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Mohammadreza Fathollahi, Mohsen Ameri, Ezeddin Mohajerani, Ebrahim Mehrparvar, Mohammadrasoul Babaei
We investigate dynamic formation of nanosheet charge accumulations by heterointerface engineering in double injection layer (DIL) based organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Our experimental results show that the device performance is considerably improved for the DIL device as the result of heterointerface injection layer (HIIL) formation, in comparison to reference devices, namely, the current density is doubled and even quadrupled and the turn-on voltage is favorably halved, to 3.7 V, which is promising for simple small-molecule OLEDs...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nasir Mushtaq, Laura A Beebe
INTRODUCTION: There is considerable interest in using brief measures of dependence for evaluation and treatment of tobacco dependence. The Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) is a validated measure of dependence among cigarette smokers. However, a similar index has not been studied among ST users. The aim of this study is to develop similar ST use indices and evaluate their utility as concise dependence measures. Time to first chew/dip of the day (TTFD), number of cans of ST used per week (CPW), and number of dips/chews per day (DPD) were used to create three ST use indices; heaviness of ST use index (HSTI), ST dependence index (STDI), and ST quantity frequency index (ST-QFI)...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Sergei Izvekov
We derive alternative Markov approximations for the projected (stochastic) force and memory function in the coarse-grained (CG) generalized Langevin equation, which describes the time evolution of the center-of-mass coordinates of clusters of particles in the microscopic ensemble. This is done with the aid of the Mori-Zwanzig projection operator method based on the recently introduced projection operator [S. Izvekov, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134106 (2013)10.1063/1.4795091]. The derivation exploits the "generalized additive fluctuating force" representation to which the projected force reduces in the adopted projection operator formalism...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
Chang-Il Kwon, Mark A Gromski, Stuart Sherman, Ihab I El Hajj, Jeffrey J Easler, James Watkins, Lee McHenry, Glen A Lehman, Evan L Fogel
Background and study aims Complete stone removal from the main pancreatic duct might not be achieved in all patients with obstructive chronic calcific pancreatitis. We report our results for endoscopic dorsal pancreatic duct (DPD) bypass of obstructing stones in the ventral pancreatic duct (VPD). Patients and methods 16 patients with obstructive chronic calcific pancreatitis were treated with a DPD bypass. Clinical success was defined as significant pain relief and no hospital admissions for pain management during the ongoing treatment period...
February 15, 2017: Endoscopy
Lucas de F Carvalho, Giselle Pianowski, Nelson H Filho
The Clinical Dimensional Personality Inventory (IDCP) is a 163-item self-report tool developed for the assessment of 12 dimensions of personality pathology. One of the scales comprising the instrument-the Dependency scale-is intended to provide psychometric information on traits closely related to the Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD). In the present study, we used both Item Response Theory modeling and Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis to establishing a clinically meaningful cutoff for the IDCP Dependency Scale...
February 3, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Awaneesh Singh, Olga Kuksenok, Jeremiah A Johnson, Anna C Balazs
Using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), we developed a computational approach to model the light-induced regeneration of a gel matrix when a significant portion of the material is severed. We considered photo-controlled radical polymerization (photo-CRP) within polymer networks with embedded iniferter groups: the "photo-growth" strategy. Absorption of light by the iniferter groups turns on the polymerization process, which inserts monomers and cross-linkers into the network strands. Photo-growth allows us to effectively regenerate a severed gel under the application of light even when the severed parts are not in direct contact...
February 10, 2017: Soft Matter
Jae Man Shin, Yongjoo Kim, Hongseok Yun, Gi-Ra Yi, Bumjoon J Kim
Shape and morphology of polymeric particles are of great importance in controlling their optical properties or self-assembly into unusual superstructures. Confinement of block copolymers (BCPs) in evaporative emulsions affords particles with diverse structures, including prolate ellipsoids, onion-like spheres, oblate ellipsoids, and others. Herein, we report that the evaporation rate of solvent from emulsions encapsulating symmetric polystyrene-b-polybutadiene (PS-b-PB) determines the shape and internal nanostructure of micron-sized BCP particles...
