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Biomarkers psychiatric disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775916/cortisol-trajectory-melancholia-and-response-to-electroconvulsive-therapy
#1
Brian J Mickey, Yarden Ginsburg, Adam F Sitzmann, Clara Grayhack, Srijan Sen, Clemens Kirschbaum, Daniel F Maixner, James L Abelson
While biomarkers have been used to define pathophysiological types and to optimize treatment in many areas of medicine, in psychiatry such biomarkers remain elusive. Based on previously described abnormalities of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in severe forms of depression, we hypothesized that the temporal trajectory of basal cortisol levels would vary among individuals with depression due to heterogeneity in pathophysiology, and that cortisol trajectories that reflect elevated or increasing HPA activity would predict better response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740357/a-perspective-on-a-possible-relation-between-the-psychopathology-of-the-schizophrenia-schizoaffective-spectrum-and-unconjugated-bilirubin-a-longitudinal-protocol-study
#2
João Gama Marques, Filipe Arantes-Gonçalves
Some authors suggest a relation between Unconjugated Bilirubin (UCB) plasma high levels and schizophrenia, as schizophrenia patients have been showing higher UCB levels when compared with other psychiatric patients and general population. These higher UCB levels have been already correlated with acute psychotic states, positive symptoms, and poor outcome in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders share common symptoms but there aren't yet accepted biomarkers for their distinction...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705843/neuroimmune-imbalances-and-yin-yang-dynamics-in-stress-anxiety-and-depression
#3
Qing Yan
Evidences from psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) and systems biology studies support a conceptual framework of "Yin-Yang dynamics" for understanding the "whole mind-body system." The Yin-Yang dynamical balances in the stress response networks may be critical for health and diseases, especially mental health and psychiatric disorders. Specifically, the neuroimmune imbalances have been found as the important features and potential biomarkers of stress, anxiety, depression, and systemic inflammation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704590/protective-influences-of-n-acetylcysteine-against-alcohol-abstinence-induced-depression-by-regulating-biochemical-and-grin2a-grin2b-gene-expression-of-nmda-receptor-signaling-pathway-in-rats
#4
Rutuja Yawalkar, Harish Changotra, Girdhari Lal Gupta
Evidences have indicated a high degree of comorbidity of alcoholism and depression. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has shown its clinical efficiency in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders and is identified as a multi-target acting drug. The ability of NAC to prevent alcohol abstinence-induced depression-like effects and underlying mechanism(s) have not been adequately addressed. This study was aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of NAC in the alcohol abstinence-induced depression developed following long-term voluntary alcohol intake...
April 25, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701842/the-emerging-immunogenetic-architecture-of-schizophrenia
#5
Jennie G Pouget
Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder of complex etiology. Immune processes have long been proposed to contribute to the development of schizophrenia, and accumulating evidence supports immune involvement in at least a subset of cases. In recent years, large-scale genetic studies have provided new insights into the role of the immune system in this disease. Here, we provide an overview of the immunogenetic architecture of schizophrenia based on findings from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). First, we review individual immune loci identified in secondary analyses of GWAS, which implicate over 30 genes expressed in both immune and brain cells...
April 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701669/differentiating-medicated-patients-suffering-from-major-depressive-disorder-from-healthy-controls-by-spot-urine-measurement-of-monoamines-and-steroid-hormones
#6
Chandra S Wijaya, Jovia J Z Lee, Syeda F Husain, Cyrus S H Ho, Roger S McIntyre, Wilson W Tam, Roger C M Ho
Introduction : Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder. Currently, there is no objective, cost-effective and non-invasive method to measure biological markers related to the pathogenesis of MDD. Previous studies primarily focused on urinary metabolite markers which are not proximal to the pathogenesis of MDD. Herein, we compare urinary monoamines, steroid hormones and the derived ratios amongst MDD when compared to healthy controls. Methods : Morning urine samples of medicated patients suffering from MDD ( n = 47) and healthy controls ( n = 41) were collected...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687938/trait-and-state-biomarkers-for-psychiatric-disorders-importance-of-infrastructure-to-bridge-the-gap-between-basic-and-clinical-research-and-industry
#7
Yukiko Y Lema, Nao J Gamo, Kun Yang, Koko Ishizuka
To further improve clinical activities in psychiatry by early diagnosis and early intervention with novel mechanism-guided treatments, there is a great need for biomarkers that reflect "trait" and "state" in major mental disorders. Stable trait biomarkers would allow early diagnosis, prognosis, and hopefully early intervention in these disorders, while dynamic state markers that reflect symptomatic changes would help to develop treatments that target these molecular mechanisms. However, in the search for such biomarkers, and eventually translating them to the clinic and industry, challenges currently exist at multiple levels, from basic scientific understanding, patient sample collection, and sample and data management, to bridging the gap between basic and clinical research and industry...
