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Biomarkers psychiatric disorders

Mitul A Mehta, Anne Schmechtig, Vasileia Kotoula, Juliet McColm, Kimberley Jackson, Claire Brittain, Sitra Tauscher-Wisniewski, Bruce J Kinon, Paul D Morrison, Thomas Pollak, Timothy Mant, Steven C R Williams, Adam J Schwarz
BACKGROUND: Aberrant glutamate neurotransmission, and in particular dysfunction of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), has been implicated in psychiatric disorders and represents a novel therapeutic target. Low-dose administration of the NMDA antagonist ketamine in healthy volunteers elicits a strong blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging signal that can be attenuated by pretreatment with single, therapeutically effective doses of marketed medicines interacting with the glutamate system...
March 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Karem H Alzoubi, Omar F Khabour, Mohammad Ahmad
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling prevalent and difficult-to-treat psychiatric disorder, which can develop after the exposure to severe traumatic events such as those occurring during wars and natural disasters. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a potent antioxidant, which has an important role in prevention of cognitive dysfunctions. In the present study, the effect of PTX on memory impairment induced by PTSD was investigated using the rat animal model. PTSD-like behavior was induced in animals using a single-prolonged stress (SPS) rat model of PTSD (2 h restrain, 20 min forced swimming, 15 min rest, 1-2 min diethyl ether exposure)...
March 17, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Lívea Dornela Godoy, Eduardo H L Umeoka, Deidiane Elisa Ribeiro, Victor Rodrigues Santos, José Antunes-Rodrigues, Samia Regiane Lourenço Joca, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco
Evidences suggest the contributive role of early-life stress (ELS) to affective and anxiety disorders. Chronic exposure to the same stressor may generate habituation, while the exposure to different and repeated stressors gradually promotes maladaptive plasticity. Therefore, to further understand the effects of heterotypic stressors during early life period, male Wistar rat pups (P1-P21) were exposed to Multimodal ELS paradigm. Results indicate pups did not habituate to multimodal ELS and neonates respond to both physical and psychogenic stressors...
March 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Jiayu Chen, Barnaly Rashid, Qingbao Yu, Jingyu Liu, Dongdong Lin, Yuhui Du, Jing Sui, Vince D Calhoun
Imaging genetics posits a valuable strategy for elucidating genetic influences on brain abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. However, association analysis between 2D genetic data (subject × genetic variable) and 3D first-level functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data (subject × voxel × time) has been challenging given the asymmetry in data dimension. A summary feature needs to be derived for the imaging modality to compute inter-modality association at subject level. In this work, we propose to use variability in resting state networks (RSNs) and functional network connectivity (FNC) as potential features for purpose of association analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Hayley A Young, David Benton
As the influence of diet on health may take place over a period of decades, there is a need for biomarkers that help to identify those aspects of nutrition that have either a positive or a negative influence. The evidence is considered that heart-rate variability (HRV) (the time differences between one beat and the next) can be used to indicate the potential health benefits of food items. Reduced HRV is associated with the development of numerous conditions for example, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, obesity and psychiatric disorders...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Eduard Vieta, Michael Berk, Thomas G Schulze, André F Carvalho, Trisha Suppes, Joseph R Calabrese, Keming Gao, Kamilla W Miskowiak, Iria Grande
Bipolar disorders are chronic and recurrent disorders that affect >1% of the global population. Bipolar disorders are leading causes of disability in young people as they can lead to cognitive and functional impairment and increased mortality, particularly from suicide and cardiovascular disease. Psychiatric and nonpsychiatric medical comorbidities are common in patients and might also contribute to increased mortality. Bipolar disorders are some of the most heritable psychiatric disorders, although a model with gene-environment interactions is believed to best explain the aetiology...
March 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Isheeta Zalpuri, Manpreet K Singh
Purpose of Review: Bipolar disorder is highly familial and has a protracted and diagnostically confusing prodrome. This review critically evaluates recently published literature relevant to the treatment of psychiatric symptoms in high-risk offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder. Recent Findings: Non-pharmacological treatment options including psychotherapy, resilience promotion through good sleep, diet, and exercise hygiene, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation are important first line interventions for high-risk offspring...
December 2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
Lars Farde, Pontus Plavén-Sigray, Jacqueline Borg, Simon Cervenka
Positron emission tomography has, for 30 years, been used in numerous case-control studies searching for hypothesized differences in the density of neuroreceptor or transporter proteins in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. In most cases, the results have not been conclusive. One reason could be the sizeable interindividual variability in biochemical markers, which in twin studies have shown to emanate from both environmental and genetic factors, leading to low statistical power for the detection of group effects...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Kenji Hashimoto
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are the most common mood disorders. They are etiologically related, but clinically distinct psychiatric illnesses. Their shared clinical features result in high rates of misdiagnosis due to a lack of biomarkers that allow their differentiation. BD is more frequently misdiagnosed as MDD because of overlapping symptomology, often later onset of mania, and frequent occurrence of depressive episodes in patients with BD. Misdiagnosis is also increased when patients with BD present symptoms indicative of a clinically significant depressive episode, but are premorbid for manic symptoms, or previous manic states not recognized...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
K Oliver Schubert, David Stacey, Georgia Arentz, Scott R Clark, Tracy Air, Peter Hoffmann, Bernhard T Baune
In order to accelerate the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical biomarker discovery and in psychiatry, approaches that integrate multiple -omics platforms are needed. We introduce a workflow that investigates a narrowly defined psychiatric phenotype, makes use of the potent and cost-effective discovery technology of gene expression microarrays, applies Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) to better capture complex and polygenic traits, and finally explores gene expression findings on the proteomic level using targeted mass-spectrometry (MS) technologies...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Yoshiyuki Arinuma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuropsychiatric manifestations are one of the fatal complications in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the diagnosis and monitoring of that aspect of SLE is still challenging, as there are no reliable biomarkers linked to central nervous system (CNS) damage. This review emphasizes potential candidate autoantibodies that appear to be associated with development of behavioral and psychiatric manifestations in SLE patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Developments in the pathogenesis in SLE, not surprising for this immune disorder, point to specific, autoantibody toxicity...
