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Biomarkers psychiatric disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336895/alterations-in-peripheral-fatty-acid-composition-in-bipolar-and-unipolar-depression
#1
Gustavo Scola, Amelia Versace, Adam H Metherel, Luz A Monsalve-Castro, Mary L Phillips, Richard P Bazinet, Ana C Andreazza
BACKGROUND: Lipid metabolism has been shown to play an important role in unipolar and bipolar depression. In this study, we aimed to evaluate levels of fatty acids in patients with unipolar (MDD) and bipolar depression (BDD) in comparison to patients with bipolar disorder in euthymia (BDE) and non-psychiatric controls. METHODS: Levels of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were assessed in serum of (87) patients with BD (31 euthymic, 22 depressive) or MDD (34) and (31) non-psychiatric controls through GC-FID...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331353/mechanisms-of-sex-differences-in-fear-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#2
REVIEW
Teniel Sonya Ramikie, Kerry James Ressler
Following sexual maturity, females disproportionately have higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and experience greater symptom severity and chronicity as compared with males. This observation has led many to examine sex differences in PTSD risk factors. Though relatively few, these studies reveal that the root causes of PTSD sex differences are complex, and partly represent interactions between sex-specific nonbiological and biological risk factors, which differentially shape PTSD vulnerability...
November 21, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330487/a-biomarker-characterizing-neurodevelopment-with-applications-in-autism
#3
Di Wu, Jorge V José, John I Nurnberger, Elizabeth B Torres
Despite great advances in neuroscience and genetic studies, our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders is still quite limited. An important reason is not having objective psychiatric clinical tests. Here we propose a quantitative neurodevelopment assessment by studying natural movement outputs. Movement is central to behaviors: It involves complex coordination, temporal alterations, and precise dynamic controls. We carefully analyzed the continuous movement output data, collected with high definition electromagnetic sensors at millisecond time scales...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329059/amyloid-burden-and-incident-depressive-symptoms-in-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Stephanie Perin, Karra D Harrington, Yen Ying Lim, Kathryn Ellis, David Ames, Robert H Pietrzak, Adrian Schembri, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Olivier Salvado, Simon M Laws, Ralph N Martins, Victor L Villemagne, Christopher C Rowe, Colin L Masters, Paul Maruff
BACKGROUND: Relationships between depression and Alzheimer's disease (AD) may become clearer if studied in preclinical AD where dementia is not present. METHOD: The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively, relationships between brain amyloid-β (Aβ), depressive symptoms and screen positive depression in cognitively normal (CN) older adults. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Geriatric Depression Inventory (GDS-15) in CN adults from the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study without depression at baseline and classified as having abnormally high (Aβ+; n = 136) or low (Aβ-; n = 449) Aβ according to positron emission tomography at 18-month intervals over 72 months...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325616/huntington-disease
#5
Rhia Ghosh, Sarah J Tabrizi
Huntington disease is a monogenic neurodegenerative disorder that displays an autosomal-dominant pattern of inheritance. It is characterized by motor, psychiatric, and cognitive symptoms that progress over 15-20 years. Since the identification of the causative genetic mutation in 1993 much has been discovered about the underlying pathogenic mechanisms, but as yet there are no disease-modifying therapies available. This chapter reviews the epidemiology, genetic basis, pathogenesis, presentation, and clinical management of Huntington disease...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310912/monocyte-activation-detected-prior-to-a-diagnosis-of-schizophrenia-in-the-us-military-new-onset-psychosis-project-mnopp
#6
Natalya S Weber, Kristin L Gressitt, David N Cowan, David W Niebuhr, Robert H Yolken, Emily G Severance
Low-grade inflammation is present in some cases of schizophrenia, particularly in the early stages of this disorder. The inflammation source is not known but may be the result of dysbiotic processes occurring in the gut. We examined peripheral biomarkers of bacterial translocation, soluble CD14 (sCD14) and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), and of general inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP), in a unique, pre-onset study of schizophrenia. This sample was composed of 80 case-control matched pairs of US military service members from whom blood samples were obtained at time of entry to service, before a psychiatric diagnosis was made...
January 5, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305581/an-epigenome-wide-methylation-study-of-healthy-individuals-with-or-without-depressive-symptoms
#7
Mihoko Shimada, Takeshi Otowa, Taku Miyagawa, Tadashi Umekage, Yoshiya Kawamura, Miki Bundo, Kazuya Iwamoto, Tempei Ikegame, Mamoru Tochigi, Kiyoto Kasai, Hisanobu Kaiya, Hisashi Tanii, Yuji Okazaki, Katsushi Tokunaga, Tsukasa Sasaki
Major depressive disorder is a common psychiatric disorder that is thought to be triggered by both genetic and environmental factors. Depressive symptoms are an important public health problem and contribute to vulnerability to major depression. Although a substantial number of genetic and epigenetic studies have been performed to date, the detailed etiology of depression remains unclear and there are no validated biomarkers. DNA methylation is one of the major epigenetic modifications that play diverse roles in the etiology of complex diseases...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301565/modeling-psychiatric-disorders-using-patient-stem-cell-derived-neurons-a-way-forward
#8
Krishna C Vadodaria, Debha N Amatya, Maria C Marchetto, Fred H Gage
Our understanding of the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders remains limited, and biomarker-based clinical management is yet to be developed. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has revolutionized our capacity to generate patient-derived neurons to model psychiatric disorders. Here, we highlight advantages and caveats of iPSC disease modeling and outline strategies for addressing current challenges.
