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APRT deficiency

Vidar O Edvardsson, Hrafnhildur L Runolfsdottir, Unnur A Thorsteinsdottir, Inger M Sch Agustsdottir, G Steinunn Oddsdottir, Finnur Eiriksson, David S Goldfarb, Margret Thorsteinsdottir, Runolfur Palsson
INTRODUCTION: Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a rare, but significant, cause of kidney stones and progressive chronic kidney disease. The optimal treatment has not been established. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the effect of the xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitors allopurinol and febuxostat on urinary 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA) excretion in APRT deficiency patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients listed in the APRT Deficiency Registry of the Rare Kidney Stone Consortium, currently receiving allopurinol therapy, were invited to participate...
February 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
R J Torres, S Puente, A Menendez, N Fernandez-Garcia
Complete deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) activity causes Lesch Nyhan disease (LND), characterized by hyperuricemia, severe action dystonia, choreoathetosis, ballismus, cognitive and attention deficit and self-injurious behavior. Partial HPRT deficiency is present in patients with Lesch-Nyhan variant (LNV), who present with HPRT-related gout and a variable degree of neurological involvement. The diagnosis of HPRT deficiency relies on clinical, biochemical, enzymatic and molecular data...
September 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Pramod Krishnappa, Venkatesh Krishnamoorthy, Kiran Krishne Gowda
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive error of purine metabolism resulting in the generation of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA), a highly insoluble metabolite of adenine, which can cause radiolucent urolithiasis. This is the second case of DHA stone being reported in India and the first case in India to document the mutation of the APRT gene on blood DNA analysis.
July 2017: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
Koji Nanmoku, Akira Kurosawa, Takahiro Shinzato, Toshihiro Shimizu, Takaaki Kimura, Takashi Yagisawa
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that results in irreversible renal damage due to 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA) nephropathy. A 28-year-old man underwent living-related kidney transplantation for chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology. Numerous spherical brownish crystals observed in his urinary sediment on postoperative day 3 and were observed within the tubular lumen of renal allograft biopsy specimens on postoperative day 7. After a genetic diagnosis, febuxostat treatment was started on postoperative day 7, with the dosage gradually increased to 80 mg/day until complete the disappearance of 2,8-DHA crystals...
2017: Internal Medicine
Ata Jaffer, Adrian Joyce, Philip Koenig, Chandra Shekhar Biyani
Background: Recurrent urolithiasis is troublesome for both patient and clinician, and in most cases, an underlying cause is not found. An important and underdiagnosed cause is adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency that gives rise to 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (2,8-DHA) stones. If diagnosed early, patient morbidity as well as the financial cost of treating stone recurrence can be avoided with simple medical therapy. Case Presentation: A 36-year-old white, Caucasian male with recurrent urolithiasis was found to have 2,8-DHA stones...
2017: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
Yu-Jung Chang, Chia-Yi Tseng, Pei-Ying Lin, Yu-Chen Chuang, Ming-Wei Chao
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the common plasticizer used in the production of polyvinyl chloride, can be converted to the more potent metabolite mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP). Epidemiological studies have shown an association with elevated induction of rat hepatic cancer and reproductive toxicity in response to MEHP exposure. However, the mechanism of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity induced by MEHP treatment remains unclear. As a means to elucidate the mechanisms of action, lethality and mutagenicity in the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (aprt+/-) gene induced in several CHO cell types by MEHP were assessed...
March 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
Wade A Reh, Rodney S Nairn, Megan P Lowery, Karen M Vasquez
Homologous recombination (HR) is a DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway that protects the genome from chromosomal instability. RAD51 mediator proteins (i.e. paralogs) are critical for efficient HR in mammalian cells. However, how HR-deficient cells process DSBs is not clear. Here, we utilized a loss-of-function HR-reporter substrate to simultaneously monitor HR-mediated gene conversion and non-conservative mutation events. The assay is designed around a heteroallelic duplication of the Aprt gene at its endogenous locus in isogenic Chinese hamster ovary cell lines...