February 6, 2017: ACS Nano
David F Hutt, Marianna Fontana, Maria Burniston, Ann-Marie Quigley, Aviva Petrie, James C Ross, Joanne Page, Ana Martinez-Naharro, Ashutosh D Wechalekar, Helen J Lachmann, Candida C Quarta, Tamer Rezk, Shameem Mahmood, Sajitha Sachchithanantham, Taryn Youngstein, Carol J Whelan, Thirusha Lane, Janet A Gilbertson, Dorota Rowczenio, Philip N Hawkins, Julian D Gillmore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Marzia Del Re, Giuliana Restante, Antonello Di Paolo, Stefania Crucitta, Eleonora Rofi, Romano Danesi
BACKGROUND: Fluoropyrimidines are widely used in the treatment of solid tumors and remain the backbone of many combination chemotherapy regimens. Despite their clinical benefit, they are associated with frequent gastrointestinal and hematological toxicities, which often lead to treatment discontinuation. Fluoropyrimidines undergo complex anabolic and catabolic biotransformation. Enzymes involved in this pathway include dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), which breaks down 5-FU and its prodrugs...
January 25, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Xiaoxue Xu, Zhuanzhuan Zhang, Wenping Wang, Huiqin Yao, Xueqin Ma
Cistanoside A (Cis A), an active phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from Cistanche deserticola Y. C. Ma, has received our attention because of its possible role in the treatment of osteoporosis. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of Cis A on an ovariectomized (OVX) mice model and investigated its underlying molecular mechanisms of action. After 12 weeks of orally-administrated intervention, Cis A (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight/day) exhibited significant antiosteoporotic effects on OVX mice, evidenced by enhanced bone strength, bone mineral density and improved trabecular bone microarchitecture...
January 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Wenfeng Min, Daohui Zhao, Xuebo Quan, Delin Sun, Libo Li, Jian Zhou
In this work, dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations were performed to study the self-assembled microstructures and doxorubicin (DOX) loading/release properties of pH-sensitive amphiphilic triblock copolymer: poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(diethylaminoethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) or poly (ethylene glycol methacrylate) (PCL-PDEA-PSBMA/PEGMA). Our results show that both copolymers can self-assemble into core-shell-corona micelles in aqueous environment. However, the corona structures are quite different for the two copolymer micelles...
January 19, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Satoshi Nagano, Shunsuke Nakamura, Hirofumi Shimada, Masahiro Yokouchi, Takao Setoguchi, Yasuhiro Ishidou, Hiromi Sasaki, Setsuro Komiya
The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effect of treatment of Paget's disease of bone (PDB) with bone scintigraphy using a computer-assisted diagnosis system (BONENAVI) that quantitatively evaluates bone metabolism. Seven patients with PDB (three male, four female; average age, 60 years; age range, 33-80 years) underwent bone scintigraphy and measurement of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone-specific ALP (BAP), serum cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTx) of type I collagen, urinary NTx, and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) before and after bisphosphonate treatment...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Manaswee Suttipong, Brian P Grady, Alberto Striolo
Using coarse-grained dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations, we systematically study the effect of surface heterogeneity on surfactant adsorption. Here we investigate the adsorption and aggregation of surfactants on hydrophobic stripes crossing each other perpendicularly (i.e., crossing stripes) and on hydrophobic steps. The results are compared with those obtained for isolated stripes. We find that on crossing stripes of moderate stripe widths (e.g., L = 0.61LS, 1.22LS and 1.83LS, where LS is the length of one surfactant molecule) the crossing region hinders the formation of defect-free adsorbed surfactant structures...