January 4, 2018: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279201/replication-in-imaging-genetics-the-case-of-threat-related-amygdala-reactivity
#9
Reut Avinun, Adam Nevo, Annchen R Knodt, Maxwell L Elliott, Ahmad R Hariri
BACKGROUND: Low replication rates are a concern in most, if not all, scientific disciplines. In psychiatric genetics specifically, targeting intermediate brain phenotypes, which are more closely associated with putative genetic effects, was touted as a strategy leading to increased power and replicability. In the current study, we attempted to replicate previously published associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and threat-related amygdala reactivity, which represents a robust brain phenotype not only implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple disorders, but also used as a biomarker of future risk...
November 16, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260439/eye-movement-research-in-the-twenty-first-century-a-window-to-the-brain-mind-and-more
#10
EDITORIAL
Aasef G Shaikh, David S Zee
The study of eye movements not only addresses debilitating neuro-ophthalmological problems but has become an essential tool of basic neuroscience research. Eye movements are a classic way to evaluate brain function-traditionally in disorders affecting the brainstem and cerebellum. Abnormalities of eye movements have localizing value and help narrow the differential diagnosis of complex neurological problems. More recently, using sophisticated behavioral paradigms, measurement of eye movements has also been applied to disorders of the thalamus, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex...
December 19, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249827/schizophrenia-risk-and-urban-birth-are-associated-with-proteomic-changes-in-neonatal-dried-blood-spots
#11
Jason D Cooper, Sureyya Ozcan, Renee M Gardner, Nitin Rustogi, Susanne Wicks, Geertje F van Rees, F Markus Leweke, Christina Dalman, Håkan Karlsson, Sabine Bahn
In the present study, we tested whether there were proteomic differences in blood between schizophrenia patients after the initial onset of the disorder and controls; and whether those differences were also present at birth among neonates who later developed schizophrenia compared to those without a psychiatric admission. We used multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry to quantify 77 proteins (147 peptides) in serum samples from 60 first-onset drug-naive schizophrenia patients and 77 controls, and 96 proteins (152 peptides) in 892 newborn blood-spot (NBS) samples collected between 1975 and 1985...
December 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244900/the-bidirectional-relationship-between-anxiety-disorders-and-circulating-levels-of-inflammatory-markers-results-from-a-large-longitudinal-population-based-study
#12
Jennifer Glaus, Roland von Känel, Aurélie M Lasserre, Marie-Pierre F Strippoli, Caroline L Vandeleur, Enrique Castelao, Mehdi Gholam-Rezaee, Ciro Marangoni, En-Young N Wagner, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Gérard Waeber, Peter Vollenweider, Martin Preisig, Kathleen R Merikangas
BACKGROUND: Although there has been abundant research on chronic low-grade inflammation as a potential mechanism underlying the link between mood disorders and cardiovascular risk, less is known about the role of inflammatory factors and anxiety disorders. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the bi-directional associations between inflammatory markers including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with anxiety disorders and its subgroups...
December 15, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242310/approaches-to-neuromodulation-for-schizophrenia
#13
REVIEW
Judith M Gault, Rachel Davis, Nicola G Cascella, Elyn R Saks, Iluminada Corripio-Collado, William S Anderson, Ann Olincy, John A Thompson, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Akira Sawa, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Nir Lipsman, Aviva Abosch
Based on the success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treating movement disorders, there is growing interest in using DBS to treat schizophrenia (SZ). We review the unmet needs of patients with SZ and the scientific rationale behind the DBS targets proposed in the literature in order to guide future development of DBS to treat this vulnerable patient population. SZ remains a devastating disorder despite treatment. Relapse, untreated psychosis, intolerable side effects and the lack of effective treatment for negative and cognitive symptoms contribute to poor outcome...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236313/micrornas-and-exosomes-in-depression-potential-diagnostic-biomarkers
#14
Jahanshir Tavakolizadeh, Kambiz Roshanaei, Arash Salmaninejad, Reza Yari, Javid Sadri Nahand, Hoda Khoshdel Sarkarizi, Seyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Reza Salarinia, Majid Rahmati, Seyed Farshid Mousavi, Ryan Mokhtari, Hamed Mirzaei
Depression is known as one of important psychiatric disorders which could be associated with disability among various populations. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) and international statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (ICD-10) could be used as subjective diagnostic schemes for identification of mental disorders such as depression. Utilization of subjective diagnostic schemes are associated with limitations. Hence, it seems that employing of new diagnosis platforms is required...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235396/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-serum-level-in-women-with-first-episode-depression-correlation-with-clinical-and-metabolic-parameters
#15
Maria Skibinska, Pawel Kapelski, Aleksandra Rajewska-Rager, Joanna Pawlak, Aleksandra Szczepankiewicz, Beata Narozna, Joanna Twarowska-Hauser, Monika Dmitrzak-Weglarz
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) influences neuron differentiation during development, as well as the synaptic plasticity and neuron survival in adulthood. BDNF has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and its serum level is a potential biomarker for depression. The aim of this study was to examine serum levels of BDNF in first-episode depression and its correlation with clinical and metabolic parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed on a group of 60 women: 30 diagnosed with a first-episode of depression and 30 healthy controls...
