola A Erba, Raffaele Giubbini, Luca Ceriani, John O Prior, Luca Giovanella, Riemer H J A Slart
PURPOSE: Cardiac transthyretin-related amyloidosis (ATTR) is a progressive and fatal cardiomyopathy. The diagnosis of this disease is frequently delayed or missed due to the limited specificity of echocardiography. An increasing amount of data in the literature demonstrate the ability of bone scintigraphy with bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals to detect myocardial amyloid deposits, in particular in patients with ATTR. Therefore we performed a systematic review and bivariate meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of bone scintigraphy in patients with suspected cardiac ATTR...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Sandipan Bhattacharjee, Nina Vadiei, Lisa Goldstone, Ziyad Alrabiah, Scott J Sherman
Little is known regarding depression treatment patterns and predictors among older adults with comorbid Parkinson's disease and depression (dPD) in the United States (US). The objective of this study was to assess the patterns and predictors of depression treatment among older adults with dPD in the US. We adopted a cross-sectional study design by pooling multiple-year data (2005-2011) from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) and the outpatient department of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS)...
2018: Parkinson's Disease
Zeki Serdar Ataizi, Hasan Emre Aydin, Evin Kocatürk, Ahmet Çerezci, İbrahim Özkan Alatas
Background and Aim: Instrumentation is commonly used in spinal surgery to stabilize the fracture. In the present study, we aimed to compare the early and late changes seen in bone production and degradation products in patients with traumatic spinal fracture who had been treated surgically or conservatively. Materials and Methods: Forty-three patients were admitted to the Neurosurgery Department with thoracolumbar or lumbar fracture in this prospective study. Patients were divided into two groups of surgically treated ( n = 23) and nonsurgically/conservatively treated ( n = 20) patients...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Jonathan Saathoff
Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) provides a tool for studying phase behavior and interfacial phenomena for complex mixtures and macromolecules. Methods to quickly and automatically parameterize DPD greatly increase its effectiveness. One such method is to map predicted activity coefficients derived from COSMO-SAC onto DPD parameter sets. However, there are serious limitations to the accuracy of this mapping, including the inability of single DPD beads to reproduce asymmetric infinite dilution activity coefficients, the loss of precision when reusing parameters for different molecular fragments, and the error due to bonding beads together...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Nicolas Penel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
Olavo Vicente Neto, Suziane Raymundo, Maria Alice Franzoi, Andiara do Carmo Artmann, Mariane Tegner, Victoria Vendramini Müller, Roberta Zilles Hahn, Gustavo Vasconcelos Alves, Gilberto Schwartsmann, Rafael Linden, Marina Venzon Antunes
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate plasma and salivary uracil (U) to dihydrouracil (UH2) ratios as tools for predicting 5-fluorouracil systemic exposure and drug-related severe toxicity, and clinically validate the use of dried saliva spots (DSS) as an alternative sampling strategy for dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency assessment. METHODS: Pre-chemotherapy plasma, fresh saliva and DSS samples were obtained from gastrointestinal patients (N = 40) for measurement of endogenous U and UH2 concentrations by LC-MS/MS...
April 3, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
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