February 28, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Margret Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur A Thorsteinsdottir, Finnur F Eiriksson, Hrafnhildur L Runolfsdottir, Inger M Sch Agustsdottir, Steinunn Oddsdottir, Baldur B Sigurdsson, Hordur K Hardarson, Nilesh R Kamble, Snorri Th Sigurdsson, Vidar O Edvardsson, Runolfur Palsson
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder that leads to excessive urinary excretion of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA), causing nephrolithiasis and chronic kidney disease. Treatment with allopurinol or febuxostat reduces DHA production and attenuates the renal manifestations. Assessment of DHA crystalluria by urine microscopy is used for therapeutic monitoring, but lacks sensitivity. We report a high-throughput assay based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for quantification of urinary DHA...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Hrafnhildur Linnet Runolfsdottir, Runolfur Palsson, Inger M Agustsdottir, Olafur S Indridason, Vidar O Edvardsson
BACKGROUND: Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a purine metabolism disorder causing kidney stones and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The course of nephrolithiasis and CKD has not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to examine long-term kidney outcomes in patients with APRT deficiency. STUDY DESIGN: An observational cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: All patients enrolled in the APRT Deficiency Registry of the Rare Kidney Stone Consortium...
March 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Siew Le Chong, Yong Hong Ng
BACKGROUND: Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is an uncommon genetic cause of chronic kidney disease due to crystalline nephropathy. METHODS: A case of a Chinese boy with APRT deficiency presenting with severe acute kidney injury secondary to obstructive uropathy from multiple renal calculi was reviewed. RESULTS: The patient underwent staged removal of the calculi. Infrared spectrometry of the renal calculi showed 2,8-dihydroxyadenine...
May 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Junji Furukawa, Katsuhisa Inoue, Junya Maeda, Tomoya Yasujima, Kinya Ohta, Yoshikatsu Kanai, Tappei Takada, Hirotaka Matsuo, Hiroaki Yuasa
The purine salvage pathway plays a major role in the nucleotide production, relying on the supply of nucleobases and nucleosides from extracellular sources. Although specific transporters have been suggested to be involved in facilitating their transport across the plasma membrane in mammals, those which are specifically responsible for utilization of extracellular nucleobases remain unknown. Here we present the molecular and functional characterization of SLC43A3, an orphan transporter belonging to an amino acid transporter family, as a purine-selective nucleobase transporter...
2015: Scientific Reports
Shunsuke Yamaguchi, Tomomi Haba, Hiroshi Koike
Here we report a case of a 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (2,8-DHA) stone. A 48-year-old woman arrived at our hospital with left flank pain. She was diagnosed with a left ureteral stone. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was tried, but the left ureteral stone was radiolucent and ESWL was not effective. Transurethral ureterolithotripsy (TUL) was successful. An analysis of the stone revealed 2,8-DHA. A 2,8-DHA stone is caused by adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency. By genetic tests, she was diagnosed with APRT deficiency...
July 2015: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
Kasie Auler, Robyn Broock, William L Nyhan
Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) deficiency is the cause of Lesch-Nyhan disease. Adenine phosphoribosyl-transferase (APRT) deficiency causes renal calculi. The activity of each enzyme is readily determined on spots of whole blood on filter paper. This unit describes a method for detecting deficiencies of HPRT and APRT.
2015: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
Vanna Micheli, Fabio Massarino, Gabriella Jacomelli, Matteo Bertelli, Maria Rita Corradi, Andrea Guerrini, Antonino Cucchiara, Jean Louis Ravetti, Laura Negretti, Giuseppe Cannella
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency, a rare inborn error inherited as an autosomic recessive trait, presents with 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (2,8-DHA) crystal nephropathy. We describe clinical, biochemical and molecular findings in a renal transplant recipient with renal failure, 2,8-DHA stones and no measurable erythrocyte APRT activity. Homozygous C > G substitution at -3 in the splicing site of exon 2 (IVS2 -3 c > g) was found in the APRT gene. The patient's asymptomatic brother was heterozygous for such mutation, and his APRT activity was 23% of controls...