April 24, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674269/alterations-of-eicosanoids-and-related-mediators-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#8
Dongfang Wang, Xiaoyu Sun, Jingjing Yan, Biao Ren, Bing Cao, Qingbin Lu, Yaqiong Liu, Jing Zeng, Ninghua Huang, Qing Xie, Haiwei Gu, Jingyu Wang
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a multifactorial psychiatric disorder. Currently, its molecular pathogenesis remains largely unknown, and no reliable test for diagnosis and therapy monitoring is available. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their derived eicosanoid signaling abnormalities are relevant to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, comprehensive analysis of eicosanoids and related mediators for schizophrenia is very rare. In this study, we applied a targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based method to monitor 158 PUFAs, eicosanoids and related mediators from enzyme-dependent or independent pathways, in the serum samples of 109 healthy controls, and 115 schizophrenia patients at baseline and after an 8-week period of antipsychotic therapy...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665225/objective-and-quantitative-equilibriometric-evaluation-of-individual-locomotor-behaviour-in-schizophrenia-translational-and-clinical-implications
#9
Svetlozar Haralanov, Evelina Haralanova, Emil Milushev, Diana Shkodrova, Claus-Frenz Claussen
Psychiatry is the only medical specialty that lacks clinically applicable biomarkers for objective evaluation of the existing pathology at a single-patient level. On the basis of an original translational equilibriometric method for evaluation of movement patterns, we have introduced in the everyday clinical practice of psychiatry an easy-to-perform computerized objective quantification of the individual locomotor behaviour during execution of the Unterberger stepping test. For the last 20 years, we have gradually collected a large database of more than 1000 schizophrenic patients, their relatives, and matched psychiatric, neurological, and healthy controls via cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665048/a-neural-biomarker-the-error-related-negativity-predicts-the-first-onset-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder-in-a-large-sample-of-adolescent-females
#10
Alexandria Meyer, Brady Nelson, Greg Perlman, Daniel N Klein, Roman Kotov
OBJECTIVE: An increased neural response to making mistakes has emerged as a potential biomarker of anxiety across development. The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential elicited when people make mistakes on simple laboratory-based reaction time tasks that has been associated with risk for anxiety. This study examined whether the ERN prospectively predicted the first onset of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) over 1.5 years in adolescent girls. METHODS: The sample included 457 girls between the ages of 13...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655938/delineation-of-early-brain-development-from-fetuses-to-infants-with-diffusion-mri-and-beyond
#11
REVIEW
Minhui Ouyang, Jessica Dubois, Qinlin Yu, Pratik Mukherjee, Hao Huang
Dynamic macrostructural and microstructural changes take place from the mid-fetal stage to 2 years after birth. Delineating brain structural changes during this early developmental period provides new insights into the complicated processes of both typical brain development and the pathological mechanisms underlying various psychiatric and neurological disorders including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Decades of histological studies have identified strong spatial and functional gradients of maturation in human brain gray and white matter...
April 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652574/transcriptomic-biomarkers-for-huntington-s-disease-are-gene-expression-signatures-in-whole-blood-reliable-biomarkers
#12
Maja Zadel, Aleš Maver, Anja Kovanda, Borut Peterlin
Huntington's disease (HD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder manifesting as progressive impairment of motor function, cognitive decline, psychiatric symptoms, and immunological and endocrine dysfunction. We explored the consistency of blood transcriptomic biomarkers in HD based on a novel Slovene patient cohort and expert review of previous studies. HumanHT-12 v4 BeadChip microarrays were performed on the whole blood samples of a cohort of 23 HD mutation carriers and 23 controls to identify differentially expressed (DE) transcripts...