February 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Juhwan Kim, Heh-In Im, Changjong Moon
A significant amount of evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in drug addiction. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical part of the brain's reward circuit and is involved in a variety of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and drug addiction. However, few studies have examined the expression of miRNAs and their functional roles in the NAc under conditions of morphine addiction. In this study, mice were intravenously infused with morphine (0.01, 0.03, 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg/infusion) and showed inverted U-shaped response...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
B C M Haarman, H Burger, H A Drexhage, W A Nolen, R F Riemersma-Van der Lek
BACKGROUND: Despite the existence of several pathophysiological theories about bipolar disorder, it has so far been difficult to find diagnostic biomarkers and to develop new pharmacologic treatments based on the more novel theories. AIM: To reflect on the causes and consequences of problems that beset pathophysiological research into psychiatric disorders in general and bipolar disorder in particular. METHOD: In this essay we address the problems facing professionals engaged in research into bipolar disorder and we interpret these problem in the light of brain complexity...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Blanca Bolea-Alamanac, Sarah J Bailey, Thelma A Lovick, Dirk Scheele, Rita Valentino
There is increasing recognition that women have a higher prevalence of certain psychiatric illnesses, and a differential treatment response and course of illness compared to men. Additionally, clinicians deal with a number of disorders like premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and postpartum depression, which affect women specifically and for which treatment and biological pathways are still unclear. In this article we highlight recent research which suggests that different biological mechanisms may underlie sex differences in responsiveness to stress...
February 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Manohar Latha, Ganesan Kavitha
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a psychiatric disorder that especially affects individuals during their adolescence. There is a need to study the subanatomical regions of SZ brain on magnetic resonance images (MRI) based on morphometry. In this work, an attempt was made to analyze alterations in structure and texture patterns in images of the SZ brain using the level-set method and Laws texture features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T1-weighted MRI of the brain from Center of Biomedical Research Excellence (COBRE) database were considered for analysis...
February 3, 2018: Magma
Rebecca J Houston, Nicolas J Schlienz
Substance use disorders (SUDs) are one of the most prevalent psychiatric conditions and represent a significant public health concern. Substantial research has identified key processes related to reinforcement and cognition for the development and maintenance of SUDs, and these processes represent viable treatment targets for psychosocial and pharmacological interventions. Research on SUD treatments has suggested that most approaches are comparable in effectiveness. As a result, recent work has focused on delineating the underlying mechanisms of behavior change that drive SUD treatment outcome...
January 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Paul C Guest
Many diseases result from programming effects in utero. This chapter describes recent advances in proteomic studies which have improved our understanding of the underlying pathophysiological pathways in the major psychiatric disorders, resulting in the development of potential novel biomarker tests. Such tests should be based on measurement of blood-based proteins given the ease of accessibility of this medium and the known connections between the periphery and the central nervous system. Most importantly, emerging biomarker tests should be developed on lab-on-a-chip and other handheld devices to enable point-of-care use...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Teresa A Victor, Sahib S Khalsa, W Kyle Simmons, Justin S Feinstein, Jonathan Savitz, Robin L Aupperle, Hung-Wen Yeh, Jerzy Bodurka, Martin P Paulus
INTRODUCTION: Although neuroscience has made tremendous progress towards understanding the basic neural circuitry underlying important processes such as attention, memory and emotion, little progress has been made in applying these insights to psychiatric populations to make clinically meaningful treatment predictions. The overall aim of the Tulsa 1000 (T-1000) study is to use the NIMH Research Domain Criteria framework in order to establish a robust and reliable dimensional set of variables that quantifies the positive and negative valence, cognition and arousal domains, including interoception, to generate clinically useful treatment predictions...
January 24, 2018: BMJ Open
Mary Kate P Joyce, Helen Barbas
The structural and functional integrity of subgenual cingulate area 25 (A25) is crucial for emotional expression and equilibrium. A25 has a key role in affective networks, and its disruption has been linked to mood disorders, but its cortical connections have yet to be systematically or fully studied. Using neural tracers in rhesus monkeys, we found that A25 was densely connected with other ventromedial and posterior orbitofrontal areas associated with emotions and homeostasis. A moderate pathway linked A25 with frontopolar area 10, an area associated with complex cognition, which may regulate emotions and dampen negative affect...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Laura Orsolini, Fabiola Sarchione, Federica Vellante, Michele Fornaro, Ilaria Matarazzo, Giovanni Martinotti, Alessandro Valchera, Marco Di Nicola, Alessandro Carano, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Giampaolo Perna, Luigi Olivieri, Domenico De Berardis
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a complex illness in which genetic, environmental, and epigenetic components have been implicated. However, recently, psychiatric disorders appear to be related to a chronic inflammatory state, at the level of specific cerebral areas which have been found as well impaired and responsible of the schizophrenia symptomatology. Hence, a role of inflammatory mediators and cytokines has been as well supposed. Accordingly, it has been recently investigated the role of an acute inflammatory phase protein, the C-reactive protein (CRP)...
January 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
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