October 2010: NDT Plus
Italia Perruzza, Valentina Di Pietro, Barbara Tavazzi, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Marco Gamberini, Paola Barsotti, Angela Maria Amorini, Bruno Giardina, Alessandro Balducci
We describe two patients that had a history of recurrent renal stones and chronic renal insufficiency. The first case was a 51-year-old man with an adenine phophoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency who was diagnosed only after he had been referred for severe renal failure requiring hemodialysis. This led to a screening of the entire family, which identified six carriers and an additional affected relative (a 41-year-old man and the second case reported herein). Genetic analysis of the APRT gene revealed an atypical mutation previously described only once in a compound heterozygote...
October 2008: NDT Plus
Takeshi Yoshimoto, Takahiro Himeno, Shinichi Takeshima, Shuichiro Neshige, Kenichiro Yamada, Yasukazu Yamada, Masaru Kuriyama
An 18-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of convulsive seizure. He had psychomotor retardation and intellectual disability from childhood, and had been diagnosed with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder when he was 12 years old. He showed mental deficit (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised: IQ 52) and tendon hyperreflexia without pathological reflexes, but no involuntary movements or self-injurious behavior. As he had hyperuricemia, we measured the activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) and adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) in erythrocytes...
2014: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
M Zaidan, R Palsson, E Merieau, E Cornec-Le Gall, A Garstka, U Maggiore, P Deteix, M Battista, E-R Gagné, I Ceballos-Picot, J-P Duong Van Huyen, C Legendre, M Daudon, V O Edvardsson, B Knebelmann
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive enzyme defect of purine metabolism that usually manifests as 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (2,8-DHA) nephrolithiasis and more rarely chronic kidney disease. The disease is most often misdiagnosed and can recur in the renal allograft. We analyzed nine patients with recurrent 2,8-DHA crystalline nephropathy, in all of whom the diagnosis had been missed prior to renal transplantation. The diagnosis was established at a median of 5 (range 1...
November 2014: American Journal of Transplantation
Rea Valaperta, Vittoria Rizzo, Fortunata Lombardi, Chiara Verdelli, Marco Piccoli, Andrea Ghiroldi, Pasquale Creo, Alessio Colombo, Massimiliano Valisi, Elisabetta Margiotta, Rossella Panella, Elena Costa
BACKGROUND: Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRTD) is an under estimated genetic form of kidney stones and/or kidney failure, characterized by intratubular precipitation of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine crystals (2,8-DHA). Currently, five pathologic allelic variants have been identified as responsible of the complete inactivation of APRT protein. CASE PRESENTATION: In this study, we report a novel nonsense mutation of the APRT gene from a 47- year old Italian patient...
2014: BMC Nephrology
Shanti Balasubramaniam, John A Duley, John Christodoulou
Inborn errors of purine metabolism exhibit broad neurological, immunological, haematological and renal manifestations. Limited awareness of the phenotypic spectrum, the recent descriptions of newer disorders and considerable genetic heterogeneity, have contributed to long diagnostic odysseys for affected individuals. These enzymes are widely but not ubiquitously distributed in human tissues and are crucial for synthesis of essential nucleotides, such as ATP, which form the basis of DNA and RNA, oxidative phosphorylation, signal transduction and a range of molecular synthetic processes...
September 2014: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Irène Ceballos-Picot, Michel Daudon, Jérôme Harambat, Albert Bensman, Bertrand Knebelmann, Guillaume Bollée
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a rare inherited metabolic disorder that leads to the formation and hyperexcretion of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA) into urine. The low solubility of DHA results in precipitation and formation of urinary crystals and kidney stones. The disease can be present as recurrent urolithiasis or nephropathy secondary to crystal precipitation into renal parenchyma (DHA nephropathy). The diagnostic tools available, including stone analysis, crystalluria, and APRT activity in red blood cells, make the diagnosis easy to confirm when APRT deficiency is suspected...
2014: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
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