December 13, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225582/significant-need-for-a-french-network-of-expert-centers-enabling-a-better-characterization-and-management-of-treatment-resistant-depression-fondation-fondamental
#16
Antoine Yrondi, Djamila Bennabi, Emmanuel Haffen, Marion Garnier, Frank Bellivier, Thierry Bourgerol, Vincent Camus, Thierry D'Amato, Olivier Doumy, Frédéric Haesebaert, Jérôme Holtzmann, Christophe Lançon, Philippe Vignaud, Fanny Moliere, Isabel Nieto, Raphaëlle Marie Richieri, Philippe Domenech, Corentin Rabu, Luc Mallet, Liova Yon, Laurent Schmitt, Florian Stephan, Guillaume Vaiva, Michel Walter, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Philippe Courtet, Marion Leboyer, Wissam El-Hage, Bruno Aouizerate
Background: Major depression is characterized by (i) a high lifetime prevalence of 16-17% in the general population; (ii) a high frequency of treatment resistance in around 20-30% of cases; (iii) a recurrent or chronic course; (iv) a negative impact on the general functioning and quality of life; and (v) a high level of comorbidity with various psychiatric and non-psychiatric disorders, high occurrence of completed suicide, significant burden along with the personal, societal, and economic costs...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209195/the-patient-repository-for-eeg-data-computational-tools-pred-ct
#17
James F Cavanagh, Arthur Napolitano, Christopher Wu, Abdullah Mueen
Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings are thought to reflect the network-wide operations of canonical neural computations, making them a uniquely insightful measure of brain function. As evidence of these virtues, numerous candidate biomarkers of different psychiatric and neurological diseases have been advanced. Presumably, we would only need to apply powerful machine-learning methods to validate these ideas and provide novel clinical tools. Yet, the reality of this advancement is more complex: the scale of data required for robust and reliable identification of a clinical biomarker transcends the ability of any single laboratory...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198499/markers-of-impaired-motor-and-cognitive-volition-in-parkinson-s-disease-correlates-of-dopamine-dysregulation-syndrome-impulse-control-disorder-and-dyskinesias
#18
Jared T Hinkle, Kate Perepezko, Liana S Rosenthal, Kelly A Mills, Alexander Pantelyat, Zoltan Mari, Laura Tochen, Jee Yun Bang, Medha Gudavalli, Nadine Yoritomo, Ankur Butala, Catherine C Bakker, Vanessa Johnson, Emile Moukheiber, Ted M Dawson, Gregory M Pontone
INTRODUCTION: Dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) can be associated with both motoric (e.g., dyskinesias) and neuropsychiatric adverse effects. Examples of the latter include Dopamine Dysregulation Syndrome (DDS) and impulse control disorder (ICD), which are separate but related behavioral/psychiatric complications of treatment in PD. Dysregulation of volition characterizes both dyskinesias and DDS/ICD; thus, we analyzed potential disease-related correlates in a large PD cohort...
November 21, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197565/molecular-and-biochemical-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-and-therapy-monitorization-of-niemann-pick-type-c-patients
#19
Tatiane Grazieli Hammerschmidt, Graziela de Oliveira Schmitt Ribas, Maria Luiza Saraiva-Pereira, Márcia Polese Bonatto, Rejane Gus Kessler, Fernanda Timm Seabra Souza, Franciele Trapp, Kristiane Michelin-Tirelli, Maira Graeff Burin, Roberto Giugliani, Carmen Regla Vargas
BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C), one of 50 inherited lysosomal storage disorders, is caused by NPC protein impairment that leads to unesterified cholesterol accumulation in late endosomal/lysosomal compartments. The clinical manifestations of NP-C include hepatosplenomegaly, neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Current diagnosis for NP-C is based on observation of the accumulated cholesterol in fibroblasts of affected individuals, using an invasive and time expensive test, called Filipin staining...
November 29, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179014/clinical-utility-of-biomarkers-of-the-hand-in-the-diagnosis-of-schizophrenia
#20
Yoav Domany, Anat Levy, Stanley Morris Cassan, Ricardo Tarrasch, Tova Lifshitz, Shaul Schreiber, Eyal Zvi Shamir
A number of biomarkers were assessed in photos and prints of the hands of 95 patients with a variety of mental disorders to determine whether patients with schizophrenia could be distinguished from the others. Patients were recruited as consecutive admissions from an outpatient psychiatric day hospital population. Fourteen patients were diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and 81 were diagnosed with other mental disorders. A discriminant analysis yielded an overall 80% correct classification, with a sensitivity (schizophrenia patients identified correctly) of 78...
November 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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