January 11, 2017: Soft Matter
Zhen Li, Hee Sun Lee, Eric Darve, George Em Karniadakis
Memory effects are often introduced during coarse-graining of a complex dynamical system. In particular, a generalized Langevin equation (GLE) for the coarse-grained (CG) system arises in the context of Mori-Zwanzig formalism. Upon a pairwise decomposition, GLE can be reformulated into its pairwise version, i.e., non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). GLE models the dynamics of a single coarse particle, while DPD considers the dynamics of many interacting CG particles, with both CG systems governed by non-Markovian interactions...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Ye Li, Bing Yuan, Kai Yang, Xianren Zhang, Bing Yan, Dapeng Cao
The nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with charged ligands are of particular significance due to their potential drug/gene delivery and biomedical applications. However, the molecular mechanism of endocytosis of the charged NPs by cells, especially the effect of the NP-NP and NP-biomembrane interactions on the internalization pathways is still poorly understood. In this work, we systematically investigate the internalization behaviors of the positively charged NPs by combining experiment technology and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation...
January 5, 2017: Nanotechnology
Pratima Chhetri, Anil Giri, Suraj Shakya, Sujana Shakya, Binaya Sapkota, K C Pramod
S-1 is a novel oral fluoropyrimidine derivative, widely used for treating gastric, pancreatic, lung, head, neck and breast carcinomas. It is designed to enhance the clinical utility of an oral fluoropyrimidine and is associated with low gastrointestinal toxicity. S-1 consists of three pharmacological agents (at a molar ratio of 1:0.4:1)-Tegafur (FT), a prodrug of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), 5-Chloro-2-4-Dihydroxypyridine (CDHP), which inhibits the activity of Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase (DPD) and Oxonic Acid (Oxo), which reduces Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity of 5-FU...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Yan Wang, Bo Zhi Chen, Yue Jin Liu, Zhi Min Wu, Xin Dong Guo
The pH-sensitive nanoparticles are selected as the potentially promising oral protein and peptide drug carriers due to their excellent performance. With the poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (PLGA/HP55) nanoparticle as a model nanoparticle, the structure-property relationship of nanoparticles with different conditions is investigated by dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations in our work. In the oral drug delivery system, the poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is hydrophobic polymer, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HP55) is pH-sensitive enteric polymer which used to protect the nanoparticles through the stomach and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is hydrophilic polymer as the stabilizer...
December 20, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Vijay M Patil, Vanita Noronha, Amit Joshi, Saurabh Zanwar, Anant Ramaswamy, Supreeta Arya, Abhishek Mahajan, Atanu Bhattacharjee, Kumar Prabhash
PURPOSE: The docetaxel, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and cisplatin (TPF) regimen in India is associated with high percentages of Grade 3-4 toxicity. This analysis was planned to evaluate the incidence of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) mutation in patients with severe gastrointestinal toxicity, to assess whether the mutation could be predicted by a set of clinical criteria and whether it has any impact on postneoadjuvant chemotherapy response. METHODS: All consecutive patients who received TPF regimen in head and neck cancers between January 2015 and April 2015 were selected...
October 2016: South Asian Journal of Cancer
S Krug, M Boch, W Nimphius, T M Gress, P Michl, A Rinke
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy with 5-FU and Streptozotocin (STZ) is recommended as first-line treatment in patients with metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNEN). However, data about biomarkers involved in the 5-FU metabolism to predict response are still limited. OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of clinicopathological features and potential predictive and prognostic markers of patients with PNEN treated with 5-FU based regimens. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 41 patients with PNEN who were treated at the University Hospital Marburg between 2000 and 2013...
December 22, 2016: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
André B P van Kuilenburg, Judith Meijer, Dirk Maurer, Doreen Dobritzsch, Rutger Meinsma, Maartje Los, Lia C Knegt, Lida Zoetekouw, Rob L H Jansen, Vincent Dezentjé, Lieke H van Huis-Tanja, Roel J W van Kampen, Jens Michael Hertz, Raoul C M Hennekam
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil (5FU). Genetic variations in DPD have emerged as predictive risk factors for severe fluoropyrimidine toxicity. Here, we report novel and rare genetic variants underlying DPD deficiency in 9 cancer patients presenting with severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity. All patients possessed a strongly reduced DPD activity, ranging from 9 to 53% of controls. Analysis of the DPD gene (DPYD) showed the presence of 21 variable sites including 4 novel and 4 very rare aberrations: 3 missense mutations, 2 splice-site mutations, 1 intronic mutation, a deletion of 21 nucleotides and a genomic amplification of exons 9-12...
December 24, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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