April 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626340/neuroimmune-biomarkers-in-mental-illness
#13
James W Herron, Louis Nerurkar, Jonathan Cavanagh
Exploration of neuroimmune mechanisms is vital to the understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of mental disorders. Inflammatory and immune mechanisms are increasingly understood to underpin a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, with an ever-expanding evidence base drawn from basic science to large-scale epidemiological data. Unravelling of these mechanisms should lead to biomarker discovery and potential new avenues for therapeutics that modulate immunological mechanisms. Identification of neuroimmune biomarkers is vital to improving diagnosis, stratification and treatment of mental disorders...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626337/network-neuroscience-a-framework-for-developing-biomarkers-in-psychiatry
#14
David M Lydon-Staley, Danielle S Bassett
Psychiatric disorders are disturbances of cognitive and behavioral processes mediated by the brain. Emerging evidence suggests that accurate biomarkers for psychiatric disorders might benefit from incorporating information regarding multiple brain regions and their interactions with one another, rather than considering local perturbations in brain structure and function alone. Recent advances in the field of applied mathematics generally - and network science specifically - provide a language to capture the complexity of interacting brain regions, and the application of this language to fundamental questions in neuroscience forms the emerging field of network neuroscience...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626336/immunological-processes-in-schizophrenia-pathology-potential-biomarkers
#15
Tina Notter
Accumulating evidence suggests that the pathophysiology or schizophrenia involves alterations in immune functions, both peripherally and centrally. Immunopsychiatric research has provided a number of candidate biomarkers that could aid estimating the risk of developing schizophrenia and/or predicting its clinical course or outcomes. This chapter summarizes the findings of immune dysfunctions along the clinical course of schizophrenia and discusses their potential value as predictive, trait or state biomarkers...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621902/all-for-one-and-one-for-all-mental-disorders-in-one-dimension
#16
Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E Moffitt
In both child and adult psychiatry, empirical evidence has now accrued to suggest that a single dimension is able to measure a person's liability to mental disorder, comorbidity among disorders, persistence of disorders over time, and severity of symptoms. This single dimension of general psychopathology has been termed "p," because it conceptually parallels a dimension already familiar to behavioral scientists and clinicians: the "g" factor of general intelligence. As the g dimension reflects low to high mental ability, the p dimension represents low to high psychopathology severity, with thought disorder at the extreme...
April 6, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614851/the-make-biomarker-discovery-for-enhancing-antidepressant-treatment-effect-and-response-study-design-and-methodology
#17
Hee-Ju Kang, Ju-Wan Kim, Seon-Young Kim, Sung-Wan Kim, Hee-Young Shin, Myung-Geun Shin, Jae-Min Kim
Objective: Depression is associated with a major disease burden, and many individuals suffer from depressive symptoms due to an insufficient response to ostensibly adequate antidepressant treatment. Therefore, it is important to identify reliable treatment response predictors for use in developing personalized treatment strategies. Methods: The MAKE Biomarker discovery for Enhancing anTidepressant Treatment Effect and Response (MAKE BETTER) study was performed to identify predictors of antidepressant response using a 2-year naturalistic prospective design...
April 5, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609960/autoimmune-encephalitis-and-psychiatric-disorders
#18
REVIEW
J Honnorat, L O Plazat
Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) refers to a rare, newly described, group of diseases associated with specific circulating autoantibodies directed against neuronal proteins used as biomarkers of the disease. Characterization of the associated autoantibodies present in the patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or sera can differentiate the various AE subgroups, which have specific clinical presentations and prognoses, and is therefore essential for proposing appropriate treatments. As psychiatric symptoms may predominate at the onset or over the course of these diseases, the diagnosis is frequently delayed...
March 30, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604980/imaging-studies-of-the-hiv-infected-brain
#19
Linda Chang, Dinesh K Shukla
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters the brain early after infecting humans and may remain in the central nervous system despite successful antiretroviral treatment. Many neuroimaging techniques were used to study HIV+ patients with or without opportunistic infections. These techniques assessed abnormalities in brain structures (using computed tomography, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion MRI) and function (using functional MRI at rest or during a task, and perfusion MRI with or without a contrast agent)...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596446/gut-microbiota-varies-by-opioid-use-circulating-leptin-and-oxytocin-in-african-american-men-with-diabetes-and-high-burden-of-chronic-disease
#20
Elena Barengolts, Stefan J Green, Yuval Eisenberg, Arfana Akbar, Bharathi Reddivari, Brian T Layden, Lara Dugas, George Chlipala
OBJECTIVE: The gut microbiota is known to be related to type 2 diabetes (T2D), psychiatric conditions, and opioid use. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that variability in gut microbiota in T2D is associated with psycho-metabolic health. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among African American men (AAM) (n = 99) that were outpatients at a Chicago VA Medical Center. The main outcome measures included fecal microbiota ecology (by 16S rRNA gene sequencing), psychiatric disorders including opioid use, and circulating leptin and oxytocin as representative hormone biomarkers for obesity and psychological pro-social behavior...
2018: PloS One
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